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  • Silburn Clarke asked a question in Microcephaly:
    Is the high incidence of microcephaly in Brazil an outlier in the global Zika outbreak ?

    Zik V was recently declared a global emergency by WHO.  Reports suggest, however, that Brazil may have a higher than expected incidence of microcephaly in newborns.  What are  the factors driving the high incidence of microcephaly in Brazil ?

  • Masoud Hasany asked a question in Arterial Stiffness:
    What's the difference between toughness and stiffness?

    What's the difference between toughness and stiffness?

  • Andrew Worsley added an answer in Special Relativity:
    Given that we now view spacetime with the metric structure of GR, does it make sense to keep using the reference frames of special relativity?

    SR can now be viewed as general evolving hyperbolic sheets just as in GR.  The Globally rectangular coordinate frames on SR seem to lead to many confused arguments on the nature of SR using antiquated notions.  Should we abandon much of the traditional picture of SR and view it in terms of more general local frames and invariants?

    Andrew Worsley

    I don't understand why you should want to take a perfectly sound theory which is SR and contaminate it with 4D manifolds

  • Kulvinder kochar kaur added an answer in Human Health:
    What observation should be taken into account for setting national S&T goals and policies?

    National objectives in the areas of economic growth, health care, national security, and environmental protection are closely linked to scientific and technological development and related policy framework of the country. S&T advances alone are not enough require combined efforts of academia, research, business groups and government to achieve major objectives of enhanced national security, improved human health, stronger economy, and a cleaner environment. This definitely raise the issue of what goals the nation should have for science and technology (S&T) and how those goals should be reflected in levels of R&D, investment and organizational arrangements. What do you think about the S&T objectives and their integration in development agenda of your country? Your comments please...

    Kulvinder kochar kaur

    this can only work if the people at decision or polcy making take experts from the field into confidence and layoutplans be it from scientific community ,health sector,mba et and only then goals can be achieved the way desired

  • Dinesh Bhagwan Hanchate asked a question in Multiplication:
    Which are the various methods of multiplication and their time complexities?

    Digambar Padulkar

  • Kouser . added an answer in Aspirate:
    What is the basic aspiration of human being ?

    What is the basic of human being? 

    This is my open ended study? Please answer as you can. Thank you 

    Kouser .

    I feel ...

    Health + Love + Happiness + Peace.

    Best regards,

  • Anand Pai added an answer in Construction Materials:
    Where can I find thermal diffusivity expression for different construction materials?

    I need the temperature dependent thermal diffusivity values of different construction materials.

    Anand Pai
    Refer any heat and mass transfer data hand book..
  • Denise Marie McEnroe-Petitte added an answer in Evidence Based Practice:
    Is evidence - based practice extensively implemented in nursing care settings?

    do we have sufficient evidence available to determine the extent of implementation of ebp in nursing workplaces?

    Denise Marie McEnroe-Petitte


    I echo what the other are saying.

    It is taught in nursing programs, but often not able to be implemented due to administrative issues.  

    Another aspect, as my BSN students just did a mock research survey on this area, supports that most nurses are familiar with EBP and what it is, but responded that it is not always put into effect because of constraints with administration.  This barrier is significant and may be holding nursing back in providing and practicing for positive patient outcomes.  

    Another result of this mock survey was that not all nurses, although knowing what EBP is, did not extend their knowledge to read peer reviewed articles and really understand the studies and then the results.

    We can talk more !!!!!!!!!!!!

    Denise McEnroe-Petitte 

  • András Bozsik added an answer in Catholic Church:
    Was the University an European invention at hands of the Catholic Church?

    Please, provide your thinking about this question. Thank you.

    András Bozsik

     Dear All,

    Mariano’s question concerns the precedence of present day university as it is and not what was the main aim of Catholic leadership in the middle age.  

    I repeat what matter are the cause and effect relationship and their reliability.  

    By the way, I am glad to see the social and cultural stratifications in the answers.

  • Segun Daniel asked a question in Corchorus:
    WHO and FAO safe limits?

    please, I need WHO standards and safe limits for pesticide residues and heavy metals content limits in Nigerian leafy vegetables such as Corchorus olitorius, Amaranthus hybridus and spinosus. Anyone with details?

  • Ali Danladi added an answer in Power Systems:
    Space Power Systems: Design of a power system for small satellites - where to start and what are the essentials?

    Space Power Systems: Design of a power system for small satellites - where to start and what are the essentials?

