Franz Adlkofer

Franz Adlkofer
Freie Universität Berlin | FUB · Interdisciplinary Center Social and Cultural History of the Middle East

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108
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1,372
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Citations since 2017
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90 Citations
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2017201820192020202120222023051015
2017201820192020202120222023051015

Publications

Publications (108)
Article
Received: September 13, 2006 Accepted: September 13, 2006 Published online: June 29, 2007 Issue release date: June 2007
Article
Full-text available
Even from the scientific literature it is difficult to conclude whether the increased risk of lung cancer due to exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), as reported in many epidemiological studies, is based on sound data from reliable studies, or rather on passionate assertions derived from unsound investigations. To shed some light on this...
Article
There are two portions of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS): the aged side-stream smoke, generated between the puffs at the glowing cone of the cigarette, which makes up the bigger portion, and the smaller main stream smoke portion exhaled by the smoking person. Environmental tobacco smoke and the main stream smoke of a cigarette differ considerabl...
Article
In 1998, the MAK-Commission has classified Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) as human carcinogen (Category III-1). This classification is mainly based on epidemiological data. In the overall evaluation of the literature an increased relative risk for lung cancer after exposure to ETS at home or at the workplace is observed. It is specifically impor...
Article
To the Editor: In a recent article by Kawachi et al,1 the differing prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and other lifestyle variables in women with and those without tobacco smoke exposure is attributed to the lower socioeconomic status of the female passive smokers. In order not to impute the socially determined elevated coronary heart dis...
Article
Smoking prevalence in southern Germany was studied in 1984-1985 using a representative cohort of 4022 subjects aged 25 to 64 years, with 3753 reinterviewed in 1987-1988. Data were available for analysis from interviews on self-reported smoking behavior and from serum cotinine measurements in both investigations. More men than women reported current...
Article
Excretion of trans,trans-muconic acid (2,4-hexadienedioic acid; t,t-MA), a potential biomarker of low-level exposure to benzene, was determined in 32 smokers and 82 nonsmokers. In smokers the median background excretion of t,t-MA was 0.13 (0.06-0.39) mg/g creatinine and was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than the value of 0.065 (0.02-0.59) mg g cr...
Article
The DNA adduct 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) has been widely used as a biomarker for oxidative stress. Bulky DNA adducts, which are detectable by the 32P-postlabelling method, provide evidence for exposure to and metabolic activation of large, mainly apolar compounds, e.g. polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. We determined both types of adducts...
Article
The urinary excretion of mutagens and thioethers was investigated in a controlled diet study and in two field studies. A diet containing charcoal-broiled meat and other items rich in mutagenic compounds increased the urinary mutagenicity as assessed in Salmonella typhimurium strain TA98 with metabolic activation approximately 46-fold compared to a...
Article
A sensitive and rapid method for the determination of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and the xylenes (BTX) in ambient and exhaled air is described. After sampling of 1-4 l of ambient or exhaled air on graphitized charcoal tubes, the analytes were thermally desorbed by a microwave device coupled to a gas chromatograph interfaced to a mass spectromet...
Article
The concentrations of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) constituents including benzene were measured in the living rooms of 10 nonsmoking households and 20 households with at least one smoker situated in the city and suburbs of Munich. In the city, the median benzene levels during the evening, when all household members were at home, were 8.1 and 1...
Article
Full-text available
Low exposures to volatile aromatic hydrocarbons and cytogenetic effects in peripheral white blood cells were determined in 25 healthy workers employed in different areas of a styrene production plant in the former German Democratic Republic. The results were compared with 25 healthy unexposed controls (matched for age and sex) employed in the same...
Article
A sensitive and specific method for the determination of trans,trans-muconic acid (t,t-MA) in urine is described. After clean-up on an anion-exchange cartridge, t,t-MA was derivatized with BF3-methanol to the dimethyl ester and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), with 2-bromohexanoic acid as an internal standard. The limit of...
