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Physiology - Science topic

Physiology is the science of the function of living systems. This includes how organisms, organ systems, organs, cells, and bio-molecules carry out the chemical or physical functions that exist in a living system.
Questions related to Physiology
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I would like to acquire a wereable metabolic system to use with a MoCap system in sports studies (jumping, running in a treadmill) and in human movment analysis studies (gait in a walkway, stairs...)
What is your experience and the best option with the next equipments? What is the advantage/disadvantage of each one?
-Cosmed K4b2
-Cosmed K5
-Cortex Metamax 3B
-Other system?
Thanks,
Best,
Jose Heredia-Jimenez
University of Granada. Spain
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Dear Kiran,
our researsh laboratory used a Cosmed K4B2 during 10 years ( now out of order ) , and after we bought a Cosmed-K5 ( we compared this device with Cortex portable device)
Actually , after 4 years of intensive use, this K5 is really a very good solution ( no software bug , O2 cartridge self-repalcement , accuracy , ... )
Best regards
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Please help to circulate this questionnaire, which is part of a big international study (you can find below the questionnaire in different languages):
The project has the collaboration of researchers (including sport scientists) from 6 continents.
Globally, the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has transformed people’s day-to-day life. The world’s sporting calendar, recreational and professional, is almost unrecognisable. Athletes have seen access to training facilities and/or the ability to even leave their homes (i.e., to run, cycle) severely restricted, if not removed entirely. This questionnaire will investigate how the lockdown is affecting (or has affected) athletes’ lifestyle (including nutritional, psychological and sleep aspects) and how athletes are responding (have responded) to the pandemic.
Why participate in this project? Project outcomes will be used for research purposes and to inform current/future guidelines for athletes, coaches, sports scientists and (potentially) policymakers. It will reveal what has happened globally, across every inhabited continent, during the pandemic relative to athletes and their training practices. Your participation will contribute to improving the current and future lifestyle of athletes.
Target population: Elite or sub-elite athletes (amateur or professional from both genders, including Para athletes) from any country that is experiencing, or has experienced, a lockdown during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Privacy, confidentiality, and Data security : All responses will be de-identified and processed anonymously (you will not be asked to provide us with your name, ensuring total anonymity). No other identifying information, including IP address will be recorded. At the end of the study, the data will be destroyed in compliance with international regulations. Precautions will be taken to control access to all data. Only authorized individuals (principal investigators) will have access to the dataset. We’re minimizing the risk of breach of confidentiality by collecting and storing the data anonymously, and by saving data with password protection. This international survey has been approved by the Ethics Committee of Imam Khomeini International University.
Results : The results of this project will be used for scientific publications where it will not possible to identify any of the participants. To inquire about the results of the survey, please email the principal investigator. For any inquiries, please feel free to contact the principal investigator: Morteza Taheri E-mail: m.taheri@soc.ikiu.ac.ir
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Hello dear colleague.
A very interesting study. I can join.
I have experience in questioning student-athletes.
As well as the correction of their nutrition in order to increase immunity and endurance.
I would be happy to work together.
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I have just recently started a new "weekend project" in addition to my master's studies and I am looking for a data-set. I would like to use some Operations Research to design an optimal gym schedule that conforms to a specific set of constraints.
The idea is to create a daily gym schedule that conforms to a set of constraints (e.g. time, target muscles etc) as well as a set of physiological constraints. The physiological constraints are things such as do not exercise muscle-x and muscle-y together or do not do abdominal exercises for two consecutive days etc.
However the problem I face is data, specifically a data-set (or data-sets).
Are there any open-source datasets which list an exercise, as well as all the muscles targeted? Preferably one that lists as much of the physiological data as possible. E.g. which stabilizers are activated, which secondary muscle is also activated, is it an extension or flexion. I am also looking for datasets which could help me with some of the physiological constraints, such as muscle recovery times, which muscles not to exercise together etc?
My goal is to algorithmically capture an OR model which I can provide with input data such as muscle group target and time and the model must output a schedule of exercises which targets all the muscles in that muscle group, is not physiologically harmful and is within the time constraint.
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I don't have a specific data set or study in mind, but the US Army should have some data sets from recent studies. They recently transitioned to a new physical fitness plan developed with the physiological aspects of job performance in different areas, instead of a generalized physical fitness plan for all soldiers. Also, it should be fairly varied with categories ranging from 18 to 40 years old, various Heights, body fat content, sex, ethnicity, and race. Not to mention most soldiers are in good physical condition, healthy with proper nutrition and hydration.
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Hi, I am wondering if anyone could provide or recommend a protocol about the isolation of stellate ganglion from adult mice? Thank you!
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Hi Tianyi,
Below is a illustrated procedure for the dissection.
best wishes,
Refik
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Does creatine supplementation increase insulin sensitivity?
What is your opinion?
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Evidence:
"Acute Cr supplementation (20 g.d(-1) for 5 d) followed by short-term Cr supplementation (3 g.d(-1) for 28 d) did not alter insulin action in healthy, active untrained men"
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Hi, I would like to find a good anterograde tracer. Which is better, BDA or Fluoro-Ruby? Thanks a lot in advance!
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يمكن مراجعة المختصين
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Asthma is a chronic, obstructive disease;
In asthma we have hypersecretion of mucos ;the main component of mucos is mucin ; the main airway mucins are muc 5ac and muc 5b that are released from goblet cell and submucosal glands ,respectively.
Asthma characterized by some changes, like: thickening of the lamina reticularis, epithelial shedding, subepithelial fibrosis, inflammatory cell infiltration, goblet cell hyperplasia, myofibroblast proliferation, smooth muscle hyperplasia and hypertrophy, and neovascularization of the airway wall
According to the findings ; increased amount of the muc5ac and decreased amount of muc5b is observed.