    Ali Danladi

    @ all, thanks, i am grateful for your response. i will surely consider your suggestions

  • Dinesh Bhagwan Hanchate added an answer in Factorials:
    What is the time complexity of n factorial with respect to recursive and non-recursive algorithm?

    Dear/ Respected sir/madam

          It is requested to provide with example, resources and references if you have.

    Dinesh Bhagwan Hanchate

    Dear friends

       Thanks for your response.  I respect your answer.  Factorial is dependent on the multiplication. There are some other methods of multiplication just like   Schonhage-strassen method gives complexity O(log n( log (log n)).  What is your "say" or "opinion"


  • William F. Hansen added an answer in Sustainable Agriculture:
    The soils are calcareous and sodic. Cotton and Red gram major rain field crops. Groundwater is poor in quality. What could be the management options?

    The yield levels of crops are also low

    William F. Hansen

    I am sorry, the Leon soils are spodic, not sodic, so disregard that section of my response.  I am on my IPad, so I don't have access to my files.

  • Ijaz Ahmad Khan added an answer in RF Sputtering:
    Can you please give your suggestion to sustain the plasma for RF sputtering?

    We aer using RF sputtering to deposit SrTiO3 films on Si. However, we are facing a problem that after 2-3 hours of deposition, plasma goes off automatically.Sometime we see some sparks inside deposition chamber.

    Ijaz Ahmad Khan

    This is very simple to sustain the plasma in RF sputtering plasma just by controlling the input power, after some time the plasma may not sustain which may be due to the variation in power, so first control the power, hopefully it will be sustain

  • Sayed M Badawy added an answer in Mobile Phones:
    How to measure the capacity and data of charge and discharge of the recycled LiCoO2 ?

    We are investigating  the recycling of cathode and anode materials from spent mobile phone batteries containing LiCoO2 active materials.  First, we would like to know the experiments used to measure the capacity and data of charge and discharge of the recycled cathodic  LiCoO2 .  Second, we would like to cooperate with other researchers, who have this facility, to do the measurements of charge/discharge data.

    Sayed M Badawy

    Thank you for you answer. Unfortunately, The battery tester and the materials mentioned in the paper are not available in our lab.

  • Arvind Sharma asked a question in Schrodinger:
    Can somebody tell me the name of the softwares may be used to solve modified/discrete nonlinear schrodinger equation for carbon nano tubes?

    P. G. Kivrikidis

  • Nilay Borah added an answer in Vermicomposting:
    How quickly do compost earthworms (e.g. Eisenia fetida or E. andrei) accumulate compost?

    I need to know the rate at which compost is produced by these earthworms in order to determine how often a vermicompost bin needs to be cleaned. Thanks.

    Nilay Borah

    The rate of compost production is influenced by raw material (size and type), earthworm (age, life cycle, quantity, i.e. earthworm: raw material ratio) and environment (temperature etc). In case of Eisenia fetida, it’s desirable to clean (harvest) compost in 60-75 days so as to facilitate completion of earthworm’s life cycle, irrespective of raw material or quantity of earthworm used. In summer months it may be 60±5 days and in winter 70±5 days.

  • Pierre, Eloi, Nathan Olivier added an answer in Seeds:
    Is there someone who works on Malus sieversii and could explain to me how to get some seeds to do an experiment out of scientific interest?
    An idea of planting some Malus sieversii has come to mind to build a preservation orchard in the city of La Chapelle in France but it is very difficult to get seeds from Kazakhstan where it grows easily. There is already the same kind of project in the USA and England but this idea is poorly established in France.

    I could put you in contact with the manager of the project.
    Pierre, Eloi, Nathan Olivier

    Thank you very much !

  • Vadym Dolia added an answer in Meteorological Data:
    Where can I find the archive of meteorological data, maps, satellite images?

    Hello Everyone!
    Tell me please meteorological archives for maps of the surface, upper air and satellite data?
    Regards Dolia Vadym.

    Vadym Dolia

    Benjamin Taylor, thank you very much beautiful site!


  • Barzini Barzini added an answer in Gallium Nitride:
    What would be the ideality factor of a Gallium Nitride based solar cell diode?

    I am trying to simulate Gallium Nitride based pin solar cell with Indium Gallium Nitride quantum dots ambedded in the intrinsic region. Can anyone help me with supporting resources?

    Barzini Barzini

    if u want i sent you the uTorrent link to download SILVACO

  • Silburn Clarke added an answer in Business Management:
    Who would like to publish in Latin American Journal of Business Management?

