ArticlePDF AvailableLiterature Review

A Top Ten list for economically important plant viruses



The concept of "Top Ten" lists of plant pathogens is in vogue in recent years, and plant viruses are no exception. However, the only list available has more to do with historical and scientific worth than it has to do with economic impact on humans and their animals. This review will discuss the most important plant viruses that cause serious harm to food plants that sustain the bulk of humankind.
A Top Ten List For Economically-Important
Plant Viruses
The final publication is available at Springer
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mild+ ACMD+ to+ areas+ where+ there+ are+ almost+ no+ cassava+ plants+ left+
growing.+The+inevitable+lag+in+ replacement+of+the+ crop+by+sweet+potato,+
to+ using+ it+ as+ a+ staple+ in+ their+ diet.+ The+ wave+ of+ ACMD+ across+ Uganda+
may+be+a+good+example+of+ the+devastating+effect+ of+a+plant+virus+on+the+
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... MRFV is widespread in the American continent, ranging from Argentina and Uruguay to Texas (U.S.A) (Gámez et al. 1979;Giménez-Pecci et al. 2007), and it is possibly one of the most important virus in the South America (Rybicki 2015). MRFV has been known in Brazil since 1970s and in spite of the disease has been previously present in Santa Catarina, it was only recently scientifically reported (Hammond and Bedendo 2005;Albuquerque et al. 2023). ...
Corn stunt complex disease has been a major problem to maize production in Brazil. Dalbulus maidis incidence can vary greatly over the years, as well as the occurrence of corn stunt diseases. Among the corn stunt pathogens, the maize rayado fino virus (MRFV) is involved in this disease complex. MRFV is persistently transmitted by the corn leafhopper Dalbulus maidis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) in a persistent propagative relationship. In this work, we assessed the abundance of D. maidis and rayado fino in experimental field plots with a commercial hybrid (P4285 VYHR) and an open pollinated variety (SCS156 Colorado) in the early phase of the planting in the late-sowing season, in two consecutive crop years (2020–21 and 2021–22), in Chapecó, Santa Catarina (South Brazil). Also, we evaluated the incidence of rayado fino and counted corn leafhoppers that were infesting MRFV-symptomatic and asymptomatic plants. D. maidis did not sort between the two maize genotypes in field conditions, but preferentially infests asymptomatic plants. This could be an evidence for the vector manipulation to aid pathogen spread. Incidence of rayado fino is greater in P4285 than in Colorado in early vegetative stages of maize and impacted plant production in about 40%. Additionally, we evaluated the incidence of rayado fino in 18 commercial maize genotypes in a field plot experiment at 50 days after sowing in the early-sowing season of the 2022–23 crop year. These genotypes showed a differential incidence to the disease, which could be explored in breeding programs. Our results also support that the corn stunt complex pathosystem, with the rayado fino viral disease, is dynamic and unequal over the years.
... Potato virus Y (PVY) belongs to the genus Potyvirus in the family Potyviridae (Rybicki, 2015). It causes serious economic losses in Solanaceous crops worldwide (Scholthof et al., 2011). ...
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Potato virus Y (PVY) infection causes necrosis and curling of leaves, which seriously affect the yield and quality of Solanaceous crops. The roles of nutrient elements in the regulation of plant resistance to virus infection has been widely reported, while the mechanisms are poorly studied. Previous studies in our laboratory have demonstrated that foliar spraying of MgSO 4 could induce Nicotiana tabacum resistance to PVY by increasing the activity of defense-related enzymes. Consistent with the results, we found that exogenous magnesium (Mg) had a certain effect on N. tabacum anti-PVY infection. Meanwhile, Illumina RNA sequencing revealed that Mg induced resistance to PVY infection was mainly by regulating carbohydrate metabolism and transportation, nitrogen metabolism, Ca ²⁺ signal transduction and oxidative phosphorylation. Moreover, we used virus-induced gene silencing assays to verify the function of homologs of five N. tabacum genes involved in above pathways in N. benthamiana . The results showed that NbTPS and NbGBE were conducive to PVY infection, while NbPPases and NbNR were related to resistance to PVY infection. These results suggested a novel strategy for resistance to PVY infection and provided a theoretical basis for virus-resistance breeding.
