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  • Sujatha Pushpakanth asked a question in Lead Acid Battery:
    Do you work on Lead Acid Battery?

    Do you work on lead acid battery and coated gold film on lead alloy grids

  • Tahira Jabeen added an answer in Mental Illness:
    What is a cut-off/normative SCL-90 score?

    Hi all! I am a graduate student and Senior Intern at a State Penitentiary. We are leading an Illness Management Recovery group (IMR) for the first time with our severely mentally ill, high-security inmates.

    Given we work for the state and are provided little to no budget, we are trying to measure progress using the SCL-90 as a pre- and post- test. Does anyone have insight or advice on scoring this? We are trying to figure out raw vs. t-scores. Can anyone even just provide us with the tables that correlate raw to t-scores?

    Any help, insight, or charts/tables would be much appreciated!


    Tahira Jabeen

    Dear Meighan and Stephen

    i am in need of ducth SCL checklist for making qualitative open ended questionnaire.

    could you plz mail me at psychologist40@yahoo.com. i did not find this checklist from link. kindly send me pdf file

    highly thanks

  • Syed Abbas Jafar added an answer in Shell:
    Help me to identify these shells.

    These species of Mollusk recorded from one of the sampling site of Mine. Bhavnagar, Gujarat, India.

    date and time is there in the photo.

    Syed Abbas Jafar


    Affinity with Littoraria is indicated, pending furnishing of more details for species identification(see link):.




  • Mohammad Mehri added an answer in Computer Networks:
    Do you know a system based on multi-agent systems to do some reconnaissance on a computer network?

    Hi there.I am researching about multi-agent systems. I'm looking for a system that uses multi-agent system, In order to solve a series of problems according to distributed approach. the Problems that are not solvable in centralized approaches.

    Mohammad Mehri

    dear sashank, I want to do recon on a network in a distributed way

  • Debasis Sahu added an answer in Cell Biology:
    Is there a simple protocol to isolate the nuclear fraction of cells/tissues?
    In some articles I have read people use kits to isolate the nuclear fraction of cells/tissues. I would like to isolate nuclear fractions from culture cells (NIH3T3/Neuro2A/ HEK293).

    Can anyone suggest a simple protocol for this without using sophisticated kits?
    Debasis Sahu

    Yes, I have used this protocol for EMSA - NFkB binding to DNA... so I can say that it is indeed an experiment of choice...

  • Vahram Mekhitarian added an answer in Polarisation:
    Is there any way to split a linear polarised photon into left and right polarised photons?

    Dirac pointed out that a linear polarized photon is a superposition of right and left polarized photons. Is there an experimental way to split them? 

    Vahram Mekhitarian

    Yes, this superposition state can be experimentally measured using a refraction of an optically active medium such as quartz or a sugar solution in the form of a prism. Left- or right polarized photons to be divided by the angle refraction, and their statistics will indicate the values of the two coefficients of the superposition state. But I not recommend naming this superposition state as the "linear polarized photon".

  • Naman Vaishnav asked a question in ADD:
    How to add RSA algorithm in traditional MANET reactive protocol (DSR,AODV,,,,)? what are the steps in NS 2.35 ? is it possible ?

    what are the steps in NS 2.35 ,is it possible ?

