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  • Tagelsir Hassan Mohamed Ahmed asked a question in Leaf:
    Is there any key to differentiate mango cultivars based on morphological chractristics ?

    I need a kek to differentiate  mango cultivate by leaf morphology 

    Leaf length , width  

    Or may be other trees

  • Mohamed Benbouzid added an answer in Synchronous Generator:
    Is there a equation that can represent the relationship between efficiency of a generator with respect to the load on it?

    The details of the coefficients, and the justification would help a lot. And would it be right to assume that induction generator would hv similar characteristics to synchronous generators?

    Mohamed Benbouzid

    Dear Debraj,

    Regarding relation between the load (we can assume that the generator toque is it image) and the efficiency, it can derived starting from the efficiency definition (Efficiency=Pout/Pin) and writing that Torque=Pout/Speed) and so on !!

    Of course, induction and synchronous generators have some similar characteristics (they have the same stator with the same synchronous speed) ....



  • Matthew R Clark added an answer in Mitochondria:
    How clear is the connection between Mitochondrial ROS and stress in the endoplasmic reticulum?

    ER stress can be a cause of muscle disfunction. Excessive ROS from mitochondrial leakage is posited as a possible cause.  Can anyone offer data linking ROS from mitochondrial with ER stress?

    Matthew R Clark

     Thank you Dr. Tsyrlov.

    Our study is in disease mechanisms of inflammatory myopathies (IIM). My interest in mitochondrial ROS is based on indications that up regulation of MHC1 is mediating ER stress, causing muscle damage.  We are hoping reduction of mitochondrial ROS and alleviation of mitochondria disfunction will help lower the ER stress and reduce muscle damage.  Any further comment?

  • Dharmendra Singh added an answer in Soil Classification:
    What is the procedure to convert FAO soil type into texture units?

    Respected all,

    I would like to convert FAO soil types such as Regosols, Alisols, Acrisols etc. into texture units such as Sand, Loamy sand, Loam etc. Is there any information or document available for this??. Your kind help will be beneficial for me.

    Thanks in advance..

    Dharmendra Singh

    Till that time i could understand the conversion of soil type to texture is not possible. Should i get information that from where i can get soil texture map for south asia. Anybodies help cam be crucial for me. 


    with regards

    Dharmendra Singh , ISRO

  • Alfonso Benitez-Paez added an answer in Genome Assembly:
    Comparing "contigs" files resulting from two different assembler?

    I have done genome assembly on a bacteria sample using SPAdes and Velvet. I have a contigs file from each of the assemblers. How can I compare these two files to see if their results are different or not?

    Alfonso Benitez-Paez

    Additionally to QUAST, you can use MAUVE, it is a nice tool for visual comparison.

  • Daniel Andrés Salamanca-Pérez asked a question in WTO:
    Could you please point me in the direction of articles criticising international economic institutions from a human rights perspective?

    I'm currently working on a critique of the WTO using liberal economics epistemology and I would need the information that I'm asking for to present a recount of Human Rights Academia critiques to the WTO. 

    It does not matter if the articles are published in academic journals or the press as long as they do it from a HR perspective. 

    Thank you everyone for your help. 

  • Fabrizio Sossan added an answer in JADE:
    How can I develop agents using JADE for Smart Grid Projects?

    How can I use JADE to form various agents such as load agents, generator agent, auction agents etc.

    Fabrizio Sossan

    JADE, and in general other agent-based platforms, is no more than a software framework that allows to simulate distributed intelligence. You can achieve pretty much the same with concurrent programming or, if you are interested in performing a-posteriori performance evaluation only, even with single threading programming.

    For coding in JADE, you can follow one of the tutorial available in the Internet (you should know how to program in JAVA ).

