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  • Ali Bashar added an answer in Social Skills:
    I do not have any scale about social skills for adolescents with moderate intellectual disabilities?

     I wonder if you could help me by any means. If you have any scales and researches available about this topic, would you please provide me with them? I would be grateful if you could attend to this matter as soon as possible. Appreciating your consideration and cooperation

    Ali Bashar

    Dear Leah Goldstein, 

    Thank you very much for your interest and you can tell me any information about this scale

  • Mahsa mohammad jani added an answer in Football:
    Can you explain about FIFA 11++ warm up program ?and what is the different between 11+ and 11++?

    i need information about fifa 11++ warm up program

    Mahsa mohammad jani

     Mr Hamdy

    thank you very much for your guidance and your useful resources

  • Vladimir Dvoryanchikov added an answer in Vitiligo:
    Do you think that H2O2 accumlated by H. Pylori through urease enzyme breakdown effect on urea is the possible cause for vitiligo?

    H. Pylori have the highest urease activity of all known bacteria. H. pylori are oxidase and catalase positive. It synthesizes urease enzyme in extraordinary high amounts that hydrolyze urea to liberate carbon dioxide and ammonia, which neutralizes the gastric acid .

    Vladimir Dvoryanchikov

    I simply don't see an arguments for this version - neither anatomical, nor biochemical.
    Helicobacter lives exclusively or almost exclusively ("Helicibacter vaginalis" - under suspicion) in the upper part of a digestive tract. How its waste products reach skin? And what is these products? That it is not chloramine - is unconditional (differently all hospital cleaners would be with impetigo).
    And even if we suppose, that a certain (pathochemical) agent passes from a stomach to a skin, how we can explain casual character of illness? At a system intoxication it would be logical to expect specific focal or uniform skin damage.
    Besides, this hypothesis does not explain, how витилиго is connected with head injuries, dysfunctions of adrenal glands and thyroid gland.
    On what fact this hypothesis is based? Perhaps on statistical correlation? If yes, then it is more logical to search for communication between витилиго and the true reason гастральных illnesses. And it not Helicobacter.

  • César Ortega Corral added an answer in Digital Signal Processing:
    Which is the best undergraduate books for digital signal processing and filter design (principles and applications)?

    1) which is the best books deals with principles?

    2) which book deals with projects and applications for this course? (USING MATLAB)

    Hint: DTFT, FFT, LTI filter analysis and design, adaptive filter design, data coding, compression, restoration, applications

    César Ortega Corral

    The following book is very useful for understanding the theory and how to implement DSP with C language:

    -- Digital Signal Processing: A Practical Approach.

    By Emmanuel Ifeachor, Barrie Jervis

    And DSP using Matlab, the book you must have are the ones by John G. Proakis, like:

    -- Digital Signal Processing Unsing Matlab

    By Vinay K. Ingle and Hohn G. Proakis

  • Thom S Baguley added an answer in Hypothesis Testing:
    What is the best non-parametric method for determining modality and potential mixture in a non-normal single-variable distribution?

    I am an archaeologist studying bedrock mortars (the holes in boulders and rock outcrops that Native Americans would use to grind foodstuffs) in a large study area.  I’m exploring whether the depth of an individual bedrock mortar is an indicator of a specific kind of food that was meant to be ground in it.  More specifically, whether a bounded range of depths is correlated with a specific type of food (e.g. mortars between 0.25 – 5.5 cm deep were mostly used to grind acorn).  Unfortunately, I did not have the ability to test for the presence of food residues in the mortars, so I only have a single variable- depth- to work with.  Instead of performing regressions or similar multivariate tests to correlate specific foods with specific depth ranges, I am looking for patterns in the depth variable that suggest preferred ranges.  I assume these ranges will be evident as modes in the distribution curve, and potentially as mixed distributions.

     I measured the depth (continuous interval) of 699 bedrock mortars from my study area, and can assume that is essentially the entire population.  When I plot the values, the resultant distribution curve is highly non-normal (right skewed, leptokurtic?, a long tail and lots of outliers on the right, p-value of <0.01 for Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Shapiro-Wilk tests).  There is an ever present mode on the left side of the curve, which is definitely meaningful, but there a couple of potential modes on the right side of the curve that are less obvious.  I have “bump hunted” by binning the data differently in the histograms, but am hoping for a more statistically powerful way to identify modes.  The values do not normalize when doing a log base 10 or square root transformation.  Is there a test or method I can use to identify statistically significant (probable?) modes in the distribution of this single variable?  Is there an effective non-parametric test for mixed distributions in this circumstance? 

