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- 1Is c-means same as k-means in clustering algorithm context?
The k-means concept states that every cluster must contain at least k elements.
The c-means concept states that there should be exactly c number of clusters.
So, according to me these two concepts are different.
Also, how do we categorize these two classes of algorithms? Means they come under supervised or unsupervised category?
Dear Mr. Tripathy,
In both types of clustering, the number of clusters (not the number of elements in a cluster) is specified exactly, so this is not the difference between them. The difference is that in case of K-means, each element is assigned to only a single cluster, while in case if C-means, being a Fuzzy clustering technique, each element is assigned to all the available clusters with a different membership degree for each cluster.
Both types of clustering fall into the category of Unsupervised Learning.Following
- 2What is the philosophy behind the use of the cross-sectional descriptive design?
Researchers use designs which are underpinned by certain philosophies. I would like to know from colleagues the appropriate paradigmatic stance that is consistent with the cross-sectional descriptive design.Following
- 2Can anyone please provide me with information on nutrient content of leaves of Prosopis cineraria, Tecomella undulata and Hardwickia binnata?
Leaf N, P, K ,Ca, Mg, cellulose and lignin
Useful nutrient analysis of Prosopis cineraria leaves.
I hope these articles will be usefulFollowing
- 99+Universe is static!!! Yes or no?
Space of Universe is static! Yes or no?
Question: Are there any observations that do not fit into the model static space of Universe, are there any theoretical obstacles to the existence of such a model?
I assume that the Universe is eternal, infinite and static, it is not expanded and not curved, it is possible to construct a preferred inertial frame of reference in which the CMBR is most isotropic. The matter in this space evolves, but the average density of matter and energy (in large enough volumes) fluctuate within a rather broad range.
The light in this model is "tired", the speed of light depends on the optical density intergalactic medium. Gravity is also "tired" t.i. weakens a little faster R2. The energy of destroying matter goes into the surrounding vacuum. The excess energy from the vacuum give rise to new particles of matter.
I state that all the observed cosmological effects can be explained in such a Static Model of the Universe.
See attached "Basic_Cosmological_Formula_1_En.pdf"
Dear colleagues, I do not ask, what are the problems faced by other theories (though I would be interested in your opinion on that. The General theory of relativity is not applicable to the entire space of the Universe).
When I said there is no dark energy, that is built on quantum theory when it is unified with gravity according to the Copenhagen school by refusing the reciprocity principle. So criticise what I said by science.
You said also;
I do not exclude that my mathematical methods could be applied also in this direction. The greatest difficulty is to have enough phenomenological information on the human brain. It is well-known that very big experimental projects in this direction have not obtained important results.
Quantum tunneling experiments have shown that 1) the tunneling process is non-local, 2) the signal velocity is faster than light, i.e. superluminal, 3) the tunneling signal is not observable, since photonic tunneling is described by virtual photons, and 4) according to the experimental results, the signal velocity is infinite inside the barriers, implying that tunneling instantaneously acts at a distance. As G. Nimtz claimed "We think these properties are not compatible with the claims of many textbooks on Special Relativity." Review these references
 G. Nimtz, A. Stahlhofen, " Evanescent Modes and Tunnelling
Instantaneously Act at a Distance", AIP Conf. Proc. -- March 6, 2008 --
Volume 977, pp. 310-315.
 G. Nimtz, W. Heitmann, Phys. Lett. A 196 (1994)p. 154.
 G. Nimtz, A. Stahlhofen, " Macroscopic violation of special relativity",
submitted Aug/5/2007, arXiv:0708.0681v1.
 E. Merzbacher, "Quantum Mechanics", 2nd edition, John Wiley &
Sons, New York (1970).
 S. Gasiorowicz, Quantum Physics, John Wiley & Sons, New York
 C.K. Carniglia and L. Mandel, Phys. Rev. D 3, 280 (1971).
 G. Nimtz, Gen. Rel. Grav. 31, 737 (1999); G. Nimtz, Ann. Phys.
(Leipzig), 7, 618 (1998).