Goblet cell hyperplasia can cause more expression of muc5 ac but there is no evidence for the reason of decreased amounts of muc5b .I'm looking toward this decreasing reasons.
I will be thankful if you share your ideas with me .
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يمكنك مراجعة اهل الاختصاص
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Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) is a method of quantifying disability in multiple sclerosis that is the most widely used measurement tool to describe disease progression in patients with MS.
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Resistant exercises can tire MS disease quickly. This is an undesirable situation in patients with MS.
I recommend more ROM exercises and short-term isometric exercises.
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What types of exercise and training variables (volume, intensity, repetitions, frequency, exercise selection, exercise order, and rest) are recommended for patients with Multiple sclerosis (MS)?
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The best MS exercises are aerobic exercises, stretching, and progressive strength training. Aerobic exercise is any activity that increases your heart rate, like walking, jogging, or swimming. You just don't want to overdo it—it should be done at a moderate level. https://www.pennmedicine.org/updates/blogs/neuroscience-blog/2017/may/multiple-sclerosis-and-exercise
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For a depot injection designed for absorption by macrophage action, which injection route would be optimal to have most drug introduced into the lung by the lymph vessel?
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Dear Dr Min Gui Jang . See the following useful RG link:
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In my personal experience I have find the higher rate of sprouting when fresh cow dung is applied on the top side of cutting what might be its reason.
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I need to preserve termite samples for future quantification of juvenile hormone in their bodies. Or extract the Juvenile Hormone and keep that samples stored for future quantification.
I may need to keep the samples stored for up to two months and they also need to "survive" an international trip.
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Follow the procedure given by Brent & Dolezal, 2009
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It is difficult to use standard imprints method.
Can anybody help? Thank you.
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Heart Rate Variability is a well known and useful concept in Biomedical Engineering and Medical Sciences. Breath Rate is a lesser researched field and a newer measure Breath-Rate Variability is introduced recently to quantify meditation effect.
It is gaining attention of researchers as BRV has a number of novel applications. What could they be.
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Breath rate variability (BRV) as an alternate measure of meditation even over a short duration is proposed. The main objective of this study is to test the hypothesis that BRV is a simple measure that differentiates between meditators and nonmeditators.
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HI All,
I'm doing a survey as part of an Audacious program (https://www.startupdunedin.nz/audacious), which essentially is a StartUp initiative at Otago University. I'm curious to understand what level of programming do biologists these days need during their day to day research.
For all the biologists out there here are some questions to start the discussion on this topic:
1) Have you done any programming till date? If so which language did you use and for what purpose?
2) How have to overcome programming limitations? For example, did you get the work done through bioinformaticians, or sought help from your programming friend, etc?
3) Have you used online biological databases for your research? If so, which one?
4) How much of artificial intelligence have you used in your research? Do you see AI potential in your current work?
If you have anything else to add, please feel free.
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Please have look on our(Eminent Biosciences (EMBS)) collaborations.. and let me know if interested to associate with us
Our recent publications In collaborations with industries and academia in India and world wide.
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with Universidad Tecnológica Metropolitana, Santiago, Chile. Publication Link: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33397265/
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with Moscow State University , Russia. Publication Link: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32967475/
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with Icahn Institute of Genomics and Multiscale Biology,, Mount Sinai Health System, Manhattan, NY, USA. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29199918
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with University of Missouri, St. Louis, MO, USA. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30457050
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia, USA. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27852211
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with ICMR- NIN(National Institute of Nutrition), Hyderabad Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23030611
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with University of Minnesota Duluth, Duluth MN 55811 USA. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27852211
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with University of Yaounde I, PO Box 812, Yaoundé, Cameroon. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30950335
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with Federal University of Paraíba, João Pessoa, PB, Brazil. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30693065
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with collaboration with University of Yaoundé I, Yaoundé, Cameroon. Publication Link: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31210847/
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, 48080, Leioa, Spain. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27852204
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Publication Link: http://www.eurekaselect.com/135585
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with NIPER , Hyderabad, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29053759
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with Alagappa University, Tamil Nadu, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30950335
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Hyderabad , India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28472910
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with C.S.I.R – CRISAT, Karaikudi, Tamil Nadu, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30237676
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with Karpagam academy of higher education, Eachinary, Coimbatore , Tamil Nadu, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30237672
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with Ballets Olaeta Kalea, 4, 48014 Bilbao, Bizkaia, Spain. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29199918
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with Hospital for Genetic Diseases, Osmania University, Hyderabad - 500 016, Telangana, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28472910
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with School of Ocean Science and Technology, Kerala University of Fisheries and Ocean Studies, Panangad-682 506, Cochin, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27964704
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with CODEWEL Nireekshana-ACET, Hyderabad, Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26770024
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with Bharathiyar University, Coimbatore-641046, Tamilnadu, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27919211
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with LPU University, Phagwara, Punjab, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31030499
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with Department of Bioinformatics, Kerala University, Kerala. Publication Link: http://www.eurekaselect.com/135585
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with Gandhi Medical College and Osmania Medical College, Hyderabad 500 038, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27450915
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with National College (Affiliated to Bharathidasan University), Tiruchirapalli, 620 001 Tamil Nadu, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27266485
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with University of Calicut - 673635, Kerala, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23030611
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with NIPER, Hyderabad, India. ) Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29053759
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with King George's Medical University, (Erstwhile C.S.M. Medical University), Lucknow-226 003, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25579575
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with School of Chemical & Biotechnology, SASTRA University, Thanjavur, India Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25579569
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with Safi center for scientific research, Malappuram, Kerala, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30237672
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with Dept of Genetics, Osmania University, Hyderabad Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25248957
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with Institute of Genetics and Hospital for Genetic Diseases, Osmania University, Hyderabad Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26229292
Sincerely,
Dr. Anuraj Nayarisseri
Principal Scientist & Director,
Eminent Biosciences.