    Any advice is greatly appreciated.  I have attached a spreadsheet of the values below.  


    Thom S Baguley

    KDE in R can be as easy as:


    ... though there are many more options and packages that give further options.

  • Misha Koksharov added an answer in Plasmids:
    Where can I order good-quality BbsI restriction enzyme that ships to Canada?

    I've been having difficulty digesting a plasmid (Addgene plasmid #45946, pU6-BbsI-chiRNA) with BbsI to insert a CRISPR target sequence. I've been using enzyme from New England Biolabs, but it has been very sensitive and no longer works after the first freeze-thaw cycle. I have also tried Thermo-Fisher BbsI, but it did not work for me either. Has anyone used this plasmid or BbsI in general and can suggest where I can order better quality BbsI from or how I can change reaction conditions so that the enzyme may work?

    Misha Koksharov

    You can also try BstV2I from SibEnzyme. I'd expect it to be more stable. 


  • Yuan-Yeu Yau added an answer in Rice:
    Why 35s promoter did not increase my gene expression level remarkably in rice?

    I used 35s promoter to over express gene in rice. But when i test over expression gene expression level in several T1 generation plants, I found the expression level did not increase remarkably(my colleague over express other gene in rice using 35s promoter get hundred times increase in expression level) . Did somedody used the 35s promoter in rice? I want to know why the expression level did not increase remarkerably in my transgenetic plant. Thank you very much.

    Yuan-Yeu Yau

    1. Or, maybe it is because of 'position effect' of the insertion sites. How many plants you have checked for expression level?

    2. Multiple transgene insertion can also cause gene silencing. Did you know the copy numbers of transgenes in those T1 plants you checked??

  • Sven Ring added an answer in Solar Cells:
    Is it possible to have very high (~100)% haze ratio of the wet chemical textured Glass substrates?

    Dear All,

    I have been working on various light trapping techniques for the a-Si thin film solar cells.

    Recently, I came across a case of wet chemical textured Glass (high etching depth:>5 um, hazy surface) substrate.

    When we measured the optical transmittance (Total, Parallel, Diffused) of samples by the equipment (Haze Master-Scinco). We see that the samples with high etching depth and hazy surface showed almost similar total and diffused transmittance. i.e Haze ratio: ~100. Is it possible for a sample to have 100% haze ratio...? I am surprised of it....Can any expert please guide me...

    In several research paper like from Konagai et. al and few other they used index matching solution to measure the optical (TT,DT) properties of such samples...We also used the index matching (CH2I2, n=1.74) solution in several case....But those results are different from the normal results without index matching solution...Can anyone please guide...which method is better...

    For low etching depth samples showed diffused transmittance around (10-50)% that looks perfect and comparable with other measured experimental results measured by Quantum efficiency (EQE)system (PV measurement Inc., QEX7)

    Reference: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0042207X15001396


    Sven Ring

    You should keep in mind that Haze value are always measured in far field. Large structures may scatter strongly in far field but are useless for light trapping in thin films, like aSi cells.
    For the glass that you mention with high etch depth >5um this could be the case. Check the feature size of the scattering interface.

  • Ambalika Sarkar asked a question in Laminin:
    How do I prevent NPCs from differentiating?

    Right now, I grow them to high cell densities, but eventually my experiment demands that I be able to make clonal selections of a few of them. Is there any supplement or growth factor that I can add to the media to prevent their differentiation, even when there are only a few cells in my well? right now I am using FGF2 and laminin in N2B27 medium.

  • Henrik Rasmus Andersen added an answer in Chemical Oxidation:
    How Microbial activity affects COD ?

    I referred many journals. They mentioned COD is removed up to 90% in Rotating Biological Contactor . whether microorganism consumes Components that can be chemically oxidized ? 

    Henrik Rasmus Andersen

    or in short: Many substances can be oxidised both chemically and biologically.

  • Cole Peters asked a question in Immunoprecipitation:
    What is a good validated antibody for immunoprecipitation?

    I'm using a non-denaturing lysis buffer (50mM TrisHCL pH7.5, 150mM NaCl, 1%NP40/IGEPAL +ROCHE protease inhib., 1mM PMSF(fresh), 10mM B-glycerophosphate(fresh)) to lyse cells (30min on ice, then clarified). I plan on incubating the lysate with an antibody overnight @4*C(rotating) followed by protein-A conjugated agarose beads, then western. (No preclearing)

    Im currently trying to optimize the assay and would like to know if anyone has an antibody (like B-Actin or vinculin) that they know works for IP, so I can optimize the assay before using lots of virus infected cell samples.