    For what to implement (that perhaps is the main focus of your research), you might take inspiration from the many works have proposed in the literature, such as:

    - http://orbit.dtu.dk/fedora/objects/orbit:125032/datastreams/file_0c175043-9273-4d26-b535-90515fcf3bf5/content

    - - http://user.das.ufsc.br/~trofino/pub/cdc2012/data/papers/2346.pdf

    - http://infoscience.epfl.ch/record/207742/files/2015%20-%20COMMELEC%20-%20Part%20I_1.pdf?version=1

    Good luck, F

  • Prema Swarupa Bhavireddy asked a question in Materials Science:
    In Material science we do Raman characterization Why, explain?

    Respected all, In Material science research we do Raman Characterization for samples (example SnO2/rGO). Why we have to do Raman, What we will get, what is going to be happening to the sample material (bonds etc..) while doing Raman characterization? Please ....Thank you

  • Rita Bouchard added an answer in Education:
    What is the value of education without knowledge in the human life?

    Which is important? Either education or knowledge or both.

    Rita Bouchard

    Shahnaz, This is a deep question that I feel is not asked enough in any educational setting. Who is education for? What does it mean to be educated? 

    Here are some reads.

    + 1 more attachment

  • Björn Klaes added an answer in Time Series:
    Does a long-term (>50 yr) time series of the East Atlantic / West Russia (EA/WR) circulation pattern exist?


    I'm looking for a long-term time series of the East Atlantic / West Russia (EA/WR) atmospheric circulation pattern. Ideally the time series would cover the last 200 years with decadal resolution at worst. Do you know any published sediment core, speleothem or whatever proxy from e.g. central Europe or western Russia that would capture this climate pattern and provide information about the long-term EA/WR dynamics?

    Thanks for your help!

  • Rafael J. Salin-Pascual added an answer in REM:
    Why do we have REM sleep in-between each Non REM sleep cycle
    What's the function of REM sleep? Any complementary relationship between REM and NREM?
    Rafael J. Salin-Pascual

    One possibility is that when subject is in SWS there are lack of associative connections between cortical modules. Some are turn-off loaded with glucose, so each 90 to 120 minutes, there is an activation from reticularis pontis oralis area through PGO waves, that calibrates and detected the amount and duration of connectivity between cortex, for to awake with full connections, a precondition necessary for to have a full state of  consciousness. That would explain the progressive duration of REM sleep episodes along each sleep night time episodes. See all the recent work of Tononi G, Cirelli C. in  that direction, that could be called homoeostatic theory. Of course a circadian pacemaker is part of this mechanism.

  • Bachir Achour added an answer in Drinking Water:
    Is it really necessary to add chlorine to drinking water before it is delivered via tubes to people?

    On one hand, it is necessary to prevent bacterial contmination. On the other hand, there is a hazard of toxic effects of chlorine...

    Bachir Achour

    Dear Henrik,

    The Danish drinking water supply is based entirely on groundwater and the government’s official position is that drinking water should be based on pure groundwater which only needs simple treatment with aeration, pH adjustment and filtration before it is distributed to the consumers. In these waters, there are no bacteria, no organic matter. But we do not know what can happen from the network to the consumer's tap. There is in this case no remanent effect, property that has chlorine. One can avoid chlorination if the network is really sure. This is not the case for networks worldwide, especially for developing countries. It is better not to take risks.

    With my best regards

    Prof. Bachir ACHOUR

  • Kate Mathers asked a question in Immunoblotting:
    Can I transfer protein to a membrane for immunoblotting following gel staining with Pro-Q Diamond and Sypro Ruby?

    I've been running 2D gels and staining with Pro-Q Diamond and Sypro Ruby to assess total phosphorylation in my samples. I was wondering if it would be possible to remove the stain from my gels, transfer the protein to PVDF membrane, and immunoblot for acetylated lysine. I can't find any information about whether this is possible or not. 

    Does anybody have any advice about this?

  • Nilotpal Debbarma added an answer in ANFIS:
    Hello, i tried to use 32 inputs into ANFIS with grid partition but failed. Can anyone tell how to run 32 inputs in ANFIS ?

