Q&A

ResearchGate Q&A lets scientists and researchers exchange questions and answers relating to their research expertise, including areas such as techniques and methodologies.

Browse by research topic to find out what others in your field are discussing.

Browse Topics

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
  • Sabarikirishwaran Karthik added an answer in Orientation:
    2
    What is the stable orientation for CuO ?

    I need to create CuO surface for which the CuO unit cell is need to be cleaved along stable orientation.

    Sabarikirishwaran Karthik

    Thank you prof.Rafik

  • Ashish Viswanath added an answer in Validation:
    3
    Can someone suggest me a valid online test for measuring attention deficit?

    I am exploring the relationship between online social network usage and attention deficit among the graduate students. 

    Ashish Viswanath

    Thank you Yulia ! This really helps. Thank you so much.

  • Abdul Rahim asked a question in Bionumerics:
    New
    How to analyse dru sequence of Staphylococcus species for dru typing?

    Hi everyone..i just want to ask..how to analyse raw dru sequence of Staphylococcus species for dru typing identification of Staphylococcus species?..I already read several journals and they suggest to used TRST sequence analysis software from Bionumerics software and dru repeat analysis using manually can be a challenge. So..really mean that, typing using dru sequence require bionumerics software and can't used manually?...

    Thank you

  • Cheuk Tam added an answer in Fluorescent Dye:
    8
    What are the principles behind subtracting/normalizing background fluorescence?

    One manufacturer protocol suggests subtracting background fluorescence from the raw fluorescence reads (F - Fo).  Other protocols suggest dividing F/Fo.  Yet another protocol suggests taking (F - Fo)/Fo.  What are the strengths of each approach?  Does anyone know of concise references for this topic?

    Thank you for your help.

    Cheuk Tam

    Hi Sudarson,

    Yes, F0 is the fluorescence signal in the absence of cells.  I'm using fluorescence intensity as a way to measure cell number.  Wells with dye alone give a background signal, which I subtract from wells with cells and dye.  I'm only measuring fluorescence, not absorbance.  The dye alone does not fluoresce strongly.  It requires cleavage inside of cells to become fluorescent. 

    Thanks for your comments.

  • Naveen Manuja added an answer in Pulpotomy:
    27
    Is performing pulpotomy in a nonvital primary tooth a successful treatment modality?

    Pedodontist, Pulpototmy, nonvital, primary tooth

    Naveen Manuja

    Thank you Paul Dirkes.

  • Muhammad Yousefnezhad added an answer in Browsers:
    3
    Which programming language can be used for web based image processing on browser side especially for large tiff images?

    I want to do image processing in browser for remotely sensed images. i want to know which programming languages can be used for this??

    Muhammad Yousefnezhad

    Dear Chhattani,

    You can develop Applet by Java or ActiveX by VC++ for processing data in user-side. As you may know, components of these technologies will be downloaded in the user side; and they use the user-side resources for processing the data. Needless to say that you will have some limitation for using these technologies; i.e. you need Windows platform for ActiveX or JRE for Applet. Besides, if you want to use ActiveX, then you can use OpenCV library for image processing. Further, there is some library for java-based image processing (see Oracle website).

    I wish this information will be useful for you.

    Best Regards,

    Tony.

  • Vijay Raghavan added an answer in Thermal Engineering:
    3
    What are the calculations for Radiant Floor Heating?

    Dear fellow researchers, 

    I am currently working on a design to heat a swimming pool indirectly- via radiant floor heating. Water at 80 deg C will be flowing into PEX pipes. The pipes are placed on the surface the pool and covered with a layer of foam and fiberglass for aesthetical purposes. What are the calculation procedures for finding the heat emitted per unit area. 

    Thank you.

    Vijay Raghavan

    Your scheme is not clear. If you could include a sketch (as an attachment), perhaps a direct answer can be given.