    Dear Colleagues!

    I am the executive editor of Latin American Journal of Business Management (LAJBM). I am preparing a special issue on Entrepreneurship, Strategy and Innovation. The deadline to submit the paper is September,  30, 2016. The Issue estimated: February, 2017.

    It will be a great honor and a great pleasure to receive articles from around the world.


    Silburn Clarke


    Can you share on:

    a. is journal open access

    b. estimated readership / circulation

    c. particular academic style (empirical, conceptual)

    d. domain focus (IB, HRM, ICT, Strategy tec)

    e.  IF

    f. languages of publication


  • Simon Cropper added an answer in Protected Areas:
    How would you refer to a “protected area” which host many rare and endangered species?

    Just trying to understand if in literature there is a “concept” for difference among protected areas according to the “percentage” of rare and endangered species occurring in the area.

    I’m trying to compare PA and I want to use also the rare and endangered species feature

    Simon Cropper

    Comparative indices are subjective and vary by ecosystem and region. Don't try and judge what area is better or worse by what it contains. Focus on what can be achieved considering the constraints most land managers encounter. This may mean putting time, money and effort into an ecosystem that contains no, some or lots of threatened species.

  • Vassilis Doucas added an answer in Vaccines:
    What is best web site for computational resources on Zika Virus?

    Presently, Zika Virus is one of the major challenges for mankind. It is important to discover drug, vaccine and biomakers for this disease as soon as possible, in order to prevent its spread. Thus it is important to create computational resources (in slico drugs/vaccine candidates) in order to facilitate experimental researchers in searching effective drug/vaccine against Zika Virus. We are collecting information about existing resources on Zika Virus; so we may compile and present information via web site. Please suggest important URL/links on Zika Virus.

    Vassilis Doucas

    Dear Gajendra,

    Collect information is also important to create information and data.

    That is important. Best, Vassilis

  • Maxime Yochum added an answer in ARM Microcontroller:
    Is it possible to program an ARM microcontroller by MATLAB to work as an ADC?

    to whom may concern!


    I am working on a project witch I need an 8 channel ADC by ARM microcontroller Xmega xx. As I know nothing about programming an ARM microcontroller, I've decided to program it by MATLAB.

    Is there any way to convert MATLAB code to program this microcontroller? Infact I mean without installing MATLAB itself on the microcontroller to compile the program.

    Maxime Yochum

    I don't know if you can do that with matlab but I know it is possible in Python via this module :


    It possible to launch a console from the micro-controller to interact with it in real time. So you can use the ADC directly from your computer.

  • Rafik Karaman added an answer in Organic Compounds:
    How to name the substituted barrelenes?

    I want find out the names of the compounds obtained by the substitution of nitrogen in the barrelene cage. Anyone please help me to name these compounds.

    Three files are attached.

    + 2 more attachments

    Rafik Karaman

    The last one is:



  • Alain Celzard added an answer in Research Synthesis:
    What are the topics in material science research that could be useful for poor people?

    I mean like ..

    1)Materials for easy housing (light materials/cost effective/easy fabricated materials) .

    2)Materials for public construction and transportation .

    3)Materials for energy storage with focus on hydrogen energy 

    4)Materials research for synthesis of safe drinkinng water from available resources .

    5)Materials processing research in food processing 

    6)Combining materials technology for developing tools for irrigation 

    7)Materials for low cost clothing

    Alain Celzard

    You have already listed the most important points, although point 3 is not for poor people (not yet). Researches for better recycling materials of for preparing value-added materials from wastes are also required, as well as a better valorisation of biomass for different non-alimentary purposes.

  • Karlo Toljan added an answer in Calcium:
    Does Calcium absorption decrease with increasing intake?

    assessments of calcium balance are poor. Up on theAndes, in Perù, people maintain balance at very low levels of intake-Does Calcium absorption decrease with increasing intake?

    Karlo Toljan

    calcium intake is mostly regulated by vitamin d. when thinking about calcium, one also has to pay attention to phosphate since these two are co-regulated in the body and are coupled in their functions sometimes acting in sinergy, but also in the opposite. in normal physiological conditions excess calcium wouldn't be absorbed in toxic concentrations due to tight regulation, but if the intake would be incredibly large and followed by ingestion of vitamin d, hypercalcemia could occur. For regulation, look also for hormones such as PTH and FGF23 - since phosphate is also involved here together with calcium. 

