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  • Terry Mara added an answer in Yeasts:
    Contaminated liquid culture of yeast turns red upon addition of bleach, why ?

    The medium is YPAD, and it is probably contaminated with bacteria. I suppose this kind must synthesize some pH sensitive molecules as It is reacting with bleach but I can't find any information on this phenomena. 

    Simple curiosity here. Any ideas ?

    Terry Mara

    I know some medium have pH indicator but not this one. Moreover, only my contaminated tubes turned red, not the normal cultures. So the medium is certainly not responsible for this.

  • Lama Mezaal asked a question in Plant Genetics:
    I want to write a proposal in medicinal plant and genetic or immunology , so I want to help me to choose title if you can ?

    Could you please tell me 

  • Rizwana Gajiyani added an answer in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks:
    How to Simulate Selfish node in NS-2.33?
    Hi Folks,

    I am working on Ad hoc network protocol performance enhancement and security. Right now my primary concern is to analyze the performance effect on ad hoc network due to presence of selfish node. Please guide me to how can i simulate this selfish node behavior in NS-2 tcl script. Thanks in advance.
    Rizwana Gajiyani

    Actually i add the selfishness attack in AODV protocol which is different from the blackhole attack. 

    So plz give me suggestion how i add the selfishness attack in AODV in ns2.35 

  • Abhilash Kumar Tilak added an answer in Combustion:
    How to choose a Combustion model based on Turbulence effect inside the combustion chamber.?

    I am working with HCCI mode of Combustion.

    Abhilash Kumar Tilak

    Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) is a combustion process that combines the ignition process of a compression ignition (CI) engine with the premixed nature of the spark ignition (SI) engine. The HCCI engine platform is nearly the same as the traditional CI engine.

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  • Luis Perez added an answer in Civil Engineering:
    Estimating earthquake parameters for past events?

    Dear all,

             Good greetings, my name is Ahmed Mohamed Osama, a first year MSc student at Shibayam lab. , graduate school of creative Science and Engineering, Waseda University, Japan.

    I want to ask for your assistance and guidance in tackling part of my research theme. My research interest is to model the tsunami phenomenon as well as storm surges with respect to the Egyptian coast and propose mitigative/defensive measures as well as evacuation scheme if the first part of my goals is deemed ineffective.

    For doing the first part, I gathered a list of all recorded tsunamis with relation to Egypt. One fundamental part of my research is to determine the fault parameters as they will greatly influence the simulation results.

    Through some comparison between difeerent papers all tackling the same tsunami event of 1303 from different angles.One paper done by an Egyptian Siesmologist dealt with it in a much more proficient and knowledgeable approach given his background as well as the project and the group involved. Others approached the same event from a historical point of view or a rather ambiguous method of determining the first and most important part of the phenomenon which is the fault parameters.

    What I want to ask for is your advice in the most applicable approach to determining the fault parameters for the aforementioned list given the fact that I come from a civil engineering background. Awaiting your reply eagerly.

    Luis Perez

    Also, in the same time I propose work with you using our MCDM method

  • Biswapriya Biswavas Misra added an answer in High Resolution Mass Spectrometry:
    Databases / mass spectral libraries for GC-HRMS?

    Does anyone know of any mass spectral libraries similar to the Wiley Registry/NIST, but with high resolution data? Or a web-based database (such as Chemspider), but with GC-HRMS (EI) data?

  • J. A. Q. Abanto added an answer in Complexity:
    Are there 2-D extension of real number like complex numbers that is non-commutative?

    Quaterion is non-commutative but it is a 4-D type hypercomplex number. We also have Dual Numbers and Hyperbolic or Perplex Numbers but they are still commutative. Are there other 2-D hypercomplex numbers similar to complex number but non-Abelian?   

    J. A. Q. Abanto

    Ok, to make it clear.  if the multiplication definition, symbolized by "x",  in Complex Number System is:

    (a, b) x (c, d) = (ab-cd, bc+ad) 

    Can we have a number system with multiplication defined as follows;

    (a,b) x (c , d) = (ab-cd, bc-ad)

    Take notice of the sign in the Imaginary part. Thus, we yield, if we set A = (a,b) and B=(c,d);

    AxB = (BxA)* =B* x A*

    which is obviously non-commutative.

