Monash University (Australia)
  • Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
Recent publications
Using PMU data, the fault location algorithm has gradually been trended in the literature. Besides the optimality of the algorithm, the fault location application should directly receive the data of the faulty line from the PMU devices to have the best performance; using state estimation to create the input data of fault location algorithm not only wastes the golden time, but it also decreases the reliability. Given, it is not possible to install PMU devices in all buses of the system, it is better to install them for the lengthy lines having the most probability of the failure. Although various approaches have been presented in the literature to solve optimal PMU placement (OPP), the fault location observability has less been considered in OPP formulation Accordingly, this paper considers a new index, named fault location observability (FLO), as a second objective function in its OPP formulation. Using this index, in addition to minimizing PMU installation cost, the number of lengthy lines being directly observable are also maximized. Using the ɛ-constraint method, the multi-objective problem has been solved several times as single-objective optimizations. Given the constraints and objective functions are linear, the work presents a mixed integer linear programming (MILP) formulation for the placement problem. Using the GAMS under CPLEX solver, the global optimal solutions of MILP model corresponding to the various ɛ-constraints yields to a Pareto optimal front. The simulation results, next, implements the proposed method on the IEEE 300 bus test system as well as the practical OMAN grid to prove the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Biofilm formation and capsule production are known microbial strategies used by bacterial pathogens to survive adverse conditions in the hospital environment. The relative importance of these strategies individually is unexplored. This project aims to compare the contributory roles of biofilm formation and capsule production in bacterial survival on hospital surfaces. Representative strains of bacterial species often causing hospital-acquired infections were selected, including Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The importance of biofilm formation and capsule production on bacterial survival was evaluated by comparing capsule-positive wild-type and capsule-deficient mutant strains, and biofilm and planktonic growth modes respectively, against three adverse hospital conditions, including desiccation, benzalkonium chloride disinfection and ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Bacterial survival was quantitatively assessed using colony-forming unit (CFU) enumeration and the 2,3-bis-(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide (XTT) assay and qualitatively by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Correlations between capsule production and biofilm formation were further investigated. Biofilm formation contributed significantly to bacterial survival on hospital surface simulators, mediating high resistance to desiccation, benzalkonium chloride disinfection and UV radiation. The role of capsule production was minor and species-specific; encapsulated A. baumannii but not K. pneumoniae cells demonstrated slightly increased resistance to desiccation, and neither showed enhanced resistance to benzalkonium chloride. Interestingly, capsule production sensitized K. pneumoniae and A. baumannii to UV radiation. The loss of capsule in K. pneumoniae and A. baumannii enhanced biofilm formation, possibly by increasing cell surface hydrophobicity. In summary, this study confirms the crucial role of biofilm formation in bacterial survival on hospital surfaces. Conversely, encapsulation plays a relatively minor role and may even negatively impact bacterial biofilm formation and hospital survival.
Statically indeterminate symmetric (SIS) flexure structures are symmetric structures with “clamped-clamped” boundary conditions. The static indeterminacy and topological symmetry significantly attenuate the parasitic motions associated with statically determinate flexure structures. Hence, SIS flexure structures feature decoupled linear and angular motions, improved motion accuracy, high stiffness, and high stability. Although SIS flexure structures have been more frequently utilized as prismatic joints, they can also be utilized as revolute joints. This study systematically investigates the characteristics of SIS flexure structures. Based on the unified compliance models of a single flexure hinge, analytical compliance models of two fundamental types of SIS flexure structures are established. In 1-degree-of-freedom or planar applications, multiple SIS-based structures can also be integrated into various configurations to transmit linear or angular motions. Corresponding stiffness models are also established. The characteristics and possible applications of the SIS flexure structures are computationally investigated through case studies. Ultimately, several SIS prototypes are manufactured, and the modeling accuracy of the established stiffness models is experimentally verified. SIS flexure structures can reduce parasitic motions and improve motion accuracy.Compliance model of two SIS flexure structure are proposed.Characteristics of SIS flexure structures and potential applications are analyzed. SIS flexure structures can reduce parasitic motions and improve motion accuracy. Compliance model of two SIS flexure structure are proposed. Characteristics of SIS flexure structures and potential applications are analyzed.