    Im using Vero cells (monkey), but if you've used the antibody on any human cell line I also have 293T and several hu cancer cell lines.

  • Anastasia Tsoutsoulopoulou added an answer in Dam:
    How can I find the koyna-1967 earthquake time history for the station near the koyna dam in India?

    I have trying to find out time history data for Koyna Earthquake. Can someone help me? I searched in " http://ngawest2.berkeley.edu " and " strongmotioncenter.org/vdc "  and I found nothing. I need the the station data near the dam

    Anastasia Tsoutsoulopoulou

    Dear Erfan, hello. I tried locating some info on the internet. Please, see the attachment. You may have  found it yourself already, but if not, I hope it is of some help. All the best, Anastasia (Greece)

  • Claude Pierre Massé added an answer in Cosmology:
    Is there Godel's Incompleteness Theorem in Physics like in Mathematics?

    The holy grail of Physics is the Unification Theory called by Weinberg as the "Final Theory". When finally discovered, perhaps it can:

    1. Unify all fundamental forces in nature.

    2. Explain the Hierarchy Problem

    3. Explain all Cosmological Problems 

    5. Gives us the right Quantum Interpretation

    but can such theory derive all fundamental dimensionless constants in nature out of pure number and explain the true nature of time?  

    Claude Pierre Massé

    The physical makeup of the brain is not necessarily perfect. It has been developed through evolution, which is itself an ever unfinished trial-error process. And its cognitive functions aren't basically mathematical. It is essential for survival to extract pertinent information from the environnement, which is very complex and ambiguous. That's why the brain works by pattern matching, recognition of forms, and association, and that is mainly unconscious. Much of our science has been generated that way. Objects are recognized and then described through state and behaviour, that's where mathematics come in, but the said objects have no precise definition. There is no clean cut rule to tell what is a chair and what is not. Yet, we are able to recognize it with a marginal error and ascribe it the property: "can be sat on" and the state "upright" or "fallen." As our knowledge increases, the imprecision decreases but never disappears. Cracks in our vision of reality have therefore many occasions to creep in. 

  • Brian Scott Roberts asked a question in Housekeeping:
    What is the best kit for doing qPCR directly from cells in a 96-well plate (Cells-to-Ct, Cell Direct, etc.)?

    Adherent tumor-derived cells in 96-well plates.  Want to measure a highly expressed gene and a housekeeper.

  • Costas Drossos added an answer in Internet Studies:
    Do you get to feel a sense of attachment for the people you meet in a virtual community such as RG? How do you explain it?

    In an early, highly influential book in the field of Internet studies, The Virtual Community (1993), Howard Rheingold wrote that “the idea of a community accessible only via my computer screen sounded cold to me at first, but I learned quickly that people can feel passionately about e-mail and computer conferences. I’ve become one of them --added Rheingold--. I care about these people I met through my computer”.

    Online groups have some advantages over real, offline communities. A social networking site such as RG is joined by people from a unique diversity of backgrounds, countries and demographics. What brings us together is a common interest: research, science, a particular discipline or topic. We are able to communicate with each other and share and exchange information beyond constraints of space and time.

    But human relationships are not just a matter of information exchange. Feelings and trust are essential. Online communication has disadvantages in this respect, because it transmits much less nonverbal cues than face-to-face interaction: facial expressions, vocal intonations, gestures, postures and movements, on which mutual impressions and emotions are based.  

    To what extent can we talk about a “genuine community” if the relationships among its members lack at least some sense of attachment?

    “The poverty of social cues in computer-mediated communication inhibits interpersonal collaboration and trust”, said one of the main experts on social capital, Robert D. Putnam (Bowling Alone, 2000). Because of this, “computer-based groups are quicker [than real life groups] to reach an intellectual understanding of their shared problems”, but “they are much worse at generating the trust and reciprocity necessary to implement that understanding”. Putnam adds: “Building trust and goodwill is not easy in cyberspace”. Cheating would be more common online than offline.

    However, the current massive diffusion of social media has proven that “a major facet of social networking and part of its vast success” lies in “the communicational desires and motivations –the need to connect and relate to others” (Fenton, 2012, in Curran, J., et al.: Misunderstanding the Internet). This author notes that “social media have been invested with the ability to facilitate the development of strong relations with family members and friends and weaker relations with a range of acquaintances”.