Mob :+91 97522 95342
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In some cases you see structurally similar ligands work as agonists/antagonists for the same receptors, but it's not always the case. Do receptors allow molecules to bind because of their shape/structure or is it independent from ligand to ligand?
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I will try to explain. A receptor might or not allow the binding of a ligand, but maybe this binding depends on circumstances, like feedback regulation, inhibition or changes in structure. this change in structure permits the ligand to bind to the receptor. This working systems means when the ligand is present, the recpetor has changed shape, and is why the ligand sticks to it. Of course, it might depend on the regulation system, and not all receptors chose the same system. The energy demands is an important factor. Maybe it is not necesary. Sometimes it works constitutively.
For example, drugs. Drugs are substances which imitate molecular shapes to which the normal ligand will bind to. This means as it is similar it will confuse the receptor and take it as its normal ligand. The effects of the drug are as it is.
The enzyme or the receptor, might have several forms of regulation, the turning off of a receptor, might mean the turning on of another receptor or the turning on of the molecule. I will try to stick to receptors. Maybe you are describing allosteric regulation, but you are right when you say recpetors could be enzymes. The mechanism of action could be similar to MM, Michaelis Menten.
Maybe a receptor will change shape. But this does not mean the recpetor has to change shape for the same ligand. It might be by the regulation or the circumstance. The ligand is still the same.
For example, insulin, has to go through several activation stages, before it is activated. The hornone insulin is activated by enzymes. In this case, I am trying to say the ligand is inactivated.
The sodium potassium channel translocates, but only when the ions are present. Aquaporins need to be activated for it to allow the passage of water.
unless you mean why every movement is done by a receptor, this means, it may just diffuse through the membrane
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Any explanation is appreciated!
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Your welcome Keyvan Sobhani.
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Higher affinity for CO induce suffocation which may be fatal.
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In agreement with Pranita Kamble Waghmare, the Oxygen axis after oxygen binding with heme is at an angle while Carbon monoxide binds to free heme with the CO axis perpendicular to the plane of the porphyrin ring via carbon-Iron bonding. So, the two oxygen atoms in oxygen exhibit steric hindrances on each other. In which case, CO doesn't experience the same.
This perpendicular orientation is favorable for Hb binding.
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Dear researchers,
I hope you and everyone in your circle are doing well and healthy.
I’m going to work on some factors that affect on differentiation of cardiac progenitor cells to cardiomyocytes.
I’ve collected stem cells from mice and now I require the best and cheapest protocol for their differentiating to cardiomyocytes. As I am an amateur in this field of research, I hope you can suggest a useful protocol.
Thanks all.
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Dear Soudabeh,
In this article (attached), there are several protocols treating your topic. I hope it will help you.
Best wishes
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I know that an infant's brain can repair itself when damaged but why doesn't the same happen in adults after stroke or brain injuries?
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With Regenerative Medicine, using stem cells, the ongoing Programs are doing it, with good results and promising expectations.
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Hello, I am looking for a good (affordable with scientific evidence) device to measure heart rate variability (HRV) by Electrocardiograph (ECG) or Photoplethysmography (PPG), and I will use it to compare a new smartphone-based HRV measuring App. May I have some recommendations?
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Dear Qi,
I recently saw a review, which might be interesting for you. They have campared 32 devices, which are able to measure HRV.
Good luck,
Milad
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The yield of plants is found to be increased with the conservation of perennial to annual plants what are the processes, advantages, and disadvantages?
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Firstly, it is next to impossible to make perennial plants behave like annual plants.....secondly , if at all you try , it won't be a sustainable exercise. Bonsai you can try....like perennial ornamental plants into annual plants...But , i doubt for fruit crops...
Good question, out of box thinking....
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As my experience and many consumer experience they feel the different taste of the same item served cooked in a different source, is it real or not, what is the reason behind this.
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thank you a lot dear professor Dariusz Prokopowicz, Mirosław Grzesik for your wonderful answer and suggestion.
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kindly provide list of physiology/ yoga journals with no publication charges indexed in pubmed/scopus/WOS/DOAJ.
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leaf low quality is inherent to the tropical grasses ?
as physiology and physicochemical features could justify this?
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In deed, leaf of grasses have less energy concentration, both in tropical and temperate places if you compare with legumes.
Regards
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The apple fruits bought from the market after a few days in the refrigerator changed their skin color from red to almost brown, while the fruit was healthy and no signs of a pathogen were seen, and it turns out that these changes are physiological. Who knows what is the cause of this skin color change?
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I thank it because storage at low temperature, which led to chilling injury and increases in PPO activity
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Are functional maps in the cortex used by the brain to carry out computations or are they just a byproduct of wiring minimization?
A key element to answer this question is to know if, when neurons from a cortical map project their axons to the dendrite of a downstream neuron, they retain any spatial order proportional to their location in the map.
For example, in the cartoon below, the four neurons from a cortical map (in black) project their axons to a downstream neuron's dendrite (in green). The relative spatial position of the synapses (black circles) is proportional to the relative position of the neuron in the map.
I would be very grateful if you could point me to any relevant paper addressing this question, in particular in the cortex of the primate (e.g. axon tracing experiments).
Thanks!