 O. Bryngdahl, Progress in Optics, 11, 167 (1973).
 P. Weiss, Sci. News 157 (2000) p. 375.
The results produced by our modified special relativity theory are in agreement with the results produced by quantum tunneling experiments by refusing the reciprocity principle, and thus it explains theoretically what occurs in quantum tunneling and entanglement. It proves the events inside the tunneling barrier should occur at a faster rate than the usual situation in the laboratory. It provides a new concept of time contraction which is not existed in the SRT. The concept of time contraction in our theory is proven by many experiments where some enzymes operate kinetically, much faster than predicted by the classical ΔG‡. In "through the barrier" models, a proton or an electron can tunnel through activation barriers. Quantum tunneling for protons has been observed in tryptamine oxidation by aromatic amine
dehydrogenase. Also British scientists have found that enzymes cheat time and space by quantum tunneling - a much faster way of traveling than the classical way - but whether or not perplexing quantum theories can be applied to the biological world is still hotly debated. Until now, no one knew just how the enzymes speed up the reactions, which in some cases are up to a staggering million times faster. Seed Magazine published a fascinating article about a group of researchers who discovered a bit more about how enzymes use quantum tunneling to speed up chemical reactions "Researchers explain how enzymes use quantum tunneling to speed up reactions, Maggie Wittlin, Seed, April 18, 2006."
So how can I understand all of that within the framework of the reciprocity principle in SRT interpretation of Lorentz transformation, and thus according to the reciprocity principle you hide the entanglement, and the possibility of faster than light without violation the invariance of energy momentum and causality!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
All of that can be interpreted by how the Twin Paradox disappeared by refusing the reciprocity principle. In this case it is resulted space is invariant and it is only time!!!! There is no space time continuum!!!!!Following
- 6What is the major difference between lithium and sodium ions?
i need the the differences of sodium and litium ions in every things that you think.
it is important for me to know all of them.
Due to their transportation in aqueous solution, mobility of Na ion is greater than Li ion because Li ion is more hydrated than Na ion. So, Li ion move slower than Na ion in electrodialysis process.Following
- 2In Material science we do Raman characterization Why, explain?
Respected all, In Material science research we do Raman Characterization for samples (example SnO2/rGO). Why we have to do Raman, What we will get, what is going to be happening to the sample material (bonds etc..) while doing Raman characterization? Please ....Thank you
- 1Can you help me to download this item?, please : Aspirin treatment exacerbates oral infections by Trypanosoma cruzi?
Aspirin treatment exacerbates oral infections by Trypanosoma cruzi?
ok, as you sent it? by mail or facebook?Following
- 99+Do you think that English is a good language for Science?I write literary books and scientific articles and for expression of more details I prefer my native language because I think it is more complex and has a wider vocabulary. On the other hand, English expresses well many things with less words. When I translate scientific papers to English, I prefer the latter because it makes things clear with less words. (And with this amount of words normally it is more clear than with more words in my language). I think it is a good language for science.
Barry, I seem to recall back in the 70's they would say about programming languages, that there would be new names for programming languages, but they would all be Fortran. Thank goodness that was wrong. (IMHO)Following
- 7Philosophical understanding of artI am interested to hear from anyone who can point me in the direction of work on philosophical understandings of fine art. I am especially interested in more abstract and conceptual forms of art. For example, the use of the Klein Group to explicate figure - ground relationships in contemporary, abstract art. I would really like to hear about her's and any other approaches.Following
- 32Does name change improve financial performance of the firm?
A number of studies have examined market reaction to name changes, Cole et al. (2015) examines impact of insurer name changes on growth in premiums, which is a component of income. However, sparse literature exists on impact of name change on financial performance. What do you think would be the impact of corporate name changes on the bottom line? Please share your thoughts..
First things first: Congratulations on getting your article accepted by Emerald. That's a nice accomplishment.
On its face, an R-squared > 30% runs circles around one of 4%. The latter is utterly meaningless. Beyond that, though, I can't respond substantively to your questions until you're able to share the paper from Emerald or provide us with a link to it. Perchance is a copy @ SSRN.com?? If not, would you put a version there so we can access it promptly, please?Following
- 99+Rational Number Set is bigger than Natural Number Set！Is anything wrong?
