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  • Witold Orlik added an answer in Alpha:
    Alpha cronbach

    Dear researchers,

    I has estimated internal consistency for a questionnaire with 50 items (five -likert point) by alpha cronbach. Alpha was .98.

    What is your interpretation?

    What can the cause be from your point of view?   

    Thanking you in anticipation.

    Witold Orlik

    However, just very recently found out that very high Cronbach's alpha MAY indicate multidimensionality....

    Shevlin, M., Miles, J. N. V., Davies, M. N. O., &Walker, S. (2000). Coefficient alpha: A useful indicator of
    reliability? Personality and Individual Differences, 28, 229-237.


  • Wolfgang F. Schwarz added an answer in Drama:
    Why is writing drama on the decline?

    Novel has considerably replaced drama. Some amount of drama is found only in a different genre - film. I think Television, Video and Film restrain people from going to the theatres. Theatre gives enormous scope to dramatic literature which other media cannot. I would like to know and be connected with modern English playwrights in Britain and USA. Some experiments are made in India, but they are not worth the salt.

  • James Langworthy added an answer in Quantum Mechanics:
    Are there any of the mysteries of physics that are beyond our intellectual capacity to conceptually understand?

    Richard Feynman said, "If you think you understand quantum mechanics, you don't understand quantum mechanics.” Is the problem that the human intellect is incapable of understanding some aspects of quantum mechanics or are we merely missing a model which will make the mysteries of quantum mechanics conceptually understandable? Another quote attributed to Feynman is “Shut-up and calculate”. This implies that a student is being told to suppress their natural desire for conceptual understanding and instead work on mathematical analysis. Do you feel that some questions are beyond our intellectual capacity to successfully answer? If so, perhaps you should identify these to stimulate discussion. For example, questions about the composition of fundamental particles or string theory strings are often treated as unanswerable. What are your thoughts?

    James Langworthy

    John  --  First off: what's physics? I contend that physics is unable to investigate anything basically not repeatable. Astronomy gets around my qualifier "basically" by taking reproducible recordings of rare events so maybe this isn't as hard as it sounds. Without even getting into quantum effects, my contention excludes most physical events that are chaotic. The math is repeatable but the physics is not because one can't input perfectly accurate initial conditions. Quantum phenomena may fall to this same dictum. I think no one has demonstrated how to have an isolated quantum system. If we can't do that then any calculations we make on simple systems, say, for 2 particles, leaves out any effects on one of the two from the rest of the universe, for example, one or both of the 2 might be entangled with some outside particle or particles.

    On a different tack, one may quibble whether the mind/brain dilemma is physics or not but it brings up how your question is phrased. The mind/brain problem seems to be beyond our current capabilities but it seems your are asking about our current ability.

  • Jetty Ramadevi added an answer in Biological Control Of Mosquito:
    Is there any institution giving training on Zika?

    Zika virus is spreading like wild fire. According to a latest report a case has been reported from Indonesia. Trained personnel is the need of the hour to halt its invasion to newer areas.

    Jetty Ramadevi

    some useful links reg. Zika virus.

    Special issue of The Lancet
    Zika virus resource centre

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

    Sumodan contact Dr Alain Kohl and Dr Claire Donald, Glasgow University you may get some useful information. Good Luck.
    Glasgow University leading the fight against the Zika Virus

  • Raymond J Ritchie added an answer in Chlamydomonas:
    Why is it that Chlamydomonas is the preferred chlorophyte for hydrogen production?

    Greetings colleagues,

    Why is it that Chlamydomonas is the preferred chlorophyte for hydrogen production?