  • Utkal Mehta added an answer in Patents:
    16
    Is patent more worthy or a good paper publication?
    From the academics and also research & development perspective, views needed separately.
    Utkal Mehta

    Patenting entails the grant exclusive right to prevent third parties from commercially exploiting - making, using, offering for sale, selling or importing the invention, which is protected by patent for a limited period of time (generally 20 years). In return for this monopoly, the patent owner is required to disclose the technical information on the invention in order for others to access it and continue to innovate based on it.

  • Tatyana Mollayeva added an answer in Institutional Practice:
    1
    Ethics of practice and disability management. Do people know of good, recent textbooks?

    I am teaching a course in a summer institute on practice ethics in workplace health and disability management. Does anyone know of a recent, excellent textbook on the topic?

    Thanks,

    Deborah

    Tatyana Mollayeva

    Hello Deborah,

    "Handbook of work disability: prevention and management"  editors Patrick Loisel, Johannes R Anema.

    Chapters as follows:

    Part 1.The burden of work disability: Chapters- Sickness absence and disability: an international perspective; The work-disabled patient; Work absenteeism and  productivity loss at work; The work disability paradigm: revealing its  public health implications.

    Part 2.Unraveling work disability prevention: Chapters-Work disability models-past and present; Measurements of outcomes in work disability prevention; Chronicity and disability; Methodological issues in work disability prevention research.

    Part 3 and 4. Work disability determinants and diagnosis: work disability issues on specific disorders: Chapters- Individual-level psychosocial factors  and work disability prevention; Workplace issues; Public insurance systems; The role of influence of care providers on work disability; Understanding work disability systems and intervening upstream; Tools for assessing work disability; Predicting return to work for workers with low back pain; Mental health problems and mental disorders; Cancer survivorship and work; Traumatic brain injury.

    Part 5. Effective work disability prevention interventions: Chapters- Clinical interventions to reduce work disability in workers with musculoskeletal disorders or mental health problems; Workplace interventions; Sickness and disability policy interventions; Cost-effectiveness of interventions for prevention of work disability; Informing the public: preventing work disability and fostering behavioural changes  at the societal level; Return to work stakeholders' perspectives on work disability.

    Part 6. The challenging of implementing evidence. Chapters- Extracting the core elements of interventions; Obstacles and facilitators in implementation of return to work interventions; Building an international educational network in work disability prevention.

    Appendix: Work disability theories: a taxonomy for researchers.

    For ethics, I found "The Cambridge textbook of bioethics"  by Peter A Singer and AM Viens, Cambridge Medicine, being useful. It  does not directly targeting workplace, but discusses  bioethical problems and dilemmas comprehensively.

    Hope this helps. Kind regards, Tatyana

  • Abdulhalim Zaryab asked a question in Rocks:
    New
    Input paramters based on strength type of Hoek-Brown in Slide software

    Hello dear colleagues
    Could anyone tell me about (m) input parameter in Slide Software for slope stability analysis based on strength type of Hoek-Brown. As you know we have two kinds of m in Hoek-Brown criterion:

    mb = Hoek-Brown intact rock constant

    mi = Hoek brown rock mass constant

    Thank you

  • Yulia A. Strekalova added an answer in Social Media Analytics:
    2
    For studying activity on a Facebook page, is data provided provided by a commercial social media analytics site valid?

    1. For the analysis of the facebook page, can a researcher use data provided by a commercial social media analytics service?