The impasse surface is an important concept in the differential-algebraic equation (DAE) model of power systems, which is associated with short-term voltage collapse. This paper establishes a necessary condition for a system trajectory hitting the impasse surface. The condition is in terms of admittance matrices regarding the power network, generators and loads, which specifies the pattern of interaction between those system components that can induce voltage collapse. It applies to generic DAE models featuring high-order synchronous generators, static loads, induction motor loads and lossy power networks. We also identify a class of static load parameters that prevent power systems from hitting the impasse surface; this proves a conjecture made by Hiskens that has been unsolved for decades. Moreover, the obtained results lead to an early indicator of voltage collapse and a novel viewpoint that inductive compensation to the power network has a positive effect on preventing short-term voltage collapse, which are verified via numerical simulations.
Pandemics often cause dramatic losses of human lives and impact our societies in many aspects such as public health, tourism, and economy. To contain the spread of an epidemic like COVID-19, efficient and effective contact tracing is important, especially in indoor venues where the risk of infection is higher. In this work, we formulate and study a novel query called Indoor Contact Query ( ICQ ) over raw, uncertain indoor positioning data that digitalizes people's movements indoors. Given a query object $o$ , e.g., a person confirmed to be a virus carrier, an ICQ analyzes uncertain indoor positioning data to find objects that most likely had close contact with $o$ for a long period of time. To process ICQ , we propose a set of techniques. First, we design an enhanced indoor graph model to organize different types of data necessary for ICQ . Second, for indoor moving objects, we devise methods to determine uncertain regions and to derive positioning samples missing in the raw data. Third, we propose a query processing framework with a close contact determination method, a search algorithm, and the acceleration strategies. We conduct extensive experiments on synthetic and real datasets to evaluate our proposals. The results demonstrate the efficiency and effectiveness of our proposals.
This paper focuses on the $N-k$ security-constrained optimal transmission switching (OTS) problem for variable renewable energy (VRE) penetrated power grids. A new three-stage stochastic and distributionally robust OTS model is proposed. The first stage has the primary purpose to schedule the power generation and network topology based on the forecast of VRE. The second stage controls the power generation and voltage magnitudes of voltage-controlled buses in response to VRE uncertainty, and the third stage reacts to $N-k$ contingencies additionally by line switching and load shedding. The VRE and $N-k$ contingencies, considering different availability of their probability distributions, are tackled by stochastic and distributionally robust optimization, respectively. By adopting stage-wise realization of uncertainties in VRE and contingencies, the associated corrective controls with different mechanisms can be handled separately and properly, which makes the proposed OTS model more realistic than existing two-stage ones. For solving the proposed OTS model, its tractable reformulation is derived, and a solution approach that combines the nested column-and-constraint generation algorithm and Dantzig-Wolfe procedure is developed. Finally, case studies include a simple IEEE network for illustrative purposes and then real system networks to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed approach.
Holistic 3D human-scene reconstruction is a crucial and emerging research area in robot perception. A key challenge in holistic 3D human-scene reconstruction is to generate a physically plausible 3D scene from a single monocular RGB image. The existing research mainly proposes optimization-based approaches for reconstructing the scene from a sequence of RGB frames with explicitly defined physical laws and constraints between different scene elements (humans and objects). However, it is hard to explicitly define and model every physical law in every scenario. This letter proposes using an implicit feature representation of the scene elements to distinguish a physically plausible alignment of humans and objects from an implausible one. We propose using a graph-based holistic representation with an encoded physical representation of the scene to analyze the human-object and object-object interactions within the scene. Using this graphical representation, we adversarially train our model to learn the feasible alignments of the scene elements from the training data itself without explicitly defining the laws and constraints between them. Unlike the existing inference-time optimization-based approaches, we use this adversarially trained model to produce a per-frame 3D reconstruction of the scene that abides by the physical laws and constraints. Our learning-based method achieves comparable 3D reconstruction quality to existing optimization-based holistic human-scene reconstruction methods and does not need inference time optimization. This makes it better suited compared to existing methods, for potential use in robotic applications, such as robot navigation, $\underline{etc}$ .
