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  • Muhammad Mazhar Iqbal asked a question in Heat Flux:
    I need help regarding conversion GLDAS Latent heat flux(Past-3-Hours) W/m^2 into mm/day?

    final[i, j]= gldas_r[i, j]/2454000*60*60*24 It gives very low value of ET

  • Seong-Tak Oh added an answer in Martensite:
    Dislocation density (stress relief) can influence hardness?

    Specimens (Ti-6Al-4V alloy) were conducted by solution treatment at 1123~1323K/30min/WC, followed by aging at 823K for 1~30min/AC.

    I saw the report (from Titanium handbook) that said

    "Increased aging time at  868 K leads to stress relief dramatically during 15 min in Ti64 alloy".

    I wonder that hardness can be influenced by residual stress (dislocation density)?, except for martensite or any phase transformation.

    And how much?

    Seong-Tak Oh

    Thanks for everyone comments.

    These are very useful information for me

    I should consider various things on over feedbacks.

    Thank you very much

  • Utsav Parekh asked a question in Amylase:
    Can anyone recorded any relation between serum amylase and copper sulphate poisoning?

    AMong five cases of copper sulphate poisoning, increase in serum amylase and serum lipase manifested in three cases. Anyone likes to comment on these findings.

  • Vikas Kumar asked a question in Pharmaceutical Sciences:
    Please suggest good journals with good impact factor for medicinal plants and pharmaceutical sciences?

    Is there any journal which publishes free of cost in field of medicinal plants and pharmaceutical sciences?Please suggest good journals with good impact factor?

  • Justin Lemkul added an answer in Gromacs:
    Is 0.5 nm distance (between protein surface and boxedge) is accepaable in Gromacs?

    I did some 2700 ns MD simulation of two protein ligand complexes in Gromacs. However I kept only 0.5 nm distance between protein-surface and box edge. Is it acceptable?

    Justin Lemkul

    What were the cutoffs used during the run? If you're not getting image violations, then your cutoffs are too short, which is an even bigger problem.

  • SUBHASH CHANDRA BASU added an answer in Cataract Surgery:
    Should i use phenomenological or case study as a methodology in my study?

    currently i'm preparing my proposal (master program) on a topic barriers to cataract surgery among cataract blindness patients

    i am thinking that a phenomenological method was relevant in this study because i'm trying to know patients perception and experience based on their barriers.....


    Dear Nurulain,

    In your study you can pick any one like phenomenology or case study as per the research questions you want to answered.

    The main differences between these two methods is as :  In the case study and phenomenology refer to two widely know terms, between which some differences can be viewed. One of the key differences between a case study and phenomenology that one can identify is that a case study is a research method that allows the researcher to comprehend an individual, a group or else a particular event. Phenomenology, on the other hand, is a methodology as well as a philosophy. In Phenomenology, attention is paid to the lived experiences of people.

    A case study can be defined as a research method that is used to investigate an individual, a group of people or an event. This allows the researcher to broaden his understanding of the research subject and go beyond the surface.

    A case study is composed of a number of research techniques. Based on the research, the researcher can use one or many of the techniques. Interviews and observation are some of the mostly used techniques. For an example, through an in-depth interview the researcher can gain a better understanding of the research problem, as it allows him to go beyond the observable factors.

    Unlike the case study, Phenomenology, is a philosophical approach as well as a methodology. The influence it had on various social sciences is massive.

    Phenomenology was mainly developed by Alfred Schutz, Peter Burger, and Luckmann. Schutz emphasized that people take everyday realities for granted. He further states that the role of the researcher should be to analyze these realities so that he can understand the meanings that people allocate for various phenomena in the society.

    The manner, in which people comprehend the world around them, is never objective. Instead, it is very subjective. However, the world is created through relations and objects to which people have given specific meaning. The researcher should pay attention to these structures of meaning so that he can also understand the way in which people understand the world.

    The perception is known by researcher through phenomenology and others is by case study. You may also used combination of both to answer the different questions as per requirement. It is triangulation of methods, in which for one purpose answered by case study and other part is answered by phenomenology.

    Combination of both is a kind of triangulation and it give more better result in qualitatively and also quantitatively..

    So, Use triangulation method of both.

