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  • Mingee Ong added an answer in Questionnaire:
    Hi, Could Anyone helps me fill up this Sustainability Questionnaires?

    I really appreciate your help. 

    Link is at below : 


    Mingee Ong

    Hi Lei Shang could you click from here  : https://docs.google.com/forms/d/179KkwSTQp3g52HfHP4vY9DK1RJ6m7smuwv_X69cmcck/viewform 

  • Deon Canyon added an answer in Self-Assessment:
    Collaborative Leadership Assessment Tools For Online Environments?

    Good evening everyone,

      I am searching for a Collaborative Leadership Assessment Tool for the third chapter of my dissertation.  Furthermore, my study will be based on the collaborative leadership practices in an online video-gaming environment.  Although I am aware of instruments such as Collaborative Leadership
    Self-Assessment Questionnaires from Turning-Point and the COLLABORATIVE LEADERSHIP SELF-ASSESSMENT from Partnership Continuum, I was not sure if they would be appropriate to give my subjects since they will be in an online environment and these assessments seem to be geared towards face-to-face organizational assessments.  

    Any thoughts or suggestions?



    Deon Canyon


  • Sebastian Schmitt added an answer in His-Tag:
    How can I identify proteins at 280 nm when I'm using immidazole in affinity chromatography?

    Due to the high absorbance of immidazole at 280nm, it's  difficult to identify proteins. Even I used high quality immidazole (sigma, molecular grade) I was not able to identify any peaks during  the elution step (con of immidazole 250 mM). Therefore, I have to purifiy the his tag proteins manually.Is there any suggestions to get rid of this high absorbance of immidazole

  • Deon Canyon added an answer in World Health Organization:
    What would you ask an ex-WHO director of Medicines?

    In an hour I have half an hour of time with ex-WHO director of Medices Hans Hogerzeil. Have you ever wanted to ask him a meaningful question, feel free to post it!

    Deon Canyon

    Estimated occurrence (not what is known) of fake medicines on the market in developing countries - and estimated losses

  • Emil Hristov Yankov added an answer in Drilling:
    How can we minimize the burr size in drilling of St 37 with drill diameter of 34 mm and without using any pre-drill ?

    we want to minimize the burr size in drilling of St 37 with drill diameter of 34 mm and without using any pre-drill.

    The burr wrap around twist drill and make us to stop feed and discharge the burr and then continue the process.

    We want to do that without using pre-drill.

    Thanks for your answer in advance

    Emil Hristov Yankov

    Drilling of such a large diameter requires fairly powerful machine if a mill or in the midst of time. In this case it would be better opening to break through bulk erosion once. However, this will take a long time depending on the slab thickness or height of the drilling.

  • Deon Canyon added an answer in Microcephaly:
    Is larvacide a likelier cause of microcephaly than a mosquito-transmitted virus?

    this is the sort of chemical some researchers were suggesting as a possible way to interfere with the mosquito's life cycle. What sort of effects would that have! http://www.gmwatch.org/news/latest-news/16706-argentine-and-brazilian-doctors-name-larvicide-as-potential-cause-of-microcephaly

    Deon Canyon

    Interesting idea, but these are insect growth regulators that have no observed effects on human (mammal) development at well above the concentrations that are applied in the field.

  • Biju Mani added an answer in Essential Oils:
    What is the average oil content in lemongrass and what is the highest yield of its essential oil so far?

    The highest yield of lemongrass essential oil varies according to extraction method. If possible, I would like to know the maximum yield for each method, including steam and water distillation.

    Biju Mani


  • Thierry De Mees added an answer in Gravitational Waves:
    How did Einstein identify existence of black holes in those days, with no experimental set up? Can gravitational waves be observed (now or in future)?

    There is an on going rumor that an advanced LIGO is about to detect gravitational waves that cause by merging of two black holes! Do you believe the discovery of gravitational waves through experimental setup(now or in future)?

    Thierry De Mees

    Roberto: GR was fabricated thanks to the unofficial measurements of the magnificent solar eclipse of 1914, which was very successfully visible in Turkey.

    Black holes have not been proven to comply with GR.

    Gravitomagnetism, created by the genius O. Heaviside (1893) allows black holes without singularities.

    Gravitomagnetism also predicted gravity waves by analogy with electromagnetism.