Osteoarthritis (OA), the most common form of arthritis, has been recently estimated to affect 250 million people worldwide, with the numbers affected growing due to our increasingly aged and obese population. It has a significant impact on general health and human function, particularly with advancing age. OA affects all the tissues in a synovial joint, resulting in failure of the joint. It is a heterogeneous condition, resulting from the confluence of a variety of risk factors. These include increasing age, female genders, genetic factors, obesity, previous injury and occupational factors. OA can be diagnosed clinically, with radiological evidence only required when the diagnosis is equivocal from history and examination. In general, the management of large joint OA focusses on weight control and physical activity. This may be supplemented with a variety of other lifestyle, non-pharmacological and pharmacological interventions, often concurrently to control pain, patients’ primary concern. Except for weight loss, there is no intervention proven to delay disease progression. End stage is often managed with joint replacement.
Here, teachers and students of an online, postgraduate course, “Current Issues in Clinical Education” (part of the MSc Clinical Education at the University of Edinburgh), consider co-participation from a postdigital view in which learning is neither fully online nor offline, but spills into and out of formal, digital and physical spaces. The course begins empty, other than a task structure and some resources. This leaves “pedagogical space” for content to emerge through dialogue, and ideas from students’ practice settings. The teacher undertakes the assignment alongside the students, and boundaries are eroded without dissolving. In reflecting on our different experiences of the course, we foreground some power relations and political economics of contemporary, online postgraduate education, and the implications for meaningful participation, co-design, and co-creation.
In this chapter, we turn our attention to the nineteenth-century child reader, whose widespread capacity to read only became possible after improvements in literacy resulting from mandatory education, but whose reading practices throughout the century nonetheless represent similar anxieties and concerns as those raised about women readers. The figure of the child reader is vested in complex and contradictory ideas about childhood, age, gender, and class. Not all children are encouraged to read in the same ways and with the same objectives. Indeed, as reading materials became more affordable and literacy rates improved, concerned adults attempted to control the quality of books and magazines available to children and to restrict access to certain texts based on either the moral value of the text or its potential to adversely impact the reader. The didactic potential of the written word is dependent on reading the right books for the right reasons, both of which might vary depending on who is reading and why. The valences of this debate can be found in a range of children’s books that feature child readers including Johann David Wyss’ The Swiss Family Robinson (1812), Thomas Hughes’ Tom Brown’s Schooldays (1857), George MacDonald’s At the Back of the North Wind (1871), Juliana Ewing’s Six to Sixteen (1872) and L.T. Meade’s The Sweet Girl Graduate (1891). We argue that the child readers in many children’s books not only value reading for its ability to develop religious faith and morality, but also because the child reader is positioned through reading for their future place in the world as morally upstanding, hard-working, adults who understand their responsibilities to their families, the nation, and themselves.
Although some lineages of animals and plants have made impressive adaptive radiations when provided with ecological opportunity, the propensities to radiate vary profoundly among lineages for unknown reasons. In Africa’s Lake Victoria region, one cichlid lineage radiated in every lake, with the largest radiation taking place in a lake less than 16,000 years old. We show that all of its ecological guilds evolved in situ. Cycles of lineage fusion through admixture and lineage fission through speciation characterize the history of the radiation. It was jump-started when several swamp-dwelling refugial populations, each of which were of older hybrid descent, met in the newly forming lake, where they fused into a single population, resuspending old admixture variation. Each population contributed a different set of ancient alleles from which a new adaptive radiation assembled in record time, involving additional fusion-fission cycles. We argue that repeated fusion-fission cycles in the history of a lineage make adaptive radiation fast and predictable.
The nineteenth century was a crucial period for shifting definitions of children and childhood and for the development and diversification of children’s literature. It was an era in which some of the most memorable and enduring depictions of children appeared within English literature and was marked by major innovations in the field of literature for children. From the legendary anxiety among readers over the fate of Little Nell as they awaited the concluding instalment of Charles Dickens’ The Old Curiosity Shop (1841) to the publication of perhaps the most recognised work of children’s literature in Lewis Carroll’s Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland (1865), the cultural and historical conditions of the nineteenth century established fertile ground for the burgeoning of literary childhoods.