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Neocortex pyramidal cells are the same with this polarized distribution. You can find Min Wang’s HCN paper in Monkey. Hippocampus circuit could be very clear nowadays. Non-pyramidal cell usually do not have this polarized HCN, but they could have polarized distribution of synaptic AMPA/NMDA/GABA receptor, like I mention in one paper previously. You can check neuron morphology, active properties of the membrane and synaptic mechanisms in your case to evaluate the total computation function.
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Are there distinct or unique physiological responses to humorous stimuli? Of special interest is political humor such as in editorial/political cartoons. Such political humor also has been posited as generating anger responses so a second question would be if there are differences in humor and anger responses that can clearly identify the source of the humor/anger response.
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Lee: Check out this PowerPoint about Laughter and Smiling:
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Many people believe that some stretching sports with vertical jump such as basketball and volleyball can increase the body height. On the other hand, others do not agree with this argument.
The problem is that there are many scientific websites that have explained and discussed this issue but as I see, both of them don't refer to any scientific article with specific statistical experiments.
I just found this article that has not a regular scientific content.
I am pleased to answer this question with a scientific article.
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I do not think that
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What do you think about the balance between exploring widely different designs vs. local optimization at different levels of biology (genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, anatomy, etc.)? Which levels are more or less modular or plastic?
In the endocrine system, for example, one feels that having tropic hormones (i.e., those controlling the release of other signaling hormones at other glands) may offer a finer and perhaps more robust regulation, compared to a being where all hormones were non-tropic. However, the anatomic location of elements in these networks is not trivial. For example, in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, renin is produced in the kidney, and aldosterone eventually exerts its effects in the kidney as well. However, the intermediate step by angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) mainly occurs in the lungs, which could introduce a delay in the regulation.
Do we have good explanations for the sites of production and action of different hormones in the body? Are there common principles to be learned as optimized by evolution in this respect? Or are happenstances/contingent evolution stronger determinants?
Thank you for sharing your thoughts!
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What is the in vivo dose and duration of administration of diazoxide for neurodegenerative disease models in rats? Are there studies in which hyperglycemia, pancreatic toxicity, diabetic neuropathy have been observed in animals after the application?
thanks.
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I fallowing
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What would land a neuroscience paper in Nature Neuroscience? What is the minimum a paper should have to pass the editorial scrutiny in Nature Neuroscience or the journals around the same cadre? May be a list of things and at the same time explanation of each point would work.
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Hi there,
Basically you need an important topic (most of the articles in Nat.Neurosci. are disease-related) and various, extremely good methods (often collaboration with specialized labs for EM, imaging, electrophysiology, ...).
Moreover, you should be working in a renowned lab, since the reputation of your PI will greatly influence if your paper has a chance to be accepted.
Also, you should think, how the journal would benefit from your paper:
For example, the neurocience community can greatly benefit from a ressource such as a proteomic or transcriptomic database, and such a paper would get a large number of citations, which is also beneficial of the journal.
Eventually, you will still need a good amount of luck to get accepted. ;-)
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Do you think the plant can communicate with each other, what is the level of feeling in plants?
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The study reveals that plants communicate to each other through their roots.
Thanks!
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Hello there
As we know researches are being rapidly evolved in most majors. I would like to know where animal reproduction physiology researches will go to in future. where do animal reproduction physiologist see themselves in 5 to 10 years later?
In my opinion, it is vital for researchers in this field to find out which aspects of their major define future studies and accordingly researchers should empower their knowledge in growing areas.
It is my pleasure to know your idea about the future of animal reproduction physiology researches and related areas.
I would appreciate if any related papers, sites and other stuffs be suggested.
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Increased research pertaning to infertility, it physiological and pathological causes as prevelence of infertility in animals is presenting increased trend with time. Similarly, retention of placenta and increase in dystocia, it is all related to chane in physiology.
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Why some basidiomycete cultures died quickly when stored at 5C on plate or slopes?
and is there any method to return them back to life ? specially if the culture produce anamorphic stage ?
and what is the best preservation methods, also some died when stored at -80C in 10% glycerol after few months!!
Thanks in advance.
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You can use 50% glycerol in medium and cool gradually maybe 1 degree per minute this may help in long-term preservation or else you can transfer the growth in sterile water and store at 15-20 degree centigrade it will survive for more than a year.
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We are looking to stain zebrafish cells with BrdU. What are the Pros and Cons of the Intraperitoneal method vs adding the stain to the environment? 
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A study by Peeters et al. (2017) suggests that sugar traps cancer in a 'vicious cycle' which make it more aggressive and harder to treat (1). On the question-and-answer site Quora, Ray Schilling, MD, concludes: "there is a connection between the consumption of sugar and starchy foods and various cancers in man. Animal experiments are useful in suggesting these connections, but many clinical trials including the Women’s Health Initiative have shown that these findings are also true in humans. It is insulin resistance due to sugar and starch overconsumption that is causing cancer" (2).
References
1. Peeters K, Van Leemputte F, Fischer B, Bonini BM, Quezada H, Tsytlonok M, Haesen D, Vanthienen W, Bernardes N, Gonzalez-Blas CB, Janssens V, Tompa P, Versées W, Thevelein JM. Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate couples glycolytic flux to activation of Ras. Nat Commun 2017; 8: 922. doi: 10.1038/s41467-017-01019-z. https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-017-01019-z.pdf
2. Schilling R. Why isn't sugar portrayed as bad like cigarettes? https://www.quora.com/Why-isnt-sugar-portrayed-as-bad-like-cigarettes
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The fact that cancer cells use more sugar than non-cancer cells, known as the Warburg effect, appears to form the basis of the current question. Nevertheless, it is not yet known if this effect is merely a symptom of cancer or whether it is the cause of cells becoming cancerous. Evidence indicating the way cancer cells metabolize sugar is not conclusive, either. Considering refined or added sugar, the bulk of the available evidence indicates that sugar is not a carcinogen. There is no evidence that eating sugar causes cancer or speeds up its growth. There is also no evidence that eliminating dietary sugar causes cancer to shrink or disappear. However, it is known that eating excess sugar, especially added sugars, can contribute to many chronic diseases such as obesity and diabetes, which are potential risk factors for several types of cancer.
