Sarah Laird

Sarah Laird
People and Plants International

BA MSc PhD

About

105
Publications
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2,973
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Publications

Publications (105)
Technical Report
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Sub-Saharan Africa hosts more than 26% of the world’s refugee population, with 6.3 million refugees – which represents a 186% increase in the last decade, from 2.2 million. There has been an increase in internally displaced persons (IDPs) following conflicts and violence in South Sudan, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), the Central African Re...
Article
Full-text available
Sub-Saharan Africa hosts more than 26% of the world’s refugee population, with 6.3 million refugees – which represents a 186% increase in the last decade, from 2.2 million. There has been an increase in internally displaced persons (IDPs) following conflicts and violence in South Sudan, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), the Central African Re...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The multiple sectors of food and agriculture globally operate within a rapidly changing environment of legislative, administrative and policy measures on access and benefit-sharing (ABS). These regulate access to, and use and transfer of, genetic resources and traditional knowledge associated with them, including genetic resources for food and ag...
Article
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Contestations about the way in which digital sequence information is used and regulated have created stumbling blocks across multiple international policy processes. Such schisms have profound implications for the way in which we manage and conceptualize agrobiodiversity and its benefits. This paper explores the relationship between farmers' rights...
Technical Report
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Le rapport est axé sur les points suivants : - Comprendre les mécanismes de renforcement des acquis APA pour les communautés, la recherche en matière de biodiversité, la conservation et l’utilisation durable ; - Explorer comment ces efforts permettraient d’atteindre des objectifs plus larges de conservation des écosystèmes et des habitats ; - Éclai...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The report centers on: - Understanding how to strengthen the gains for communities, biodiversity research, conservation and sustainable use from ABS; - Exploring how broader objectives of ecosystem and habitat conservation might be achieved through these efforts; - Untangling the relationship between traditional knowledge (TK) and biodiversity cons...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The report centers on: - Understanding how to strengthen the gains for communities, biodiversity research, conservation and sustainable use from ABS; - Exploring how broader objectives of ecosystem and habitat conservation might be achieved through these efforts; - Untangling the relationship between traditional knowledge (TK) and biodiversity cons...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Samples for drug development, a raw plant ingredient used in a cosmetic product, herbal teas, or microorganisms that contribute to biotechnology industrial processing and manufacturing …do all fall under ABS? How about a product that is based on traditional knowledge (TK) that is common and widespread? Digital sequence information (DSI) derived fro...
Technical Report
Full-text available
In recent years, the scope of access and benefit sharing (ABS) has been expanded in many countries to include the use and trade of non-timber forest products (NTFPs), also known as biological resources. This raises questions, including: How might ABS impact the local trade and use of these products, sustainability and equity in the value chain, and...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Quel est le « champ d’application » de l'APA? Le champ d'application ici signifie tout simplement ce qui est régi par les cadres APA. Cela renvoie non seulement aux activités, aux actions et aux circonstances qui sont incluses dans les règles et principes juridiques et règlementaires spécifiques à l'APA, mais aussi à l’objet ou au phénomène auquel...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Ce Policy brief se focalise sur l'un des PFNL les plus largement commercialisés et utilisés en Afrique Centrale et de l’Ouest : la mangue sauvage (Irvingia spp.). Le cas de la mangue sauvage illustre l'impact que l'APA pourrait avoir sur l'utilisation et le commerce de ce PFNL et bien d'autres dans la région, ainsi que la contribution potentielle d...
Article
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Several UN policy processes are embracing a calcified approach to conservation and equity in science
Article
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Developing a governance framework for Marine Genetic Resources (MGRs) is a crucial element of the proposed treaty on the conservation and sustainable use of marine biodiversity in areas beyond national jurisdiction (BBNJ). Negotiating countries' positions on MGRs, including questions on the sharing of benefits from their use, range from no regulati...
Technical Report
Full-text available
“Access to genetic resources and the fair and equitable sharing of benefits” (ABS) has become, arguably, the most studied and reflected upon concept in the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) process since 1992. But despite all of this attention, it is still not clear what is included under the scope of ABS. In other words: what does ABS actua...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Fact-finding and scoping study on digital sequence information on genetic resources in the context of the Convention on Biological Diversity and the Nagoya Protocol. Prepared for the Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity to inform the ad-hoc technical working group on digital sequence information on genetic resources
Article
New rules for access and benefit sharing (ABS) of genetic resources and associated traditional knowledge have been established by the Nagoya Protocol but have not kept up with rapid scientific and technological advances in biodiscovery. This suggests the need for innovative, transdisciplinary approaches to regulate ABS and emerging technologies.
Article
Full-text available
This paper reviews the location of Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI) approaches within the access and benefit sharing (ABS) policy spaces of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and Nagoya Protocol. We describe how a range of dialogues on ethical research practices found a home, almost inadvertently, within the ABS policy process. H...
Chapter
Globally, 1.5 billion people use or trade non-timber forest products (NTFPs) with the majority of NTFP use and trade occurring at local and regional scales, generally invisible to researchers and policy makers. NTFPs cannot be measured by monetary estimations alone, as they have significant subsistence and sociocultural importance and are commonly...
Chapter
Full-text available
Globally, 1.5 billion people use or trade non-timber forest products (NTFPs) with the majority of NTFP use and trade occurring at local and regional scales, generally invisible to researchers and policy makers. NTFPs cannot be measured by monetary estimations alone, as they have significant subsistence and sociocultural importance and are commonly...
Article
Full-text available