In this chapter, you will learn about: In this chapter, the reader will consider the relationship between management and medical leadership. Management is the process of control and coordination of activities and resources, people, material and financial, in an organisation to achieve the organisation’s purpose—and managers, the people who perform this process. Managers manage within the context of organisations, so we will first to explore the function and structure of organisations. The definitions of leadership and different leadership styles and approaches make it difficult to spell them out simply. Amongst the different viewpoints and perspectives, some common and classic components might be knowing yourself, having a vision that is well communicated, building trust among colleagues and taking effective action to realise your own leadership potential, establishing direction, aligning people, motivating and inspiring [1]. The King’s Fund [2] succinctly stated that leadership is when a staff member chooses to do the minimum or more.
By collecting primary data through phone interviews during October 2020 through January 2021, from a sample of more than 1600 households in seven districts of rural Bihar, this study documents the living experience of these households during and following the first wave of the Covid-19 pandemic since March 2020. It focuses on the impacts of the pandemic on different sources of livelihood; select impacts on health, nutrition and education; and the extent of government support received by households. Detailed evidence from the study paints a picture of pervasive and severe impacts where virtually no household or source of livelihood was spared, though with some differentiation by social group and income class. The evidence also points to the meagre level of government support received by households. Many received only a fraction of the promised support at a time when existing safety nets were also compromised to a lesser or greater extent.
The specialist medical administrator leads and manages health systems, and therefore requires expertise in the juxtaposition between the law and medicine. Every area of responsibility of a medical leader is subject to or influenced by specific legal requirements. This chapter provides the specialist medical administrator with an overview of health law as it relates to health administration, and is divided into three areas: Patient Care, Professional Governance, and Organisational Systems. Under the heading of Patient Care, the author discusses adverse events, complaints, and negligence. An overview of the law relating to complex ethical and legal issues affecting the care of individual patients including consent to medical treatment, advance care directives, substitute decision-making, withdrawal of treatment, and voluntary assisted dying is also included in this section, together with an overview of the law relating to organ donation, wills and requirements for reporting to the State Coroner. In the section on Professional Governance, the author discusses requirements for registration and mandatory notification under the National Law, credentialing and defining the scope of clinical practice and professional indemnity insurance arrangements, and concludes with a discussion about the professional standards applying to medical administrators. In the section on Organisational Systems, the author discusses a range of topics with broad application to organisations and the healthcare system as a whole, including the role of healthcare complaints bodies, whistleblower legislation, workplace health and safety, workplace relations, and national agreements that establish the roles and responsibilities of various parties in the Australian healthcare system.
Clinical Governance at a health service level requires structures, processes and frameworks that articulate the key roles, responsibilities and accountabilities of frontline clinicians to managers and members of governing bodies, such as boards. These structures are enabled by robust data, culture, education and training and a continuous learning environment assuring the delivery of health services that are safe, effective, high-quality and continuously improving. Clinical governance encompasses the domains of clinical effectiveness, appropriateness, risk management, patient safety and consumer engagement and should address the priority areas and accreditation requirements of any national regulatory bodies. The National Model Clinical Governance Framework (ACSQHC 2017) outlines the following core patient safety processes that all managers actively engage in: Developing a policy framework that promotes patient safety. Establishing structures and processes that support identifying, reporting and reducing patient safety risks. Supporting open disclosure to patients and families. Responding to patient safety concerns that have been identified, including through morbidity and mortality meetings. Providing feedback to clinicians on actions taken to reduce identified patient safety risks. Adjusting structures and processes to reduce patient safety risks through reviewing, analysing and monitoring actions arising from clinical outcome data and quality performance measures. Identifying and acting on opportunities for improvement. Active participation is also required in ensuring supervision of junior members of the workforce and using clinical outcome data to inform regular performance appraisal processes for clinicians. The Medical Administrator is an essential element within the clinical governance system, by providing the patient safety advocate on the executive, performing a translator role between management and medical staff, and facilitating trust with medical colleagues for an open and transparent patient safety culture, whilst still ensuring compliance and verifying the system’s integrity. This chapter outlines the literature and practical examples of implementing Clinical Governance within a health service, provides strategies to effectively engage medical staff, and addresses the essential role of the Medical Administrator within the clinical governance system.