    “Chlamydomonas AND hydrogen” have 1365 hits on web of science, compared to only 829 for chlorella, and the Chlamy publications enjoy substantially higher rates of citation (admittedly not the best method of determining the degree to which a subject is studied). Chlorella grows more prolifically and in my understanding does much better when scaled up. Is Chlamydomonas simply better at producing hydrogen, if so is this a function of its hydrogenase concentration, superior hydrogen pathway isozymes, or another factor? If any of you have definite figures on the maximum H2 evolution rates from the two species that would be much appreciated, with the various strains and culture conditions being tested I have found it challenging to find a discrete maximum H2 production rate in the literature.

    Cheers, J

    Raymond J Ritchie

    Photosynthetic bacteria like Rhodopseudomonads which never produce oxygen seem to me to be far more viable H2 producers than oxygenic algae.

    This might sound hard to believe but I have worked on algae and algal photosynthesis for 40 years and I have never seen H2 production by algae or had it demonstrated to me.  H2 production by Rhodopseudomonads you can demonstrate with an inverted test tube.  The H2 goes "pop" and so the students like it.

  • Carl Beierkuhnlein added an answer in Tropical Diseases:
    What are the thermal constraints for Zika transmission ?

    Zika virus is considered to be more or less restricted to tropical countries. However, transmission might be possible when a competent vector (Aedes species) is present. But, the presence of a vector is not sufficient. Warm summer periods might bring favourable conditions for transmission via ektothermal insects also outside of the tropics. With climate warming, these regions are likely to increase in extent. As far as I know, there is no knowledge on the EIP (extrinsic incubation period), which would be needed to assess whether  regions and periods with the risk for transmission will evolve. Are there any hard facts, data, exeriments that can be used or applied to this virus.

    Carl Beierkuhnlein

    thanks bertrand

    this is at least a start. if somebody has more data, I would be grateful.


  • Gandhidas Sonajirao Lavekar added an answer in Cosmetics:
    Fat-Oil soluble proteins or fractions?

    In cosmetic preparations in particular skin care products Fat-Oil soluble specific proteins are required, but how can this be dissolved? Which agents are to be used and what is its safety? 

    Gandhidas Sonajirao Lavekar

    Thanks to all

  • Ahmed Younes added an answer in Urbanization:
    Is there are a relationship Between Transport Systems and Urbanization?

    What is a relationships between transportation and Urbanization?

    Ahmed Younes

    Thank you very much Anas Alhowaily for your answer and article .

  • Randye Jones added an answer in Performing Arts:
    What are the disadvantages of using western music notation to transcribe indigenous non-western ethnic music and what can be used as an alternative?

    Western music notation used widely in transcribing and notating non-western music. Well, it looks a media beside the oral transmission of music which can help grasping structure of a certain type of music, but it is not. Western music notation forces its limitations in transcriptions and through the history the notated version remains as the document or “original version” against changes take place in oral versions over time. It is in spite of modifications the written version already got through transcribing musical sound to written notation.

    Randye Jones

    I want to suggest something that might not be what you are asking, but I do believe it is relevant.  When non-Western music is notated into Western format, it places a demand upon the one interpreting it to do so understanding that there are elements "lost" in that transcription.  All too often, musicians--especially young ones--are trained to play (or sing) what they see, which is appropriate in the right context.  However, when music, such as Negro Spirituals, are set using Western notation for concert performance, the performer must "add" the interpretative elements that make that music distinctive, or the presentation will lack the essence of the music. 

  • Timothy Ryan added an answer in User Experience Design:
    What are the differences/similarities of customer experience design and user experience design?

    As UX designers we help design the experience of human-machine interactions. I recently prepared a talk on a pretty well rounded UX example on a screen provided in a store but then noticed it was also well interlinked with the overall experience in the location, which I found out was customer experience design. But the "user" also being the "customer" I asked myself: where does one stop, the other begin? Does UX express the customer experience design like the visual design of a website expresses the corporate design? I am interested to find out what you think. 

    Timothy Ryan

    The customer is someone who makes the decision to adopt a product, which in many cases means purchasing the product. That customer may not be someone who actually uses the product. A user is someone who uses the product. Customers and users will not always have the same needs. A user may need a product that enables them to accomplish a specific job, and a customer may require a product that can be leased over a three-year period and includes a maintenance agreement. A UX designer will primarily work on the user experience, and a product manager must additionally deliver for the customer.