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What is Cadmium toxicity?
How it binds Cadmium in human body?
What is the nature of Cadmium?
Which are the functional group of metallothionein?
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As we know,the pulse propagates in wave form and the velocity of wave propagation depends on the propagation medium features. So,Is it possible to use the measurment of velocity of pulse propagation in the body to diagnose cardiovascular problems such as hypertension and hypotension?
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. Does the pain for the survival of the human have any meaning?
. The cellular and tissue thermal or chemical lesion causes a sensation and avoidance reflex, to avoid further damage to the affected site
. The perception of cellular or tissue damage, by making the noxious stimulus conscious, induces, in a targeted manner, protective behaviors and limiting the damage.
. The Central Nervous System (CNS) and Peripheral System, puts us in contact through our senses, with the internal biochemical and neurophysiological environment, in addition to experiencing the external or natural environment, through sensations and reflex acts, such as perceptions and behaviors to preserve the integrity of the organism.
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Regarding evolutionary biology and paleobiology, solid evidence has been found that supports the conjecture that the Nendaertales had a lower pain threshold, a situation that will have to be evaluated in terms of whether this finding explains their extension and predominance of Sapiens. The following evidences are some of them:
  • Since several high-quality Neanderthal genomes are now available, researchers can identify the genetic changes that were present in many or all Neanderthals; allowing to investigate its physiological effects and analyze its consequences when they occur in people today.
  • Researchers Hugo Zeberg, Svante Pääbo, and their colleagues found that some people, especially from Central and South America, but also from Europe, have inherited a Neanderthal variant of a gene that encodes an ion channel that initiates pain sensation.
  • At the molecular level, the Neanderthal ion channel is more easily activated, which may explain why people who inherited it have a lower pain threshold. "It is difficult to say whether Neanderthals experienced more pain because pain is also modulated in both the spinal cord and brain," says Pääbo. "But this work shows that their threshold for initiating pain impulses was lower than in most humans today."
regards
José Luis
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I am trying the determine how effective HRV is at quantifying transient psychophysiological stress in comparison to blood pressure, the experiment comprises of 4 (45 second long) stressors with 3 minutes baseline in between. Which HRV frequency range ( LF, HF or LF/HF ratio) should I use and why ?
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Hi Samreen,
If you haven't accessed it yet, the 1996 Standards of Measurements by Malik are still applicable to current HRV research. Germane to your question would be the sub-sections spectral components - Short-term recordings and Summary and Recommendations for Interpretation of HRV Components.
Also, this article by Shaffer and Ginsberg offers a good summary of both frequency and time-domain HRV measures.
In direct response to your question, LF-HRV can be influenced by both the PNS and SNS, and at rest, it doesn't offer a good representation of sympathetic innervation of the heart, but rather baroreflex activity.
Good luck with your project.
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FDA has issued guidance to provide recommendations to health care providers and investigators on the administration and study of investigational convalescent plasma collected from individuals who have recovered from COVID-19 (COVID-19 convalescent plasma) during the public health emergency.
The guidance provides recommendations on the following:
  • pathways for use of investigational COVID-19 convalescent plasma
  • patient eligibility
  • collection of COVID-19 convalescent plasma, including donor eligibility and donor qualifications
  • labeling, and
  • record keeping
Because COVID-19 convalescent plasma has not yet been approved for use by FDA, it is regulated as an investigational product.  A health care provider must participate in one of the pathways described below.  FDA does not collect COVID-19 convalescent plasma or provide COVID-19 convalescent plasma.  Health care providers or acute care facilities should instead obtain COVID-19 convalescent plasma from an FDA-registered blood establishment.
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I requirement to know the most trusty extractant for chlorophylls a and b.
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Thank you Kathryn De Abreu
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COVID- 19
Respiratory infections can be transmitted through droplets of different sizes: when the droplet particles are >5-10 μm in diameter they are referred to as respiratory droplets, and when then are <5μm in diameter, they are referred to as droplet nuclei. According to current evidence, COVID-19 virus is primarily transmitted between people through respiratory droplets and contact routes.2-7 In an analysis of 75,465 COVID-19 cases in China, airborne transmission was not reported.
Droplet transmission occurs when a person is in in close contact (within 1 m) with someone who has respiratory symptoms (e.g., coughing or sneezing) and is therefore at risk of having his/her mucosae (mouth and nose) or conjunctiva (eyes) exposed to potentially infective respiratory droplets. Transmission may also occur through fomites in the immediate environment around the infected person. Therefore, transmission of the COVID-19 virus can occur by direct contact with infected people and indirect contact with surfaces in the immediate environment or with objects used on the infected person (e.g., stethoscope or thermometer). 
Airborne transmission is different from droplet transmission as it refers to the presence of microbes within droplet nuclei, which are generally considered to be particles <5μm in diameter, can remain in the air for long periods of time and be transmitted to others over distances greater than 1 m. 