    2. Is there any social media analytics service which is reliable and it's data can be used as secondary data?

    Yulia A. Strekalova

    Most commercial analytics publications will report on sampled data. I'd be cautious about potential biases. Instead, could you collect your own data for through Excel PowerQuery for analysis?

    https://www.researchgate.net/publication/281644727_A_Picture_Really_is_Worth_a_Thousand_Words_Public_Engagement_with_the_National_Cancer_Institute_on_Social_Media

    • Source
      [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
      ABSTRACT: The National Cancer Institute (NCI) provides pertinent information about cancer prevention, treatment, and research advancements that is considered objective and accurate. NCI's presence on social media is an example of a growing effort in promoting and facilitating audience engagement with evidence-based information about health and cancer. However, it is unknown what strategies are most effective for engaging audiences via this communication platform. To evaluate this important question, we analyzed data on posts, associated comments, and meta-data from official NCI Facebook page between July 2010 and February 2015 (end of data collection). Results show that audience engagement is associated with the format of cancer-related social media posts. Specifically, posts with photos received significantly more likes, comments, and shares than videos, links, and status updates. The findings have important implications for how social media can be more effectively utilized to promote public engagement with important public health issues.
      Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · Journal of Cancer Education
  • James A Green added an answer in Rivers:
    1
    I am looking for anyone with knowledge of river ferry crossings in the great southwest.
    We are looking for personal diaries, photographs or known locations of ferries.
    James A Green

    What date? I assume you have examined historical quadrangle maps and Library of Congress maps.

  • Yulia A. Strekalova added an answer in Social Media:
    5
    Do you know any research about changes in perception of ethics and morality in the Internet?

    I'm looking for papers about changes in the morality and ethics which are caused by using the Internet. Do you know anything about that kind of impact? I found some really interesting papers, where authors prove that computer mediated communication may lead to much greater selfishness, relativism and treating others "less human". I'm looking for more results like this.

    I would be very grateful for any hint and answer.

    Yulia A. Strekalova

    IMHO, you ought to start with the "Facebook contagion" study and the editorials/papers that followed it.

    Kramer, A. D., Guillory, J. E., & Hancock, J. T. (2014). Experimental evidence of massive-scale emotional contagion through social networks. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 111(24), 8788-8790.

    Fiske, S. T., & Hauser, R. M. (2014). Protecting human research participants in the age of big data. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 111(38), 13675-13676.

    Coviello, L., Fowler, J. H., & Franceschetti, M. (2014). Words on the Web: Noninvasive Detection of Emotional Contagion in Online Social Networks. Proceedings of the IEEE, 102(12), 1911-1921.

  • Sinnappoo (Ravi) Ravindran added an answer in Geotechnics:
    2
    How are geotechnical parameters affecting the road design?

    The Construction thickness of road, thickness of different layers such as subgrade, sub-base, road-base and asphalt?

    The geotechnical parameters such as soil friction, cohesiveness, CBR, bearing capacity, etc.

    Sinnappoo (Ravi) Ravindran

    Nandana

    What you are refering to is pavement design. As Rama advised that traffic loading and pavement material strengths are to be taken into account. In fact, road design deals with horizontal curves, vertical curves, cross-sections, table drains and batter angles. During pavement investigation, geotechnical tests such as moisture content, DCP, grading, CBR and, UCS (if stabilisation is involved) are required to work out thickness of sub-base and base. Then pavement design can be done using a software such as CIRCLY or empirical charts. Asphalt tests involved mix design using Marshal tests with suitable binder and aggregates. Please refer to the following:

    http://www.pavementinteractive.org/article/marshall-mix-design/

    Best regards

    Ravi

  • Han Ping Fung added an answer in Social Science:
    3
    What strategies do you use to present large amounts of qualitative data in academic articles?

    I'd like to hear the strategies you use to present large amounts of qualitative data in academic articles. Thank you! 

    Han Ping Fung

    What strategies do you use to present large amounts of qualitative data in academic articles?

    I adopt the following strategies:

    1. extract into categories, features or themes from transcribed text through various coding before presenting.
    2. reduce data by summarizing the transcribed text without loosing the key information from informant / participant.
    3. present only the striking / needed interviewee's comments & not the whole conversation.
  • Andrey Davydov asked a question in DRAGON:
    New
    Do the earliest (ancient) images of the Chinese dragon show head of a camel, a horse or some other animal?

    Also, to which existing animal do Chinese dragon's teeth correspond?