  • Jacques Gilloteaux added an answer in Micronucleus:
    How acurate is Acridine orange/ ethidium bromide detection of apotosis and micronuclei?

    I am working on plant based compound activity on human cancer cell lines. I would like to observe any damage to DNA but i am confused what experiment will be appropriate.

    Can anyone share me article/s relating apoptosis and micronuclei?

    How exactly is cell undergo apoptosis and formation of micronuclei and its mechanism?

    Does it relating to toxicity of compound against cell?

    What is the size of micronucleus?

    Thank you,

    Jacques Gilloteaux

    Acridine orange combined with Pserine assay gives you an idea about how may cells die of apoptosis at a low cost...please consult Jamison Jm et al

  • Varun Shankar added an answer in MATLAB:
    How can I store the results beyond MATLAB's machine precision eps (1.0e-16) ??

    I am doing some numerical tests for interpolation problems and the error is around 1.0e-16. When I try to be more accurate ( say using more data points for interpolation) the error becomes zero. Its like MATLAB can't store any result between 1.0e-16 and 0. My concern is, If I want to show some variation in my results, which are between 10e-16 to 10e-17, is there any way to do so? 

    Varun Shankar

    Hi Pankaj,

    You have two robust options

    1. Use Matlab's own vpa library, which is variable-precision. It works, but is ridiculously slow.

    2. The other option is to get Advanpix's Multiprecision library, which is several hundred times faster than any other variable precision library out there. Further, it is optimized for quad-precision, which is likely the most amount of precision you'll need. Advanpix costs $99 for an academic license, if I remember correctly. The RBF community has been using Advanpix for a while now.

  • Jeff Sharman added an answer in Filters:
    What filter to use for SCFA quantification by HPLC?

    We have fecal supernatants to analyze for SCFA production by HPLC. It appears that we may be losing SCFA quantities due to filtering. What filter would you recommend for samples processing?

    Jeff Sharman

    I usually centrifuge

  • Naveen Kalra added an answer in Crop Modeling:
    How can I quantify the yield reduction associated with simultaneous occurrence of several nutrients stresses?

    In soil, there may be deficiency of N/P/K/Ca/S/Zn/Fe/Mn etc, everyone looks into one's compartment and gives excellent recommendation, which may not be application over space and time as many nutrients stresses are  occurring together. 

    Crop model could do, but the software program becomes too complex if we include N/P/K, 

    Empirical approaches like QUEFTS undertakes initiates with the most severe nutrients.

    Some approach/work/guidelines are needed to address this issue.


    Naveen Kalra

    Thanks Roelf for uploading a nice document, i fully agree with you for the non-linear interaction behaviour of multi-nutrients, and we need to tackle them in a holistic way, may be if the balanced fertilization is used, the apparent recovery efficiency may also increase, although the system is complex but we have to evolve some methology for solving this problem


  • Subramanian Vaitheeswaran added an answer in Dipeptides:
    Why is pressure not attaining the desired value after NPT equilibration?

     In a simulation of a dipeptide in water ,I have equilibrated using Berendsen pressure coupling using the parameters given in the attached file. Why isn't my pressure reaching the desired pressure of 1bar? What is the significance of err.est. , RMSD, tot-drift values? At what average pressure can I start production run?

    Energy    Average Err.Est. RMSD   Tot-Drift
    Pressure  2.54142   1.6     433.11   -8.84365 (bar)

    Subramanian Vaitheeswaran

    Err.est is probably calculated as P_avg-P_desired, RMSD is the root mean squared deviation and tot-drift is the total drift over the MD trajectory. The drift is quite substantial and indicates that the system has not reached equilibrium. How long is this traj? When the system is properly equilibrated, there should be no large drift in the total energy, pressure and volume. The avg. pressure should equal the desired value.

