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  • Xavier Sans added an answer in Online Education:
    Is online education being accepted by all nations as an effective way of learning/teaching?

      In spite of widely utilizing of online education worldwide, there are maybe some nations still prefer (or have to choose) traditional education.

      Is there any study discusses this condition?

    Xavier Sans

    Well, in fact, I think the answer to your question goes largely generated by the interaction with ICT learning processes. The trend towards the integration of communications is inevitable at this time because the reality of connectivity is indisputable. The big concern is not accepted or the validity of distance education but access or not to it may cause significant gap in the population. Could be that is the most big problem right now: to access connectivity in order to access, in turn, knowledge and learning processes aided or based on ICT

    Best Regards,


  • A.N.M.Mamun- Or-Rashid added an answer in Glucose Measurement:
    In general.,,,, How can I convert mmol/l to mg/dl ???

    mmol/l to mg/dl

    in general not for specific element with example please

    A.N.M.Mamun- Or-Rashid



  • Lotfollah Alipour added an answer in Climate Modeling:
    What scheme can be used to merge the urban microclimate simulations of adjacent areas inorder to create seamless larger area results?

    Variables that are to be handled primarily (as per my understanding) are Solar Radiation and its corresponding shadow due to buildings and trees of adjacent area, Wind profile disturbance due to buildings of adjacent area, etc., In addition to this, Turbulence, moisture etc., will also come into picture.

    Also the Lateral Boundary Condition that one has to use also plays a key role which may need info on the whether the area is homogeneous or has lot of variability.

    I would like to discuss upon the numerical schemes that one can use to merge the simulation results to give combined area simulation results.

    Lotfollah Alipour

    Hi Sai Krishna

    that is right. The hourly results for borders of each region, can be used to determine the temperature and humidity profile for 1D model of ENVI-met.
    I hope to have good results.



  • Mahesh Bhat added an answer in Amines:
    How we can cobine the two primary amine group in synthesis?

    can we combine the two aromatic primary amines in two or three step reaction?

    Mahesh Bhat

    Dear Murphy,

    Am working with heterocyclic amines

  • Rushikesh Tambat added an answer in Cell Culture:
    How to eliminate the antibiotic in a cell culture?

    How can I remove the antibiotic in a usual cell culture? Now, I need to work the same cells without antibiotics in the same prepared media. Spin down the culture, and changed the media could be enough?

    Rushikesh Tambat

    It is enough to centrifuge and wash the cell pellet with PBS or fresh sterile medium to remove antibiotic contamination.

  • Gobinda Kumar asked a question in GSM:
    What are the methods to determine GSM of PVDC layer in a PVDC coated PVC film?

    Kindly suggest me the validated methods so that grammage of PVDC layer can be determined in PVDC coaed PVC film which are used for packaging of pharmaceuticals.

  • Himanshu Sharma asked a question in Beds:
    In any boulder stream will the sediment be more affected by the shielding effect or by the large coherent structures generated by boulders?

    Boulder streams contains the boulders of large size and have high velocities, there is a probability that due to the presence of large boulders, sediment will suffer the covering or shielding provided by these boulders to the sediments on the bed but also these boulders will help in generating large vortical or coherent flow structures which from the suggestion of literature helps in lifting of sediment from bed, my simple question is that which will prevail in boulder stream; shielding effect or large coherent flow structures?

  • Suman Kumari asked a question in Protein Estimation:
    How to calculate Nitric Oxide in terms of protein conc.?

    Hello,I did My NO estimation using Gries Reagent.I am doing 1ml of total reaction volume,for standard,I have taken 500 microlitre of ddH20and 500 of different conc of Na-nitrite.For my unknown I have taken,800 microlitre of ddH20+100 of G.R and 100 from my unknown sample to make total volume of 1ml. For protein estimation I did Bradford estimation.From my exp. I got the following readings-

                          For eg.in liver protein conc. is 5.6 microgram per microlitre and For NO is 12.12 microM.From which formula do I have to calculate,Please suggest.

  • Saikat Nandy asked a question in Arguslab:
    How to remove water molecules from a protein crystallographic structure using Arguslab 4.0.1 ?

    The target protein crystallographic structure is downloaded from PDB data base where it is already bound to a ligand. We want to dock our ligand  with the same target protein.

  • Asif Kidwai added an answer in Pulmonary Disease:
    What advice can be given in relation to prevention of exacerbations and promoting ongoing health and wellbeing for patient with COPD?

    prevention and ongoing health and well being.

    Asif Kidwai

    Sharmila the only intervention that has been shown to slow the long term deterioration in lung function associated with COPD is assisting smokers to quit (Anthonisen et al. 2005; Anthonisen et al. 1994). Three other interventions for COPD that can help maintain quality of life are medications, oxygen therapy and pulmonary rehabilitation

  • Vinitha Ebenezer asked a question in Marine Plankton:
    Reg: Mesocosm setup ?

