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  • Ariadne Tsambani added an answer in Comsol Multiphysics:
    How can i calculate the distributed capacitance of a spiral inductor by analytical method? and how to calculate it by COMSOL ?

    how to calculate an inductor's distributed capacitance to determine the intrinsic resonant frequency of it?

    I would be really grateful if anyone who has clues or experiences on solving my problem could instruct me how to get it by FEA tool, in particular COMSOL.

    Ariadne Tsambani

    Good Evening. Please find attach the link. Kind Regards Ariadne Tsambani

  • Nazir Dar added an answer in Smoking:
    To what extent is Second Hand Smoking/Passive smoking associated with the esophageal squamous cell carcinoma risk?

    Smoking is a strong risk factor of esophageal cancer, what about passive smoking? 

    Nazir Dar

     Dear All

    More than a year ago , we initiated an interesting discussion on the Second Hand Smoking (SHS) and risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). We moved further to understand the association of SHS with ESCC and  recently reported results of a case control study  which support a possible relation between SHS and risk of ESCC.  It seeming worth studying the role of SHS in ESCC development and  ignoring the results may prove a reckless decision 


    Secondhand Smoking and the Risk of Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma in a High Incidence Region, Kashmir, India: A Case-control-observational Study.
     Medicine (Baltimore).  2016 Jan;95(1):e2340. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000002340.

    Studies have associated secondhand smoking (SHS) with cancers of the lung, larynx, and pharynx. Only a few studies have examined the association between SHS and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and the findings are inconclusive. We aimed to investigate the association between SHS and risk of ESCC in a case-control study in Kashmir, where the incidence of ESCC is high.We recruited 703 histopathologically confirmed ESCC cases and 1664 hospital-based controls individually matched to the cases for age, sex, and district of residence. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated using conditional logistic regression models.Among never-tobacco users, the ORs for the association between SHS and ESCC risk were above unity with ever exposure to SHS (OR = 1.32; 95% CI, 0.43-4.02) and exposure to SHS for >14 h/wk (median value) (OR = 2.69; 95% CI, 0.75-20.65). In the analysis of data from all participants, the OR (95% CI) for the association between SHS and ESCC was (OR = 1.02; 95% CI, 0.53-1.93) for SHS ≤14 h/wk and (OR = 1.91; 95% CI, 0.75-4.89) for SHS >14 h/wk in the models adjusted for tobacco use and several other potential confounding factors.We found an indication of increased risk of ESCC associated with exposure to SHS. Studies with larger numbers of SHS-exposed never tobacco users are required to further examine this association.

  • Ruchi Tiwari added an answer in Bacillus subtilis:
    How to stop the enzyme activity and microbial growth in wastewater without degrading the macronutrient?

    I have a wastewater that contains protein molecule. I will hydrolyse this wastewater with Bacillus subtilis. After that, I will analyze its macronutrient compositions (eg: NH3, proteins). How to stop the enzyme activity and microbial growth in wastewater without degrading the macronutrient?
    If I use TCA for inactivating the enzyme, whether the macronutrients contents in the wastewater will not be degraded?

  • Heidelinde Schranz added an answer in Bacillus subtilis:
    How to determine Bacillus subtilis concentration (cfu/ml) in NB medium?

    How to determine Bacillus subtilis concentration (cfu/ml) in NB medium? Can I use 0.5 McFarland standard at 600nm to obtain B.subtilis concentration at 10^8 cfu/ml ?

    Heidelinde Schranz

    Dear Ravendi,

    Mc Farland standard is only a parameter for turbidy. The concentration 10E8 CFU/ml fits for E. coli but not for all bacteria. I measured the turbidy only in 0,9% NaCl with a turbidymeter. Measurement with medium did´nt work. I would spread the bacteria on a blood agar plate after dilution in 0,9% NaCl and count the bacteria colonies after breeding at 37°C after 18-24 hours. There are many different methods for colony count of bacteria,but in the end you get CFU/ml under your conditions.

  • Miguel Alfonso Mendez added an answer in Hysteresis:
    How can I convert image to values or matrix ?

    I am working on moke microscope so I got images for domains . However I want to find the hysteresis of material so I want to convert image to values or matrix . The image has lighter and darker layer . 

    Miguel Alfonso Mendez

    Observe that in the previous answers the result will be in uint format.