Chapter
The pathogenesis of the major smoking-related diseases, cancer of the lung and coronary heart disease, are poorly understood. There are, however, well founded hypotheses how smoking could contribute to the development of these diseases. On the other hand, the constituents of cigarette smoke that might be the causative agents remain to be identified...
Article
The detection of DNA single-strand breaks (SSB) in human mononucleated white blood cells (MWBC) using a modified version of the nick translation assay is presented. This assay allows rapid and sensitive examination of SSB using only 5 ml heparinized blood for an eightfold determination. The assay was standardized by incubation of MBWC in vitro with...
Article
Controversial results have been published on the immune response to cigarette smoking while the effects of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) have not yet been reported. In a controlled study, acute effects of smoking and of a high environmental exposure to ETS on immunological parameters have been investigated. The study consisted of fo...
Chapter
Cigarette smoke is a complex mixture of more than 3,800 identified compounds distributed between a particulate phase, often referred to as the smoke condensate or ‘tar’, and a vapor/gas phase. There is evidence that some of these components are biologically active (IARC 1986). Whole cigarette smoke and its condensate have also been tested using a w...
Chapter
The present within-subjects, crossover study was designed to assess the short-term effects of several nicotine replacement strategies. After completing a 2 day smoking baseline, 18 (7 M, 11 F) smokers(≥ 20 cpd) went through the following conditions, each for two full days, in randomized order: a)nicotine chewing gum; b) 24 hour nicotine patch; c) 1...
Chapter
Recently, we have shown a significantly lower excretion of α-hydroxylation products of 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) in the urine of rats co-administered a 500-fold higher dose of nicotine (Richter et al., Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 348:R167, 1993). In order to simulate the condition in smokers, the effect of nicotin...
Article
The potential endogenous nitrosation of nicotine and cotinine to yield 4-(N-methylnitrosamino)-4-(3-pyridyl)butyric acid (Iso-NNAC) has been studied in smokers and non-smokers. Following i.v. administration of 100 μg Iso-NNAC to rats, excretion in urine (67.4 ± 25.4%) and feces (6.1± 1.6%) occurred within 24 h. The urinary excretion of nitrate, nic...
Article
In a controlled study, ten male volunteers (five smokers and five nonsmokers) were subjected to different smoking conditions and compared to five nonsmokers, not exposed to cigarette smoke. During the 4 days of the study, nonsmoking periods were strictly controlled. On the first day the ten subjects were sham exposed. On the second day the five smo...
Chapter
Benzene has been identified as a human carcinogen. It occurs ubiquitously in the modern industrialized world, with automobile traffic being the most important source of nonoccupational benzene exposure (Fishbein 1988). Tobacco smoke (both active and passive smoking) and food intake are thought to be additional sources for benzene exposure. Whereas...
Article
Full-text available
The tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNA) N-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) and 4-(N-methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) as well as the vola tile N-nitrosamines N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) and N-nitrosopyrrol idine (NPYR) were determined in the indoor air of a poorly ventilated office where extensive smoking took place. Under these conditio...
Article
Full-text available
For the purpose of risk evaluation, passive smoking is frequently regarded as low-dose cigarette smoking. However, since the physical, chemical and biological properties of mainstream smoke (MS), which is inhaled by the smoker and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), which is breathed by the passive smoker are quite different, risk extrapolation from...
Chapter
In den meisten epidemiologischen Studien, die den Faktor Rauchen als Risikofaktor für verschiedene Erkrankungen erforschen, wird das aktuelle wie auch das zurückliegende Rauchverhalten über von den Teilnehmern der Studie selbstberichteten Angaben erfaßt. In den wenigsten Untersuchungen werden diese Angaben durch Wiederholungsmessungen, durch Befrag...
Article
The tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNA) N-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) and 4-(N-methylnitrosamino)-l-(3-pyridyl)-l-butanone (NNK) as well as the volatile N-nitrosamines N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) and N-nitrosopyrrolidine (NPYR) were determined in the indoor air of a poorly ventilated office where extensive smoking took place. Under these conditions...