In the context of COVID-19, airborne transmission may be possible in specific circumstances and settings in which procedures or support treatments that generate aerosols are performed; i.e., endotracheal intubation, bronchoscopy, open suctioning, administration of nebulized treatment, manual ventilation before intubation, turning the patient to the prone position, disconnecting the patient from the ventilator, non-invasive positive-pressure ventilation, tracheostomy, and cardiopulmonary resuscitation. 
There is some evidence that COVID-19 infection may lead to intestinal infection and be present in faeces. However, to date only one study has cultured the COVID-19 virus from a single stool specimen.  There have been no reports of faecal−oral transmission of the COVID-19 virus to date.
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Probiotics are live microorganisms that are intended to have health benefits when consumed or applied to the body. They can be found in yogurt and other fermented foods, dietary supplements, and beauty products.
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The virus is primarily spread between people during close contact, often via small droplets produced by coughing, sneezing, or talking. While these droplets are produced when breathing out, they usually fall to the ground or onto surfaces rather than remain in the air over long distances.People may also become infected by touching a contaminated surface and then touching their eyes, nose, or mouth. The virus can survive on surfaces for up to 72 hours. It is most contagious during the first three days after the onset of symptoms, although spread may be possible before symptoms appear and in later stages of the disease.
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Khem Raj Meena I agree with you. But everyone is scared again of the vaccination because of the numerous rumours around it
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A hospital-acquired infection (HAI), also known as a nosocomial infection, is an infection that is acquired in a hospital or other health care facility. To emphasize both hospital and nonhospital settings, it is sometimes instead called a health care–associated infection (HAI or HCAI).
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Please see the following RG link.
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I work with female mice and I have this doubt. If they are all put together on the same cage, are all of them on the same estrous cycle stage?
If so, is there any literature that supports this?
I do not measure and/or calibrate estrous cycle because I do a protocol where I don't want the animals to be stressed by it.
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After a period(days) the synchronization will occur
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Hello y'all
Could anybody recommend some papers on the ecological/physiological role of RiPPs on their producers, especially on cyanobacterial producers.
I've been trying to track any paper on this topic, but I've had no luck so far.
Thanks for the help
Jose
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The ribosomally synthesized and posttranslationally modified peptides (RiPPs), also called ribosomal peptide natural products (RPNPs), form a growing superfamily of natural products that are produced by many different organisms and particularly by bacteria. They are derived from precursor polypeptides whose modification by various dedicated enzymes helps to establish a vast array of chemical motifs. RiPPs have attracted much interest as a source of potential therapeutic agents, and in particular as alternatives to conventional antibiotics to address the bacterial resistance crisis. However, their ecological roles in nature are poorly understood and explored. The present review describes major RiPP actors in competition within microbial communities, the main ecological and physiological functions currently evidenced for RiPPs, and the microbial ecosystems that are the sites for these functions. We envision that the study of RiPPs may lead to discoveries of new biological functions and highlight that a better knowledge of how bacterial RiPPs mediate inter-/intraspecies and interkingdom interactions will hold promise for devising alternative strategies in antibiotic development
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I am looking for solid reference to infer mean (human) plasma cortisol concentration of a time unit (e.g. 12hrs) from measured urinary cortisol concentrations (mean cortisol concentration of a 12hr unit, normalised to creatinine concentration). I need it to use a mathematical cortisol model, of which most published ones only use plasma concentrations, but I only have urinary measures.
Currently I am brute-forcing papers from 50-60 years ago, which doesn't quite help me. Is there anything more recent, or a physiology book that gives me more information about the topic?
Sofar I found that "Urinary free cortisol excretion increases directly in proportion to the plasma unbound cortisol level (Beisel et al, 1964) and provides an integrated measure of plasma free cortisol over time (Burke & Roulet, 1970). (from Carroll76)
Thank you very much.
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I'm not sure that you can, with any meaningful accuracy. There are several difficulties, the most problematic being that cortisol has a diurnal pattern of expression, and this pattern may be different in different biofluids overall, and more or less discordant as concentrations increase or decrease.
In saying that, here are some references which might be useful to you - serum and plasma levels are likely to be very similar so you might have better luck with that literature.
DOI:10.1016/s1440-2440(02)80031-7
DOI: 10.1080/036107399244075
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Oncology is a branch of medicine that deals with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of cancer. A medical professional who practices oncology is an oncologist. The name's etymological origin is the Greek word ὄγκος (óngkos), meaning 1. "burden, volume, mass" and 2. "barb", and the Greek word λόγος (logos), meaning "study".
Cancer survival has improved due to three main components: improved prevention efforts to reduce exposure to risk factors (e.g., tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption), improved screening of several cancers (allowing for earlier diagnosis), and improvements in treatment.
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Lauren Pecorino
Molecular Biology of Cancer: Mechanisms, Targets, and Therapeutics
3rd Edición
ISBN-13: 978-0199577170, ISBN-10: 019957717X
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In my study I have exposed the volunteers to 4 separate 45 second stressors that are a mixture of modalities (audio/visual) and task types (emotion-evoking/cognitive) with 3 minute baselines in between. A continuous ECG is trace is taken throughout the experiment, from the gross heart rate I hope to work out heart rate variability. My aim is to test the validity of heart rate variability as an objective stress assessment method for psychophysiological stress. My question is at what point on the ECG trace for each volunteer would I analyse the gross heart rate to work out Heart Rate variability for each of the four stressors i.e. pre-stressor, post-stressor and why ?
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The body's should develop compensatory response to stress with 20seconds in which the effect could be felt by the brain although it depends most times on the intensity of the stressor
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The most accepted definition for RRP is " a small subset of the many vesicles in presynaptic bouton that is more readily released than other vesicles which are in the recycling and reserve pool", and RRP consists of "docked" vesicles. Well, can we increase the number of docked vesicles in the presynaptic terminal? If we do it, what is the physiological mechanism underlying this increment? Does this increment depend on the increase of intracellular Ca2+? Does the increment of the size of active bouton lead to the increment of the size of RRP?
