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  • Goodwin G. Jinesh added an answer in Adherent Cells:
    Can you suggest me what is the reason of apoptosis in normal control cells where no treatment of nanoparticles was given?

    i am working with some adherent cells and checking effect of nanoparticles on apoptosis  after some time interval but my results are showing that control non treated with nanoparticles and treated group with nanoparticles all are showing apoptosis and necrosis. i am not able to interpret the results, can you help me?

    Goodwin G. Jinesh

    Which assay you had used to detect apoptosis?

  • Sarah Hardjowirogo added an answer in Religion:
    How does the culture of an area reflect the music it produces?

    I am looking for guidance as to where to look for sources and/or studies on how the culture of an area might affect its music.  Whether it be religion, conflict, or any other factors, how does culture change and affect the musical style that is produced?

    Sarah Hardjowirogo

    Hi Brennan, 

    as already mentioned, instruments play a major role in this regard: be it in terms of the preference of certain materials, certain processing techniques that are used to build them, the way they produce sound, the kind of sounds they make, their tuning, the social functions and meanings that are associated with them, and even the way they are categorized. 

    I would recommend you to take a look at (1) The Cultural Study of Music, ed. Martin Clayton et al. and (2) Margaret Kartomi, On Concepts and Classifications of Musical Instruments.

  • Martin Bjørn Stausholm added an answer in Systematic Reviews:
    How to make a good systematic review?

    An understanding of systematic reviews, and how to implement them in practice, is highly recommended for professionals involved in the delivery of health care.

    Martin Bjørn Stausholm

    Dear Mohamed

    Meeting the criteria of the AMSTAR validity tool and reporting the review in adherence with PRISMA statement may help you.

    AMSTAR: http://amstar.ca/docs/AMSTARguideline.pdf

    PRISMA: http://www.prisma-statement.org/documents/PRISMA%202009%20checklist.pdf

  • Zbynek Polesny added an answer in Botany:
    This plant is used in the treatment of diabetes, but I do not know the scientific name of the plant. Please, what is the name of this plant?

    The seeds of this plant brought from India.

    + 1 more attachment

  • Elvis A. F. Martis added an answer in PyRx:
    Stimulated annealing in PyRx time consuming?

    I have used LGA and found the results very much promising. Currently i am into stimulated annealing with only 100 small molecules and found it has not moved forward even after running for a day. Is this normal or am i lacking something?

    Elvis A. F. Martis

    The Time for any computation depends on your Hardware and the size of your system (protein atoms and number of rotatable bonds in your molecules)

    If you can specify your Hardware details then it could be little easier to figure what is happening. 

    Also check when was your log file last updated.


    Elvis M.

  • Steingrimur Stefansson added an answer in Esters:
    Do amine-reactive dyes react with polyacrylamide?

    Would an amine-reactive dye such as Alexa Fluor 568 NHS Ester (Succinimidyl Ester) react with polyacrylamide gel and make it fluorescent?

    Steingrimur Stefansson

    Hi Matthew. Antibodies, like most proteins, stick to a solid surface. It is unavoidable. Add any protein to a PAGE gel and it will stick everywhere and react with HNS esters.

    This is why non-specific binding of antibodies is The Number 1 Problem in immunofluorescence.

    Do western blots. They are much more reliable.

  • Suresh K Malhotra added an answer in Root Development:
    What should be ideal potting mixture suiting to dynamic requirements of horticultural crops during pre-evaluation stage ?

    It is understood that potting medium must be a stable reservoir of moisture and nutrients coupled with good tilth to facilitate for root development and  improvised nutrient-water interaction. In wake of this background,  I propose  following questions to be responded by our learned colleagues:

    • How to conceive the idea of suitable potting mixture that could fulfill the requirement of a nursery plant?
    • What are the soil-plant parameters that guide the composition of potting mixture for a given nursery plant ?
    • Can we perform solarisation during any part of the year or this process is season dependent?
    • How effective is the role of soil solarization or other techniques  in neutralising the soil borne pathogens ?
    • How can we do value addition to any optimised potting mixture ?
    • What are the latest  interventions in the development  of potting mixture dynamics?  
    Suresh K Malhotra

    Yes Biochar will definitely stimulate microbial activity in soil.