  • Anirudh Kumar Satsangi added an answer in International System of Units:
    4
    What is Time?

    Time is a measure in which events can be ordered from the past through the present into the future, and also the measure of duration of events and the intervals between them. Time is often referred to as the fourth dimension, along with the three spatial dimensions.

    The fundamental unit of time in the International System of Units (SI) is the second (symbolized s or sec). One second elapses during the occurrence of exactly 9,192,631,770 (9.192631770 x 10^9) cycles of the radiation produced by the transition between two levels of the cesium 133 atom.

    "In the theory of relativity, the concept of time begins with the Big Bang the same way as parallels of latitude begin at the North Pole. You cannot go further north than the North Pole," says Kari Enqvist, Professor of Cosmology.

    According to you, what is Time?

    Anirudh Kumar Satsangi

    Time is a measurement of distance between two points or events.  Thus, time and distance are synonyms.

  • Yulia A. Strekalova added an answer in Newspapers:
    5
    Do you know any news, data and insight databases?

    I look for a database (preferably free one), which covers newspapers, journals, magazines, television and radio transcripts, photos, etc. I study different innovation announcements of European companies. For a long time I have been using Factiva by Dow Jones but unfortunately I cannot subscribe it anymore.

    Yulia A. Strekalova

    Have you considered social media? Companies and media outlets post quite a bit on FB and Twitter.

  • Yulia A. Strekalova added an answer in Open Access Publishing:
    2
    Any affordable open access journal for Humanties and Social Science?

    Scientists are spoilt for choice in open access publishing - BioMed Central, eLife, F1000Research, Frontiers, Hindawi, Libertas Academica, MDPI, PeerJ, Pensoft Publishers, PLOS, Any affordable open access journal for Humanties and Social Science

    Yulia A. Strekalova

    Social Sciences seems to be free: http://www.mdpi.com/journal/socsci

  • Sumit Kumar asked a question in SIESTA:
    New
    How do I compute poisson ration from ab initio simulations?

    How do I compute poisson ration from simulations? I am running Siesta simulations to compute the same.

  • Dr. Kotishwar Aarugonda asked a question in Competition:
    New
    What are the effects on the financial industry of the rapid changes in the regulatory, monetary, and competitive framework?

    What are the effects on the financial industry of the rapid changes in the regulatory, monetary, and competitive framework?

  • Yulia A. Strekalova added an answer in Newspapers:
    6
    Is there a standard methodology for newspaper content analysis with respect to Environmental coverage?

    Environmental news is barely reflected in newspaper/tabloids. But recent awareness of climate change has lead to rising reports on such issues. Is there a method to compare coverage taking into account political developments, categories or themes of coverage and also evaluate readership impact of such coverage?

    Yulia A. Strekalova

    There are a number of possible approaches to content analysis. My nanotechnology paper is one: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/275034564_Informing_Dissemination_Research_A_Content_Analysis_of_US_Newspaper_Coverage_of_Medical_Nanotechnology_News?ev=prf_pub

    Here are also some articles that could help develop your codebook:

    Atwater, T., Salwen, M. B., & Anderson, R. B. (1985). Media agenda-setting with environmental issues. Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly, 62(2), 393.

    Banerjee, S., Gulas, C. S., & Iyer, E. (1995). Shades of green: a multidimensional analysis of environmental advertising. Journal of Advertising, 24(2), 21-31.

    Deegan, C., & Rankin, M. (1996). Do Australian companies report environmental news objectively? An analysis of environmental disclosures by firms prosecuted successfully by the Environmental Protection Authority. Accounting, auditing & accountability journal, 9(2), 50-67.

    Ader, C. R. (1995). A longitudinal study of agenda setting for the issue of environmental pollution. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 72(2), 300-311.