It is believed that there are the bijection relationships among Natural Number Set, Even Number Set, Odd Number Set and Rational Number Set, but following simple “stories” tells us that Rational Number Set has far more elements than that of Even Number Set, Odd Number Set and Natural Number Set:
1, According to the definition, the Natural Number Set can be divided into Even Number Set and Odd Number Set (otherwise it can not be called Natural Number Set, Even Number Set and Odd Number Set). People have been using two deformed Natural Number Set of (1x2, 2x2, 3x2,...,nx2,...) and (1x2+1, 2x2+1, 3x2+1,...,nx2+1,...) and just used the components of even numbers and odd numbers (natural numbers, but not the whole thing of “2,4,6,8…2n” and “1,3,5,7,9…nx2+1”) to map natural numbers, of cause they map very well because it is N ----> N itself but not 2n ----> N and nx2+1----> N.
What are the mappings to natural numbers: the even numbers and odd numbers or the components of even numbers and odd numbers?!
2,The elements of tiny portion of rational numbers from Rational Number Set (1, 1/2, 1/3, 1/4, 1/5, 1/6, …, 1/n …) map and use up (bijective) all the numbers in Natural Number Set (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, …, n …); so infinite rational numbers (at least 2,3,4,5,6,…n,…) from Rational Number Set are left in the “one—to—one element mapping between Rational Number Set and Natural Number Set”------- Rational Number Set has infinite more elements than Natural Number Set and they are not bijective at all.
In present classical infinite related science system, the confusing “potential infinite” and “actual infinite” make people (including Kantor) have been wondering between these two confusing “infinites”.
There have been three suspended questions in present classical set theory ever since:
1, the definition of set------should the definition of set concern the nature of elements inside the set? Will the nature of elements inside the set decide the existing state of the set as well as its relationship with other set? Such as if we call a set as Even Number Set or Odd Number Set, must we consider the nature of elements inside the Even Number Set or Odd Number Set as well as each set’s relationship with other set?
But, it is “the different natures of the elements in real number set and natural number set” that make Cantor proved the different cardinalities between the two sets.
2, how to judge a set belongs to “potential infinite set” or “actual infinite set” or both “potential infinite set” and “actual infinite set”? What kind of nature do the elements have inside “potential infinite set” or “actual infinite set”?
3, can we have many different bijection proofs with different result between two infinite sets? If we can, what conclusion should people choose in front of two opposite results, why?”
Dear Dr. Gabriel Thomas and Dr. SIMON RAJ F, thank you.
"Potential infinite and actual infinite" have been used for "infinite" ever since. But, the very trouble is: people accept “potential infinity” and “actual infinity”, but no one so far in the world can provide the proper definition for potential infinity and actual infinity and people have been keeping arguing and debating on the natures of them ever since-------endless and unsolvable.
This is one of the fatal defects in present infinite related classical mathematics system： no one knows what is in front of you when treating “infinite things”--------“potential infinite” or “actual infinite”, how and what to do with different infinity?
Can any infinite things in present classical "infinite" related science system be excluded from "potential infinite and actual infinite"?
- 10Praxis versus academic noises?
Karl Marx states in "Theses on Feuerbach" that "The philosophers have only interpreted the world in various ways; the point, however, is to change it." (Thesis Eleven) I must admit that I'm all the more persuaded by that statement as time goes by. When was the last time you heard voices of conviction and righteousness oozed out from academia and how often do you see an academician get his/her hands dirty?
If you want to get you hands dirty, here's a link:
Hm, I guess this post so far has not been qualified as a question. So let me ask this: what do you think of Marx's Thesis Eleven in "Theses on Feuerbach"?
Let's see it how it is, Louis: He produced a two-edged sword. But than again... this is how Marx was. Sometimes pretty fuzzy.Following
- 6What is preferred regimen in transplant-ineligible multiple myeloma?
There are many regimens developed for the treatment of multiple myeloma. A subset of patient is in frail and some combination therapies are often difficult to apply. Because treatment strategy in our institution is not concreted, i'm seeking good treatment strategy which can apply to patients with myeloma, regardless of their comorbidity or physical status.