    Hello, i tried to use 32 inputs into ANFIS with grid partition but failed. Can anyone tell how to run 32 inputs in ANFIS ?

    Nilotpal Debbarma

    Thanks Sir, for the suggestion. But what about the rules in subtractive clustering?

  • Prema Swarupa Bhavireddy asked a question in Solid State Physics:
    Interview level questions about Solid state physics and quantum mechanics ?

    Respected all, Please tell me the what type of questions they will ask in interview about basics in solid state physics and quantum physics (basic level)? crystallography, properties, graphs, superconductivity and quantum mechanics basic questions. I would like to face from here, then after i can easily and confidently i can give answer with explanation. please ask me the questions. This would be very helpful to me. Thank you

  • Vicky Nogueira Pileggi asked a question in Information Studies:
    Do you have any information or studies about ZIKA virus?

    I'm looking for published or unpublished papers.

  • Jaffar Hussain asked a question in Phase Contrast:
    Phase Contrast in X-ray Imaging?

    How can phase information be modulated to intensity ? Is it implemented in the clinical world? I am new to this field, so just want to ask few questions. 

  • Witold Orlik added an answer in Professional Autonomy:
    How do i propose a research design for quantitative research?

    I have to apply a quantitative approach to find the relation between work autonomy and job satisfaction.

    Witold Orlik


    You could try to check for this association in research literature, check for methodology used (quantities) and then carry out your research.

    All the best


  • Mushtaq Ahmad added an answer in Chloroform:
    How can i extract PHB from bacteria by chloroform method?

    I am working on PHB producing bacteria. I want to extract PHB from bacteria by chloroform extraction methods.

    Mushtaq Ahmad


    an useful article

  • Esther Blanco added an answer in Lymphoproliferative Disorders:
    What is the best method to evaluate proliferation other than the classical one based on thymidine?
    Assessment of swine lymphoproliferative response in PBMCs.
    Esther Blanco

    Thanks Robert!

  • Tata Kuljanishvili added an answer in Water Stress:
    Hello everybody, I found a very interesting article and I didn't find a PDF version of it. Could you please help me ?

    Comprehensive assessment of the freshwater resources of the world. World freshwater problems -- call for a new realism.
    Falkenmark M; Lundqvist J
    Stockholm, Sweden, Stockholm Environment Institute, 1997. viii, 53 p.
    The UN Commission for Sustainable Development in Resolution 1994/95 called for a comprehensive assessment of freshwater resources in response to a rapidly growing demand for freshwater resources, resulting in increased water stress in several parts of the world and increasing pollution of freshwater resources and degraded ecosystems. Within the process of the Assessment, a number of background documents and commissioned papers were prepared by experts with various professional backgrounds. This document provides an overview of the Assessment report presented at the UN Commission. Chapter I presents the reasons why the study was conducted. It discusses the existing dilemma faced by the countries of the world in encountering water problems. It also describes the order of sections in the report. Chapter II discusses the analysis and diagnosis of the existing predicament. Chapter III highlights essential management consequences, and chapter IV cites potential responses in dealing with the crisis.
    - See more at: http://www.popline.org/node/526487#sthash.fhJe0UHr.dpuf

    Tata Kuljanishvili

    I did not find neither word document nor PDF, I just need to read this article to cite it in my master thesis 

  • Vibha Sharma added an answer in Political Socialization:
    Who is a sycophant? Is sycophancy an Art?

    We see sycophants in all the fields - political, social, administrative ......

    Do you think it is an art that is harmless or something that harms the organisational culture severely.   

    What kind of sycophants are prevalent in your part of the world.

    Vibha Sharma

    Dear Fateh

    yes it is the weaknesses that they exploit to the hilt. The beauty is they know what they are doing and also know that everyone can see their game! But they go on......


  • Muhammad Ovais added an answer in Solvents:
    In which solvent should i store my Biogenic silver nano particles for long term stability?