  • André Dos Santos Cabral added an answer in Musculoskeletal Pain:
    Do you have any opinion about laser therapy and musculoskeletal chronic pain treatment ?

    Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) seems to be effective to treat musculoskeletal pain. Do you have any scientific informations: indications, mechanisms, long term safety. Thanks!

    André Dos Santos Cabral

    Crônic pain is a neurológic disfunctional disease, developed after long term painfull persistent stimuli. Lasertherapy have a analgésic local effect and no suported systemic effect by laserpuncture method. Maybe we can have just a temporary effect on the crônic pain but not better than physical exercise and medicaments to nervous system.

    I hope to help you!

  • Aparna Murthy added an answer in Machine Learning:
    Is there a way to classify graphs using machine learning?

    Is there any machine learning approach where every labeled data is a graph instead of a vector?

    Typically, each data in a machine learning problem is a vector of fixed length.

    Is there any way to address the problem If instead a vector you have a graph with different number of nodes (and every node has attributes) and different weighted links?

    Aparna Murthy

    Well Robert , it has been done with trees 


    then it is doable for any representation of data pattern (statistical).

    Eg: Undirected   - Markov

    OR Bayesian networks

    Multicolored graphs (be it nodes or edges) are used !!


  • H.G. Callaway added an answer in Metaphysics:
    Does it make sense to think of a completely empirical Physics dispensing altogether with the presiding Metaphysics ?

     In course of developing different preparatory details for our upcoming  Conference on Science Philosophy interplay ( please visit http://indianphilosophyblog.org/2016/09/07/dialog-across-traditions-part-i/ ) , what we are experiencing  is significantly about a wide spectrum of misunderstanding about the role of metaphysics in developing Physical Theories !  People  most often discuss about the issues like Chinese Science or Indian Science .... without any proper reference to this issue . But hadn't the issue been settled long back during the 30s of the last Century after the failure of the Logical empiricists  ? Is it not a closed issue now  leaving though a lot many good understandings  about the role of Metaphysics ?

    H.G. Callaway

    Philadelphia, PA

    Dear Shevchenko, 

    I would say that the paper I linked to in my last note is a very scholarly paper, chiefly a contribution to the history and philosophy of science --including several lengthy quotations from Einstein on the importance of philosophy. I think you will have to do somewhat better than your brief skeptical comments to cast any serious doubts on its conclusions. 

    You will recall, that my aim in pointing out this paper was to question generalized doubts about philosophy, and this point is not put in question by your suggestions about philosophical differences between Einstein and others. 

    A chief point in the paper, I take it, is that Einstein's commitment to independence of thought was based in his study of philosophy; and this is contrasted with those attitudes which tend to isolate science and scientific thinkers within spheres of technical detail where they may very well fail to arrive at needed overview and the facility to escape the locally dominant  approaches of their special fields. 

    I would emphasize, too, that philosophy definitely benefits from the study of scientific practices. 

    H.G. Callaway

  • Paul Chiou added an answer in P Value:
    Is there any simple way of calculating a P value for Wald statistics?

    For instance, Wald and odd ratio can be calculated from the figures displayed in the table during econometric analysis.

  • Abdullah Ibrahim Hammoud asked a question in PSCAD:
    Is there any paper providing a transformer model in ATP-EMTP program or PSCAD in order to use this model for FRA analysis for fault diagnosis study ?

    I'm currently working on Frequency Response Analysis of three phase transformer model, and I want to make a simulation model using either of the two software programs (EMTP is preferred) in order to do the study of fault diagnosis. So please if you have a paper about Transformer model in EMTP or PSCAD or if you have an EMTP model of a transformer, please share your experience and information. 