  • Dr. S. Kalidhasan added an answer in Adsorbents:
    What is the reason for the increase in peak intensity of xrd pattern of dye loaded adsorbents?

    the adsorbent is a agricultural waste material

    Dr. S. Kalidhasan

     from your response,

    i have a few Question, 

    what is the pollutant?

    FTIR difference (acud treated one from other two) is arises due to possible protonation of OH, lignocellulosic material undergo acid hydrolysis (what is the concentration of H2SO4?), or possible deposition of SO4 anion species. The similarities are arises due to the possible presence of similar functional group such as H2C=O, OH,-O-, etc between raw adsorbent and formaldehyde treated adsorbent.

    The increase in XRD peak for other than HCHO treated is possibly due to type of pollutant & its interaction with adsorbent. But the peak disappearance (in HCHO treated material) after the adsorption is may be due to  possible higher amount of adsprtion (as thick layer) or lose its originality of lignocellulosic material.

    i'm happy to answer if you more questions

    good luck

  • Jeff Sharman added an answer in Cement:
    Does sugar affect the setting time of cement?

    i have read an article regarding sugar affecting time setting of cement. How this is so? have several theories but none was so convincing to me.

    Jeff Sharman

    Good question! my thought is that it works through the OH groups interfering with the reactions of the differnet phases with water in the same way that sulphonated superplasticizers interfere / compete with sulphate reaction to form ettringite.

    It is not only sugar but I have seen no reaction at all with a 1:1 water/methanol mix.

  • Yoann Pageaud asked a question in Print:
    Tools for mapping relations between GO(Gene Ontology) ?

    Dear Colleagues, 

    I am looking for a bioinformatic tool that could allow me to map relation between GO (Gene Ontology), thanks to a list of GO.

    I tried to figure out a program in Python (2.7) to get the different relations existing in Go.obo
    Pleas, take a look below : 

    import re

    fichier = open("go.obo", "r")
    for ligne in fichier :
    if re.search(r"^id: GO",ligne) :
    elif re.search(r"^is_a:",ligne) :
    elif re.search(r"^intersection_of:",ligne) :
    elif re.search(r"^relationship:",ligne) :
    elif re.search(r"GO:\d\d\d\d\d\d\d",ligne) :
    elif re.search(r"^subset: goslim",ligne) :

    If you have any informations, or ideas to help, don't hesitate to share it with me. 
    Thank you all in advance for your help. 
    Best regards, 

    Yoann Pageaud.

  • Ernest Tambo added an answer in Mosquitoes:
    Please, can anyone help me to extract gDNA mosquito from wild sample by traditional method independent from commercialised Kit?

    Aim: To save money because Kit are expensive and I have many sample to exploit 

    Ernest Tambo

    Mamadou make a test run on DNA extraction ad test the DNA quality and purity and adapt to your context. The protocol is working very well but the final genomic DNA depends on the below factors.

     NOTE: I can't take a new protocol or SOP and implement without prior VALIDATION. This is a basic requirement in Scientific research method( experimentation and validation/standardization of protocol).

    The quality and purity of the obtained genomic DNA depends on many factors , including the source of your sample, the duration of the field, the storage conditions, reagents and read on previous literature for basics on PCR or genotyping.

    Best wishes

    Dr Tambo

  • Renzo Bianchi added an answer in Psychological Disorders:
    What is the distinction between moral and mental disorder?

    Do moral disorders lead to mental psychological disorders in individuals?  

  • Subhash C. Kundu added an answer in Engineering Software:
    Software engineering consists only of programming?

    Dear Colleagues.

    Software Engineering  - The application of systematic, disciplined, measurable approach to the development, operation and maintenance of the software, as well as the study of these approaches; that is, the application of discipline engineering software.

    Thank you very much for opinion in advance.