  • Naveen Kalra added an answer in Soil Carbon:
    What is the fate of soil organic carbon with crop residues incorporation in tropical and sub-tropical environments?

    Tropical and sub-tropical regions- higher temperatures, rate of OC degradation faster

    Residue incorporation- provides benefit to the current ongoing crop, may be next crop in rotation???

    question of carbon sequestration in root zone profile???

    short and long term consequences of zero/minimum tillage???

    Naveen Kalra

    Anoop and other colleagues, is there any reference regarding changes in the soil physical/structural properties in relation to crop residues /cropping systems inclusion, i agree with you short term benefits of crop residues in warmer regions are there, one more point SOC to be used as prime parameter for rating of the soil


  • Margaret Ward added an answer in Medieval Iconography:
    What period would you say the pictured cross slab is from? (archaeology)

    The pictured cross slab is from Kilsharvan (Cille Sarbhán) near Duleek, Co. Meath, Ireland.  The site is associated with the abbey of Colp near Drogheda and had de Lacey patronage in the early medieval period.  The present church ruin is 13th century and reconfigured in the 17th century before being abandoned.

    Kilsharvan (Cill Searbhain, or Cell Serbáin[1]), a townland in the barony of Lower Duleek in County Meath is well known locally for its graveyard and church (SMR ME027-009) and a number of local historical figures are interred therein. The graveyard is a stop on the local tourist route[2] (Beamore – Kilsharvan Trail, Meath County Council). However, the tourist literature makes no mention of the rough-hewn stone (Figure 1.) with a representation of three crosses.  Gothic Past[3],  holds no record for Kilsharvan and whereas the National Monuments’ Service[4] records the church and graveyard, no mention is made of the rough-hewn stone.  The dedication of the site to Searbhain (“The Bitter Tongued”) or Serbáin (St. Serban?) is unusual if either is taken as correct.  The former and the one most commonly linked to Kilsharvan is a epithet for St. John the Baptist who complained ‘bitterly’ of the moral rectitude of the Herodians in Jerusalem, this is the explanation the tourist and local history favours; on the other hand Monasticon Hibernicum[5] lists a Serbáin (‘male’) as the association to Kilsharvan, but no such saint appears in the martyrologies and it is not a name known in Irish.

    Kilsharvan church is thought to date to around 1300, but, there is a reference to the tithes of Kilsharvan being allocated to the new Augustinian monastery at Colpe in 1182 when it was built by Hugh de Lacy (the Irish house of the Abbey of Llanthony Prima in Wales)(Mullen, 1988/9).  Hugh (born c. 1124 – 1185) came to Ireland with King Henry II and was granted the Kingdom of Meath (as Earl).  His son Hugh de Lacy (Earl of Ulster, born c.1179 - 1242) was a substantial benefactor of Llanthony Prima Abbey in Wales as was the de Lacy family in general.  It is not known if a church existed prior to 1300.  The importance of the tithe reference is that it places Kilsharvan, as a place at least, earlier on the ecclesiastical landscape.  The calvary stone might predate the current ruin, but what is its date?

    [1] According to Monasticon Hibernicum (http://monasticon.celt.dias.ie)
    [2] http://www.meath.ie/Tourism/Heritage/HeritageTrails/BeamoreHeritageTrail/
    [3] http://gothicpast.com
    [4] http://webgis.archaeology.ie/NationalMonuments/FlexViewer/
    [5] http://monasticon.celt.dias.ie

    + 1 more attachment

    Margaret Ward

    I hope not to lead you too much off on a tangent, but...  Eve's mention of yews together with early Christian sites and enclosures brings to mind the 'eponymous' Christleton [near Chester]. Probably not included in your study, Eve? No ancient stones have been found/noticed that I know of, but the church graveyard/enclosure is interesting. Yews - for keeping out cattle but also to facilitate early bow-making?

    There are numerous ancient finds in the village - including Roman pottery from the Law School and from our garden, a few hundred metres/yards away in opposite directions. I may get around to posting another question on RG one day, but meanwhile any news of recent research concerning Christleton would be great. As a Romanist, I last researched it in 2000.

    Sorry to side-track!

  • Abdul Qayum added an answer in Climate Change:
    Considering the climate change, are there some trees adapted to the water deficiency?

    We need to know how we can choose the trees which grow with water deficiency in restoring landscape.

    Abdul Qayum

    To combat water crisis issues Eucalyptus species trees are banned in many parts and in areas it is avoided. Plantation of some xerophytic species is aslo promoted by the field managers.