    To have a integer, use matlab's function im2double

  • Ariadne Tsambani added an answer in VASP:
    How can I use force theorem to calculate MAE in VASP ?

    Recently, I tried to use force theorem to calculate MAE. Since I use VASP, the present problem is how to process the results from VASP by force theorem. According the force theorem, I firstly calculate the CHG and CHGCAR file by the self-consistent way. Then I turn on the SOI and used the previously obtained CHG and CHGCAR. When I processed the data in PORCAR which contains the eigenvalue of every band at every K points and the corresponding occupation, I found that the sum of eigenvalue (occupation=1) is very large. And the difference between different magnetic axis (SAXIS) is also very large, even several tens eV. Could anyone have similar experience ?

    Many thanks.

    Ariadne Tsambani

    Good Evening. Please find attach the link. Kind Regards Ariadne Tsambani

  • Ian Kennedy added an answer in Creative Writing:
    What are the long-term impacts of automated essay grading?

    Turnitin has recently launched their scoring engine, an automated essay grading service. The program can be trained with examples of graded essays. Once it learns what grades correspond to certain types of work, it can be used to automatically grade unlimited numbers of essays. This will relieve instructors of countless hours of work. However, it seems to make the educational process less personal. Furthermore, if essays can be automatically graded, it would seem that in the near future programs may also be created to automatically compose essays. What will the automation of essay grading and possibly of writing mean for education, thought, and communication?

    Ian Kennedy

    Students will adapt their style to that required by the machine, just as students write only for turnitin today! 

  • Ariadne Tsambani added an answer in Cetylpyridinium:
    Physical data for an aqueous solution of cetylpyridinium chloride and sodium salicylate (CPyCl/NaSal) are required. 40: 60 or 60: 40 Any help?

    We are planning to use this viscoelastic fluid in our heat transfer problem.  We are not able to get the physical properties of this fluid.  Can anyone help us with linear mixture formula or nonlinear mixture formula to interpolate these values from the individual values of the two components?

    Ariadne Tsambani

    Good Evening. Please find attach the link. Kind Regards Ariadne Tsambani

  • Guus van den Akker added an answer in Cellular Immunology:
    By what mechanism are tsSV40 immortalized cells temperature dependent?

    I know that there are often specific areas, often within A, that are responsible for this temp. sensitivity, but what is actually going on, in say SV40 tsA1499? 

    Guus van den Akker

    Tegtmeyer P published a lot of the studies trying to answer exactly this question starting in the early 70's and ending in the mid 90's of the previous millenium:

    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1973 Jul;70(7):1927-30.
    Relationship of replication and transcription of Simian Virus 40 DNA.
    Cowan K, Tegtmeyer P, Anthony DD.

    J Virol. 1996 Oct;70(10):7224-7.
    Differential interaction of temperature-sensitive simian virus 40 T antigens with tumor suppressors pRb and p53.
    Ray S1, Anderson ME, Tegtmeyer P.

  • Ariadne Tsambani added an answer in Abaqus:
    Which Boundary Conditions should I apply for given Model to get Shear in ABAQUS?

    Dear Researchers

    I have a question regarding the boundary Conditions for a model in ABAQUS.

    I have attached a file of Experimental setup which I have to model in ABAQUS.

    I am facing problem wrt BC to get pure shear.

    I experimental setup I have to clamp the model in a fixture to avoid buckling and sliping to get pure shear but in abaqus I have to simulate the model without clamping Fixture. I am applying these BC on the model. 

    I am taking 3D deformable Shell planer with 1 mm shell thickness.

    Circles clamping : X=Y=0 Z=free and in rotation X=Y e fixed but Z is free so after loading there can be reduction in thickness in z direction 

    Right and left sides above and below are fixed with no translations. X,Y,Z = 0

    In middle bar I am applying 2 mm displacement in positive direction but could not get shear in the specific part. 

    Kindly give me suggestion which BC and any other commands should I use to get shear.

    Thanks in Advance. Waiting for your reply.


    + 2 more attachments

    Ariadne Tsambani

    Good Evening. Please find attach the link. Kind Regards Ariadne Tsambani

  • Fabio Francescangeli asked a question in Organic Matter:
    Could I use C/N ratio to determine organic matter origin in a tidal marsh?