  • Nagananthini Vaathavooran asked a question in Mutation:
    How does the sensitivity of JAK 2 (V617F) quantitative analysis on Smart cycler ii?

    How do confirm the mutated DNA and the % of mutation

  • Mayur Soni added an answer in Rafting:
    Raft foundation analysis ?

    increasing the depth of Raft foundation settlement should be minimum. But at certain limit increasing the depth of raft settlement slightly increases . is it true or why it happens ? Type of soil is sandy its sub-grade modulus is 150 kn/m3

    Mayur Soni

    Dear Sir,

    I am only giving sub-grade modulus of soil. This is all i am saying on the base of software SAFE 12.

  • Dao Zhou asked a question in Time Series:
    How to process real-time time series data in parallel?

    How to process real-time time series data in parallel?

  • Lilliana Ramos-Collado added an answer in Sweden:
    Can anyone suggest a way to scan illuminated parchment manuscripts to be open to everybody as part of our common Cultural Heritage?

    The past three years, the Dead Sea scrolls have been photographed and are now open to be studied on GOOGLE as part of our common CH by everybody who is interested.

    I propose to photograph every Illuminated handwritten manuscript which is stored in Libraries of the Vatican, Santa Catharina in the Sinai, the Jesuit collection in Prague and the royal Denmark, Sweden and UK collections and in other museums allover the world.

    Public as well as private money will be available, as GOOGLE found the necessary budget in case of the Dead Sea scrolls.

    It would give security to the manuscripts to be preserved as photographs and it would be easier for researchers to have access to these writings.

    Lilliana Ramos-Collado

    Hello, Jan!!!

    It is a great idea to be able to see these manuscripts on the web, not only to the few can visit the places were those collections are stored or displayed. But I believe if you have the images without transcripts of the texts and without information on the type os illustration, the diverse preparation of the parchment, about the calligraphic types and styles, and about the culture that made them they will just be exotic illustrations no body ill have the joy os understanding. These manuscripts need explanation to help the viewer to appreciate them full. The Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York (USA) offer many books on manuscripts, Indian carpets, Chinese drawings, etc. in beautifully-illustrated books, written by experts. Those books are free. You ca pick and choose. Here, two examples and the link to free art books at the MET.

    Here is the link to the MET:

    Here are some books by the MET and of their collections:

  • Leonard Soh added an answer in Tensile Strength:
    How can i reduce the stress on a ultrasonic device?

    I am attempting to create a ultrasonic device which consist of a stepped horn connecting to a transducer and a blade using aluminium instead of the standard material (titanium). However, i am getting a stress of 790 Mpa and the tensile strength of aluminium 6061 is about 200-300 Mpa. Please let me know if anyone knows any ways of reducing stress in ultrasonic devices.

    Leonard Soh

    Currently i am still finding out the error in ansys in regards to the removal of the boundary conditions. Apparently they are not letting me analyse without at least one boundary condition. I will post an image of the latest results once i get rid of that error.

    The length of cut i need is about 10-20cm. Anywhere in between will be fine. I am actually aiming to cut grass (a large surface area) and it is this thick because i wanted to reduce the stress on the blade previously so i thicken the blade. i can try making it thinner as i think it will not have a very big issue on the stress contours.

  • Duminda S.B Dissanayake added an answer in Rumen Microbiology:
    Running a genomic DNA quality check on a gel - can anyone help?
    I have extracted gDNA from rumen fluid using a CTAB bead beating method. According to the Nanodrop I have somewhere between 250 and 800ng/ microlitre of good quality (260/280 = 1.8 - 1.9) DNA in the samples. When I come to run them on a gel. I dilute 1:10 and then run 10 microlitres so that there should be about 300 - 800ng in each well (1% agarose at 95v for 45min but have also tried 0.7% gel at 120v for 30 - 45 min). Ran with a 1kb plus invitrogen ladder which runs fine. Only one band from about 40 samples gives me a band around 1.2kb.

    I know this could mean contamination with RNA (a few samples I added RNase and digested with proteinase K then put through spin columns; still no joy). On a few of them there is a bit of a faint smear. Have I sheared my DNA to the point of no return? I am aiming to do 16S PCR.
    Duminda S.B Dissanayake

    Running a gDNA quality check on a gel.  Am I right? 

  • Annangi Subba Rao added an answer in Soil Carbon:
    What is the fate of soil organic carbon with crop residues incorporation in tropical and sub-tropical environments?