    Happy Researching

  • Deepak Samuel Vijay Kumar added an answer in Taxonomy:
    Can i get the name of this Vampire Squid, it is from Arabian sea?

    I am confused with the taxonomy of Vampire Squid which obtained from Arabian Sea lat:10.510E, long: 74.23E. 

    Deepak Samuel Vijay Kumar

    I agree with Umit, looks like Cirrothauma sp. (Cirroteuthidae), Vampire squids belong to a different family (Vampyroteuthidae)

  • Pradeep Naik added an answer in Water Science:
    Does National Water Documents need to revise?

    National Water Document (NWD) of Iran was prepared more than 2 decades ago. NWD is a basis of set aside irrigation water to farmers now and we want to know it is accurate or not (Dose it change!)? Is it necessary to revise it?

    Pradeep Naik

    Hi Masoud,  National Water Document of any country should be revised with changing time. Policy framework depends on the demand and requirements. Some aspects which were not important that time are important now, since there is drastic paradigm shift in water resources development and management from what it was in the past. The old paradigm of relying on larger dams and reservoirs is no more relevant now due to numerous environmental, economic, and social reasons. The new paradigm is more oriented towards reintegration of water use while maintaining ecological health and environmental well-being. Therefore, National Water Documents must change with time. Below is a reference to the National Water Policy of India (2012), which is a revised version of its 2002 draft.


  • Mubashir Majeed asked a question in SWAT model:
    How can Trap efficiency (settled sediments/inflow sediments) of small dams be determined?

    I am working on Impact of climate change on sediment yield in Rawal watershed, Islamabad, Pakistan. I don't have suspended sediment concentration data but i have hydrographic survey reports in which reduction (settled sediments)  in the reservoir capacity is calculated. I also have monthly discharge data. The reservoir initial capacity was 58.6 MCM in 1960. I want to calculate suspended sediment concentration data for SWAT model Calibration. How can i calculate suspended sediment concentration data or Trap efficiency of reservoir???

  • Raju Vaishya asked a question in Implants:
    40F, post traumatic painful, unstable elbow. Treatment options please?

    Best treatment options for this challenging case and choice of implants and exposure

    + 3 more attachments

  • Adil Mageet added an answer in Dentistry:
    Do you tell the patients to wear retainers for life?

    Do you think patients will accept it?

    Adil Mageet

    Dear Dr Kulchitsky;

    This is great statement, i like it. Also to show empathy.

  • Louis Brassard added an answer in Music Cognition:
    Are language and music related?
    Music affects us emotionally. Language could be unemotional but still the prosody of language sounds emotional. How do language and music interact in cognition? What are the differences and similarities between emotions in music and language?
    Louis Brassard

    Dear Anne,

    This Beethoven even his discourse is a  music that goes straight to our hearth.

  • Foysal Z. Khan added an answer in Electropolymerization:
    Does anyone have Unstable PEDOT film deposited from acetonitrile/LiClO4 solution via electropolymerization on gold electrode?

    I am trying to deposit PEDOT film on microfabricated gold electrode. I am using 0.1 M LiClO4, 0.01 M EDOT in acetontrile. Scan rate is 5 mV/s and 50mV/s. Film forming after deposition is not always stable. Randomly Film falls off form the gold surface. Also, film produced overgrown in some places and has ripples in some places. Is there anything I should do to have reproducible and well defined film? Thanks. 

    Foysal Z. Khan

    Thanks for your reply Vishwanath. I used 1.25 V as oxidative potential with monomer conc. of 0.01 M. I get the deposition with a dark film but with subsequent electrochemical operation ( CV,CA) it gradually fall off. Did you use TBAPF6 as electrolyte? 

  • Ali Syed Mithun added an answer in Markov Chains:
    How to make Markov Chain?

    We attend to predict an accident by Markov Chain And Wibool function.

    it would appreciated to guide me. 

    Ali Syed Mithun

    Dear Fathi,

    Please go through the following articles:

    1. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0951832016000260

    2. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S002980181400362X

    3. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1877705811008514

    4. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0925753515003252

    Above are a number of good articles which are similar to your work.

    Hope, this would guide you.

  • Vigneshwaran PV asked a question in Feathers:
    Do gravity exists in Vacuum?