    Hence, telling that "Einstein was right" is of course presumptuous and a proof of bias.

    The LIGO people fabricated the black holes from where the gravity waves allegedly came from.

    First they will need to prove that the "ripple" exists, then prove that the "ripple" is the "universe itself", and then that the "ripples" comply with Einstein's equations.

  • Peter Breuer added an answer in Haskell:
    Can Haskell be used to implement Belnap (four valued) logic? Besides Haskell are there any better options?

    Looking for a programming language that can handle Belnap (four valued) logic.

  • Yuri Jack Gómez-Morales added an answer in Research Paper Writing:
    How to choose journals for submitting your paper ?

    After preparing a manuscript, your next step is to choose a journal for the publication of your research. It is crucial that you select a peer-reviewed journal which will present your research in the best way and convey it to the right target audience. And of course, the list of journals you have published in can directly and indirectly affect you career advancement, professional reputation, and funding opportunities.

    How to choose journals for submitting your paper?

    Yuri Jack Gómez-Morales

    It seems that everyone all over the world is too concern with productivity, rankings and the advance of their  individual carreer. Indeed that's the new hegemonic thinking on what it means to be an scholar nowadays. 

    My humble advice is first: by selfconscius with regard to your paper's subjectmatter and your on location, about the place from where you are writing. There is a political economy of knowledge defining who can write, where and on what topics.

    Once you manage to brake the productivity/ranking spell think first how your results, not your paper, your results may help communities, people policy making  because to be relevant is to put knowledge at the service of the people. of course, publishing serves peopple, yeah, just you.  try to be relevant.

    and if, in the end, yours is one of those knowleges that have no practical implications, well at least try to make it visible among your nearby colleages. set a nice seminar with people who thinks otherwaise etc and then ok, got your paper into print. Which Journal, well that where people with similar questions/problems are trying to find an audience a real audience.... forget about impact factor... it is just a factor of global dominance, help us to brake the audit culture

  • Biju Mani added an answer in Gum Arabic:
    I'm looking for O/W emulsifiers produced by organic agriculture, to stabilize an essential oils mix in water.

    I work on a pesticide preparation, based on essential oils, and I need to stabilize the solution, for field tests. As it will be used for organic agriculture, the emulsifier must also be produced by organic agriculture. I am about to test soya lecithin and gum arabic. I would like to test 3 or 4 more of them.

    I thank you for your help!

    Biju Mani

    Hope, your issue is solved otherwise I can suggest you something else.

  • Panagiotis Fotakis asked a question in Housekeeping Gene:
    Could you please suggest a housekeeping gene as a loading control for Western blot from spleen lysates?

    Hi Everyone,

    So I am trying to to do a Western blot from mouse spleen lysates of four different genotypes. With actin I get plenty of background whereas GAPDH works better. The problem is that in the two control genotypes I get a good amount of GAPDH but in the two experimetnal genotypes the GAPDH is greatly reduced. I am not sure whether this was an overestimation of the protein quantity or it is a genotype thing (I do have increased apoptosis). I run an SDS-PAGE and stained it by coomasie and to my understanding I load equal amount of protein. Can you suggest another housekeeping gene to look up. See the attached file for details pelase 

  • Biju Mani added an answer in Oil Extraction:
    What is the best method for preserving mangrove leaf samples for essential oil extraction?

    We are conducting a research on mangrove leaves as larvicide. I just want to ask if what is the best approach we can use to preserve the leaves? Another thing is, do we have to air dry the leaves we collected? Is air drying is the most reliable way to dry the leaves before extraction? If it is air drying, how long does it take to determine if it is already 'dry' or how much time do we have to wait so it can be ready for extraction

    Biju Mani

    Hi John, you make it sure whether you are losing any essential oils during sun drying by testing a 20 gm sample each in a clevenger apparatus in your laboratory. Sun drying (under 40 deg c) is the cheapest  solution in my experience.

  • Bamidele J Okoli added an answer in Alkaloids:
    What's the pharmaceutical activity of alkaloid?

    In general they have strong biological activity but what does it actually do when it come to pharmaceutical activity?

  • Ady Setyawan asked a question in Patient Care:
    Self effication on dialysis patient care ?

    current research about self effication on patient with dialysis ?

  • Filippo Salustri added an answer in GRASP:
    Do you know of literature addressing the subjective feeling "getting it"?