... Since its first report on cucumber and melon from the USA in 1916, and later from Europe and Africa (Prince 1934) and other parts of the world, CMV has been spreading globally and at present, it is the only virus known to infect more than 1300 plant species (Palukaitis et al. 1992;Garcia--Arenal and Palukaitis 2008;Zitter and Murphy 2009). In terms of significance, CMV ranked fourth among the top 10 economically important plant viruses (Rybicki 2015) and was next to Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV) among viruses infecting banana (Basavaraj et al. 2017). CMV is characterized by yellow mosaic and stripes on the leaf, leaf distortion, and stunting symptoms on the plant (Basavaraj 2017;Kebede and Majumder 2020). ...
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Banana is the major fruit crop produced in Ethiopia. Since Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) is one of the most devastating plant viruses infecting banana, the present study was un-dertaken to survey and identify CMV strains infecting banana plants in Ethiopia. Dot immune-binding assay (DIBA) and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) revealed the presence of CMV in all of the symptomatic samples tested. The results of sequence and phylogenetic analysis revealed that the isolate under study was a CMV isolate from the IB subgroup. Multiple sequence alignment revealed a three nucleotide sequence variation that could be used to distinguish CMV subgroups. Selection pressure analysis showed the CMV-RNA1 region undergoing positive selection pressure. Tajima`s test of neutrality revealed a positive value of 0.86468 indicating CMV population contraction. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report and molecular characterization of CMV IB subgroup isolate infecting banana plants in Ethiopia.
... Viral and fungal diseases, various insects, as well as abiotic factors negatively affect the wheat production. Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV), which infects wheat, is one of the 4 viruses that cause the most yield loss in wheat, with severe effects on yields worldwide each year (Rybicki, 2015). Symptoms of BYDV infection in wheat are similar to those caused by abiotic factors, causing spots, yellowing, reddish, pink color on wheat leaves, plant stunting, and stunting. ...
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Wheat has long been considered an important plant in the national economy, and several phytopathogenic viruses have been studied to infect this plant, the most common of which is Barley yellow dwarf virus . BYDV causes great economic damage in agriculture. This article presents the results of research conducted on the BYDV-PAV strain isolated from Uzbekistan. As a result of the conducted research, plant samples (leaf, root, stem) collected from wheat fields in Tashkent region were diagnosed by BYDV-PAV RT-PCR method using special primers based on nucleotide sequence of ORF3 gene of BYDV-PAV coat protein. As a result of research, the presence of the BYDV-PAV strain was found in the collected samples, and the nucleotide sequence of BYDV-PAV was studied. BLASTN and phylogenetic analysis of the virus isolate based on the determined nucleotide sequence showed the highest genetic similarity by 99.81% with the Morocco PAV-type isolate MA9501 (AJ007929.1) while the lowest similarity rate was 87.10% with the Tunisian isolate PAV-TN4 (JX402456.1).
... Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV) is a highly infectious and destructive virus of the banana plantation. Furthermore, the disease can severely reduce the quality and marketability of fruit, resulting in huge economic losses when left uncontrolled (Rybicki and Pietersen 1999;Eman et al., 2012 andRybicki, 2015). Banana bunchy top disease is characterized by dark green streaks on the lower portions of the midrib of the leaf and the fresh infected leaves were stiff and erect, shorter and narrow with brittle, yellow and wavy edges (Allam et al., 2013). ...