Article
The contribution of salivary glands to the excretion of nicotine and tobacco specific nitrosamines (TSNA) which may derive from nicotine was investigated in two experiments. In the first experiment, four healthy male cigarette smokers received three nicotine infusions. In the second experiment, four healthy male cigarette smokers received one nicot...
Chapter
Im Gegensatz zum Thema Rauchen wird das Thema Passivrauchen unter Ärzten und Wissenschaftlern und noch mehr in der Öffentlichkeit kontrovers diskutiert. Die einen sehen im Tabakrauch den für den Menschen gefährlichsten Schadstoff in der Luft unserer Umwelt [38] und lasten ihm allein in den USA jährlich bis zu 50000 Tote an [52]. Die anderen sind de...
Chapter
A gelantin capsule has been developed which releases 4 mg of nicotine in 0.8 ml of an alkaline (pH 10) puffered solution into the mouth after breaking the capsule’s wall. In a pilot study with 5 male smokers and 5 male non-smokers, nicotine absorption and responses after application of one capsule were studied. The peak nicotine concentration in pl...
Book
As part of its scientific activities, the German Research Council on Smoking and Health regularly provides opportunities for scientists to discuss progress in the field of nicotine research. In this context, the Research Council sponsored a Satellite Symposium in Hamburg, June 28-30, 1990 entitled "Effects of Nicotine on Biological Systems". This m...
Article
Full-text available
In order to assess the uptake of benzene from environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and to estimate its contribution to the total body burden of benzene observed in non-smokers, two experimental studies have been conducted. Controlled exposure to high levels of ETS equivalent to 10 ppm CO for 9 h and 20 ppm for 8 h resulted in a nonsignificant increase...
Article
Full-text available
The uptake of tobacco smoke constituents from gaseous and particulate phases of mainstream smoke (MS), inhaled by smokers, and of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), breathed in by non-smokers, was investigated in two experimental studies. Tobacco smoke uptake was quantified by measuring carboxyhemoglobin (COHb), nicotine and cotinine in plasma and...
Article
Our study indicates that large differences in dietary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) content in humans are not reflected by urinary and faecal excretion of hydroxyphenanthrenes, although significant increases in 3-hydroxybenzo[a]pyrene and 3-hydroxychrysene in faeces were observed after consumption of a diet rich in PAHs. The question theref...
Chapter
In two controlled studies 10 non-smokers each were exposed for 8 h to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) equivalent to 10ppm CO (Experiment 1) and 25ppm CO (Experiment 2). During the control and the exposure period the room air was monitored for CO, NO, NO2, nicotine and formaldehyde. Biomonitoring included determination of carboxyhemoglobin (COHb),...
Article
The intake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from various sources including smoking, passive smoking, diet, and workplace was studied. Up to five different monohydroxy-phenanthrenes (OH-PHE) excreted into the urine were used as biomarkers for PAH exposure. The OH-PHE excretion of smokers was slightly but not significantly elevated as compar...
Article
Two experiments were carried out in order to investigate nicotine intake through passive smoking. In the first study, carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) and serum cotinine were found to increase to a similar extent in seven subjects breathing through the nose only and in another seven subjects breathing through the mouth only during exposure to environmental...
Article
In two experimental studies, 10 volunteer nonsmokers were put on a controlled diet and exposed to two different ETS concentrations for 8 hours. During exposure in Experiment 1, the average indoor air levels of CO, NO, NO2, formaldehyde, and nicotine reached 10 μL/L, 160 nL/L, 20 nL/L, 40 μg/m3 and 60 μg/m3, respectively. During Experiment 2, the re...
Article
A rough estimation of the amounts of tobacco smoke components taken up by active and passive smoking suggests that, in the case of passive smoking, gas phase constituents in ETS are of greater relevance than particle-bound substances. Since this aspect is of importance for the risk evaluation of passive smoking, it was decided that it should be inv...