  • Hossein Javadi added an answer in Gravitational Blueshift:
    How can we explain the gravitational blueshift according to the relationship between photon energy and its frequency?
    I am trying to explain something that I have posted to group before, but seem they need explanations more. At first we need to leave our ideas of point particles and zero rest mass particles. In this conception a particle such as a photon or an electron has structure and volume. In the gravitational blueshift, energy of photon and its frequency increases. Considering to properties of photon, how we can explain mechanism of this phenomena? And what happens for gravitons in during interaction between photon and gravity in blueshift? This explanation should be able explaining the properties of changing the intensity of electricity and magnetic depend to photon in blueshift.
    1- Photon properties: A photon becomes energy-laden by revolving. We know this because the electromagnetic fields around a "ray of light" are electromagnetic waves not static fields. Relativistic ally, the electromagnetic field generated by a photon is much stronger than the associated gravitational field. Further it is not clear at the present time whether the gravitational field of an energy-laden photon is static or oscillatory. It is not understood how the photon generates two sets of fields (electromagnetic and gravitational) of so different intensities. This is an enigma.
    2- In during the gravitational blueshift, increasing of photon’s energy was doing part by part. But photon’s energy comes of its electricity energy and magnetic energy. So, intensity of electricity field and magnetic field change part by part.
    3- Zoom on an electromagnetic wave. There are two electric field and magnetic field. These fields move with linear speed of c. But they have other motion that the paths of these motions are changeable.
    4- In during the gravitational blueshift, photon acquires energy equal to dE=dmc2 which separates into three parts; one part behaves like a positive electric field and another part behaves like a negative electric field. These neutralize each other in the structure of the photon (a photon itself is neutral) and the third part behaves like a magnetic field. In quantum mechanical theory, every field is quantized. In addition, force is described as energy per distance shown by F=dU/dx. If we consider this equation from the aspect of quantum mechanics, a number gravitons that are carrying gravitational force, enter into the structure of photon. As a result, gravitons disappear and the energy of the photon increases.
    Before continuing, it is necessary to note that physical nature do not follow of our theories or formulas, our theories and equations should obey of physical nature of phenomena.
    5- It seems in interaction between gravity and photon (blueshift), when gravity acts on photon and gravitons enter to photon, gravitons do change the intensity of electricity field and magnetic field belongs to photon. So, gravitons behave so that they are carrying charged and magnetic effects in the structure of photon.
    Read more in the next post
    Hossein Javadi

    Dear Marco
    Thank you for your interesting comment. I agree with you that in the redshift or blueshift "photon nothing is changing because of gravity." is the official accepted explanation.
    A photon escapes from a gravitational field (redshift), because it has kinetic energy.
    Photons cannot escape the gravitational field of a black hole, because lose all kinetic energy. So official explanation is not true.
    We need a new explanation.



    • Source
      [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
      ABSTRACT: Some of the major unsolved problems in physics are theoretical, meaning that existing theories seem incapable of explaining a certain observed phenomenon or experimental result. The others are experimental, meaning that there is a difficulty in creating an experiment to test a proposed theory or investigate a phenomenon in greater detail. Can quantum mechanics and general relativity be realized as a fully consistent theory (perhaps as a quantum field theory)? [1] Is space-time fundamentally continuous or discrete? Would a consistent theory involve a force mediated by a hypothetical graviton, or be a product of a discrete structure of space-time itself (as in loop quantum gravity)? Are there deviations from the predictions of general relativity at very small or very large scales or in other extreme circumstances that flow from a quantum gravity theory? [2] In general, there are some unanswered questions or complex concepts in modern physics. These issues are divided into two categories: A: The questions that modern physics does not have answers for, and the physicists believe that it is due to the inability of theories. B-Complex concepts that seem unrealistic, but physicists have admitted they do not know the problems of modern physics. There are concepts and equations in physics (classical mechanics, relativity and quantum mechanics) that we can use to reach an understanding that is able to be experienced and by which we can review relativistic Newton's second law. Using the revised relativistic Newton's second law, we can make it easier to express complex concepts in modern physics and respond to many unanswered questions in modern physics.
      Full-text · Article · Aug 2015

    + 1 more attachment

  • Sofia Cividini added an answer in Statistical Software:
    Which statistical softwares is suitable and easy to use?

    Among the statistical tools:  Origin Lab, SPSS, sigma plot and R, which one is reliable and easy to operate for biological related experimental analysis?

    Thank you,

    Sofia Cividini

    I totally agree with George. R is surely one of the best tools (maybe, not exactly the easiest one) to analyse experimental data, in particular genomic data, together with R/Bioconductor. For genomic data, you can also use Python as alternative to R language, or Galaxy. For other kinds of statistical analysis on not genetic data, you can also use SAS or Stata, if you have them at disposition. These latter are surely reliable at 100%.