    What are your views on these arguments?

    Costas Drossos

    The attachment into various virtual communities, I think is a kind of remedy for the loneliness of contemporary human!

  • Tuna Ulger added an answer in ANSYS:
    Can someone help me with an error in Ansys APDL?

    "Elements to be separated by cohesive elements are of more than one stiffness number (183 and 203, perhaps more). The CZMESH command is ignored."

     Many thanks in advance.

    Tuna Ulger

    When i used the CZMESH between same element types, no problem works perfect.

    Question is, Have you tried any CZMESH between different element types (say 185 and 190)? or this is not supported by ANSYS, so  getting error because of trying to CZMESH between different element types?


  • Artur Braun added an answer in Catholic Church:
    Was the University an European invention at hands of the Catholic Church?

    Please, provide your thinking about this question. Thank you.

    Artur Braun

    I have studied in Aachen. Aquis Grana was an urbs palatium to Charlemagne, a real "catholic" christian, and a fighter for christianity in Europe and maybe one founder of the Sacrum Imperium Romanum. He baptized the Saxons by force, and those who refused were beheaded "usque ad quattuor milia D traditi et super Alaram fluvium in loco, qui Ferdun vocatur, iussu regis omnes una die decollati sunt". (I think moslme blamed ISIS is doing this these days, right?)

    It is being said that Carolum Magnus himself, a great leader, was actually illiterate because he could not read and could not write. Certainly, we never will know what is true because the reports in history were written by the victorious. But he built great churches across Europe (I mean, the people who were ordered to work for him, they built).

    The family of Carolus Magnus is credited for having beaten back the Maurs in Spain, Cordoba. I have spun a story about this. From the relicts of architecture on the Iberian peninsula we notice a large oriental influence, not of European origin. Europe had suffered invasions by barbarians before many times, and these barbarians killed and destroyed and devastated everything. They never built something up. Whereas the oriental Maurs were maybe different and could have provided a cultural alternative to the low-civilized Europe back then. And such cultural alternative, maybe hostile take-over could have been worse for the identity of Europe, the Franks and Germans and power system, than just a destruction of the status quo back then. Now this is just my wild idea. what I want to say is that church, as I know it, is not necessarily the lap, uterus in which cognitive science could be born. After all, christian faith and believe is not based on cognitive, rational  existence, but rather on christian spiritualism, at best. A catholic christian myself, I have witnessed it to be foremost the submission to the priest and the church, who were supposed to mediate my personal relationship with my god.

    Christian church is being blamed for suppressing Galileo Galilei, who stated world is a globe and not a flat disk, but whether this accusation is correct, I do not know. After all, the Globus Cruciger was already known to the Romans, and also the Pope blesses the people in the world every year with his Urbi et Orbi. Both implies the understanding that the world was considered a spherical object. A Globe.

    Anyway. I have my doubts that the church, catholic or other, and any organized belief system, was the center of intelligence. The same I hold for the universities. Both cannot live up to their claims and stakes. And they never did. Brilliance was lost in the very moment when the idea became an organization. So it doesn't really matter if catholic church was the inventor of the university. By the way it wasn't. And I don't want to do primitive catholic church bashing because the others are not better. Your relationship with your God has nothing to do with a party for which you even pay taxes. My 10 cent.

  • Debra Sharon Ferdinand asked a question in Flip Teaching:
    Is the flipped classroom working for you and your students?

    Today, a colleague shared with me that students are having to do more work in flipping the classroom. They have to do the in-class activities then go home and do another set of reading etc. Are you finding that the flipped classroom is causing students to have too much work? How has the flipped classroom been working for you and your students?

    Many thanks,


  • Michael Stocker added an answer in Marine Mammals:
    Should i use dBPeak values to determine underwater noise mitigation for marine mammals (i.e., safety zones)?

    Should i use dBPeak values to determine underwater noise mitigation (i.e., safety zones) instead of dBrms even though the NMFS interim sound thresholds for marine mammals uses dBrms? As thresholds are considered absolute values we should not exceed (e.g., to avoid TTS and PTS), should we monitor for dBPeak values instead of dBrms? This is in relation to impulsive sound rather than continuous sounds.