Article
A 90-day feasibility study was performed in which rats and hamsters were exposed to the sidestream smoke of cigarettes. The only histopathological changes observed were hyperplasia and metaplasia of the epithelium covering the dorsal nasal turbinate bones in rats. These effects were reversible within 90 days.
Article
The trans-isomer of 3'-hydroxycotinine has recently been identified as a major metabolite of nicotine in urine of cigarette smokers. We, therefore, investigated the pharmacokinetics of 3'-hydroxycotinine in six male smokers after intravenous infusion of nicotine, cotinine, and 3'-hydroxycotinine. Serum concentrations of 3'-hydroxycotinine were lowe...
Article
20 non-smokers on a defined diet low in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in an unventilated room for 8 h. The urinary mutagenicity in the 24-h urine samples as tested with the Salmonella (TA98) microsome assay did not significantly increase after exposure to either 10 ppm CO or 20-25 ppm CO. W...
Article
An interlaboratory study aimed at determining nicotine and cotinine in human serum and urine was carried out. 11 laboratories from 6 countries, all experienced in performing nicotine and cotinine determinations in biological fluids by radioimmunoassay (RIA) and/or gas chromatography (GC) were involved. Each of them received 18 serum and 18 urine sa...
Article
Urinary hydroxy-phenanthrene (HO-PHE) excretion in non-smokers exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is not increased. There is no significant difference in HO-PHE excretion between smokers (S) and non-smokers (NS), though excretion seems to be slightly elevated in smokers. A diet rich in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons leads to a rise in u...
Article
The urinary hydroxyproline/creatinine ratio was reported to be increased after smoking, passive smoking and exposure to ambient air polluted with nitrogen dioxide. In two field studies we tried to verify the results obtained in smokers. A weak positive association was found between the hydroxyproline/creatinine ratio and cigarette consumption for m...
Article
Urinary hydroxyproline excretion was investigated in 125 male cigarette smokers, 194 male pipe and/or cigar smokers, and 24 male nonsmokers. Hydroxyproline excretion was calculated either as hydroxyproline/creatinine ratio or as body surface-standardized amounts of hydroxyproline excreted in urine sampled during day, during night, or over 24 hr. Th...
Article
The thyroid function of 13 patients with proteinuria and normal serum creatinine level (Group 1) and 15 patients with proteinuria and increased creatinine level (Group 2) was investigated. The daily urinary T41- and T3 excretion was much higher in Group 1 patients than in Group 2 patients (37.1 +/- 25.9 nmol T4 vs 17.5 +/- 8.7 nmol T4, 3.3 +/- 1.6...
Article
This article has no abstract; the first 100 words appear below. To the Editor: White and Froeb state in the March 27 issue that they found differences in mid-expiratory and end-expiratory flow (FEF 25–75% and FEF 75–85%) in their comparison of nonsmokers with passive smokers and smokers. This statement is remarkable since not all investigators who...
Article
The LATS absorbing activity from thyroid homogenates which is associated with the soluble thyroid fraction (4S-LAA) binds TSH in addition to LATS. This may indicate that 4S-LAA originates from the receptor sites for TSH at the thyroid cell surface. The affinity of 4S-LAA for TSH is much lower than that of thyroid membranes suggesting that 4S-LAA re...
Article
Heat-induced inhibition of erythrocyte sedimentation (HIES) was examined in 158 cases. HIES is significantly lower in patients with a liver cell damage isolated or due to metastases of a neoplastic process in comparison to that in patients suffering from inflammation or malign tumor not involving the liver. Generally, HIES depends upon the concentr...
Article
The prevalence of TSI in Graves' disease was investigated with a radioligand receptor assay using human thyroid membranes and highly purified labeled porcine TSH or bovine TSH in 110 patients before treatment and in 39 patients after successful treatment with antithyroid drugs. In 11 patients, the assay was performed before, during, and after thera...