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The banana is the most important fruit in Egypt. Banana bunchy top disease, caused by the banana bunchy top virus (BBTV), is one of the most damaging infections on banana plantations, resulting in significant crop losses. The current study was conducted to characterize the incidence of banana bunchy top disease (BBTD) and to study the molecular characteristics of BBTV from banana plantations in Ismailia. This study was conducted during the period 2019-2021 in three locations (Abu-Suwayr, El Tal-El kabir and Fayed) in Ismailia Governorate. The occurrence of BBTV was initially studied using visual inspection of external virus symptoms. TAS-ELISA, PCR and nucleic acid hybridization were used to detect the virus. Further molecular characterization of BBTV was performed based on Rolling Circle Amplification (RCA) and nucleotide sequencing. BBTD incidences ranging from 3.33 to 5.14% were observed in two localities Abu-Suwayr and El Tal-El kabir. While a relatively low incidence of 1.48% was observed in Fayed. Our results showed that the BBTD incidence is directly related to the percentage of winged aphids inside the aphid colonies regardless the percentage of the aphid's occurrence. The PCR product (973 bp) of BBTV- component 3 (DNA-S) was used for the creation of a non-radioactive Dig labeled- DNA probe for further use for BBTV detection using dot blot and Southern blot hybridization. The sequence comparison analysis of DNA-S component showed that the present Ismailia isolate (BBTV-3F) shared nucleotide identity 98.4%- 91.9 % with three isolates from Qalubya Egypt and shared 97.9% nt identity with east African isolates (Rwanda and Malawi). The phylogenetic analysis revealed that the DNA- component 3 (DNA-S) of the BBTV-3F isolate from Ismailia belongs to the South Pacific group (SPG) and is markedly separated from those of the Asian group (AG). This study is important for monitoring and early detection of BBTV threats and for rapid eradication of infected plants before the virus spreads and settles in a new area.
... Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV) is a highly infectious and destructive virus of the banana plantation. Furthermore, the disease can severely reduce the quality and marketability of fruit, resulting in huge economic losses when left uncontrolled (Rybicki and Pietersen 1999;Eman et al., 2012 andRybicki, 2015). Banana bunchy top disease is characterized by dark green streaks on the lower portions of the midrib of the leaf and the fresh infected leaves were stiff and erect, shorter and narrow with brittle, yellow and wavy edges (Allam et al., 2013). ...
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The rice yellow mottle virus (RYMV) is a model in plant virus molecular epidemiology, with the reconstruction of historical introduction routes at the scale of the African continent. However, information on patterns of viral prevalence and viral diversity over multiple years at local scale remain scarce, in spite of potential implications for crop protection. Here we describe a five-years (2015-2019) monitoring of RYMV prevalence in six sites from western Burkina Faso (geographic areas of Bama, Banzon and Karfiguela). It confirmed one irrigated site as a disease hotspot, and also found one rainfed lowland site with occasional high prevalence levels. Within the studied fields, a pattern of disease aggregation was evidenced at a five-meter distance, as expected for a mechanically transmitted virus. Next, we monitored RYMV genetic diversity in the irrigated disease hotspot site, revealing a high viral diversity, with the current coexistence of various distinct genetic groups at the site-scale (ca. 520 ha), and also within various specific fields (25 meters side). One genetic lineage, named S1bzn, is the most recently emerged group and increased in frequency over the studied period (from 20% or less in 2015-2016, to more than 65% in 2019). Its genome results from a recombination between two other lineages (S1wa and S1ca). Finally, experimental work revealed that three rice varieties commonly cultivated in Burkina Faso were not different in terms of resistance level, and we also found no significant effect of RYMV genetic groups on symptom expression and viral load. We found however, that infection outcome depended on the specific RYMV isolate, with two isolates from the lineage S1bzn accumulating at highest level at early infections. Overall, this study documents a case of high viral prevalence, high viral diversity, and co-occurrence of divergent genetic lineages at small geographic scale. A recently emerged lineage, which comprises viral isolates inducing severe symptoms and high accumulation in controlled conditions, could be recently rising through natural selection. Following up the monitoring of RYMV diversity is required to confirm this trend and further understand the factors driving the local maintenance of viral diversity.