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Actually I believe that the RRP size is just a result of the instant probability of vesicle exocytosis. If so, current Ca2+ concentration strongly impact RRP size by mean docking molecular machinery (SNAP-25, syntaxin, synaptotagmin and so on). Increasing the concentration of Ca2+ leads to more probable activation of Ca-sensors and more reliable exocytosis.
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I want to know the Hematopoietic stem cells' surface charge? is there any authentic article about that? and How we can measure this charge? what is the method or protocol as we know that assessment stem cells in in-vitro are difficult?
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I would search the literature first, but if nothing useful turns up, you could measure the net charge on the stem cells (assuming that you have a reliable way of collecting them) by setting up an aqueous version of the Michelson-Morley experiment for measuring the charge on the electron, but scaled up to the larger size and charge on the cell. Essentially, by placing electrodes above and below a cell culture suspension with a medium density less than that of the cells, so that they will tend to sink in the absence of a current, one can maintain those cells with charge sufficient to offset their gravitational sedimentation. Adjusting the charge across the electrodes to find one that maintains the cells in suspension (offsets their gravitational force and density against the electrical force to suspend them) should let you calculate the net charge on the cells.
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I grew Podocarpus seedlings at elevated temperatures for 16 weeks after which I ran temperature response curves using a Licor 6400 IRGA.
The optimum temperature for photosynthesis remained roughly the same for heat acclimated and none-heat acclimated plants, however, max photosynthesis decreased in the heat acclimated plants. The graph is attached!
Does anyone have an explanation for this?
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Besides other parameters mentioned by Kathryn, did you look at stomatal density?
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Below is the project title:
This project will investigate how psychological stress and mental workload impact physiology. Using Heart Rate Variability in comparison to an array of ‘gold standard’ physiological measures to investigate how task interaction impacts on psychophysiological stress.
Physiometric analysis methods -
•Stethography
•Galvanometry
•Blood pressure
•Core Body Temperature
Which of one of the physiological measures stated above would be best to use to measure acute stress during a driving simulation and why ?
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cortisol, heart rate, blood pressure
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I want to know whether tumor cells share their information by time passing. I were wondering if anybody could answer my question and introduce some good resources in this regard?
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The answer is "Yes". Please see the following PDF attachments.
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I'm trying to set up KiloSort2 (https://github.com/MouseLand/Kilosort2) in MATLAB 2019a on Windows 10. Per the github instructions, I've successfully installed Visual Studio Community 2013 and am trying to set it as my compiler in MATLAB. However, when I enter the 'mex -setup' command, MATLAB tells me that there are no supported compilers on my machine.
While VS2013 isn't listed in the MATLAB documentation as a supported compiler, I know that a lot of people use KiloSort and KiloSort2 for spike sorting, so I'm wondering if anyone knows the proper work around or if there exists a different compiler that will get the job done.
Thanks!
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For those still following - I have revisited this problem and solved it by using the NVIDIA compiler instead of visual studio.
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Does garlic have an effect on this hormone and decrease or increase them?
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Please take a look at the following PDF attachment.
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The phenomenon of respiratory sinus arrhythmia is well known. But, I don't know (I am an engineer) the exact receptors, feedback mechanisms, cerebral control centres, etc. involved in this process. Also, experiments have shown that varieties of controlled deep breathing (pranayama) bring down the blood pressure (I have experienced this personally also, having become free of my hypertensive medications for the past 3 years, after having been dependent on them earlier for over 9 years. I want to understand the complete physiological mechanism. I shall be grateful to anyone, who can point me to relevant books, journal papers, review papers, etc.
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Hi there,
As a person who teaches theoretical and clinical anatomy, I can recommend the following articles:
Articles alone, however, will not be sufficient. For concise, correct and optimal results in your research efforts, check out:
or alternatively:
I hope that helps :)
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In most contexts, the terms alternative medicine, complementary medicine, integrative medicine, holistic medicine, natural medicine, and unconventional medicine are almost synonymous.
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Everyday more patients seek non conventional approaches to their non resolved medical problems. Many of these approaches are safe and recommended by credited physicians. At the same time, conventional medicine discredits this therapies because of lack of demonstrative clinical studies.
I believe many non conventional therapies should be includes after judicious consideration, and serious clinical studies should be performed when a positive balance between (good) efficacy and (low) risk is perceived.
In this way, many today’s innocuous, non conventional therapies could precede more aggressive mainstream therapeutical approaches.
Two main factual problems should be taken in consideration:
First the lack of clinical studies comes from huge imbalance between private pharmaceutical funding and that of non conventional therapies. This brings up the ethical question: Is clinical research really at patient´s service or at the service of pharmacology?
Secondly, I believe that not only "scientifically" proven medicine acceptable. Good clinical sense should always come first, based when necessary but never exclusively on clinical studies. In this sense, we must remember that most of our conventional practice is based on "accepted" opinions and not in the so called "science”. Many of the cases because of obvious reasons ... nobody is refraining from performing CPR to a arrested patient, or ventilate a patient in critical respiratory failure just because no randomized, double blind, controlled studies were made to demonstrate its efficacy in that particular situation.
As a consequence my position is to approach non conventional medicines as an opportunity rather than as a problem.
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Is chlorophyll content measured using SPAD meter is a physiological trait?