    Michael Stocker
    Willem is correct. There are so many other variables than just how loud something is. He's done some great work on this. Also see our "Signal kurtosis as a predictor of biological impacts of noise exposure: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/259366233_Signal_kurtosis_as_a_predictor_of_biological_impacts_from_noise_exposure?ev=prf_pub
    There are some other simple metrics that express cumulative noise exposure using RMS but whether and how you use a time integral hinges on a number a factors including the hearing frequency response of the exposed animal in question.
  • Valentin Danci added an answer in Special Relativity:
    What is reason at the base of the time dilation of the atomic clocks?

    The Hafele and Keating experiment was the first proven evidence that atomic clocks  register a dilation according to the Schwarzschild solution of the GRT. Twin clocks with different  histories of motion presented between the same events "Start" and "stop" a difference in their gauges,  if at the first event "start" they were syncronized. A  daily confirmation  comes from the GPS oscillators syncronisation procedures.

    The kinetic and gravitational time dilation, which is present between the satellites and the ground bases, are directly related to the gravitational potentials and the kinetic energies per unit mass referred to the center of Earth.

    Regarding the kinetic time dilation, which was conjectured by Einstein since 1905,  it is considered a key for the experiments in the accelerators. It permits to observe processes which normally would be too fast to be detected if occurred at rest in the frame of the high energy laboratories. High energies per unit mass allow processes to slow down.

    The gravitational time dilation seems to be more complex and may look different. It comes from an Einstein's genial thought and consequence of his GR theory  according to which clocks slows down in the proximity of ponderable masses.

    Valentin Danci


    The "backward transformation" is what the other system (B) calculates about the first one (A), not what A "thinks" that B should calculate about A.
    So, B is entitled to have the same treatment within the theory as A, because they are equivalent (by the claim of Special Relativity).

    The Lorentz transformations were proposed for the Maxwell's equations by Voigt/Lorentz/etc., but they were not proposed from one random inertial frame to another random inertial frame (!)
    They were proposed from the stationary frame (of the EM wave/fields) to an arbitrary inertial frame. That's a big difference.

    And that means no any random inertial frame can claim to have the same "view" on the EM wave as the "view" from the stationary frame (which has zero Doppler effect, zero aberration, zero length contraction, zero time delay, etc.).

    So I'm sorry, but the explanation with the EM wave / Maxwell's equations doesn't hold true at all for the "inverse LT" claimed by Special Relativity.
    On the contrary, it's clear that two random inertial frames cannot be correctly related by LT if they are considered equivalent. They should be referred to the absolute/stationary frame first in order to describe correctly the coordinate transformations between them.

  • Abbas Majidi added an answer in Numerical Modeling:
    How to construct a numerical model with vibrational temperature for non-thermal plasma?

    As I know, the vibrational temperature and translational temperature could be quite different in the non-thermal plasma. From the experimental point of view, those temperatures could be obtained through fitting the emission spectra. However, how to construct a numerical model considering the vibrational and translational temperatures? Up to now, most numerical models just distinguish the electron temperature and translational temperature. I think if wanting to simulating the kinetics inside the plasma, the vibrational temperature should be considered. Could you give me some related literature? Thank you!

    Abbas Majidi


    Below article consider two temperatures for a non-termal methane plasma and simulate plasma according to park model for two temperatures (vibrational and translational temperature).

    Best regards 

    • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
      ABSTRACT: A detailed study of methane conversion by repetitive nanosecond pulsed plasma was accomplished. In this study, a conversion rate of about 60% was obtained at an energy conversion efficiency of more than 75%. The conversion performance reached the optimum value at an electrode gap of about 5 mm. To raise the temperature, the reactor was thermally isolated. At moderate frequencies, a non-isolated reactor with a lower temperature demonstrated a better conversion performance. This was attributed to the dominance of the vibrational dissociation channel. It was also demonstrated that the conversion process considerably improved at a pulse-to-pulse time interval of less than 100 µs, which is the lifetime of ion molecules at atmospheric pressure. A mathematical model based on two temperatures is developed in order to explain the dissociation mechanism. The model reveals that the greatest molecular dissociation occurs when there is a high vibrational non-equilibrium state in the molecule. This non-equilibrium state lasts less than a microsecond at the post-plasma stage. It explains the high efficiencies obtained in the conversion process and is specific to the pulsed plasmas.
      No preview · Article · Aug 2014 · Journal of Physics D Applied Physics
  • Viktor Y Butnev added an answer in Western Blot:
    Please go to this link and let me know your comments on these western blots. https://www.flickr.com/photos/139951926@N05/?

    Do you think there is any manipulation in these western blots.

    Do you think they will be acceptable for publication?