    + 3 more attachments

  • Madushika Perera added an answer in Bacterial Cell Culture:
    How can I get rid of the smear appeared on my 16s rRNA PCR product?

    I am amplifying 16s rRNA gene for bacterial isolates both for Grams negative and positives.But I always ended up with a smear on top of the PCR product on 0.8% agerose gel.

    I run a large amount of PCR product (20 ul) in one run so I can check on this smear clearly.

    I used three sets of primers yet I get this smear in every time.

    Negative control is clear.

    Please help me to get rid of this smear on the gel and also it will help me to correct any wrong doings if I have your valuable comments on this.

    Thank you..

    Madushika Perera

    Thank you very much for your comments.here I m attaching a gel image of my pcr product.please give me ur comments.thank you.

  • YOGESH CHANDRA TRIPATHI added an answer in CASINO:
    Kung Hei Fat Choi! Are you, your country, town or community celebrating the New Chinese Lunar Year of the Fire Monkey?

    In 2007, we have started an ongoing research project on “Globalization of Holidays and the Calendar”. In the beginning, we were only interested in trying to understand the rapid spread of holidays that, as Halloween and St. Valentine, didn’t have any cultural tradition in Chinese communities but became an important economic asset as well as festivals mobilizing casinos, hotels, restaurants, then schools and associations, nowadays firmly installed in social networks exchanges. Thereafter, we have also started studying the diffusion of public and private festivities of the New Lunar Chinese Year along with the growing economic presence of China worldwide. We have been systematically inviting Master and PhD students to research the topic and I would like to appeal to your collaboration. Can you give us information, pictures, videos or any other documents regarding the diverse celebrations of the Chinese New Year in our country, town or local communities? If there aren’t any commemorations at all, can you explain the situation? What do you think about this clear globalization, industrialization and marketization of holidays that, in some cases relatively new, are being celebrated among other cultures and communities? Is there a main economic driven factor or there also are much more complex cultural and social elements?


    In India,  majority of population follow  Hindu calendar which is a collective name for most of the lunar-sidereal calendars Some of the more prominent regional Hindu calendars include the Nepali calendar, Punjabi calendar, Bengali calendar, Odia calendar, Malayalam calendar,Tulu calendar, Tamil calendar. As far as year is concerned, Vikrama Samvat  calender is used in Northern India, and Shalivahana calendar in the Deccan States.The common feature of many regional Hindu calendars is that the names of the twelve months are the same. However, the month which starts the year varies from region to region. The Buddhist calendar and the traditional lunisolar calendars of Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Sri Lanka and Thailand are also based on an older version of the Hindu calendar. Most of the Hindu calendars were derived from astronomy as developed by Aryabhaṭa and Varahamihira in the 5th to 6th century. These in turn were based in the astronomical tradition of Vedāṅga Jyotiṣa, which in the preceding centuries had been standardised in a number of (non-extant) works known as Surya Siddhanta. Regional diversification took place in the medieval period. The astronomical foundations were further developed in the medieval period, notably by Bhaskara II (12th century). Chinese calendar is not followed in our region.

  • Sibaprasad Dutta added an answer in Drama:
    Why is writing drama on the decline?

    Novel has considerably replaced drama. Some amount of drama is found only in a different genre - film. I think Television, Video and Film restrain people from going to the theatres. Theatre gives enormous scope to dramatic literature which other media cannot. I would like to know and be connected with modern English playwrights in Britain and USA. Some experiments are made in India, but they are not worth the salt.

    Sibaprasad Dutta

    Hi Lilliana, 

    I feel encouraged to see that you agree with my proposition. 


    Hello, Sibaprasad!!!