    The estuarine area is under a macrotidal regime.

    Surface samples, the uppermost 1cm, were collected, during low tide.

  • Mostofa Shamim added an answer in Nucleation:
    If Avrami coefficient value (n) is <1, then what is the significance of ‘n’ and how to correlate the ‘n’ with the propensity of nucleation and growth?

    I have studied the kinetics of a multiple stage (three stages) thermal decomposition reaction of three solid materials (layered double hydroxides). These materials are similar in structure with a very little variation in composition (layer charge). I found the value of Avrami coefficient (n)= 0.85, 0.7 and 0.6 for material 1, 2 and 3 respectively- for the first stage of the decomposition reaction (stage 1- follows Avrami model, [-ln (1-a) ^ (1/n)] where ‘a’ is fractional reaction and ‘n’ is Avrami coefficient- signifies- the dimension of growth of the nucleus.).
    My analysis shows that, with increasing the interaction among the constituents (i.e. increasing the layer charge:  material 1 to 3) ‘n’ value decreases and activation energy (Ea) increases (so does the decomposition temperature). One quick thought came to mind about a probable correlation between ‘n’ and ‘Ea’. If I can correlate the value of 'n' with the ease of formation of nucleolus and subsequent growth- then it might possible to justify the variation in the decomposition temperature and corresponding Ea interms of n

    Mostofa Shamim

    Thank you sir

  • Mohammad Hemel Bhuiya asked a question in Clothing:
    Can i do the comparative life cycle analysis for the clothes without any software?

    Cradle to gate approach.

  • Ashsih Shrestha added an answer in Energy Modeling:
    Can anyone recommend me, which software is best for energy forecasting moduling ?

    I want to know about the free access software for energy forecasting. Markel software is not available in my institution. If there are any suitable software for such application, please recommend me with supportive documents. 

    Ashsih Shrestha

    Thank you Madam for your kind support.

  • Ariadne Tsambani added an answer in Nanotubes:
    How long do the antibacterial properties of graphene and carbon nanotubes exposed to running water remain?

    I want to graphene and nanotubes put under running water and antibacterial.  I measure them properties for several months
    Does anyone know how long its properties can maintain??

    Ariadne Tsambani

    Good Evening. Please find attach the link. Kind Regards Ariadne Tsambani

  • Alexandre Papadopoulos Magalhães added an answer in RNA-Seq:
    What considerations should be taken care of while running TopHat for RNA-seq data of plant species?

    We have Illumina single-end reads of Zea Mays Transcriptome. Although we ran Trimmomatic for adapter removal, it showed some adapter content at position 60 -76 bp. We filtered out high quality reads (Range: 15-76 bp). Now for TopHat analysis, should we use default parameters or have to change? Our primary aim is to find out novel transcripts for this plant in different conditions. 

    Alexandre Papadopoulos Magalhães

    Hi Manan Azad.... 

    I don't want to be the guy with bad news but with single end reads it will be quite difficult to do novel discovery. First you have a plant spicies that is known to have repetitive regions in the genome... this could be a problem for the alignment. Then if will be very dificult to establish novel junctions or new transcripts without the pair-end information...

    Never the less if you want to try I would suggest you to change the alignment software. Try STAR... is far for rapid and preforms better than tophat.

    filter out all reads with less than 19bp... it makes the alignment far more resource intencive and the gain is minimal. You can try running the alignment without filtering bad quality reads.... STAR and Tophat are quality aware software....

    Another thing to consider is max and min intron length... both programs have defaults for human genome. 

    Another strategy can be to make a de novo assembly and align back to the genome for comparison or you can align reads directly to the transcriptome and then try to assemble all unmapped reads to try and find novel genes. Trinity and  bowtie/bwa should do the trick..

    Hope this helps 

  • Elaheh Gerami asked a question in Plants:
    Could anyone guide me??


    These symptoms has been seen in all of the plants. 

    please notice this important point that these symptoms first appeared on older (lower) leaves. i will appreciate   if someone tell me what the cuse of this disease on the plants is? 

    + 1 more attachment

  • Ariadne Tsambani added an answer in Flow Control:
    CPLEX OPL: How to make a set declaration in a main environment?

    I'm implementing a two-phase method in CPLEX OPL.