    The starting intuition is that there is such a thing as an emotional feedback when a something is "grasped", as opposed to merely articulated in, or presented to, the mind. If so, what is the cue for triggering that feeling? One might propose that it is the ability to symbolically process/link the new information in terms of an older, more familiar, structure. Alternatively, it could be triggered by cues internal to the information itself (e.g. logical entailing). I would go for the former, as it would be "cheaper" for the brain to perform. Any guidance on "prior art" on all of this?

  • Derya Kabacaoglu added an answer in Bradford Assay:
    Why the western samples which gave equal loading control at first time do not give equal loading control bands when I reuse them?

    Hi, I have a question regarding reuse of western blot cell lysates. When I do the b actin control of the lysates at first right after bradford assay, the loading control of all lysates seem equal. But whenever I store the same lysates at -20 and redo the western, b actin is no more equal. The funny part is when I do HSP90 check in second western, it gives equal bands. Is b actin not the best control for western blot samples? Or do you have any recommendations about cell lysis and storage? (the cell lines that I use are pancreatic cancer cell lines isolated from mice. I lyse them, do bradford, and mix with loading dye and store them)


    Derya Kabacaoglu

    Dear Sebastian thank you for the answer. I think there is a confusion about my question. After bradford for sure I add Laemmli Buffer into my samples and then perform western blot. In the first one I see equal loading control but afterwards I store my samples which contain Laemmli buffer at -20 and then repeat the same western with the same samples and the loading control (b actin) is not equal as it was before. It sounds unlikely but an explanation is maybe the remaining biological activity even after the addition of detergent? And how trustworthy is b Actin while every paper uses it as control?

  • Evans Ehouman added an answer in Phytosociology:
    What are the step to carry out a DCA Analysis ?


    I am interested in comparing different phytosociology relévé realised in different area.

    I wish to know what are the basic requirement to apply an DCA analysis on a set of data.

    I'm using PAST software and there is for example a simple set data design, please could you tell me what is missing?

    Thank you very much


    1 2 1 1
    1 1 1 1
    2 1 1 1
    2 1 1 1
    3 2 2 1
    3 3 3 2

    where A, B, C and D are different plant species in different areas.

    I wish with this analysis to gather those species whose abundance a re similar in the related areas.

    Evans Ehouman

    Tks dear!

  • Ying You added an answer in Thermodynamics:
    How is this process not quasi-static yet reversible?

    Consider a (adiabatic) canister with a piston containing some gas kept in a vacuum. There are two weights on the canister which equalize the pressure of the gas on the piston. Assume the system is at equilibrium. I remove one weight from the piston. The system will go out of equilibrium. After some flux, it will again settle into equilibrium. Clearly, this is not a quasi-static process. But its a reversible one, isn't it? If I put the weight back on the piston, the system will again achieve its initial state. How can a non-quasi-static process be reversible?

    Ying You

    A reversible process is a process that can be reversed without leaving any trace on the surroundings. In this processm the system can return to its original state, but not the surroundings.

    In the expansion process, the system does work on the surroundings (to against P0), To restore the system to its original state, we have to raise the weight to the height where the piston sits at the end of the expansion, thus leaves the trace on the surroundings.

    Therefore, it is NOT the reversible process.

  • Thierry De Mees added an answer in International System of Units:
    What is Time?

    Time is a measure in which events can be ordered from the past through the present into the future, and also the measure of duration of events and the intervals between them. Time is often referred to as the fourth dimension, along with the three spatial dimensions.

    The fundamental unit of time in the International System of Units (SI) is the second (symbolized s or sec). One second elapses during the occurrence of exactly 9,192,631,770 (9.192631770 x 10^9) cycles of the radiation produced by the transition between two levels of the cesium 133 atom.

    "In the theory of relativity, the concept of time begins with the Big Bang the same way as parallels of latitude begin at the North Pole. You cannot go further north than the North Pole," says Kari Enqvist, Professor of Cosmology.

    According to you, what is Time?

    Thierry De Mees

    Time is an absolute coordinate scalar, just like distance is a coordinate vector in an Euclid system. It is totally absolute for the study of events.

    If you apply it for an atom, indeed, you will not say that the time for the electron is different from that of a proton in the core. You will consider a global time.

    However, the tools we dispose of are not absolute. Each clock will measure different "time", depending from how it is built and at what velocity it travels in gravity or electromagnetic fields.