    It is true that writing drama is on the decline. But going to the theatre is again in fashion. People still prefer plays written before the 1990s. In fact, Greek tragedy, Shakespeare, Carderón and Lope de Vega are still a success and a lot is being written about Renaissance, Baroque, Neoclassical plays by Molière and Racine, as well as by 19th-century playwrights. In the 20th-century, we had great plays by Tennessee Williams and Bertolt Brecht, to mention the two extremes. The last 30 years in theatre have been terribly boring, and musicals have taken the place of the theater. Artsy audiences now prefer "performance", which is short, weird and to the point, and people go to museums for that. 

    Best regards,



    You have said: ... a lot is being written about Renaissance, Baroque, Neoclassical plays by Molière and Racine, as well as by 19th-century playwrights. When I say, with my limited knowledge,  that writing drama is  on the decline, I do not mean 'writing about' drama. Here, your views are in consonance with mine. 

    Thank you very much for your valuable opinion formed by observation and studies. 


  • Bracha Gal added an answer in Agribusiness Economics:
    Are agricultural subsidies considered burden on a country's economy?

    Please answer especially in Indian context.

    Bracha Gal

    Like any other subsidy

  • Allauddin Memon Kohistani added an answer in Language Learning Strategies:
    How can you improve your English skills by using web tools 2.0?

    Web tool for improving reading, listening, writing and speakig skills

    Allauddin Memon Kohistani

    These websites may be helpful for You:

                            Free Learning Language. Exercises crowd source translator.

    BBC Languages:
    Online Learning Languages.

    Live Mocha:
    Social Media

    The language Learning Community.


    Social Platform


    Happy Planet:

  • Manjeet Dahiya added an answer in Forced Migration:
    Kindly can i be able to get any document by Colson E,2003. Forced migration and anthropological ?

    Kindly assist me access any material by Colson E on forced migration and Marcus,GE(anthropology through thick and thin - princeton University)?

    Manjeet Dahiya

    Find it attached here.

  • Song Mengli asked a question in Joint Instability:
    What is the criterion to exactly define what is post-buckling?

    Dear All professionals:

    Happy Chinese New Year!

    I am recently model a steel bar under compressive force, and find the trend of load-displacement diagram is not exactly the shape given by Euler bifurcation buckling, which will hold the same magnitude of load after the bifurcation load was reached, instead the real diagram will drop down, so my question is by what time one can define that the bar step into a post-buckling phase?

    Thanks very much!

    Sincerely yours,


  • Sameh Ibrahim Sersar added an answer in Tracheoesophageal Fistula:
    Is there a role for esophageal stent in the following case?

    Is there a role for esophageal stenting in late presenter 31 years old female with stable iatrogenic tracheoesophageal fistula prior to ercp 45 days ago. it is 25 cm from the central incisor with a good communication between the esophagus and the bronchus intermedius

    Sameh Ibrahim Sersar


    AN UPDATE OF THIS CASE.  Now the patient  is taking foods orally but she has mild dysphagis. F. UP ORA CONTRAST STUDY Shows mid esophageal stricture. Due to the mild symptoms, we are still conservative before dilating the stricture; are we OK? or should we be more courageous to dilate now?

  • Louis Brassard added an answer in Philosophy of Social Science:
    Praxis versus academic noises?

    Karl Marx states in "Theses on Feuerbach" that "The philosophers have only interpreted the world in various ways; the point, however, is to change it." (Thesis Eleven) I must admit that I'm all the more persuaded by that statement as time goes by. When was the last time you heard voices of conviction and righteousness oozed out from academia and how often do you see an academician get his/her hands dirty?

    If you want to get you hands dirty, here's a link:


    Hm, I guess this post so far has not been qualified as a question. So let me ask this: what do you think of Marx's Thesis Eleven in "Theses on Feuerbach"?

    Louis Brassard

    Kierkegaard, Tockqueville were living about the same time as Marx.  It was the beginning of Capitalism and Democracy.  Two major novelties.  Marx was the major thinker of Capitalism and of the alienation of labor.  Tocqueville was the major thinker of Democraty and Kierkegaard the major thinker of secularisation and mass media.  All of them have predicted what will happen but none of them cover the whole spectrum.  