    In vacuum a feather and ball falls down at the same rate. If there is no gravity why both the object falls down instead of floating. 

  • George Stoica asked a question in Central Banks:
    What is the financial meaning of negative interest rates?

    The central bank of Canada is talking more and more about introducing negative interest rates; what does it mean, what are the benefits and drawbacks?

  • Kamal Sadeghi asked a question in Bacteria:
    How the glycerol can increase the ability of ice nucleation activity in these bacteria(ina bacteria)?

    I want to know  mechanism of increase this ability by NAG medium (Nutrient Agar Glycerol).

  • Rajinder Singh Brar added an answer in White Blood Cells:
    Blood cell count Asian eel (Monopterus albus)?

    how to count different white blood cell and how to differentiate white blood cell? how to make white blood cell smear?

    Rajinder Singh Brar

    This article may be usefull: Blaxhall PC, Daisley KW (1973) Routine haematological methods for   use with fish blood. J Fish Biol 5:771–781

  • Sajjad Naeimipoor added an answer in Bioreactors:
    Set up a perfusion bioreactor for cultivation of seeded silk/fibroin scaffolds

    Hi every one,

    I have designed a perfusion bioreactor that consists a cylindrical chamber and a media reservoir. the chamber is sealed and the media is forced to go through the scaffold. The flow rate of media in the chamber is 0.2ml/min and the superficial velocity is 0.01mm/s. The mixing of the CO2 , O2 and media is well provided. the problem is that after 2 days there are no cells on scaffolds. I've searched many articles and I think the flow rate is low enough. What are other possiblities?

    Sajjad Naeimipoor

    @Jeroen Rouwkema  I've checked the media after cultivation. First, the media was centrifuged and then the pellet was stained by Trypan Blue to detect living cells. No cells detected. So, I'm not sure but I thing they are not alive which I suppose means that whether no cell washed through scaffold or they burst in the media.

    The scaffold have been used in a spinner flask bioreactor and results were good, on the other hand the static culture was successful too.

    Considering the superficial flow, I do agree with you that my simple calculation is much different from what cells might experience. Therefore, I should check it. But there is still a question, how can one use the data provided in other research article. Does it mean there is no use of others experiences in setting up a perfusion bioreactor?

    Finally, the cytotoxicity of components I used seems to be plausible. I think I should check that too.

    Thank you for your response

  • James R Knaub added an answer in Nonlinear Regression:
    When fitting a non-linear trend, how to judge whether the used function is over fitting or under fitting? Is there any hypothesis testing?

    When fitting a non-linear trend, how to judge whether the used function is over fitting or under fitting? Is there any hypothesis testing?

    James R Knaub

    Xu -

    A model should make good sense in light of subject matter theory.  If you are doing a time series, jumps should only occur when there has been some hopefully observable change which caused a break in the time series, and perhaps justifies a change in the model.  
    If you overfit to the point of 'connecting the dots,' you have completely specified the past, but not the future.  It may appear that you have no variance and no bias, but the model is not justified.  If you underfit, it should not forecast well for new cases either.  Something more reasonable is needed which is justified by subject matter theory, new or old, that might possibly even have more than one curve, but only as justified by subject matter reasoning. 
    The variance of the forecasting error may be estimated when forecasting for a point, but bias may not be so readily estimated.  Accuracy could be checked, post hoc, however.  What you need is test data for validation.   For example, you could pretend you do not have parts of your data, and see how well you would have forecasted for them, based only on the other data.  You may wish to research validation methods for trends.  (My work was more in cross-sectional surveys, not time series, so "prediction," not "forecasting."  But I recall a time series, an ARIMA use, as I recall, with an additional variable, and enough overall complexity that it turned out to appear to have been overfit to the first data, as it's performance, as measured against two-period ahead checking, turned out to slowly deteriorate over time.) 

    Scatterplot analyses, including residual analysis, perhaps some form of control chart, may often be helpful. 

    As for hypothesis tests, they are often misinterpreted, and not of great practical use.  

    Cheers - Jim

  • Sunil Sinhmar asked a question in Friction-Stir Welding:
    What type of etchant should be used to get clear Microscopic and SEM images of Friction Stir Welded AA7075?