    Thanks and Have a nice day everyone :)

  • Mohamed-Mourad Lafifi added an answer in IP:
    Optimization of Network Traffic Measurement?

    I am writing a paper on Optimization of Network Traffic Measurement. I need help on tools i can use to measure traffic matrix estimation in large IP networks.

    Mohamed-Mourad Lafifi

    Dear John,

    Here are some interesting attached files in subject.

    Best regards

    + 8 more attachments

  • Sourav Bhowmick asked a question in Multi Agent System:
    Can biological neurons be considered multi agent systems?

    Can different biological neurons be considered multi agent systems?

  • James A Green added an answer in Mastodons:
    Did humans tame woolly mammoths or other megafauna?

    Considering that some people are gifted with handling animals (e.g. horse whisperers), could paleoindians or other Pleistocene peoples have gained the confidence of woolly mammoths or mastodons to use them as transportation and other tasks, the way that Asian elephants are used today?

    Fewer resources would be necessary for a human to travel long distances by riding on the back of a woolly mammoth or paleocamel, as the megafauna could graze and get energy.    People may also have traveled by boat during late Pleistocene times.                                                                  

    How could we test such a hypothesis?  Cave art showing a rider on the back of one of the megafauna?  A bridle and/or bit?    A talisman worn by a camel is known to have been crafted from a meteorite(1), and so talismans or decorations might have adorned the hypothesized woolly steed.  Metal was not a known technology during stone tool usage, as far as we know, though.

    Joanne P. Ballard

    (1) http://www.lpi.usra.edu/meetings/metsoc2010/pdf/5250.pdf

    James A Green


    Look at pigs. In only a couple of generations the domestic pig in the wild can revert back to the feral hog.

  • Bilal Khan added an answer in Organizational Innovation:
    Is there anyone who can share questionnaire for measuring KM Practices, Organizational Innovation and competitive advantage?

    I started working on studying the impact of Knowledge management practices on organizational innovation and competitive advantage. Please I will be really thankful for your support and cooperation.

    Bilal Khan

    Thanksss to all for your special attention and support Dear Charbell , Idris Aida and Juha Kettunen ... I really liked the supporting materials and please also share some papers in which questionnaires are clearly given

  • Cornel Radu added an answer in Silver:
    Chloride dissolving off of a silver/silver chloride reference electrode?

    Hi all,

    I am currently using a chlorided silver wire as a reference electrode for fast scan cyclic voltammetry. I am consistently having a problem where the chloride dissolves off of the wire at a far faster rate than expected. I know this does not have to do with the chloriding process used because this happened to an electrode made in-house and a factory made one. Any suggestions about why this may be happening would be greatly appreciated!

    Cornel Radu

    before any comment, may I be sure that you are using a 3 electrodes cell?

  • Jiayu Dai added an answer in HSE:
    HSE+MD in QE

    Hello everybody. I am inquiring that if it is possible to do calculations of MD with HSE functional, although it is expensive. That is to say, if the forces from HSE energies have been added at the present stage?

    Thanks a lot.

    Jiayu Dai

    Thanks for your information Martin. Do you know how to perform it in QE? I mean, in QE, HSE calculations usually use the key words "input_dft = 'PBEO' " to complete it, but not using HSE pseudopotential. It should be extremely expensive and i did not know it can be performed within this framework.

    Best wishes,


  • Martin Bjørn Stausholm added an answer in Meta-Analysis:
    What is the difference between a systemic review paper and meta-analysis paper?

    what is the critical and significance difference between systemic review and meta-analysis?

    Martin Bjørn Stausholm

    Dear Mohamed

    A systematic review can be performed with or without a meta-analysis. The meta-analysis is simply the statistics that allows for a pooling of the individual study results.

  • G. I. Alsop added an answer in Geological Mapping:
    Do you know examples of shortening that is not accommodated by reverse faults and thrusts but by lateral compaction within the sedimentary layers?