    Best regards, Shafagat

    Subhash C. Kundu

    Software Engineering is an approach to developing software that attempts to treat it as a formal process more like traditional engineering than the craft that many programmers believe it is.

  • Chee Hoo Yip added an answer in Protein Expression:
    Choice of lacI repressor gene?

    Dear all, I am working on a synthetic biology project and will be using a titratable expression system (pLac). Since this system gives leaky expression, I would like to introduce a lacI repressor gene on the vector (to suppress the system so that there is no expression before induction by IPTG). However, I am worried that if the repressor represses the system completely and upon induction by IPTG, there will be a relatively low increase of protein expression (say 2-5 folds from the baseline: I have to do a large-scale protein production at the end). 

    Does anyone have a similar experience in introducing a repressor to a plasmid and later compare the protein expression (induced and non induced)? Thank you.

    Chee Hoo Yip

    Thank you Dominique

  • Peter Mathew added an answer in Thin Layers:
    How can I fabricate MIS solar cell in lab?

    The solar cell that we are trying to fabricate is similar to the proposed cell in the paper which was Au/NiO/c-Si/TiO2/Al. Attached is the paper as well. 

    Previous in-lab fabrication efforts include testing the following cells:

    - Au/NiO/c-Si/Al

    - Au/c-Si/TiO2/Al

    - Au/NiO/c-Si/TiO2/Al

    - Au/c-Si/Al

    each of the above gives same iv curves in dark and when light falling on the surface..

    The oxide layers were grown using sputtering with thickness ranging from 13-20nm . contact were also sputtered in the same way. c-Si(n-type) was around 300um. When each of the above cell was measured for iv curves, they gave diode like curves in dark (as expected), but the issue is, in UV light they are giving the same curves which essentially means the cell is not generating any current.

    Not knowing where we are lagging, we tried different approaches. like testing the cell with only one oxide layer (with a hole or electron blocking layer), testing both simultaneously, or including no oxide layer as in the last one, with just a thin layer of gold on one side of c-Si and Al as contact on the other side. In theory, this is also a solar cell but this does not work as well. 

    Please suggest some method  or any advice on how to grow thin oxides on c-Si for MIS solar cell

    Peter Mathew

    Sputtering is more viable for deposition of Au and Al. You may also try using PVD for Al.

    However for deposition of metal oxides, particularly the materials of your interest PLD and MBE would give you fine results.

  • Hossein Javadi added an answer in General Relativity:
    Universe is static!!! Yes or no?

    Space of Universe is static! Yes or no?

    Question: Are there any observations that do not fit into the model static space of Universe, are there any theoretical obstacles to the existence of such a model?

    I assume that the Universe is eternal, infinite and static, it is not expanded and not curved, it is possible to construct a preferred inertial frame of reference in which the CMBR is most isotropic. The matter in this space evolves, but the average density of matter and energy (in large enough volumes) fluctuate within a rather broad range.
    The light in this model is "tired", the speed of light depends on the optical density intergalactic medium. Gravity is also "tired" t.i. weakens a little faster R2. The energy of destroying matter goes into the surrounding vacuum. The excess energy from the vacuum give rise to new particles of matter.

    I state that all the observed cosmological effects can be explained in such a Static Model of the Universe.
    See attached "Basic_Cosmological_Formula_1_En.pdf"

    Dear colleagues, I do not ask, what are the problems faced by other theories (though I would be interested in your opinion on that. The General theory of relativity is not applicable to the entire space of the Universe).

    Hossein Javadi

    Dear Matts
    Okun's article is attached to this comment, please see attachment. It has a good detail about photon.
    "I don't know what would change in QED or Cosmology if the photon did have a mass..." The mass of photon leads us to describe the structure of photon, then we can propound a new QED, analyze before the Big Bang and approach to unified field theory.



    + 2 more attachments

  • Jessica Bell added an answer in ISH:
    Formamide free 2X microRNA ISH buffer recipe?