    I am currently working on evaluating the effects of climate change on marine plankton using a mesocosm facility. I have some queries

    The capacity of my tank is 2000 L - Indoor facility

    1. Do I need a wave maker for recirculation in the tank or is it enough if I use a high capacity blower (e.g. 80 HP).

    2. What kind of instruments should I used for CO2 diffuser?

    3. I am planning to run one set of experiment for 20 days, the total capacity of seawater will be 2000 L, Do I need a separate recirculating system?

    4. I will be drawing around 10 L for various analysis on alternate days for a period of 20 days.. how much will this effect the total volume ? I don't think refilling is a good idea, kindly suggest me some alternative.

    5. What are the general problems that we could face while using a mesocosm facility?

    Thank you



  • Asif Kidwai added an answer in Sleep Medicine:
    Does anyone know of anyone in the US or somewhere else who is effectively treating those with delayed sleep phase syndrome?

    There is a facebook group with almost 1500 people on it who have delayed sleep phase syndrome, and I've been told that most of them have no idea where to go for effective treatment.  I think many to most of these people have had sleep medicine doctors, but nothing they've suggested has helped.  Does anyone know of some experts with effective clinical treatment in this area where these patients are not being referred?  Thanks!

    Asif Kidwai

    Susan here is a great article came from Cleveland clinic and based on a lot research that was done. Read this article as it provides very useful information about DSPS and how it might be treated.




  • Muhammad Usman Munir asked a question in Nanoparticles:
    Simplest way to check drug release?

    How we can check the drug release from nanoparticles to state either drug release from nanoparticles is prompt or sustained release and which method is simplest and accurate?

    I need some comments from experts. Thanks

  • Jaharkanti Dattagupta added an answer in Qualitative Social Research:
    What role does recruiting new members of the executive team play in managing organisational change?

    I am keen to identify recent literature that sheds light on this question. Most of the relevant literature that I have been able to identify was written 20 or more years ago, and I am wondering why this would be the case.

    Jaharkanti Dattagupta

    This is indeed a very interesting question regarding the likely role to be played by  newly recruited executive team in managing organizational change. Firstly, it must be recognized that old team members would tend to view the need for organizational change in their own myopic vision, thereby rendering the change ineffective. The new team members with new ideas and without any bias are likely to be more effective in implementing the change, as they would start with a clean slate. In their role as change agents , they are likely to view organizational change as strategic need, and are likely to act towards organizational flexibility and adaptability. In knowledge era of today, organizational changes are effected thorough empowerment, participation and inspirational leadership.

  • Rinat Nugayev added an answer in Gravitational Waves:
    Can the non-existence of gravitational waves refute General Relativity?

    On the one hand, the search for gravitational waves was not fruitful for 100 years.On the other hand, General Relativity is a well-corroborated and respectable theory

    Rinat Nugayev

    On LIGO : good people had observed ghosts many times.Nevertheless it was cheaper than 1.1$ bln. dollars

  • Anji Reddy Polu asked a question in Coin Cells:
    I prepared 2032 coin cell with Li/Solid Polymer electrolyte/LiFePO4. Here I am testing my Solid Polymer Electrolyte. ?

    Here my doubt is this battery testing is start with Charging or discharging initially?

  • Eddie Seva See added an answer in Survey Methods:
    Can independent continuous variable be used along with manipulated categorical variables in an experimental design?

    I have some doubts regarding designing an experiment with manipulated and un-manipulated independent variables. I would be grateful to get your inputs and suggestions.

    I am using  an experimental vignette survey method, using a 2 * 2 between subjects design. There are three independent variables out of which two are being manipulated and are categorical variables. The third independent variables is a continuous variable which I am measuring through items based on a description in the questionnaire. There are four versions of the questionnaire based on the two manipulated variables. All are measuring the same independent variable (based on the same description in all versions) along with the dependent variable.

    The independent continuous variable is of primary interest for the research.The focus is on finding the impact of the manipulated variables on the relation between independent and dependent variable.

    Can I use such a design?

    I have not come across any papers which use a similar design. It would be great if you can refer some similar papers and give your feedback,

    Many Thanks


    Eddie Seva See

    As far as the design is concerned, the answer is yes. What will be unusual in your study is when you proceed to inferential analysis (assuming you have probability samples) because the measures of your variables will not be of  the usual ratio/ interval scales.

  • Saadia Irfan asked a question in Variability:
    Why is my amount of discretionary accruals calculated so small?

    I have calculated the amount of discretionary accruals using Jones 1995 model but the amount of discretionary accruals is coming out too low. For example 0.00012. This is because in the model we divide all variables by total assets. Is this issue with everyone?

    How about i dont divide by the total assets?

  • Vladimir A. Kulchitsky added an answer in Algorithms:
    Dear Colleagues! Please help me! What algorithm should be used to your article, I cited in my work, were visible on your pages like citations?