    Storage will be done at 4oC in refrigerator. 

    Muhammad Ovais

    Sir can you please name few according to your experience. 

  • Martha Brissette asked a question in Virginia:
    Can stem cell implants help schizoaffective disorder?

    Can stem cell implants help schizoaffective disorder?  If so, what is the closest location to Richmond, Virginia?

  • Gholamreza Mirzavand asked a question in Elemental Speciation:
    Rare earth elements speciation by PHREEQC?

    How can we model the rare earth elements and extract the Lnco3+ from phreeqc software?

  • Ankur Sancheti asked a question in Liquidity:
    Liquidity Measures computation in Excel?


    May someone please share any excel where they have computed various measures of liquidity? e.g Amihud, ILLQ, Turnover Ration etc.

    I am not good to decode the mathematical notations in white papers. So, if excel has formula it will be very easy and quick for me to understand.

    My data includes closing prices, volume, float-able number of shares etc

    Any help please?

  • Rohit M Parikh added an answer in God:
    What is the origin of the laws and principles of nature?

    More precisely, "what is the origin of the regularities in nature which are represented (or purported to be represented) in our various recognized or accepted laws and principles regarding nature and natural events?" (this is H.G. Callaway's formulation of the original question). Such a philosophical question should be of interest to all scientists. 

    In classical philosophy, there are two ways of answering it:

    a) Looking for an explanation outside nature. The concept of a transcendent God, the creator of nature and its order, explicitly appeared in Thomas Aquinae (the world comes from God and returns to God), Modern philosophers and scientists. It reappeared in the Contemporary epoch as a refusal of Darwinism, and/or related to some interpretations of Quantum Theory;

    b) Looking for an explanation inside nature. Nature itself, being composed of both Form and Matter (Aristotle´s Hylomorphism) produces its order, in a process that has been currently called "self-organizing". In this view, God is not the creator of Nature, but - as in Aristotle´s concept of a First Mover - an ideal of perfection projected by natural beings.

    It is clear that in spite of Aquinae´s affiliation with Aristotle, their philosophies are in opposite position in regard to the question about the origin of nature´s order. 

    Spinoza tried to conciliate both approaches, by equating God and Nature. In this case, God is not conceived as a transcendent being who creates Nature from nothingness, but as a being who is somehow immanent to Nature.

    Plato, before Aristotle, presented a combined solution, assuming both the autonomy of natural principles (Ideas) and a Demiurge who prompts the manifestation of the principles into the world of appearances.

    There is a possible third alternative, advanced by Kant in his cognitive approach to philosophical issues: to assume that laws and principles of nature are 'a priori' forms that the human mind imposes to sensory "matter". However, this alternative is actually reducible to the others. Cognitive forms should be natural or created by God (both possibilities are compatible in Spinoza's approach). For instance, the Piagetian version of Kantism assumes that these forms are biological, deriving from processes of interaction with the physical and social environment - therefore, he was committed to the self-organizing view.

    Rohit M Parikh

    When nature is combined with the law it must have an universal applicability ,& the nature to be considered with the creative forces of cosmic environment & planetary influence.

    It is in the line of nature to be observed & its laws have an influence of creative energy forces of divinity .Natural laws & nature itself have an overall influence on the entire humanity at large .

    Human beings every where in the world if they wish to desire & to establish overall happiness for the good of entire universal ,in this case they have  to establish a moral codes of conduct in their life ,& in this case natural law may act as a civil law .

    In other cases it is very likely that humanity have to suffer under the penal code & the nature very much known in which way it should play part so that human beings can release the road of nature ,under penal code as an earth quakes ,Global cyclonic effect , accident ,war like atmosphere & also well many cases human beings have to suffer heavily  for which they may not have the timely alternative .

    Whatever we may have achieved technological & scientific development we have to admit that nature is omni potent ,& we have to remain at that mercy when such situation of calamities come before us . This is my personal opinion