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Chlorophyll content is a physiological parameter. However, in some publications you might find it under biochemistry category. In the past decades, the concept of plant physiology changed considerably, so you can read plant physiology papers from different time periods that seem to belong to different fields, in terms of studied parameters. Some old papers on plant physiology are found nowadays under plant ecophysiology field. For scientist working several decades ago the plant physiology papers from nowadays would appear as purely biochemistry work. All parameters referring on processes, functionality and dynamics should be considered physiological. Indeed, there is always a biochemical involved mechanism.
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I am hoping to analyze HR collected and was looking for advice on methods for analyzing HR and linking it to specific tasks and/or overt behaviours
thanks!
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Hi dear Lori
I did not research on this topic but I searched for your question and I can introduce this article to you:
I hope you find it helpful
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If we have an unknown cell, for basic studies on its properties, we need to detect the combination of channels on the cell.except voltage clamp method,how we can do that?
for example If we have a new and unknown disease,we need to detect the combination of channels on the cell for Eliminating the disease agent.
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Please see the reference that would be useful for this issue.
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  • Pruritus is an unpleasant sensation that is usually secondary to a cytokine-releasing stimulus such as histamine.
  • Histamine frequently produces a local inflammatory state at the site of a noxious stimulus, and its usual manifestation is pruritus.
  • Scratching secondary to pruritus increases its intensity and a vicious circle is established.
  • Pruritus frequently decreases with the use of anti-inflammatory analgesics, suggesting the transmission of the stimulus by means of painful or spinothalamic pathways.
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Dear Alaa Raheem Kazim
Totally agree with your arguments and your response
Regards
José Luis
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There are many research articles exploring alpha glucosidase, salivary and pancreatic alpha amylase inhibition as a therapeutic target for reducing postprandial hyperglycemia (PPHG) in type 2 diabetes. Out of these three, which one is more important/superior and why?
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pancreatic alpha shares higher proportion as conmpared to salivary which makes it better. is this the main reason?
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I would like to do an experiment on the beta cells in which I would like to know what is the external pH surrounding the cells
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Hi sandra.. I think about 7.3-7.5.. Show this paper
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In telecommunications, a transmission system is a system which transmits a signal from one place to another. The signal can be an electrical, optical or radio signal.
Can we consider some of the human body systems as transmission systems and then model it using telecommunications' concepts for better understanding?
If we do, can someone please provides some examples of these systems and determines their basic elements(message, transmitter, medium and receiver)?
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Dear Mahdi,
This question is an interesting one as it invokes the analogy between the electrical communication systems and the signal transmission in the human body.
Any communications system consists of information sources, transmitters, transmission medium receiver and communication destination.
At first i would like to speak about the signal transmission medium in the human body. The main medium of the transmission in the human body is the water.
Water is a dipolar material and serves as a solvent for the substances supplied to the human body. It solves the slats including sodium chloride and forms an electrolyte capable to conduct electricity by its positive sodium ions and negative chlor ions. So, the electricity conduction is an ionic conduction. The generation of electrical signals is by electrochemical effect.
The system responsible for the sensation is the nervous systems where it generates the electrical signals in form of electrical pulses and transfer it from the a part of the body to the brain or from the brain to an intended part of the body. The brain is responsible for processing, taking actions and storing the signal in its memory cells. Th humans tried to mimic the function of the nervous system by introducing the so called Neural network.
The information is generated by sensors at skin of the human body. It is generated also by the ears and eyes. All of these sensors work as transducers converting the nonelectrical signals int electrical signals conducted by the Nerves to the central spinal cord then to the brain and back from the brain to the different organs to control them.
So the brain can be considered a source an destination of the information. It also stores and process the information to take decisions.
Signals also are generated by the transducers and some of them work as a destination. The communication system can be considered wire line one transmitting base band signals directly through conducting wires.
Best wishes
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We are seeing some interesting patterns when running different mouse species when stepping among different velocities and at different incline levels.
Can anyone suggest recent or classic papers/citations that describe exercise energetics of mice on treadmills?
Any insight on RER would be useful too.
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The article by Hoydal MA et al. (Running speed and maximal oxygen uptake in rats and mice: practical implications for exercise training. Eur. J Cardiovasc. Prev. Rehabil. 14: 753-760, 2007) is a nice paper that might be of interest. It examines the effect of speed, but not grade, on VO2. I think this group has done similar studies but I haven't kept up with them.
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Does anyone know how/if its possible to measure erythro-9-(2-hydroxy-3-nonyl)adenine (EHNA) in living humans?
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آسف السؤال ليس من اختصاصي
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Hello all, anyone who can advice me on how to get efficient transduction of AAV9-virus in skeletal muscle of adult mice? I saw paper talking about tail-vein injection but in my hands it did not work at all .. Any suggestions?
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Hi Valentina, in situ injection of AAV to infect skeletal muscle is a best way, we always got a good infection.
You could find more information on this website:
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Hi colleagues,
I am trying to test how pH may effect the behaviour of the skin of an animal. To do this, the first step is to understand what is the normal condition. How could I do it? In particular, it is an amphibian.
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Dear Giorgio, am only familiar with how to measure the PH of chicken checking the meat quality.And it can be measured using PH meter. PH is related to the amount of glycogen. When PH is greater than 6.2, it means meat is darker and the quality is low.
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Hormesis is a concept to explain of adaptation of body to certain dose of Toxic substance. if some condition in exercise like of produce of Free radical, reactive oxygen species, decrease of pH and etc be a toxic condition for body can we called exercise for one of factor of hormesis? what is your idea?
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Merry TL, Ristow M. Mitohormesis in exercise training. Free Radic Biol Med 2016;98:123-130. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/285392332_Mitohormesis_in_exercise_training
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