Concerns about ecological sustainability and inequality are driving increased formalization of the natural product trade, including both biotrade of bulk, raw materials (or nontimber forest products [NTFPs]) and bioprospecting for genetic resources. However, there has been little interrogation as to whether the policy tools used to achieve sustaina...
Chapter
Full-text available
Across the tropics, high rates of forest degradation and deforestation have resulted not only in the loss of large areas of natural forest cover but also in increasing fragmentation of the forests that remain. This chapter examines the underlying governance drivers of forest fragmentation through five key analytical approaches: (i) understanding of...
Article
Full-text available
A wide range of sectors are engaged in the research and development of commercial products from genetic resources. They include the pharmaceutical, biotechnology, seed, crop protection, horticulture, cosmetic and personal care, fragrance and flavor, botanicals, and food and beverage industries. Each sector is part of a unique market, undertakes res...
Article
Full-text available
In order to further understanding of the links between biological and cultural diversity, this study examined the role of forest species and biodiversity in the livelihoods of indigenous Bakweri villagers and migrants to the Mount Cameroon region. Surveys of resources consumed and sold by 118 households were undertaken in five villages over the cou...
Chapter
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Products from the wild, also known as non-timber forest products (NTFPs), are used as medicines, foods, spices, fibers, and fuel and for a multitude of other purposes. They contribute substantially to rural livelihoods and generate revenue for companies and governments, and their use has a range of impacts on biodiversity conservation. However, thr...
Chapter
Full-text available
The policy framework regulating non-timber forest product (NTFP) use, management, and trade is typically a complex and often confusing mix of measures, overseen by a wide range of sometimes competing institutions. One element of this framework is measures directly targeted at conservation or management of these resources, sometimes linked to improv...
Technical Report
Full-text available
A policy brief focused on laws and policies for more equitable and sustainable non-timber forest product use
Chapter
This chapter sets out the wider international context of bioprospecting, access and benefit sharing, and describes the fraught policy process that has evolved since the adoption of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) in 1992. Notwithstanding the abundance of new policies and laws to control access to genetic resources and ensure fair benef...
Article
Full-text available
Commercialisation of non-timber forest products (NTFP), apart from the multitude of benefits, is often associated with trade-offs in terms of traditional and cultural livelihoods. This paper presents a holistic assessment of livelihood trade-offs involved in commercialisation of marula (Sclerocarya birrea subsp. caffra), a multiple-use NTFP species...
Article
Interest in non-timber forest products (NTFPs) and forest certification burgeoned in the late 1980s in response, partly, to concern over destruction of tropical rainforests. Eventually the two concepts were merged and proposed as a marketing option for NTFP producers in both temperate and tropical countries. This paper examines the experiences of N...
Article
Full-text available
Bioprospecting is associated with exploration and development of biodiversity through use of sophisticated technologies. Biotechnology companies are particularly interested in in mining biochemical resources in extreme environments and ecological niches for commercial use. Biodiversity is commercially useful for colonialism and export of genetic ma...
Article
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A study was undertaken around Mt Cameroon to examine the role of biological and cultural diversity in the livelihood strategies of indigenous villagers and migrants to the region. Surveys of resources consumed and sold by 118 households were undertaken in five villages over the course of 1year, the perspectives and practices of cocoa farmers docume...
Article
Full-text available
Non-timber forest products (NTFPs) are often seen as tools to promote rural development and biodiversity conservation but little attention has been given to the different policy approaches adopted for their governance, nor to the role played by customary law. Through the lens of one of the most revered and economically important trees in Africa, ma...
Article
Full-text available
The international trade in raw medicinal and aromatic plant material is vast and complex, feeding a range of industries, including the $20 billion botanical medicine market. Raw plant material is largely traded as a bulk commodity with little environmental oversight, and produces limited benefits for communities that harvest or farm plants. Some co...
Chapter
Full-text available
The Responses assessment report is rooted in the MA conceptual framework, which provides an understanding of the causes and consequences of changes in ecosystems across scales (local, re- gional, and global) and over time (MA 2003; see also Chapter 1 of this volume). Ecosystems, ecosystem services, human well-being, and direct and indirect drivers...
Article
Full-text available
Non-timber forest products (NTFPs) are receiving increased attention from standard-setting agencies including governments, trade associations, and private sector certification organisations. A sub-set of the NTFP category, botanicals, is witnessing a proliferation in standards-setting initiatives addressing topics as diverse as ecological sustainab...
Article
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This publication is an output from a research project funded by the United Kingdom Department for International Development (DFID) for the benefit of developing countries. The views expressed are not necessarily those of DFID. Project R7795, Forestry Research Programme.
Article
Central among the thorniest aspects of implementing the convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) is how to make progress on the Convention's objectives of guaranteeing appropriate access to genetic sources and arranging for the equitable sharing of benefits derived from these sources. Although a fundamental aspect of the Convention is the requireme...
Book
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Section 1: Biodiversity Research Relationships - Laying the Foundation Equitable Biodiversity Research Relationships * Professional Society Standards for Biodiversity Research: Codes of Ethics and Research Guidelines * Institutional Policies for Biodiversity Research * Publication of Biodiversity Research Results and the Flow of Knowledge * 'Giving...
Article
Full-text available
The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) objectives of biodiversity conservation, sustainable use and fair and equitable sharing of benefits (Article 1) reflect a balance between a range of diverse agendas and perspectives on what biodiversity is, and whom its conservation and use are intended to serve. Most of the world's biodiversity is found...
Article
Full-text available
The Convention on Biological Diversity incorporates an exchange that has been described as a ‘grand bargain’ which balances the needs of both technologically and biologically endowed countries. The role of genetic resources in R&D and sales varies by industry sector, however, so it is difficult to generalize on company demand for genetic resources...