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  • Gar Yee Koh added an answer in Dietetics:
    What are the Best and Worst Food for Type 2 Diabetes?

    I have given a good web-link that details what are the best and worst food for type-2 diabetes patients.

    These food are listed under the following categories:

    1. Protein
    2. Grains
    3. Dairy
    4. Vegetables
    5. Fruit
    6. Fats

    Your views on these or other categories are welcome!

    Best wishes, Sundar

    Gar Yee Koh

    A balance diet is definitely the key. Usually for diabetes, you would want to also include low glycemic index food, such as fiber, to prevent postprandial glucose spike. 

  • Syed Abbas Jafar added an answer in Fitness:
    What is your definition of 'fitness'?

    It's all in the question


    Syed Abbas Jafar


    If you were to ask a more crisp and straightforward question about the kind of FITNESS you actually meant, then the answers and discussions would have taken a different course. At some point of time you would be expected to summarize the key issues involved for the sake of clarity to the viewers.

    The phrase"Survival of the fittest" was first used by Herbert Spencer in 1864 (Principles of Biology), after he had read Charles Darwin's Origin of species (1859) and suggested that it conveys the same meaning as "Natural Selection" of Darwin. Spencer's phrase was first used by Darwin in 5th. edition of his book (published 10 February, 1869), and emphasizes on the preservation of favored races in the struggle for Life (both Animal and Plants). Obviously, it meant FITNESS exclusively in Nature, without connotation of Medical fitness of humans



  • Louis Brassard added an answer in Music Cognition:
    Are language and music related?
    Music affects us emotionally. Language could be unemotional but still the prosody of language sounds emotional. How do language and music interact in cognition? What are the differences and similarities between emotions in music and language?
    Louis Brassard


    ''Especially in English, which possibly is the least emotionally-sounding language''

    I think the bad palm would go to French.

  • Deborah Poff asked a question in Institutional Practice:
    Ethics of practice and disability management. Do people know of good, recent textbooks?

    I am teaching a course in a summer institute on practice ethics in workplace health and disability management. Does anyone know of a recent, excellent textbook on the topic?



  • Zeeshan Anwar added an answer in Human Resources:
    How do we use Artificial Inteligence in Human Resource Evaluation?

    Evaluate of employee is important and difficult, Is there any way to use artificial intelligence to evaluate employee's efficiency by organization data?

    Zeeshan Anwar

    You can design expert system to evaluate human resources. A rule based system can be used for this purpose. Decision trees, Fuzzy logic and clustering can also be used.

  • Serkan Aras added an answer in Model Selection:
    It is my new paper which is published in the journal of neurocomputing. It propes a new model selection strategy in neural networks?


    Serkan Aras
    Thanks for the information.
  • Kenneth M Towe added an answer in Climate Modeling:
    Drought in the future?

    How do you think the drought in the future? including the drought frequency, intensity and duration.

    there are big uncertainties for the results from climate models.

  • Ken Raj added an answer in Radiotherapy:
    What is more common in radiotherapy : High-doses or Low-doses?

    Is there correspondence between the dose level in radiotherapy and the cancer cells killed?

    For example:

    at a dose of 80 Gy the percentage of cancer cells killed is x% 

    at a dose of 90 Gy the percentage of cancer cells killed is x%.


    Ken Raj


    The answer is neither. It is more usual for radiotherapy to be fractionated, i.e. several moderate doses rather than a single high does. There are several reasons for this but the main one is that cells are more sensitive to being killed by radiation when they are proliferating. At any one time not all cells are dividing hence during a single dose of radiation only a fraction of the tumour cells are dividing and are sensitive to radiation. The others that are not dividing will be less affected. Therefore fractionated radiation over a few days is better at getting cells that were not hit the first time to be hit eventually.

  • Harshvardhan Singh added an answer in Higher Education Teaching:
    What is meant by Double loop and Single loop?

    Can you please show the difference between them? it is related to reflective practice.

    Harshvardhan Singh

    Zina Chaqmaqchee:

    Please see some of the literature related to your topic. I hope you find it useful.