    After the 1848 revolution, Tocqueville said:

    ''when the country will again be divided between two great parties. The French Revolution, which abolished all privileges, and destroyed all exclusive rights, did leave one, that of property. The holders of property must not delude themselves about the strength of their position, or suppose that, because it has so far nowhere been surmounted, the right to property is an insurmountable barrier; for our age is not like any other…Soon the political struggle will be between the Haves and the Have-nots; property will be the great battlefield; and the main political questions will turn on the more or less profound modifications of the rights of property owners that are to be made…''

    Tocqueville traveled to America to have a close look at the new and most advanced demacratie of the time.

    ''All other nations seem to have nearly reached their natural limits, and they have only to maintain their power; but these are still in the act of growth. All the others have stopped, or continue to advance with extreme difficulty; these alone are proceeding with ease and celerity along a path to which no limit can be perceived. The American struggles against the obstacles that nature opposes to him; the adversaries of the Russian are men. The former combats the wilderness and savage life; the latter, civilization with all its arms. The conquests of the American are therefore gained by the plowshare; those of the Russian by the sword. The Anglo-American relies upon personal interest to accomplish his ends and gives free scope to the unguided strength and common sense of the people; the Russian centers all the authority of society in a single arm. The principal instrument of the former is freedom; of the latter, servitude. Their starting-point is different and their courses are not the same; yet each of them seems marked out by the will of Heaven to sway the destinies of half the globe.''

    ''…Above this race of men stands an immense tutelary power, which takes upon itself alone to secure their gratifications and to watch over their fate. That power is absolute, minute, regular, provident, and mild. It would be like the authority of a parent if, like that authority, its object was to prepare men for manhood; but it seeks, on the contrary, to keep them in perpetual childhood: it is well content that the people should rejoice, provided they think of nothing but rejoicing. For their happiness such a government willingly labors, but it chooses to be the sole agent and the only arbiter of that happiness; it provides for their security, foresees and supplies their necessities, facilitates their pleasures, manages their principal concerns, directs their industry, regulates the descent of property, and subdivides their inheritances: what remains, but to spare them all the care of thinking and all the trouble of living?…

    …I have always thought that servitude of the regular, quiet, and gentle kind which I have just described might be combined more easily than is commonly believed with some of the outward forms of freedom, and that it might even establish itself under the wing of the sovereignty of the people…''

  • Syed Abbas Jafar added an answer in Identification:
    Can anyone identify these mollusk species?

    This is may a species from family Assiminidae!

    Help me to properly identify.

    + 1 more attachment

    Syed Abbas Jafar


    Kindly furnish complete detail: different views, size, habitat, collecting region etc. As of now this can be designated as Assiminea sp. 



  • Abdallah M Abualkishik added an answer in Knowledge Management:
    ¿How could measure the impact of knowledge management in organizations?

    ¿What kind of indicators are used to measure the impact of the transfer and knowledge management in organizations?

    Abdallah M Abualkishik

    there are three main components important for knowledge management,

    1) information technology,  2) organisational elements and  3) knowledge


  • Mohammad Shahrear Kabir added an answer in Grazing:
    What is the correct procedure for determining that the Grazing angle X-ray diffraction pattern is accurate ??

    Consider that the TEM- selcted area diffraction pattern is also available for the same sample.

    Mohammad Shahrear Kabir

    Thanks to the both of you for your opinions and approach.

  • Adarsh Chatra asked a question in Friction:
    Correlation between soil internal friction and friction angle due to apparent cohesion?

    Dear all,

    Is there any correlation between soil friction angle and friction angle of soil under unsaturated condition (increase in friction angle due to suction).

  • Govind Pandey added an answer in Ocimum:
    What is role of Ocimum sanctum in cytotoxicity?

    Cytotoxicity relates to cancer O. sanctum is Tulsi which is very useful in cancer treatment.

    Govind Pandey

    Thank you. Good luck.

  • Anoop Bk added an answer in Quadcopter:
    Can anyone help me to get connected ZANO quadcoper to my phone?