    Tropical and sub-tropical regions- higher temperatures, rate of OC degradation faster

    Residue incorporation- provides benefit to the current ongoing crop, may be next crop in rotation???

    question of carbon sequestration in root zone profile???

    short and long term consequences of zero/minimum tillage???

    Annangi Subba Rao

    Dr.Kalra the study I referred was based on farmers'field samples (0.319 million samples)received by soil testing laboratory at PAU,Ludhiana.The period covered was from1981/82 to 2005/6.

  • Adi Jindal asked a question in Horse Serum:
    Lots of fibroblasts in primary cardiomyocyte culture. How to reduce it?

    While isolating primary cardiomyocytes from neonatal mice/rat, even after pre-plating the cell suspension the number of fibroblast remaining with the cardiomycoytes is very large. Iam pre-plating the cell suspension in horse serum after enzymatic digestion and leaving it for 2-3 hours in the incubator at 37 degree celcius. How can I reduce these fibroblasts in Cardiomyocyte culture without using inhibitors for fibroblast?

  • Harsha Konara asked a question in Sri Lanka:
    How can I get country data related to economic and political stability and corruption ?

    I want to investigate whether there is any relationship between government revenue with the economic and political stability and corruption for Sri Lanka covering a period of 1990 to 2014

  • J. Lavanya added an answer in Electrochemistry:
    Cyclic Voltammetry of a Pt electrode in 0.5M H2SO4
    I have been trying to mimic the graph (i vs E) of a smooth Pt electrode in a 0.5M H2SO4, but I keep running into a dilemma of not getting anything remotely similar. Any special tips on how to achieve it?
    J. Lavanya


    I want to know the CV obtained while cleaning glassy carbon electrode in 1 M H2SO4

  • Fizah Ibrahim asked a question in Histopaque:
    Hi. Has anyone use Histopaque for hemocytes separation?

    I'm trying to separate hemocytes of shrimp hemolymph by using histopaque. Is it possible? Most article mentioned they used Percoll gradient for hemocytes separation. Is it the same in function? If so, possible if you share the good manual method? Thanks.

  • Muhammad Usman Munir added an answer in Gold Nanorods:
    Why there is the significance difference between cytotoxicity of Gold nanoparticles and gold nanorods?

    Recently we exert the MTT test for 10 nm gold nanoparticles & gold nanorods (AR=3.5). Both of nanostructures were covered by CTAB molecule and highly toxic so pegilation approach have been chosen for decreasing cytotoxicity. our result are strange somehow because cytotoxicity of pegilated gold nanoparticles is higher than pegilated nanorods while we see a opposite results for nonpegilated nanostructures.

    Muhammad Usman Munir

    If you have more question, I will be happy to answer you. But I think above-said description will be enough for you.

    Best wishes

  • Laraib Khan added an answer in Resonator:
    How to modelize a connector SMA in HFSS for feeding microstrip line?

    I have a microstrip resonator which its resonance frequency is 2.5 Ghz,i have got this result with ADS but with HFSS i have got 1.6 Ghz,can any one help me to get the same resonance frequency as ADS,another thing maybe is in relation of this shift of frequency ,how can modelize a connector SMA for feed this microstrip line resonator?

    Thanks at advance.

    Laraib Khan

    Dear Qian Xu

    can u send me ur HFSS file for ur SMA connector at the following email ID:


  • Ruochong Zhang added an answer in Information Seeking Behavior:
    Does anyone have a good review of patient information seeking behaviors?

    I'm looking for general information about the way patients react to a diagnosis. I have a faint recollection of reading something many years ago about repressors versus information seeking. specifically, I'm looking at the way parents of children with autism react to a diagnosis in this regard

    Ruochong Zhang

    There are tons of literature about adult patients receiving diagnosis of a terminal illness, but only a handful about parents' reactions towards their children receiving the diagnosis of ASD. Actually, individual family's reaction depends largely on different cultures, family climate, parents' education and socioeconomic backgrounds, understanding of their children's condition, as well as their perceived information and instrumental social support available.

    For example, in Singapore context, generally well-educated (both parents have at least diploma or degree education), middle-income families are mostly concerned about the child's schooling and available intervention programmes following a diagnosis. They do not really over-react to, deny, or are angry about the diagnosis as long as the condition and available supportive services is well communicated to them.