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New Generation Sequencing and Intrinsic Virus - Virus and Virus-Plant Interactions In order to understand the ecology of viruses, it is necessary to obtain comprehensive information on virus -virus and virus -host interactions in natural systems. In this study, it is found that RNA -Seq enabled this analysis without prior assumptions about infectious viruses, virus symptoms, or host genes. New generation sequencing allows identifying potential facilitators of multiple infections. Host antiviral responses occur naturally under RNA silencing. Because research into plant viruses has focused primarily on crop diseases, little is known about these viruses in the wild. RNA sequencing in plants belonging to a natural population is used to determine the simultaneous presence or absence of all viruses whose sequence has been reported, to identify new viruses, and to quantify host transcriptomes. By introducing the criteria for the number of readings and coverage of the genome, virus -induced infections and intrinsic and latent plant -virus interactions can have important applications in controlling these pathogens .
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The effects of solution conditions and of formalinisation on the antigenicity of “native” and “pseudo-top” virions of brome mosaic virus (BMV) were studied by double-antibody “sandwich” enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA). Physically characterised BMV morphomers differed serologically from one another and from free coat protein, proving that capsid swelling or lack of RNA cause conformational changes affecting antibody binding. Formaldehyde treatment reduced the antigenicity of virions relative to “native” forms. The results indicate that ELISA detection of viruses is affected both by their physical environment and by chemical treatment.
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The three subsets of virions that comprise the Brome mosaic virus (BMV) were previously thought to be indistinguishable. This work tests the hypothesis that distinct capsid-RNA interactions in the BMV virions will allow different rates of viral RNA release. Several results support distinct interactions between the capsid and the BMV genomic RNAs. First, the deletion of the first eight residues of the BMV coat protein (CP) resulted in the RNA1-containing particles having altered morphologies while those containing RNA2 were unaffected. Second, subsets of the BMV particles separated by density gradients into a pool enriched for RNA1 (B1) and for RNA2 and RNA3/4 (B2.3/4), were found to have different physiochemical properties. When compared to the B2.3/4 particles, the B1 particles were more sensitive to protease digestion, had greater resistivity to nanoindentation by atomic force microscopy and increased susceptibility to nuclease digestion. Mapping studies showed that portions of the arginine-rich N-terminal tail of the CP could interact with RNA1. Mutational analysis in the putative RNA1-contacting residues severely reduced encapsidation of BMV RNA1 without affecting the encapsidation of RNA2. Finally, during infection of plants, the more easily released RNA1 accumulated to higher levels early in the infection. Viruses with genomes packaged in distinct virions could theoretically release the genomes at different times to regulate the timing of gene expression. Using an RNA virus composed of three particles, we demonstrate that the RNA in one of the virions is released more easily than the other two in vitro. The differential RNA release is due to distinct interactions between the viral capsid protein and the RNAs. The ease of RNA release is also correlated with the more rapid accumulation of that RNA in infected plants. Our study identified a novel role for capsid-RNA interactions in the regulation of a viral infection.