LINKED CONTENT This article is linked to Sagami et al papers. To view these articles, visit and
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Existing porothermoelastic models assume that shale is isotropic and disregard material anisotropy. When material anisotropy is considered, the shale-bedding plane must be assumed to be perpendicular to the borehole axis. However, in the actual drilling of shale reservoirs, the assumptions above are idealized to correctly identify the mechanisms of wellbore instability in shale reservoirs. Therefore, based on the generalized porothermoelastic theory and the generalized plane assumption, a pseudo three-dimensional finite element model that considers complete material anisotropy is established. The effects of elastic anisotropy, solid thermal expansion coefficient anisotropy, permeability anisotropy, thermal osmosis coefficient anisotropy, and thermal conductivity anisotropy on effective stress and pore pressure are analyzed parametrically. The following conclusions are based on ΔT = − 50 K (cooling) and kT > 0: when the permeability of the formation is less than 1e−19 m², thermal osmosis governs the distribution of pore pressure. When the formation is drilled, the pore pressure distribution under elastic anisotropy differs completely from that under elastic isotropy. As time progresses, the pore pressure increases under the effect of hydraulic pressure; however, the higher the elastic anisotropy ratio, the faster the pore pressure increases. Additionally, the greater the elastic anisotropy ratio, the greater is the effective hoop stress. As time progresses, the elastic anisotropy ratio increases and the effective hoop stress decreases. The greater the elastic anisotropy ratio, the greater are the anisotropy ratio of the solid thermal expansion coefficient, the permeability anisotropy ratio, the thermo-osmotic anisotropy coefficient ratio, and the thermal conductivity anisotropy ratio, which is conducive to wellbore stability. Based on a quantitative evaluation of the parameter anisotropy, the elastic anisotropy exerts the greatest effect on wellbore stability.
Background Fetoscopic laser coagulation of placental anastomoses reverses the pathological process in twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome, thereby increasing survival, but there are a paucity of studies addressing long-term neurodevelopmental outcome of survivors. This study aimed to ascertain the presence of neurodevelopmental disabilities in child survivors of monochorionic pregnancies managed by placental laser photocoagulation in the Australian state of Victoria. Methods All pregnancies undergoing placental laser photocoagulation with the Victorian Fetal Therapy Service between 2006–2017 were included. Information on each surviving child, including demographics, perinatal course, and developmental progress was collected from parents, and consent was sought to complete the Child Behaviour Checklist. Interviewers evaluated whether this information was consistent with a diagnosis of any of 14 neurodevelopmental conditions. A three-tiered outcome measure was allocated for each child: (1) unimpaired or developmentally normal, (2) mild or moderate neurological impairment, or (3) severe neurological impairment. Clinical predictors for adverse outcome were identified. Results Of 116 pregnancies (113 twin, 3 triplet), 96 (83%) resulted in 1 + surviving fetuses. 57/113 (50%) twin pregnancies resulted in 2 survivors, 36 (32%) in 1 survivor, and 20 (18%) in no survivors. Of the 235 fetuses, 154 (65.5%) survived to follow-up. Survival increased from 59% in 2006–2008 to 73% in 2015–2017. 90/154 (58%) survivors were followed up at a mean age of 7.5 [SD 3.0] years. Based on parental interview and Child Behaviour Checklist data, 28/90 (31%) participants were assessed as having neurodevelopmental impairment, 27 of mild-moderate severity and 1 severe. Speech/language disorders, attention deficit (hyperactivity) disorders, and fine motor impairment were most common. Neonatal length of stay conferred the highest risk of impairment. Conclusion Substantial variation exists between fetal therapy services in the type and length of neonatal follow-up following fetoscopic laser coagulation, contributing to a lack of data on long-term outcomes. The findings from this study support increasingly urgent calls to undertake systematic and sustained follow-up of fetoscopic laser coagulation survivors until school age. Information from this study may assist parents in their decision-making when offered fetal surgery. Importantly, it highlights a group for targeted surveillance and early intervention.
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37,544 members
Pathmanathan Rajadurai
  • School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Sunway
Naveen Vankadari
  • Monash Biomedical Discovery Institute
Girdhar Singh Deora
  • Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Seema Narayan
  • Faculty of Business and Economics
3168, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
Head of institution
Professor Margaret Gardner AO
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