    • Source
      [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
      ABSTRACT: This study examined nanomedicine coverage by the elite and regional U.S. newspapers. The study sought to study prevalent topics; examine time, risk and benefit, thematic and episodic, and societal and personal impact frames; and identify dominating overarching themes. Technology application and economic consequence were dominant topics, but contrary to the studies of other emerging technologies, regulations and moral issues were the least discussed topics for nanomedicine. A variety of data analytic techniques, including cluster analysis, were performed to analyze data. The analysis has identified three themes, Technology Prospects, High-Risk High-Reward, and Investment Costs, that dominated nanomedicine coverage.
      Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · Science Communication
  • Sumit Kumar asked a question in Specific Heat:
    New
    How do I compute thermal properties of crystal from simulations?

    I want to compute thermal properties such as thermal conductivity, specific heat etc. from MD simulations.

  • Saravanamuttu Subramaniam Sivakumar added an answer in Mathematical Models:
    1
    How can we use Multi-grade system in Mathematical Modeling?

    Above cited topic any paper, book, notes etc 

    Saravanamuttu Subramaniam Sivakumar

    I have done a GWSModel with IFDM. You can get my PhD research thesis in my profile and this will give you many things

  • Andrey Davydov asked a question in Sounds:
    New
    Has anyone heard of researchers, who record sounds of work of internal organs of animals (mammals, birds, fish, etc.)?

    I am trying to find names of such researchers.

  • Saravanamuttu Subramaniam Sivakumar added an answer in Hydrological Modeling:
    1
    How are the weights in multiplicative random cascade for spatial downscaling of rainfall generated?

    How the weights at each level and for each sub-domain generated? If we choose log-normal distribution for cascade generation how can we decide on the mean and sigma.

    Explanation with an example would be highly appreciated. 

    For example I created a 8 degree by 8 degree domain of res=0.25 to downscale rainfall  to the scale of 0.0078125 degrees(i.e 5 levels).The monthly rainfall is set to be 200 for all the pixels. If the branching is 2, at Level =1 we have 4 sub-domains. Now how are the weights generated for each cube?

    library(raster)
    LONGLAT = CRS("+init=epsg:4326")
    rain.month = raster(nrow=32,ncol=32,res=0.25,extent(75,83,11,19),crs=LONGLAT)
    rain.month[] = 200

    Saravanamuttu Subramaniam Sivakumar

    .

  • Dr. Kotishwar Aarugonda asked a question in Investment:
    New
    The Enron case How could such a prestigious investment bank advise investing when the quotations of the shares were falling?

    The Enron case. How could such a prestigious investment  bank advise investing when the quotations of the shares were falling?

  • Mahmoud Omid added an answer in Wisdom:
    23
    What is wisdom?

    Philosophic, religious, and opinion responses are acceptable.

    Mahmoud Omid

    The process by which we  discern, or judge, between right and wrong, good and bad maybe called "wisdom". Wisdom is the ability to evaluate any choice, i.e., evaluated understanding. It calls upon all the previous levels of consciousness, and specifically upon special types of human programming (moral, ethical codes, etc.). 

  • Yulia A. Strekalova added an answer in Climate:
    1
    Any motivational climate questionnaires?

    Anything at all related.

    Yulia A. Strekalova

    Which perspective/discipline is your focus?

    Here is one of the classical works: Pintrich, P. R. (2003). A motivational science perspective on the role of student motivation in learning and teaching contexts. Journal of educational Psychology, 95(4), 667.

  • Saravanamuttu Subramaniam Sivakumar added an answer in XFEM:
    1
    Asking for help about crack propagation ?

    Good evening

    I would to ask you these questions that will help me in my literature search. 1- does the push-sediment influences the crack propagation in the dam? Because I've noticed that many researchers do not take into account this setting. 2- does the water quality of dam reservoir influence the crack propagation ? 3 What is the best method to model the crack propagation in the body gravity dams taking into account the water pressure; XFEM (Extended Finite Element Method) or DEM (Disrecte Element Method)?

    Thank you Best regards

    Saravanamuttu Subramaniam Sivakumar

    In my understanding integrated finite element method is the best