    I would like to create a set containing the unitary values of a variable obtained during my initial phase. I make a getValue(X) to recover the optimal values for that boolean variable indexed in i,j,k. Later, inside a double loop on indices "j" and "k" I try to declare the set of the unitary values of X along the i-dimension.

    However, I fail to make a proper set declaration... I've already tried using:

    var S = {i | i in I : X[i][j][k] == 1};
    int S = {i | i in I : X[i][j][k] == 1};
    {int} S = {i | i in I : X[i][j][k] == 1};

    But I always get the error: "Illegal use of a reserved keyword". I know that my set declaration isn't good but have no idea of how to declare it in order to have my set S containing the values of I for which X[i][j][k] == 1.

    Could you please provide some help?
    Best regards

    Ariadne Tsambani

    Good Evening. Please find attach the link. Kind Regards Ariadne Tsambani

  • Yurii V Geletii added an answer in Superoxides:
    Which kind of light we should use in superoxide scavenging activity to induce the reaction?

    This is the protocol we used and we did not obtain any results: Superoxide radical was generated in the PMS-NADH system containing 3 mL Tris–HCl buffer (16 mM, pH 8.0), 338 M NADH, 72 M NBT, 30 M PMS and varying concentrations of ascophyllan fractions (10–50 g/mL). The mixture prepared earlier was incubated at room temperature for 5 min and the absorbance was read at 560 nm against the blank. Inthe control, the sample was substituted with Tris–HCl buffer. Thank you for help

    Yurii V Geletii

    Your question does not make any sense. 

    Correct the units in your description. "the PMS-NADH system containing 3 mL Tris–HCl buffer (16 mM, pH 8.0), 338 M NADH, 72 M NBT, 30 M PMS and varying concentrations of ascophyllan fractions (10–50 g/mL)" 

    Be professional. 

  • Meganathan Poorlin Ramakodi added an answer in GWAS:
    How to appropriately design a replication study in genomics?

    What are the best ways to design a discovery and replication association study in GWAS or EWAS?

    Should the total samples available within your funding budget be split into two for discovery and replication?

    If so, should they be measured using different technologies? OR could you use the same chip/array. If you could, would you run them in different batches or all together.

    An finally, how large should the replication study be relative to your discovery population?

    Thanks in advance for your help everyone.

    Meganathan Poorlin Ramakodi

    I am not an expert in the field. I am learning principles of Epi in genomics research and I can provide some input based on my current knowledge.

    A good study will include a large number of samples in discovery phase and include an appropriate number of additional samples (probably new samples) in replication phase. The preferred method is Sanger's sequencing for replication phase. 

    These are not strict rules. I have seen people including additional samples along with samples used in GWAS for replication studies.

    Power calculations will tell you the appropriate number of samples to be included in discovery and replication phase.

  • Margaret Ward added an answer in Sculpture:
    Roman archaeology: 'samian ware' pots with holes pierced too large for standard rivet-holes, were they for hanging up by cords? Any ideas, please?

    At two sites in Roman Britain, I have noticed a few bowls and a dish in 'samian ware' [terra sigillata] pierced, post cocturam, with occasional holes: the holes are too large for the standard, small rivet-holes which were commonly used to repair pots with metal-work [metal wires with plug-like terminals].

    The holes in question are of diameter c 8 mm and were pierced through the lower wall or base, above the footring of the vessel. Just 'flying kites' here, but... Were these vessels pierced for hanging up by a cord, or some ritual or culinary purpose? One hole shows smoothing or rubbing of the hole: it seems more likely that the hole was smoothed to stop the cord from snagging on a rough edge, than that the cord's rubbing caused the hole to be smoothed. Or was it smoothed for pouring?

    So far, the only two sites at which I have noted these large holes are amphitheatres. This may be fortuitous, as such holes may have been described in excavation reports as repair-work. However, amphitheatres had external stalls and booths, portable ovens, etc. So far, the only Roman depictions that I have found of pots hanging up are a few sculptures which show wine-sellers with flagons hanging up, but hung by the handle [see photos]. I have found no relevant references in classical literature.

    Without more evidence, it will be hard to give a firm answer to the question of their function, but any further ideas would be welcome!

    + 1 more attachment

    Margaret Ward

    For 'organic ties' instead of metal rivets, as referred to in the Britannia 2001 article [mentioned previously], I really hoped that we might have an answer.