    Does anyone have a recipe for a formamide free 2X microRNA ISH buffer?

    Jessica Bell

     Thanks Rafik! I am trying to find more detailed list of components/ingredients in the buffer itself. The manual only gives basic information. I appreciate the manual! 

  • Naveen Kalra added an answer in Agronomy:
    Products / technologies developed are more effective than advisory services for increase of agri-production. Can we debate on this imp topic?

    Examples of products/technologies- fertilizer types (customized, fortified, foliar, organic, PGP), newer pesticides, new cultivars, agri-implements, reource conservation technologies.

    Few Examples of Advisory services-  agro-advisory, soil-test based recommendation, yield forecasting and management options, water/tillage management options, weather based agro-advisory (although nice work but not very effective, specifically for tropical/sub-tropical regions, intensive agriculture system),


    Naveen Kalra

    Thanks Dr Gbenga, i agree with you regarding effective platforms for knowledge dissemination within developing countries, although knowledge content exist, the need is to consolidate and make it tune with the regional based decisions, as well dissemination is a problem due to large proportion of small/marginal farmers, amongst them the extent of variability in land use types, inputs and management options is quite wide, 


  • Fernando Soares Schlindwein added an answer in Catheter Ablation:
    What is the current role of CFAE ablation in the treatment of long-persistent atrial fibrillation?

    1. Nademanee K, McKenzie J, Kosar E, et al. A new approach

    for catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation: mapping of the
    electrophysiologic substrate. J Am Coll Cardiol 2004;43:2044–53.

    2. Li WJ, Bai YY, Zhang HY, et al. Additional ablation of complex
    fractionated atrial electrograms after pulmonary vein
    isolation in patients with atrial fibrillation: a meta-analysis.
    Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol 2011;4:143–8.

    3. STAR AF 2 study

    Fernando Soares Schlindwein

    The jury is still out.

    In a review of CFAE mapping systems, EGM settings and success rate in different clinical studies our group found that while Nademanee claims a success rate of 95% in...

    "NADEMANEE, K., MCKENZIE, J., KOSAR, E., SCHWAB, M., SUNSANEEWITAYAKUL, B., VASAVAKUL, T., KHUNNAWAT, C. & NGARMUKOS, T. 2004. A new approach for catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation: Mapping of the electrophysiologic substrate. J Am Coll Cardiol, 43, 2044-2053."...

    Verma et al. only managed a success rate of 14% in...

    "VERMA, A., LAKKIREDDY, D., WULFFHART, Z., PILLARISETTI, J., FARINA, D., BEARDSALL, M., WHALEY, B., GIEWERCER, D., TSANG, B. & KHAYKIN, Y. 2011. Relationship Between Complex Fractionated Electrograms (CFE) and Dominant Frequency (DF) Sites and Prospective Assessment of Adding DF-Guided Ablation to Pulmonary Vein Isolation in Persistent Atrial Fibrillation (AF). J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol, 22, 1309-1316." ...

    and Oral et al. only managed 18% success rate in...

    "ORAL, H., CHUGH, A., GOOD, E., WIMMER, A., DEY, S., GADEELA, N., SANKARAN, S., CRAWFORD, T., SARRAZIN, J. F., KUHNE, M., CHALFOUN, N., WELLS, D., FREDERICK, M., FORTINO, J., BENLOUCIF-MOORE, S., JONGNARANGSIN, K., PELOSI, F., BOGUN, F. & MORADY, F. 2007. Radiofrequency catheter ablation of chronic atrial fibrillation guided by complex electrograms. Circulation, 115, 2606-2612."

    and Porter et al. only reached 20% success rate in...

    "PORTER, M., SPEAR, W., AKAR, J. G., HELMS, R., BRYSIEWICZ, N., SANTUCCI, P. & WILBER, D. J. 2008. Prospective study of atrial fibrillation termination during ablation guided by automated detection of fractionated electrograms. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol, 19, 613-620."