Note) in Japan (i'm Japanese), P-I study has completed in the Cy+Bor+Dex, Vel+Mel+PSL, and Vel+Thal+Dex regimens, but dose reduction was generally required due to higher toxicity than results of foreign study.
Currently, following agents are available.
Chemothrapeuic agents (cyclophosphamide, melphalan, doxorubicin)
corticosteroids, such as dexamethasone or prednisolone
[Refractory or relapsed]
[Following agents will be available near the future]
Please let me know your consideration!
2nd: Bor+Dex+Thal (if poorly responded)
= treatment-free (or maintenance with Bor+Dex?)=
3rd: Bor+Len+Dex (when CRAB appeared or not responded)
5th: Len+Dex+elotuzumab or carfilzomib-based regimen (when available).
I am from the Serbia. The standard first line regimen is cyclo-thal-dex (CTD) except in those with renal insufitienty or Thrombophilia when is first line of terapy is with Velcade. In oldery with comorbidites we will give MPT in first line. Our standard second line treatment is Velcade -dex in oldery , olso depended of performans status.
In young patient with big tumor mass We have good experians with PAD .Best wishes.Following
- 99+Why do science students get taught so little about the scientific method?Both at school and university in science the student is taught a lot about biology, physics or chemistry but very little about the different (good and bad) ways of doing science.
Why is it so late in a person's scientific life when they are told about things like inductive reasoning and the better ideas of Karl Popper (falsificationism)?
I found out about these things while reading "What is this thing called science" by Alan Chalmers.
The January 30, 2016 deadline for a researcher to submit their keyword findings for first cause has come and gone. First researcher to submit their findings will win the $1200 prize for this category (see link for details).Following
- 3Methods to Determine Enzymatic Activity?
Como posso adquirir o seu livro "Methods to Determine Enzymatic Activity"
Also, if you are purchasing enzyme from a manufacturer, they frequently have enzyme activity assay they use for evaluating the enzyme. For instance, Sigma-Aldrich has a whole database of enzyme assays written step by step and easy to follow for their enzymes.Following
- 8Any recommendations for texts that examine the evolution of vampire in film and literature?
We can see how, in the last 20 years or so, some traditional horror myths are changing their essential features. Perhaps, the best example is the vampire, who is becoming a sympatethic figure.
Whitman 's Influence on Stoker 's Dracula
When Bram Met Walt
Coming Out of the Coffin
- 3What's the difference between Pubmed and Medline?
If PubMed includes Medline articles plus other things, Why do most meta-analyses -I've seen- use Medline for the search rather than the freely available PubMed?
Already answered here:
But searching only PubMed or searching only MEDLINE via Ovid SP or searching both are acceptable for systematic review anyway.
The reason to use MEDLINE via Ovid SP rather than PubMed is that Ovid SP provides more/better search facilities comparing to PubMed.
1. You could use adjacency (adj) in Ovid SP but not PubMed.
2. I have seen PubMed making a mess in search sometimes and I could never find the reason!
3. Using truncation in PubMed sometimes gets you only first 600 variations of terms not all of variations but in MEDLINE via Ovid SP, truncation operator will get all the variations, you can try searching nano* to see the results in both PubMed (check the red error too) and MEDLINE via SP.
4. You can shorten a sequence of search lines in MEDLINE via Ovid SP for example you could search or/1-10 it means you could put 10 search lines together but in PubMed you can to write it like this #1 OR #2 OR #3 OR #4 OR #4 .... OR #10!
5. PubMed has more records than MEDLINE via Ovid SP; for the reason please check the link.Following
- 4How can I convert a raster curve to a vector curve?
I want to calculate the length of a fiber in a raster image as accurately as possible. Maybe using a vector curve I will get it.
I am using the horizontal, vertical and diagonal neighbors (8-neighbors).
Thank you so much! I will try it!Following
- 1How can we attach the timeseries data with the likert based data in Structural Equation Modelling??
Can we use the time-series data along with the Likert based data for Confirmatory factor Analysis or in Structural Equation Modelling??