    + 5 more attachments

  • Gustaf Söderlind added an answer in Mathematical Methods:
    How calculate eigenvalues/vectors for large scale matrices?

    Hello everyone, 

    I need fast mathematical methods to calculate (or estimate) eigenvalues/vectors for large scale matrices (just above 100000 dimensions). Would you please introduce some state-of-the-art references for this issue?

    I want to thank you in advance for your kind support.

    Gustaf Söderlind

    You probably need some Lanczos-type method. What method to choose depends on the problem, its structure and its origin. Does it come from a self-adjoint differential operator? 

    The lecture notes by Prof Arbenz at ETH is state-of-the-art


  • Sara Kathryne Kabra asked a question in Sexuality:
    Could anyone recommend, perhaps direct me to, research articles which cover whether simply sexual offence reporting is increasing or acutal incidents?

    Sexual offences of any nature, preferably research conducted within the UK.

  • A S V Rao added an answer in Refractive Index:
    How can calculate the total refractive index of a doped material?

    if the susceptibility of materials A and B given by X1 and X2 (kappa), respectively, what will be the total refraction index if A be doped by B?

    A S V Rao

    refractive index of doped material depends on the concentration of the constituents and on their individual susceptibilities. Detail calculation given in this journal. I think it is useful for you 

    Catunda, T., Cansian, A.M. and Castro, J.C., 1991. Saturation effects in degenerate four-wave mixing in ruby and GdAlO 3: Cr+ 3. JOSA B, 8(4), pp.820-823.

  • U. Dreher added an answer in Software Engineering:
    Why don't developers use the best research on software development?
    Is there something about what is researched or how the research is presented that is slowing the adoption of the best research into practice?
    U. Dreher

    Hello all,

    I've been pointed to this discussion, so I'll add my snippets. As I haven't read all that has already been written, I might repeat some considerations already written - or rise a shit storm :)

    Some facts about me: developer since 1987, mostly in software, but not restricted to that, I'm applying whatever is reasonable and helps to increase productivity. I personally have little concern about stability, maintainability and performance - due to the fact that I have some stock of well-proven approaches and am constantly addressing these issues. (Working mainly in the automotive sector today, these are the daily needs.)

    Now some aspects of my point of view:

    1. "software research" is a wide field: from high performance computing optimization via database organization and algorithm development to "the software development process" - and beyond.

    2. A lot of "software research" does not consider performance issues. The thinking "wait a little while - the hardware will soon be available" is wishful thinking: performance increases cannot cope with the rise in performance demand required by some newer research results.
    I can remember a first evaluation of formal code validation by simulation: the software license ran out (after 30 days) - the job not yet done. I've seen such a formal code validation computer - still not sure whether it is now possible to have our complete application validated or whether they are "only" validating parts of it.

    2. For my area of application, most of this research does not cover our needs. we need some algorithms and would be happy about every tool easing our daily work. The advertisements are about "managing complexity" where "reducing complexity" is urgently required.

    3. We are running repeatedly into problems already addressed: in the last millennium. Problem: colleagues from university know the "latest and greatest" denominations (aka: bla-bla) for items that existed with another name prior their birth, but know little about the tasks to solve. Seems that our daily issues are not in the academic focus. At least not in the focus of teaching.

    4. It doesn't help to know about latest research results if you cannot even get a mini-interpreter up and running. (Personal experience!)

    5. If you are citing Prof. Bauer, I'll add the Professors Balzert (Helmut and Heide). For me, they were a great inspiration. And the UML users may know about Heide Balzert. But who knows about what her husband wrote ?

    6. To some extend the new tools do not help - even if available: I have some examples for inappropriate use of tools intended to be helpful: if the trolls (aka ignorants aka idiots) are using or configuring them: what do you expect to be the outcome ? In this case, the tools are dismissed without cause.

    And so on. And so on.

    If research and teaching could give me the colleagues and customers with the ABILITY to adopt the new results: I'm already trying to introduce them. With little success.

    A last note: I've introduced some of the proven software development paradigms into hardware development. For me personally, this is working near-to-perfect. But what do you expect from the "classic" hardware engineer ? :)

  • Angelo Pidatella added an answer in VASP:
    How to calculate ionzation potenial using VASP?

    i am working on boron triangular super-cell.