    However, when the 2001 reference to 'organic ties' at Verulamium was checked [in the 1989 publication], it transpired that there were no organic ties as such. The holes on several vessels were only presumed to have contained organic ties, in that there was no trace of any metal!

    I'll leave it for others to judge the scientific reasoning behind that argument.  But meanwhile, by circular argument, Verulamium's organic ties are used to suggest their presence at other sites. I'll go on merely speculating as to the various possibilities, I think.

  • Ariadne Tsambani added an answer in Pyrosequencing:
    Could pyrosequencing be used for community dynamics' analysis in enriched broth samples?

    most of the times pyrosequencing is used for environmental samples, so just wanted to confirm, could this technique be used for enriched broth samples as well... for studying community dynamics?

    Ariadne Tsambani

    Good Evening. Please find attach the link. Kind Regards Ariadne Tsambani

  • Natalia Castro added an answer in Hela Cells:
    Can anyone suggest a way of increasing phosphorylation of IKK alpha (Ser176/180)? Any potent phosphatase inhibitor in combination with TNF alpha?

    I've used Hela cells, TNF alpha (20ng/mL) for 10min, no progress.

    Natalia Castro

    Thanks, everyone. We'll look for a strong phosphatase inhibitor Serine. 

  • M. Tanveer added an answer in Web of Science:
    How many days will take the published paper appear in web of science publications list?

    The paper already published in ISI journal, but it is not appear in web of science/researcherid list.

    Any idea?? 

    M. Tanveer

    I think one needs to defend and justify it, and hope that university will consider.

  • Rick Rupinski added an answer in English Literature:
    What should be the language of research?

    I'm a junior research candidate (M.Phil in English literature). I presented my first seminar on 8th of February, 2016. My one teacher pointed out my language specially my words and clauses like "disclose", "to voice the voiceless woman" and "study endeavors"  . I'm pasting here two points of my presentation slides. Kindly clarify my idea regarding the use of language in literary research.

    The present study aims to voice the voiceless rural women of Sindh portrayed in the selected fictional and real short stories.Following theoretical insights of Guha (1983) and Spivak (1988) the study endeavors to:
    1.disclose the oppressive factors against the target rural women by critically analysing the process of construction of subalternity in their (the women) lives.

    Rick Rupinski

    comprehensive. Not too intricate... Though I would like to see the word endeavour and disclose.

  • Ariadne Tsambani added an answer in Graphene Oxide:
    How to make graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide sample for AFM?

    I am going to prepare graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide sample for AFM. Is there any strategy to cast such materials on the substrate (Silicon wafer) to identify the number of layer. Thanks 

    Ariadne Tsambani

    Good Evening. Please find attach the link. Kind Regards Ariadne Tsambani

  • Preeti Tiwari added an answer in Social Studies:
    Is standardized estimates value equal to 1 for some antecedents in a model is acceptable in SEM?

    I wanna ask that if standardized estimates value equals to 1 than it is not acceptable in social studies?  Or it shows perfect relationship between antecedents. 

    Preeti Tiwari

    Thank you so much detail response. 

  • Maria-Nieves Sanz added an answer in Heart Mitochondria:
    Does anybody know the diameter size of mitochondria isolated from rat heart?

    We have measured the diameter (um) of freshly mitochondria isolated from rat heart using a particle size counter (Beckman Coulter Multisizer 3) and our average size is around 0.8 um. Does this value fit with some of yours using a similar method of measurement? Thanks

    Maria-Nieves Sanz

    Actually, we obtain a mixture of both mitochondria sub-populations with our isolation protocol. I guess from your values that the size of our mitochondria preparation is  in the normal range of mitochondria size. Thanks for your answers :)

  • Ariadne Tsambani added an answer in Cold Atoms:
    How does a magnetic quadrupole field constrain neutral atoms without the light present?

    This might be common knowledge among cold-atom enthusiasts.    You have a MOT, then to observe the free expansion of the atom cloud one should shut off all em fields including the quadrupole field.   But if the light is switched off and  the B-gradient left on, the cloud expansion is slower.  I have observed it many times without understanding why it happens  (note, there is no rf field here).  Any publication references would be appreciated.

    Ariadne Tsambani

    Good Evening. Please find attach the link. Kind Regards Ariadne Tsambani