If it possible, please help me in getting the reference paper.
- 1Freezing and culturing Human T-cells?
Please, Could you tell me what is the best condition (cell density/media..)to freeze and to culture human T-cells? How long time T-cells can be in culture?
Thank you in advance
Do not culture more than 1 million T-cells / mL medium. For freezing: 20 million cells / mL freezing medium (e.g. 90% FCS, 10% DMSO) is the maximum I used and 5 million the minimum. I don't know if it's the best, but it worked for me.
- 7Is MBTI the horoscope of psychology ?
Is the MBTI a useful tool for building a successful career and personal life, or does it fall under the same category of horoscopes and the zodiac (granted with a less fanciful turn)? Does this widespread acceptance for MBTI came from believing horoscope practices ?
P.S. : I asked the same on quora.com [https://www.quora.com/Is-MBTI-the-horoscope-of-psychology]
I'm an independent researcher in the area of personality, focusing on Jung's typology and the MBTI. Some of my work is here on this site. I have taught the MBTI and other type questionnaires for over 25 years.
I am wondering about the purpose of the question set by Ranjith as well as the knowledge-base of those responding ion good faith.
It seems to me that if you wanted to find out about the MBTI, you would first investigate what it says about itself i.e. you would read its Manual (Myers McCaulley, Quenk and Hammer 1998, or Myers and McCaulley 1985), as you would do with any other questionnaire. You would find out what its purpose is, what its claims are, what its method is, how and why reliability and validity is determined (the MBTI is not a trait measurement) how to interpret it and so on. This basic start would enable you to assess the claims of critics. You could also read Naomi L. Quenk's Fundamentals of Myers-Briggs Assessment, published by Wiley.
If you were me, you would also investigate the history and access comments made by Isabel Myers about her instrument, and what she intended. www.capt.org has the basic repository in their library; I have a personal collection of those materials.
Note that at no stage would you need to go online to any so-called MBTI site and you are in the field of objective research, not opinion.
If you did that, then you would be able to assess the critics of the MBTI. You would know that the Keirsey sorter isn't the MBTI (the MBTI is a specific instrument with copyrighted items), that the MBTI is an inference maker and doesn't contain anything about Jung's ideas of type dynamics and development or consciousness, that it is a sorting device in which amounts are not relevant and so on.
So if you looked at the Reynierse articles outlined by Hendrika, you would see that he is making claims about the MBTI that the MBTI doesn't make about itself. He appears to think also that Jung's typology is dependent on measurement. You would need to know more to forage amongst his references and see that some of them to not say what he says they say, and need to know a little more to see that his study interprets items from a complex MBTI form (J) in a way that is completely different from that instrument. My comments on Reynierse and a debate of sorts with him can be found in the Bulletin of Psychological Type the APTinternational publication www.aptinternational.org. I have copies of my contributions here in my office.
The Wikipedia reference can be examined in the same way. Many of the critiques of the MBTI reference the same articles, which appear unread by the author of the critique, otherwiae (hopefully) they would be embarrassed by their inclusion.
This comes to the "horoscope" bit, which I presume is about what are known as type descriptions. Anyone can make up a type description, I've done it myself, after years of research, MBTI descriptions were intended by Isabel Myers to show a type at their best, partly as a counterpoint to pathological interpretations of personality based on a particular view of normality.
The descriptions were not intended to be taken literally and it was never expected that what was contained completely described someone. An old benchmark used to be 70% agreement with what were expressed as tendencies, not definite prediction. Myers' original publication of Introduction to Type and subsequent editions were also ordered according to Myers understanding of the order of basic functions, so dominant, auxiliary, tertiary, inferior, so not at all Pollyanaish.
The MBTI doesn't predict anything; however research shows things like different type distributions for different occupoations, which are at least socially useful. In type terms though career advice is not about prediction or occupation but how you get to do whatever work it is you engage in.
I'll stop there. Read my MSc thesis Quantifying Jung: The Origin and Development of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, foe a bit of background if you're interested.
The MBTI can certainly be critiques, particularly in the way it is used. But like anything else, finding out what it claims to do can save a lot of time dead-ends. You don't have to like it. I do, obviously, but I also have several reservations.