    Viktor Y Butnev

    You are right, these western blots pictures have been modified (manipulated). The line around the bands looks suspicious in the picture # 1 and # 3, like a "cut and paste" job, the background between the highlighted and other samples is different in the pictures # 2, #4, #5, #6, and #7. It looks like Photoshop or some other applications have been used to "improve" the pictures.

  • Debra Sharon Ferdinand added an answer in Teaching Ethics:
    Can somebody help me with studies looking into teaching ethics while using religion as a tool?




    Debra Sharon Ferdinand

    I think Harshvardhan has given you some good sources. From my experience attending Catholic schools right up to my undergrad level, ethics is taught in relation to the precepts of the faith such as do unto others as you would like them to do unto you. For me, the latter helped to deepen my faith and truly establish a "fear" for God but not in a negative way. In other words, I was in "awe" of God's goodness and might.

    Best regards,


  • Andrew Gardner asked a question in Inter-rater Reliability:
    What is the formula (or the best method) for calculating 95% Confidence Intervals (upper and lower bound) for Inter-Rater Reliability data?

    I have two raters.

    Rating responses range from 1-3.

    There are 5 separate 'signs' that I have calculated IRR for (Kappa results= .54, .62, .62, .29, .87); total n=131.

    My overall IRR was K=0.69; total n=655; if this information helps in any way to provide an answer.

    Thanks very much.

  • Jes Jessen Rasmussen asked a question in EDS:
    Can anyone recommend a good book on stream and river restoration?

    The book is intended for a Master level course addressing students who have basic courses in stream and freshwater ecology. The main topics in the course will be restoration methods and effects of restoration efforts on biological quality elements.

    I noticed two main works in my (not exhaustive) literature research.

    1. Stream and Watershed Restoration: A guide to restoring riverine processes and habitats (2012) Eds: Roni & Beechie

    2. River restoration: Managing the uncertainty in restoring physical habitat (2008) Eds: Darby & Sear

    Especially the option No 1 seems appealing to me, but I would really appreciate some comments and advice from anyone with experience with these or other books.

    Best regards,


  • Leonard Mehlmauer added an answer in Education:
    Which theories may help me explain Character Development/Character Education?

    Which theories may help me explain Character Development/Character Education?

    Leonard Mehlmauer

    Arun, I feel that Harshvardhan's outline is a fairly good one.  Character development is basically a function of one's early childhood (Oedipal) and one's culture.  The very best references I know of are somewhat esoteric but entirely reachable and quite profound.  They include The First Three Stages of Life, and Not-Two Is Peace, both books by Adi Da Samraj.  The author's insight into the human character goes far beyond those encountered in the many books, tracts, researches and theories I have studied.  

    Blessings in your search.

  • Eileen O'Connor added an answer in Service-Learning:
    Does anyone know studies and/or training tools for undergrad students prior to their service learning placement?

    The SL placement office provides booklet on issues re security; risks; procedures; completing online time log. We are interested in developing a training tool and quiz that would encourage students to first identity presuppositions and stereotypes they may have when volunteering with diverse community partners in our city, and  learn more about potential social impacts of intersecting factors such as poverty; gender; colonialism, addiction, mental health (etc) to help foster students' empathy, active listening, communication and helping relation skills.  Thank you for your suggestions !

    Eileen O'Connor

    Excellent, thank you Debra! 

  • M. Said Ergöktaş added an answer in Piezoelectricity:
    Do we need to consider the frequency of input voltage while designing SAW sensors?

    Do we need to consider the frequency of voltage applied through input IDTs while designing SAW sensors or in any calculations? or we just need to consider the frequency of piezoelectric layer?

    M. Said Ergöktaş

    I couldn't find but if anyone knows papers etc. about this subject, can send me please?

  • F. Leyvraz added an answer in Newtonian Mechanics:
    How was the Newtonian mercury perihelion precession calculated?

    The additional perihelion precession of Mercury's orbit was considered the first confirmation of General Relativity theory. It is mainly the difference between observational data and Gravitational tugs of the other planets on mercury's orbit upon Newtonian mechanics.

    My question is how was the Newtonian effect calculated and how much are the methods used trustworthy.

    F. Leyvraz

    Actually, I take my previous post back: the task is easier than it looks at first: you can do it by a brute force MD type simulation, which should not take you more than a couple of weeks, if you know a bit how to do such things. A quartic modification of the Verlet algorithm ,and just take a quite short time step (say 10^(-5) of Mercury's period, and simulate for a few thousand years to get an average over the outer planets' positions).