    Angelo Pidatella

    Dear Rajendra,

    Koopmans' theorem states that in closed-shell Hartree–Fock theory, the first ionization energy of a molecular system is equal to the negative of the orbital energy of the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO).

    Koopmans' theorem is exact in the context of restricted Hartree–Fock theory if it is assumed that the orbitals of the ion are identical to those of the neutral molecule (the frozen orbital approximation). Ionization energies calculated this way are in qualitative agreement with experiment – the first ionization energy of small molecules is often calculated with an error of less than two electron volts.

    A similar theorem exists in density functional theory (DFT) for relating the exact first vertical ionization energy and electron affinity to the HOMO and LUMO energies, although both the derivation and the precise statement differ from that of Koopmans' theorem. Ionization energies calculated from DFT orbital energies are usually poorer than those of Koopmans' theorem, with errors much larger than two electron volts possible depending on the exchange-correlation approximation employed. The error in the DFT counterpart of Koopmans' theorem is a result of the approximation employed for the exchange correlation energy functional.

    So that, first, it much depends by the kind of functional used in your calculations and not always get through it with a good approximation. 

    Please, take a look at this question asked some months ago:


    I hope it may be helpful.



  • Peter Kapusta added an answer in UV Radiation:
    How can we get the band gap from the reflectance %R and absorbance log(1/R) obtained from UV-VIS?

    I have taken UV/VIS  spectra of CdTioO3 powder . How can we get the band gap from the reflectance %R and absorbance log(1/R)?

    Peter Kapusta

    Khaled, what is the point in asking these elementary questions over and over? This one has been answered here already many times. Apart from that, it is a textbook topic. This behavior just further degrades the already low quality of this Q&A forum. Instead of becoming a place to discuss interesting and challenging problems, it is acting as a cheap answering machine for those who are unable or lazy to think or to open a book.

  • Harshvardhan Singh added an answer in Teaching and Learning:
    Please Direct me to research literature on 'Spatial Reasoning' and Geometry teaching/Learning?

    Dear colleagues,

    I am looking for research literature/Review articles on 

    • Effect of any intervention on spatial reasoning
    • Assessment of spatial reasoning
    • Validated/ Standardized tool to assess Spatial reasoning
    • Importance of 'spatial reasoning' in geometry learning
    • Role of 'Spatial Reasoning' in higher Mathematics/Engineering

     Please help.

    Harshvardhan Singh

    Thank you Romer Castillo,

    For providing quality literature. Your efforts are appreciated.


  • Massimo Palme asked a question in Chile:
    Someone interested in research periods in Chile (between 2 and 10 months) in the field of building/urban simulation?

    Open call available: http://www.conicyt.cl/pai/2016/02/01/concurso-atraccion-de-capital-humano-avanzado-del-extranjero-modalidad-estadias-cortas-mec-convocatoria-2016/
    The candidate should have a PhD degree obtained before 30/6/2011 and a strong scientific curriculum. Contact me if you are interested.

  • Claes Richard Fredö added an answer in Structural Vibration:
    What are the positive and negative effects of a TMD on a structure ?

    Dear researchers community;

    I'm trying to start a new project on TMD (tuned mass damper), I want to get a general idea from researchers who already work on this particular damping devices.
    what are the positive effects of a TMD on a structure ?
    what are the negative effects of a TMD on a stracture ?

    Best regards.

    Claes Richard Fredö


    If you run simulation, you can  have a Q of, say 10000 and at a narrow frequency interval tune a very small mass to oppose vibration.If you want to do this in real life, you need to keep things like losses from radiation, non linear spring stiffness, etc. at bay. Q = 25, maybe 30 usually is what you end up with, which sets the limit for linear maximum tuning. After all, the TMD will loose energy to the system it is acting upon, so it is difficult to get a very high Q factor.

    For a Helmholtz resonator, i.e. an acoustic TMD, the theoretical limit for Q, if memory correctly serves me, is Q=28 and this limit is set by the sound radiation from the acoustic plug's oscillatory motion. A mechanical TMD can get a higher Q if it acts upon a very rigid object, but my guess is that it ends up in the ballpark Q = 25-30 for structures containing several resonance in the vicinity of the TMD resonance frequency.