    If you would like to know more about their specific emotions towards having a child diagnosed with ASD, may be you can read these two articles:

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  • Abhijit Mitra added an answer in Conservation - Restoration:
    Anybody works on the Mangrove Forests?

    Dear Friends, CLEAN (Coastal Livelihood and Environmental Action Network) has taken an initiative to develop a free and open-sourced online encyclopedia on mangroves named Mangropedia. It is totally a voluntary initiative where University students and web developers started working without any funding.

    The encyclopedia will contain everything on mangroves, especially flora, fauna, ecology, tourist spots, biography of mangrovers, administrative issues, categories of mangroves, conservation and restoration techniques, organizations working on mangroves, culture of mangrove areas, legendary stories, literature on mangroves, distribution of mangroves, local name of the mangrove forests, taxonomy, livelihood groups dependent on mangrove forests etc.

    If you have any information, biography or sources, please share with us!

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    Abhijit Mitra

    10,000 literature are available on various aspects of mangroves

  • Mahdi Pourakbari Kasmaei added an answer in Optimization:
    In the weighted sum of multi-objective optimization, is it possible to distinguish between the objective functions?

    The scalarization technique of a multi-objective problem, is when the multi-objective functions are combined into a single objective scalar function, which is the weighted sum of the them. However, it is difficult to distinguish between them in the optimization process.  

    Mahdi Pourakbari Kasmaei

    Normalaizing the objective functions and using the Pareto optimal front makes it possible to find the best compromise and adjustments! 


  • Jae Hyuk Lee asked a question in Rehabilitation Sciences:
    Can you recommend a text book that explains about the relationship between brain and movement function?

    Hellow, I major in rehabilitation science in the course of MsC in Korea and prepare to become a researcher for my major.

    I need to accumulate  a background knowledge of brain function for movement.
    Alothough there are many text books for that,  I need one that is more related to the movement and functions.

    I really appreciating to recommend a appropriate book in the view of experts.

  • Shian-Loong Bernard Lew added an answer in Innovation Studies:
    Where can I find literature for Innovation resistance?

    I m looking for literature on innovation resistance and please attach any papers/articles you have related to the above topic.

    Thanks a million

    Shian-Loong Bernard Lew

    Resisting the resistance...on the conscious effort to seek out not-invented-here (NIH), as a strategy to keep a large company nimble, adaptive and innovation-minded. Particularly leadership and its role in inverting NIH.

  • Ishankumar Upadhyay asked a question in Titanium Alloys:
    Is there any mathematical relationship between strain hardening and cutting speed during machining of Titanium alloys?

    why cutting forces increase with increase in cutting speed during the machining of titanium alloys (Ti6Al4V)?

  • Maria Charito Laarni Siton Indonto added an answer in Community Outreach:
    Do you have any suggestions on research topic for research on community outreach?

    Our school has a community outreach program of the college level. We are already operating in our 4th year. Do you have any suggestion as to the research topic on college community outreach.

    Maria Charito Laarni Siton Indonto

    Thank you Joseph Heffernan and Cecilia Vicentini on your responses.  It is an impact study we will conduct to evaluate the community outreach programs we implemented. Noted.

  • Naveen Kalra added an answer in Sociology:
    Why does it take tragedy to unify us?

    How communities are often at their best in the midst of tragedies? I cannot merely cite different examples and case studies as the primary focus of the research although examples will be helpful as short illustrations here and there. But the meat of the speech will need to be theories and explanations of how/why this phenomena happens. I need to dig deep into fields of psychology and maybe even sociology to help find these theories. I need to find scholars / theorists who have studied this before. I’m sure it has been done a lot.  Can anyone assist me with hard research

    Naveen Kalra

    Human psychology is one wants to spend happy moments alone but when in crisis/trouble, one wants to get the company of many for not to remember his bad time, rather one needs consolation from others.

    In this practical world, this usually happens, but now a days there are very few in numbers who want to be with the person who is in crisis/trouble


  • Srikanta Banerjee asked a question in Pheochromocytoma:
    What are some medical precautions that a patient with pheochromocytoma must take before having any type of surgery?

    Due to the excess catecholamine production, there might fluctuations in blood pressure that may jeopardize the safety of patients.  Are there standardized precautions usually taken?