- 31How do academics use social media?
What sort of social media to academic find particularly useful and why? Which forms are not as useful and why? Finally, is social media more of a distraction than a benefit to academics? I have attached one link to an article, but I can't find much.
There are a number of ways social media can be leveraged whether it be for collaboration, information streaming, sharing info and knowledge, contributing to organizational visibility or myth busting. This is an example in healthcare and now involves the collaborative efforts of radiologists around the world-
It is a form of wiki but is promoted via other social media channels including Twitter.Following
- 3Is it possible to see different PCR profiles when I used genomic DNA instead of plasmid DNA?
I have different PCR profiles when ı used genomic or plasmid DNA. is it possible to see different PCR profiles when I used genomic DNA instead of plasmid DNA?
If your primers flank the unique DNA sequence that is both in genomic DNA and plasmid DNA, the pattern should be the same.Following
- 11What role does glutahione play in the reaction mechanism as catalyst?
Glutathione is an amino acid, hence it exits as a zwitterion. My doubt is whether it acts as acid catalyst or basic catalyst. Please eleborate.
Thank you very much Professor AA HussainFollowing
- 63Are there any lessons from social science that would allow non-muslims to reach out to the Muslim Community Worldwide?
Currently, some political candidates in the United States have done their best to further alienate the world-wide Muslim Community. What can we do as social scientists (and U.S. citizens) to neutralize the effects of crazy candidates like Donald Trump?
What is your true crusade? Are you really for humanitarianism? Are you really against raping? What is your real concern?Following
- 11How does the concept of 'Sustainable Development' make the goals of Environmental impact assessment more difficult to achieve?
sustainable development and Environmental impact assessment
give ideas and post journal articles
From a life cycle perspective it is, of course, more difficult to meet three goals (Environment, economy and social aspects) in Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment (LCSA) than only one in LCA. The three should go in the same direction, but they will not always.do so. This is a challenge. We should use these instruments first for learning in order to improve them and - in the long range - the products, life styles etc. and to increase the chance that humankind will survive the daunting problems we are facing. The chance is small, but greater than zero..
- 6What kind of damage can cause nuclear undewater exposion 50-100 MGT in the middle of atlantic ocean on 42 paralel North ?
Duing it on the ocean bottom at 1 km depth the explosion will cause enormous high pressure boiler 10 or more km in diameter, causing tsunami wave 500 m or more in high, propagating radially with speed about 800 km/hour. Such a wave hit Alaska in 1958 and was caused by reletevely modest eartquake. This wave is capable to run on the distance up to 20 km overland, completely engolfing sea side cities and their inhabitants.
In the case such an explosion will by done in the middle of Atlantic ocean at 42 parallel North,the tsunami will destroy all costal cities of North America and Europe alike.
Inland countries, or countries connected with open ocean by narrow straights are immune to this effect. Also, Arctic ocean will dump this kind of tsunami in short distance, due to ice crust.
- NewAre anybody finding scarce presence of frugivorous birds during bird banding?
- 11What is the procedure for finding misconceptions, present in students about science basic/common concepts?I want to identify and diagnose the misconceptions/alternative conceptions. I also want to make a remedial programme to minimize this misconception/alternative conceptions.
What would be the basic procedures for this research work?
The January 30, 2016 deadline for a researcher to submit their keyword findings for first cause has come and gone. First researcher to submit their findings will win the $1200 prize for this category (see link for details).Following
- 5What are the effects of limonene?
Could it be the effects of limonene the following?
The D-limonene is also a possible candidate for a variety of medical applications, including cancer and AIDS, and has been noted to have insecticidal properties. In fact, recent studies seem to reveal that limonene has anti-cancer properties. Increases the levels of liver enzymes used in the neutralization of carcinogens. Limonene apparently promote the system GST (glutathione-S-transferase, involved in eliminating carcinogens) of the liver and intestines and balance out caused by carcinogens. Animal studies show that limonene has properties chemioprenventive in cancers and if present in the diet reduces breast tumor growth.
You are welcome CotellessaFollowing