    Hello all,

    I read this paper from Butler and Paton (Butler R.W.H., Paton D.A., 2010. Evaluating lateral compaction in deepwater fold and thrust belts: How much are we missing from “nature’s sandbox”?, GSA today, v.2 , n° 3, 7pp, 4-10, doi : 10.1130/GSATG77A.1) that shows on the Namibian margin how shortening related to gravity gliding can be accommodated by direct lateral compaction within the sedimentary layers. Lateral compaction could thus accommodate 18 to 25% of the shortening and then the amount of shortening evidenced by the reverse faults is lower than the true shortening. 

    Do you know other examples/references concerning lateral compaction process?

    Does a low amount of shortening (say less than 25%) could be entirely accommodated by lateral compaction within the sedimentary layer, then without any reverse fault?

    Many thanks in advance!

    G. I. Alsop

    Lateral compaction of sediments may indeed be a significant process during horizontal thrusting and shortening of sediments in a range of settings. We see structures attributable to lateral compaction in sediments around the Dead Sea Basin - check out the attached publication (especially section 7.7.3.) that is currently  'in press' in Sedimentary Geology.


    Ian Alsop

  • Vivek Tiwari added an answer in Single Molecule Imaging:
    Can anyone advise on how to spin coat dye molecules for single molecule imaging ?

    I am looking to coat Alexa790 dye molecules (dissolved in Ethanol) on a cover slip for imaging single molecules. I start with a ~ 40 nM solution. I am having difficulty determining the two main things - 

    1. How much volume to dispense on the cover slip while it is mounted in the spin coater ? Since we loose a lot of the volume while spinning, I am not sure how to determine the starting number. I saw some papers mentioning that cover slip needs to be 'flooded', but I am not quite sure.

    2. What should be the starting concentration of the dye ? It should really be related to the answer of the first question above.

    Essentially I am trying to understand how much of the dispensed volume dries up on the coverslip after the coating process is complete. Once I know that, I should get the answer to the above two questions as well.

    Any help and suggestions are much appreciated.



    Vivek Tiwari

    Hi Ron and Marc,

    Thanks for your suggestions! 

    I tried a concentration range of 1 nM to 50 nM, with dispensing volumes of the dye in Ethanol in the range of 10-100 ul on a bare uncleaned coverslip.

    Upon looking at it on the microscope, I see big isolated aggregates. It seems to me that probably the coverslip has hydrocarbon surface impurities which do not fluoresce at 800 nm but cause problems by making the surface hydrophobic and causing to molecules to come together to aggregate. 

    I am going to try plasma cleaing, sonicating, etc today. But what are your thoughts about my reasoning above ? In your experience, have you faced similar problems arising due to the coverslip ?



  • Elliot Byford added an answer in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cell:
    PBMC cell types frequencies?


    Would anyone have a table of cell types frequencies within human PBMCs? or point me in the right direction.

    I'm looking at more markers than the ones below:

    Lymphocytes: 70-90% of PBMCs
    70-85% are CD3+ (45-70% of PBMCs): 25-60% of PBMCs are CD3+CD4+, 5-30% of PBMCs are CD3+CD8+ (ratio CD4/CD8: 2:1)
    5-20% are B cells (<15% of PBMCs)
    5-20% are NK cells (<15% of PBMCs)

    Monocytes: 10-30%

    DC: 1-2%

    Many thanks


    Elliot Byford

    I am also interested in this type of information - are there any authoritative sources for % that should be expected in this kind of analysis?

  • Rishika Nayyar added an answer in FDI:
    Outward FDI from India- consideration of sub-national institutions?

    Any lead paper on sub-national institutional heterogeneity in India and its impact on outward FDI?

    Rishika Nayyar

    Thanks a lot. Shall go through!

  • Eduardo Marques Martins added an answer in QGIS:
    How can I resolve projection problem with rule based segmentation shapefile in ArcMap?