    So, clearly, clocks don't define time. But an invariable clock can define one's time-coordinate scalar.

    Now, the correction (backward calculus) of time compared with what the clock measured must be made when interpreting the event, since only the absolute time-coordinate scalar counts. Only then, time can be connected with real physics.

    It is even possible that particles behave as local clocks and "find" another time than the absolute time-coordinate scalar.

    Modern science wrongly reversed this problem by pretending that the "real" time is the one of the distorted light, field or particle. They even wrongly pretend that the a distorted clock time is locally valid for all the possible physics at that place. So it allegedly would "define" time and by the same reasoning, space. This wrong SR interpretation brought modern science in a dark age. Eventually, worse, it gave birth to GR...

  • Biju Mani added an answer in Essential Oils:
    How can i analysis and identify the essential oil composition without use GC or GC/MS or other technique?

    I need ways that easy, low cost and effective. for example with software.

    Biju Mani

    Fractional distillation and checking of  Optical rotation and  Ref Index of distillates  may help to a limit if you do not have a GC or MS.

  • Filippo Salustri added an answer in Fitness:
    What is your definition of 'fitness'?

    It's all in the question


  • Mahdi Hozhabri Namin asked a question in K-epsilon:
    Is it possible to couple two different turbulence models for a domain? How about coupling between a turbulence model and Menter transition model?

    Is it possible to couple two different turbulence models? For instance, K-W SST and K-Epsilon Standard, and also is it possible to couple transition models (e.g. Menter transition model) with mentioned turbulence models?
    If it's possible, would you please introduce some appropriate references to study for required algorithm and procedure?

  • Angelica Tagaban asked a question in Publisher:
    Does anyone have the article, Healthy Stepfamily Functioning?

    It is by Patricia Kelley and was published in 1992. Thank you in advance. :) 

  • Abel Machado added an answer in Interest Groups:
    Whether climate change is much talked political debate mainly focusing on funding by some interested groups or it is really a threat to our planet?

    Climate experts

    Abel Machado

    Dear V P Tewari, 

    The major consensus amongst researchers is that climate change is unequivocally happening and it is a major concern in terms of water and food supply for human populations, occurrence of extreme events, sea level rising and ecosystems functions and services. Synthesis report of scientific studies these topics above mentioned are available on the IPCC website (link below).

    Attached I also send some interesting studies from changes that our oceans are to face in a climate change context.

    All the Best


    + 4 more attachments

  • Maddalena Zippi added an answer in Celiac Disease:
    Please can you inform of the real prevalence of ANAs positivity in the Celiac Disease and their evolution with a Gluten-free-diet?

    Please can you inform of the real prevalence of ANAs positivity in the Celiac Disease and their evolution with a Gluten-free-diet?

    Maddalena Zippi

    I'd suggest you ask the question to Professor Antonio Picarelli. It 'a very popular name in the field of celiac disease. You can find among my followers.

  • Lilliana Ramos-Collado added an answer in Paradox:
    Does anyone of you likes paradoxes?

    I need help with mine for a rather quick publication...

    Pls check my email here:
    https://www.researchgate.net/publication/289378862_My_selected_publications_2016-01-05 and contact privately. I will upvote your question reply by the little green ^ arrow since Arrow (Nobelist) inspired me to like arrows :)


    + 1 more attachment

    Lilliana Ramos-Collado

    Time warp? Time travel?

    Future Past...  Lilliana

  • Anggita Rahmi Hafsari asked a question in Phosphate-Solubilizing Bacteria:
    Can anyone send me procedur to preserve phosphate solubilizing bacteria from rhizosphere in karst region?

    I have isolated 5 phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) from the rhizosphere in karst region , but all five of these bacteria can not be in the subculture to the new media. Is there any method to preserve  PSB from rhizosphere in karst region?Thanks

  • Manuel Heinrich added an answer in Contingency Tables:
    What is the best way to calculate Confidence levels for proportions in a 4*8 crosstab?

    I want to calculate a 95% CIs for the cell proportions in a 4*8 contingency table, however, I am not sure what is the best way to do this? Any good advice? I would prefer to do it in SPSS or R.

    Many thanks in advance!


    Manuel Heinrich

    Thank you very much for your comprehensive answer! That helps a lot!