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Plant viruses, possessing a bacilliform shape and containing double-stranded DNA, are emerging as important pathogens in a number of agricultural and horticultural crops in the tropics. They have been reported from a large number of countries in African and Asian continents, as well as from islands from the Pacific region. The viruses, belonging to two genera, Badnavirus and Tungrovirus, within the family Caulimoviridae, have genomes displaying a common plan, yet are highly variable, sometimes even between isolates of the same virus. In this article, we summarize the current knowledge with a view to revealing the common features embedded within the genetic diversity of this group of viruses. Virus; order Unassigned; family Caulimoviridae; genera Badnavirus and Tungrovirus; species Banana streak viruses, Bougainvillea spectabilis chlorotic vein banding virus, Cacao swollen shoot virus, Citrus yellow mosaic badnavirus, Dioscorea bacilliform viruses, Rice tungro bacilliform virus, Sugarcane bacilliform viruses and Taro bacilliform virus. Bacilliform in shape; length, 60–900 nm; width, 35–50 nm; circular double-stranded DNA of approximately 7.5 kbp with one or more single-stranded discontinuities. Each virus generally limited to its own host, including banana, bougainvillea, black pepper, cacao, citrus species, Dioscorea alata, rice, sugarcane and taro. Foliar streaking in banana and sugarcane, swelling of shoots in cacao, yellow mosaic in leaves and stems in citrus, brown spot in the tubers in yam and yellow–orange discoloration and stunting in rice.
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Benefit cost analysis is a tried and tested analytical framework that can clearly communicate likely net changes in producer welfare from investment decisions to diverse stakeholder audiences. However, in a plant biosecurity context, it is often difficult to predict policy benefits over time due to complex biophysical interactions between invasive species, their hosts, and the environment. In this paper, we demonstrate how a break-even style benefit cost analysis remains highly relevant to biosecurity decision-makers using the example of banana bunchy top virus, a plant pathogen targeted for eradication from banana growing regions of Australia. We develop an analytical approach using a stratified diffusion spread model to simulate the likely benefits of exclusion of this virus from commercial banana plantations over time relative to a nil management scenario in which no surveillance or containment activities take place. Using Monte Carlo simulation to generate a range of possible future incursion scenarios, we predict the exclusion benefits of the disease will avoid Aus$15.9-27.0 million in annual losses for the banana industry. For these exclusion benefits to be reduced to zero would require a bunchy top re-establishment event in commercial banana plantations three years in every four. Sensitivity analysis indicates that exclusion benefits can be greatly enhanced through improvements in disease surveillance and incursion response.
Asymptomatic field plants are the normal source of the vine cuttings used as sweetpotato planting material in Africa. Previous and new tests of such East African material, mostly using the very sensitive method of graft inoculation to the indicator plant Ipomoea setosa, showed that a majority tested virus-negative. This was despite their never having undergone any science-based therapy. To investigate how this occurs, in a replicated greenhouse experiment, plants of susceptible cultivars from the USA and Peru and three resistant Ugandan cultivars were graft-inoculated with Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV), the commonest virus infecting sweetpotato. When the grafts were established, cuttings were taken, rooted and proved to be infected. The health status of each of these new plants was then followed over a 10-week period using a quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay. Most of the plants of the Ugandan cultivars eventually tested SPFMV-negative whereas those of the USA and Peru seldom did. Furthermore, subsequent graft-inoculation of scions from the tip, top, middle and base of the vine of every plant to I. setosa plants; again, most of the scions of the Ugandan cultivars tested SPFMV-negative whereas those of the USA and Peru seldom did. These tests demonstrate the phenomenon of reversion in the Ugandan cultivars and can explain how most unprotected Ugandan sweetpotato field plants tested SPFMV-negative.
Tomato-spotted wilt (TSW) is caused by the tomato-spotted wilt virus (TSWV) and is a major disease affecting the production of tomato and pepper in the Southeastern United States. Before initiating a multistate, regional project addressing this issue, a survey was conducted in North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida to assess the need for improved management of TSWV in these crops. We investigated farmer's stated effectiveness of four common TSWV management tactics (reflective mulch, resistant cultivar, imidacloprid, and Actiguard) in pepper and tomato production using logistic regression. We found that the odds that farmers were satisfied with the use of reflective mulch alone in controlling TSWV is 9-1, about one and a half times the amount obtained from using Actiguard alone. Moreover, the odds that farmers were satisfied with a practice that combines reflective mulch and Actiguard was far greater than that obtained from using each of the technique separately. We found some similarities between farmer's stated effectiveness and revealed effectiveness from experiments.