    However, if you use a small mass and drive it to high response, you can provoke a lock-in response, where the mass has to oppose vibration also away from its tuned resonance frequency. This counteracting force, at least at the tuned frequency, will not be as large as the linear case, but lock-in has its own merits in that the TMD follows excitation also to other frequencies.The physical mechanism underpinning lock-in is that once excited into high response, it is unable to step down in amplitude as it does not have the damping mechanisms required to do so. The situation then resembles that of so called stepping frequencies that are found in corrugated pipes.

    Perhaps you are referring to such a situation?


  • Eugene Prokhorenko added an answer in Mathematical Physics:
    Is Lagrangian, depending only from coordinates minus full system energy?

    If do, can we consider any function of coordinate as minus some physical system energy? Moreover, if we have infinite number of coordinates (like scalar field), energy will be minus integral of Lagrangian density and can be infinite. Can we say, that such configuration is physical?

    Eugene Prokhorenko

    Kumar, by "field" I understand: L=integral by dxn(Lagrangian-density(fi(xi)))

  • James R Knaub added an answer in Nonlinear Regression:
    When fitting a non-linear trend, how to judge whether the used function is over fitting or under fitting? Is there any hypothesis testing?

    When fitting a non-linear trend, how to judge whether the used function is over fitting or under fitting? Is there any hypothesis testing?

    James R Knaub

    Andrey. OK.  I did not read it that way, but OK. 

  • Sadeem Fadhil added an answer in Accounting Research:
    Does anyone have any experience in publishing an article on peer reviewed journal after uploading it on his/her account on research gate?

    I want to know if it's allowed to publish an article on a peer reviewed journal after uploading it on the personal account of research gate. Anyone has such experience, please share it with us so that we can have an idea about the editors interaction with the uploaded papers on personal account in research gate.

    Sadeem Fadhil

    Dear William

    I understand what you mean, sometimes the reviewers and editors comments are harsh so one need to make some change in his plane of publication at least to see some progress on his academic account. However its better to have multiple resources of publications including personal accounts on research gate or academia in addition to peer reviewed journals. It's good we have thousands of choices to submit to them today, so keep going on there is always another journal around.

    Best regards

  • Angus Ramsay added an answer in ANSYS:
    How to apply acceleration on particular body in assembly in Ansys, but not using nodal force?

    Using Standard ANSYS Workbench platform for performing Structural Analysis, Acceleration as an option is given only to be applied on whole assembly.

    Why there isn't any option for adding acceleration on Named Selection?

    Is there any ACT (ANSYS Customization Toolkit) for this problem?

    Angus Ramsay

    You can achieve this by having different material mass density values.  So define a density for the parts of your model you wish to have the body load applied and define a zero density for the other parts...

  • E. A. Ploetz added an answer in Supercritical Fluids:
    Why is the vapor-liquid critical point (the actual point itself) studied so intently?

    I understand there are applications for supercritical fluids. What I am asking is why is the point itself so important? Why do we need to know with such great precision what temperature/pressure/density corresponds to the critical point for a given molecule (to the point that experiments are performed in space to achieve microgravity so that the sample will not have density gradients and will be homogeneous)? Why is knowledge of the critical exponents so important (and whether or not they are classical values or renormalization group values)? Is this knowledge about the critical point itself merely of academic interest?

    E. A. Ploetz

    Hi Ariadne,

    Thanks for the dissertation. I looked through it, but I guess my question still remains. There are many books on the vapor-liquid critical point, but they all seem to skip over my simple question and go straight to the complicated theories. Perhaps my understanding and my question are too simple. If there is a specific spot in the dissertation that you think answers my question, could you please tell me the page? I looked at each sentence/paragraph containing the word critical (as well as skimming other parts of the dissertation), but I did not see any real answer to my question.

    Thanks for your time,


  • Sadegh Moodi added an answer in ode:
    What method you recommend me to solve this system of ODEs?

    i want to solve this system of ODE, i.e, solving two equations simultaneously...

    what method you recommend me?

    please explain about your recommended method.