    ZANO connectivity registeration problem

    Anoop Bk

    We have purchased that but disappointed not registered the product

  • Ashok Ayer asked a question in Root Canal Therapy:
    Root canal therapy Versus Dental Implant: Are we misleading our patients?

    Not a fair amount of information is given to patients while choosing between implant versus endodontic therapy. There seems some sort of disagreement between endodontists and implantologists. Not all but few are always promoting implant as solely beneficial treatment, often underscoring benefits of endodontic treatment and highlighting disadvantages of endodontic treatment. 

  • Amir Ali Mazandarani added an answer in Personality Tests:
    What is the best reference and administrative manual for Cattell's 16 Personality Factors?

    I am trying to learn about scoring 16PF (personality test)  profiles (validity indices, global scales, primary scales etc). I need a book or manual that describes this procedure in detail.

    I think "16PF Fifth Edition with updated norms: Administrator's Manual" by Russell and Karol (2002) is a good one. Can you introduce more recent and more available references on this topic?

    Thank you all in advance.

    Amir Ali Mazandarani

    Thank you very much Dr Hendrika Vande Kemp. I have read Essentials of 16PF® Assessment already. The book is very useful and informative, but it lacks technical and administrative details. For example the book does not have normative data and it does not explain how to calculate Global and Primary scales, and Response styles. I think these information may be found in technical and administrative manuals and workshops. There is not any workshop in Iran on this topic, so I wish I find a good manual to read or attend to an online workshop. 

    And Thank you again for the book chapter you introduce. However I could not find a full-text of the paper and I doubt it has the detailed information that I need . However I have read another book chapter by HEP Cattell that is very useful. It adds Two Super-Factors (third-order factors). Here is the link:

  • Nithyanandan Manickam asked a question in Seahorse:
    ID of Seahorse from Arabian Gulf ?

    Dear All,

    Can someone help me in the ID of a Seahorse in the attached pictures. The seahorse was collected in a seagrass bed, 3 m depth from Kuwait, Arabian Gulf.

    Best Regards,

    M. NIthyanandan

    + 2 more attachments

  • Manjeet Dahiya added an answer in Ticks:
    How to calculate strain and crystallite size using topas?

    I'm analysing the crystallite size of a ball milled powder, and am not sure about my calculation method using topas.

    when I do the calculation using topas, if I don't consider the strain factor, only choose a L or G profile for the peak, and look at the lvob value for crystallite size, then the crystallite size is usually aroun 5 nm;

    but when I consider the strain factor, tick both G, L, e0, run the fitting, then tick off G, as it usually gives a large error value.

    then do the fitting again with L and e0 factor, the crystallite size increases a lot to over 100nm, is there anything wrong in this calculation? as the size of 5nm is more reasonable (I did TEM also to check the size), but strain should be considered for a ball milled sample right?

    Manjeet Dahiya


    will help you

  • Sarah Louise Sua Atulba asked a question in Clay Minerals:
    How to know the distance between oxygen/Hydroxyl on clay mineral surface?

    Hello everyone! I am currently studying about clay minerals and I dont have enough background about it since I am new to this topic.

    I have learned that clay mineral surfaces has a negative charge and mostly containing hydrohyl groups or oxygen which can be attached to cations in soil in order to adsorb it on clay mineral surface. 

    Now I am interested on how to measure the distance between one O/OH to another O/OH on the surface of clay. ex. O-O distance and also in the case of ferric hydr/oxides, Id like to know the distance between O-Fe-O

    I hope somebody could help me in this since this will help build my foundation in studying adsorption by clay minerals. I am looking forward to your valuable opinions and knowledge about this matter. 

    Have a nice day all!


  • Manjeet Dahiya added an answer in Filters:
    Can anyone help me to choose the optical filter?

    What material can be used to filter based on the intensity of laser beam
    Not wavelength

    Manjeet Dahiya

    A photodiode can serve the purposeby setting the upper and lower cut-off currents through caliberation.