    I carried out a rule based segmentation in Envi from an image with WGS_1984_Web_Mercator_Auxiliary_Sphere coordinate system and spatial extents are as follows:

    top = 7055057.811311541
    right = -689557.467094682
    bottom = 7044425.74057281 
    left = -712458.110186017

    The projection of the segmented shapefile has the same projection as the image, however, there is a huge shift and its spatial extent is:

    top = 3.000000
    right = -25387.000000
    bottom = -12289.000000
    left = -1.000000

    The image is for the city of Dublin, Ireland, however, the segmented shapefile is displaced to the south of Ghana in Africa. 

    I have tried all the techniques I know such as changing the extent, reprojecting in ArcGIS, using a translator in MapInfo, changing the projection in QGIS etc but to no avail.

    I am attaching the shapefile here as well as a snapshot of the image. Someone might have come across this issue as well and your insights would be useful. Alternatively, if someone could successfully project it to correctly move back to Dublin, I would be extremely grateful. 

    Any help towards resolving this problem would be greatly appreciated.

    Thanks in advance.

    Tine Ningal
    UCD, Dublin, Ireland

    + 1 more attachment

    Eduardo Marques Martins


    This may help in the future:

    "Implications of Web Mercator and Its Use in Online Mapping" by Sarah E. Battersby, Michael P. Finn, E. Lynn Usery & Kristina H. Yamamoto (2014).

    Link: << https://research.tableau.com/sites/default/files/Battersby_etal_2014.pdf >>.

    Best regards...

  • Srete Nikolovski added an answer in Power Distribution System:
    Hi all, does anyone have any real data or information about the amount that a DG output can be changed instantly under the emergency operation?

    The 10-min or 30-min ramp-rate are not the intent of the question.

    Srete Nikolovski

    If DG is biogas or biomas power plant with synchronous generator it depends of speed of governor regulator. You need to know the manufacturer and time constant of qovernor controler.


  • Rishika Nayyar added an answer in Econometrics:
    Logistic Panel Regression (Econometrics)?

    Any good read on how to run logistic panel regression? My dependent variable is binary and independent variables are a mix of binary and scale variables.

    Rishika Nayyar

    Thank you Sir!

  • Dejenie A. Lakew added an answer in Consciousness:
    Consciousness the Sole Right & Property of Human Brain ??
    1. Is consciousness the sole right & property associated with human brain only ?
    2. What are the basics / basic structural unit of consciousness other than neuron ?
    3. Does fundamental particles also have some range & level of consciousness ?
    4. Any difference between AI & consciousness ?
    5. Whats behind & beyond consciousness ?
    6. What can be the state of the art example of consciousness, or what can be the maximum level of consciousness ?


    Dejenie A. Lakew

    Dear all,

    Consciousness is not specific to the human brain, it is the capability of all creatures of nature that have life. Every life is innately conscious of the environment in which it is in, it senses when danger or good is around. It is through consciousness that all creatures survive, adjust themselves for a situation of today or to the challenges of the future, defend it self or attack. But there is a level or degree of consciousness, from elementary or simple consciousness to hyper or super consciousness, the latter being that of a human being. 

    However AI can be seemingly equipped with some elementary level of quasi consciousness and do things we want them to do more effectively in that capability but  still that capability is not innate but  based on data/information  computation through algorithms that are built in the system, unlike the human consciousness, conscious of self and outside of us, as far as our imagination takes us across the universe with no input data and without data crunching. Machines are not even conscious of themselves and will not be conscious of their environment without input data and processing algorithms.    

  • Cornel Radu added an answer in Adhesives:
    Where to buy electroadhesive pads?

    to make a robotic gripper, I need to purchase some electroadhesive pads like this: http://www.roboticstomorrow.com/images/upload/images/15276493.jpg

    Does anybody know where can I find something like this to buy?

    Cornel Radu

    I suppose that the conductive (black) layer is not adhesive itself.

    I suggest to do it yourself using common adhesive tape.