    Sadegh Moodi

    Dear Gustaf Söderlind, thank you very much...

  • Jacques Lavau added an answer in Quantum Mechanics:
    Help with Feynman's(thought) experiment with electrons?

    I read his description of the experiment but I still haven't understood as to how the results can't be predicted with "classical physics", what I mean is that electron gun which he has assumed throws out electrons randomly and since we do not know the initial conditions( because of randomness) we can't predict the exact trajectory , and therefore we can talk  only of probability, but I see that Feynman says constantly that "we can't really predict where the electron would end up being" but ain't that because of the random nature of electron emitting device??

    Obviously i am wrong somewhere but I can't catch it?

    Any help would be appreciated.

    Now Feynman has constantly  

    Jacques Lavau

     @K. Kassner : "particle-wave duality", "if your detector measures photon positions, you will see the photons as particles", "measure particle properties"...

    It seems that all the years you spended in learning these fairy tales of "duality" and "corpuscular aspects" have burned your eyes and your ears... None of these corpuscularists have ever shown the physics of the magical transmutations involved. You have never shown how a photon could transmute into "a particle", meaned as a corpuscle.

    Simply the reaction at the screen is of small diameter. That is the corpuscularists shout as "You see ! It is corpuscle !". In the real world, no photon is without a destination : an absorber. Hate it or like it. So no more need of these fairy tales of "particle-wave duality", "if your detector measures photon positions, you will see the photons as particles", "measure particle properties".

  • Shambhu Prasad asked a question in Cell Viability Assay:
    The plating density and incubation time for the alamarBlue® assay for human PBMC?

    I need to do cell viability assay in an experiment and I want to know the plating density and incubation time for the alamarBlue assay for human PBMC.

    I used MT4 cells previously and had used 10,000 cells per well in 96 well plate and after adding alamar blue, incubation for 1-3 hr gave good results. Now I want to do the same using human PBMC (peripheral blood mononuclear cells). Please let me know the same if you have used human PBMC anytime. I am using Cat# DAL1100 AlamarBlue® Cell Viability Reagent . Thank you in advance. :)

  • Massimo Palme asked a question in Chile:
    Someone interested in research periods in Chile (between 2 and 10 months) in the field of building/urban simulation?

    Open call available: http://www.conicyt.cl/pai/2016/02/01/concurso-atraccion-de-capital-humano-avanzado-del-extranjero-modalidad-estadias-cortas-mec-convocatoria-2016/

    The candidate should have a PhD degree obtained before 30/6/2011 and a strong scientific curriculum. Contact me if you are interested.


  • El-Sayed Mahmoud El-Rabaie added an answer in Postdoctoral Research:
    Impact factor for post doctoral applications ?

    How important is the cumulative impact factor while applying for post doctoral positions ?

    El-Sayed Mahmoud El-Rabaie

    As you publish  impacted  papers in your area your chance for getting a post doctoral position becomes easily. This is a good metric for for the scientific repetition. Especially if there are many nominee for the position.

    Good Luck.

    Prof. S. EL-Rabaie

  • Han Ping Fung added an answer in Creativity:
    How to innovative new things or new ideas?

    How to increase creativity, imagination and innovative ideas or innovative things?

    Han Ping Fung

    Others can include:

    1. Take a break after thinking too long or too hard - the break sometimes can help us reset & see / think differently.
    2. Do something different than the norm for new idea(s) to surface - this includes explore other areas / realms / horizons beyond our comfort zones.
    3. Attend your area as well as not your area of conferences or expos for new ideas generation.
    4. Discuss & exchange ideas with people outside our work / research area.
    5. Participate & leverage on RG resources.
  • Sajjad Toghiani asked a question in Chromosomes:
    What is the approximate number of rare variants in specific length of chromosome which sequenced from NGS?

    Dear all

    I am considering to know numbers of rare variants between specific length of chromosome such as bp, kbp or Mbp in human or cattle sequencing data via NGS method. I will appreciate if anyone has a information regarding to numbers of rare variants from sequence data in human or cattle.