    I have already used Poulton, Modified Poulton and Keller etchant but these etchants did not show clear grain boundaries.

  • Anil Kumar asked a question in Polyaniline:
    How crystallinity of polyaniline affect the FTIR spectra ? OR Effect of ordering of polymeric chains on FTIR spectra ?

    How crystallinity of polyaniline affect the FTIR spectra.

  • Shrestha Ranjit added an answer in Infrared Thermography:
    What is the significance of using reflection and transmission mode in infrared thermography during the NDT&E of materials?

    Hello Everyone,

    It is found that most of the researchers in the field of thermography considered the reflection mode during the experimental procedure while some of few also focussed on the transmission mode.

    From the literature review, I came to know that reflection mode enables a high resolution for the determination of defect depth. However, only inclusions close to the surface could be detected reliably. Thus, the lateral size of defects along the whole cross section of the samples could only be determined by transmission measurements. In several cases due to the accessibility of only one side of the structure, only reflection measurements are possible.

    Beside these, is there any other significance of using reflection and transmission mode in infrared thermography during the NDT&E of materials? 

    It is appreciated if anyone can provide information about this issue.


    Shrestha Ranjit

    Dear Lahiri,

    Thank you very much for your response. One more query is about the extraction of phase image with transmission mode and reflection? What is your opinion regarding this issue? Which method will be more appropriate? As I have no experience working with the transmission mode, I have not gone through this. Of course, I am interested in transmission mode and will consider i near future but time matters. It will be good to know in advance.


  • SUBHASH CHANDRA BASU added an answer in Stress and Coping:
    Do you have stress and coping strategies questionnaire?

    I am trying to do research on this regard hence help me to find this measurement questionnaires. 


    Dear Dinithi

    Please visit these links:


    2. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12353795

    3. http://www.amsciepub.com/doi/abs/10.2466/pr0.2002.91.1.29?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori%3Arid%3Acrossref.org&rfr_dat=cr_pub%3Dpubmed&

    4. http://www.amsciepub.com/doi/pdf/10.2466/pr0.2002.91.1.29

    I think this will be helpful to you.

    Happy Researching..

  • Tong Zhou asked a question in Bioinformatic Tools:
    How to do bioinformatic analysis of solvent accessibility and interaction surface of Lysine?

    I have a peptide list (about 600 sequences) that I want to analyze the solvent accessibility of all Lysine sites. Is there any software or database that can do this? I am also wondering whether these Lysine sites are on the protein surface or protein-protein interaction surface. Is there any bioinformatic tool to do this? 

  • Xingshun Qi added an answer in Hepatocellular Carcinoma:
    Do you combine systemic and local therapies (transarterial chemoembolization plus sorafenib) in hepatocellular carcinoma treatment?
    Some studies showed good results after combined therapies (transarterial chemoembolization plus sorafenib) in hepatocellular carcinoma treatment. We have patients with large tumors who achieved great reductions in the contrast-enhanced areas, and some of them changed their tumor grading.
    Xingshun Qi

    SPACE trial has been published in Journal of Hepatology in press.

    The result is negative.

    But this combination of sorafenib and TACE is a promising challenge.

  • Arvind Kumar Dixit asked a question in Iron:
    Name standard softwares which follows AFS for image analysis of SG Iron (Ductile Iron) for determining the Nodularity and nodul count in cast Iron?

    AFS,Ductile Iron society,Cast Iron

  • Raghavendra K G added an answer in Ball Milling:
    How does nanocrystallinity of a material afffect its allotropic phase transformation..?

    Nano crystalline Fe powder (Ball milled, ~ 10nm crystallite size) when subjected to a DSC run does not shown a sharp peak at the alpha to gamma transformation temperature during heating cycle. whereas cooling cycle shown a sharp gamma to alpha peak after holding it at 1200C for 15 mins. What are the possible reasons for this ? Is it a nano size effect ?

    Raghavendra K G

    Thank you Dr. Mourik. Your suggestions will be very useful.

    Further, I would also like to know your expert opinion, about the possibility of nano crystalline nature of the powder at the beginning of the investigation, being responsible for this behavior. Nanocrystallinity, being a near glassy state might have resulted in a broad, rather than a sharp peak. Can it be a possibility ?