    A confounding factor is that there are 2 commercial mapping systems for CFAE (NavX and CARTO), and both allow tweaking with the thresholds of the parameters used for classification. Furthermore the systems, when using their recommended thresholds, have different sensitivity and specificity.

    Go to the library, read, and reach your own conclusions.

  • Cheikh Khoule asked a question in Foliation Theory:
    Why the pseudo-Anosov diffeo is not smooth on singular points?


    Geo diff

  • Bill Brekke added an answer in Educational Systems:
    How should / could we improve the Educational System, to adapt modern times, and future generations?

    Most would agree that Education plays a fundamental role in solving many of the humanity's current problems.

    I believe in a better World.

    Mass education for all youngster can play a good role in the near future.

    Should we change our system?

    Should we act on University level?

    Should we act transversally from kindergarten, through basic education?

    I should like your valuable contributes.

    Bill Brekke

    I think there should be more emphasis on the art of storytelling, in  particular the aspect of personal change that great stories include.  Another important aspect of storytelling that should be emphasized is holding an audiences attention and all the things that are required for that in live presentations and performances.  I think with the advent of movies we have become more passive as a society in this regard, losing the ability to interest an audience and losing the desire to even do so, affecting leadership in our institutions.  

  • Jeff Guina added an answer in Dissociation:
    What are the main theories and studies about dissociation in adult traumatized patients and grief?
    Jeff Guina

    There seems to be an age-related phenomena, by which the ability to dissociate seems to wane with age. However, while dissociation is more commonly associated with in onset in childhood and early traumatic experiences, it can certainly begin as an adult and without a history of childhood trauma.

    Like all medical symptoms, there are a variety of biopsychosocial factors that contribute to dissociation.

    Biologically, dissociation seems to be associated with abnormal connectivity between the Amygdala (involved in threat detection, fear/stress) and Prefrontal Cortex (involved in cognitions, emotional regulation, sensory integration), as well as dysfunction in the Hippocampus (involved in memory), Parietal Lobes (involved in self-identity and sensory awareness), and Insula (involved in self/interoceptive awareness of body states, emotional regulation of body homeostasis). Several neurological disorders can cause dissociative-like phenomena, including seizures, migraines, traumatic brain injury, stroke, neurodegenerative disorders, and delirium. Endocrinology may also contribute, particular involving HPA Axis/Cortisol dysregulation. Several substances can cause dissociative-like symptoms, such as alcohol, sedative-hypnotics, cannabis and hallucinogens. Sleep deprivation and other sleep disorders can as well.

    Psychologically, dissociation is associated with neuroticism, avoidant coping skills, cognitive disconnection schemata, and overconnection schemata. Possible psychodynamic factors include unconscious conflicts between unacceptable fears/fantasies, poor emotional expression (e.g., alexithymia, repression, suppression), and several defense mechanisms in addition to dissociation (denial, distortion, splitting, acting out, fantasy, somatization, regression, repression, suppression -- especially of anger or resentment). Cognitive factors include all-or-nothing thinking, imperatives, catastrophizing, mind reading, and personalization.

    Social factors include culture (for example dissociation is rare outside North America and Europe and some argue it is a culture bound syndrome, it is more likely to involve pseudoseizures in Asia and South America), media (e.g., US rates increased after several films in the 1970s, dissociative identity disorder in India presents as a change in identity after sleep which is portrayed in Indian media), medical recognition (e.g., some argue it can be iatrogenic or therapist-induced), socioeconomics (poor education, poverty), and learned behaviors to obtain attention (e.g., lack of reinforcement of non-dissociative/non-somatic expressions of distress). Finally, and likely most importantly. Early childhood experiences, disorganized attachment, childhood surgeries/medical procedures, and trauma are highly associated with dissociation. 90% of those with dissociative disorders have child abuse, particularly severe physical and sexual abuse prior to the age of 5.