Article
Heat-induced inhibition of erythrocyte sedimentation (HIES) was examined in 158 cases. HIES is significantly lower in patients with a liver cell damage isolated or due to metastases of a neoplastic process in comparison to that in patients suffering from inflammation or malign tumor not involving the liver. Generally, HIES depends upon the concentr...
Article
The metabolism of thyroxine and triiodothyronine in the isolated perfused rabbit kidney was monitored by specific radioimmunoassay for each hormone. The amount of thyroxine catabolised was proportional to the amount added initially and no saturation effects were observed over a wide range (3.9-82 nmol). After addition of thyroxine alone, triiodothy...
Article
500 µg TRH (Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone) were injected intravenously in 78 normal subjects aged between 20–85 years, TSH being estimated by radioimmunoassay from 0–120 min. The maximum increase of TSH (ΔTSHmax) was compared in age- and sex-specific groups. Results: 1) The rise of TSH is significantly lower in men than in women of 20–59 years. 2)...
Article
. During a follow-up examination of patients after radioiodine therapy for thyrotoxicosis, 128 patients without recurrent hyperthyroidism were investigated for the clarification of different degrees of hypothyroidism. The clinical diagnosis and the conventional tests for circulating thyroid hormones were compared to the estimation of serum thyroid...
Article
The plasma lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activity was determined in 5 normal subjects and in 5 hypo- and 7 hyperthyroid patients by measuring the decrease of lecithin and the esterification of cholesterol during a 18 hrs incubation period. The absolute decrease in lecithin and the increase in esterified cholesterol were significantly...
Article
It is possible to check lactotrophic pituitary function by direct stimulation with TRH. The indirect stimulation by chlorpromazine via suppression of PIF is subject to a higher variation which might limit the value of this test. The value of prolactin measurement in various stimulation tests in pituitary disorders is not yet clear, but at least thi...
Article
TSH extracts from bovine hypophyses (Thyreostimulin) were fractionated by isoelectric focusing electrophoresis using a 1% ampholine solution with a pH gradient from 3 to 10. The effluent was divided into 14 fractions, each representing a pH step of 0.5. Two additional fractions contained the acid and alkaline electrode solutions. The thyroid stimul...
Article
Crude IgG of sera from 3 patients with Graves' disease, which contained LATS-activity and/or thyroid antibodies, was fractionated by isoelectric focusing in a pH-range between 6.0 to 10.0. LATS-activity was found in IgG-subfractions from pH 7.5 to 9.5, thyroglobulin antibodies and thyroid microsomal antibodies from pH 6.0 to 10.0. It was not possib...
Chapter
Die Plasma-Lecithin-Cholesterin-Acyltransferase (LCAT) katalysiert die Übertragung von Fettsäuren, die von der C2-Position des Lipoprotein-gebundenen Lecithin abgespalten werden, auf unverestertes Cholesterin [1]. Bei der Reaktion entsteht zusätzlich Lysolecithin [1]. Dieses bewirkt in Abhängigkeit von seiner Konzentration eine Formveränderung der...
Chapter
Das Enzym Lecithin-Cholesterin-Acyltransferase (LCAT) katalysiert im Plasma die Übertragung von Fettsäuren, die von der C2-Position des Lipoprotein-gebundenen Lecithin abgespalten werden, auf unverestertes Cholesterin [1, 2]. Bei der Reaktion entsteht zusätzlich Lysolecithin [3]. Es gibt Hinweise, daß das Enzym in der Leber synthetisiert und zusamm...
Article
Full-text available
Mid-2007 Prof. Alexander Lerchl, biologist at the private Jacobs University in Bremen and member of the German Commission on Radiological Protection (SSK) of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS), informs the rector of the Medical University of Vienna (MUV), Prof. Wolfgang Schütz, about a serious suspicion: the findings of research carr...

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