    Dear Colleagues!
    Please help me! What algorithm should be used to your article, I cited in my work, were visible on your pages like citations? Deeply grateful to you in advance! Best regards,  Oleg.

    Vladimir A. Kulchitsky

    Олег! Я сражен Вашим обширным владением разнообразными языками. Продолжайте радовать друзей и удивлять недругов талантливостью  народа Восточной части Европы. Владимир

  • Carlos Araújo Queiroz added an answer in DCM:
    How to prepare dry DCM?

    Should I pass dichloromethane through alumina and then store it with molecular sieves?

    Carlos Araújo Queiroz

    You may want to check also answers to the following similar questions:



  • Sree Ranjini Kizhakkethil added an answer in Motor Design:
    How can I implement optimisation algorithms to motor design if I don't have license for coupling between MATLAB and FEA software?

    I am beginner in the field of optimisation. I want to apply an optimisation algorithm for maxiimising the efficiency of brushless motor. But I dont have license module for coupling between MATLAB and FEA software. In what way can I  implement optimisation.

    Please help me by giving your answers

    Sree Ranjini Kizhakkethil

    Thanks George

  • Charanjeet Singh asked a question in Permittivity:
    Optimization: Genetic algorithm for reflection loss in ferrites?

    I need Genetic algorithm (download and how to run)to optimize reflection loss of ferrites using parameters, put in input impedance Zin formula, complex permittivity, complex permeability, frequency and thickness. Please help

  • Jayaram M.A asked a question in Axis:
    Is there any way of determining the length of the major axis of an ellipse with known length of the chord parallel to Major axis?

    Any expert working in the area of computational geometry.

  • Kishore Kovvali added an answer in MATLAB:
    Implementation of CSMA-CA algorithm in MATLAB

    How to simulate CSMA-CA algorithm in MATLAB? There are several nodes in the network with its own state. For example, some node may be sending the data at the start of the simulation, some other nodes may be waiting to send the data, some nodes may be idle, some nodes may be waiting for ACK, etc. When some node is sending the data, at the same time the other nodes may be changing the state. Computer programs run sequentially. How it is possible to update the states of other nodes or back-off counters etc. at the same time when the transmission of data of a node is going on?

    Of course, this is easy in NS2. But I am not at all familiar with NS2.

    Kishore Kovvali

    It is much simpler to use a tool like Opnet, NetSim or NS3 rather than doing this in MATLAB.

  • Steven Purcell added an answer in Sea Cucumbers:
    I am interested in tagging sea cucumbers. Does anyone have any experience with this and could you provide any suggestions or comments?

    Sea cucumbers have the ability to eviscerate as a defensive mechanism and this makes maintaining a tag in them them extra difficult.  I know they have some calcified components of their endoskeleton.  Perhaps these could be marked with chemical marking.  

    Steven Purcell

    Hi Nathan. We met in Seattle some years back (at a SESR symposium) - you were still working on snook then, and doing some nice release experiments. I did some trials on a number of different tagging/marking methods for sea cucumbers, mainly for a tropical species Holothuria scabra, and then later tried a couple tag methods on a few other species. We did try the VIE tags, and the problem was the opacity of the body wall of the animals, which obscured the elastomer. That could be worth another try if you're working with a species with a relatively transleucent body wall (but that is not so for most of the commercial species). We reported that in our 2006 paper in JEMBE, which I think you can download from my publications on ResearchGate. We ended up using a couple fluorochrome markers, which we reported in the 2009 Aquaculture paper and also the field application in the 2008 Rev Fish Sci paper - I think those you can also download from my ResearchGate page. The only downside is that the fluorochromes are batch markers. But very cheap and reliable to at least 1 year post release. We later tried PIT tags on two species, with little success - also published that in 2009 in SPC BDM Bulletin. Very recently, I developed a photographic marking technique on a couple species and that study is in review in MEPS. The applicability will depend on the species you are interested in. What species do you want to work with??

  • John Barry Gallagher added an answer in Environmental Change:
    How to quantitatively distinguish the human and natural caused marine environemtal change? Is there any appropriate proxies?

    I want to study the environmental change of a coastal bay through sediment records, is there any appropriate proxies to  quantitatively distinguish the human and natural caused marine environmental change?

    John Barry Gallagher

    Well said Kenneth. The concepts are, in part, the construct put together by Resilience Alliance work group. If I could summarize the need, and in case studies the success of the approach, is that traditional expert based  management like  maximum sustainable yield  or ecosystem service  has not worked because of uncertainty and irreconcilability. The focus is thus, less on prediction and probability but on contrasting scenarios from minimal models and identifying thresholds and resilience factors across different regimes from the stand point of all stakeholder ecosystem services.

    Sounds difficult and you can please everyone all the time but I believe the coming together and knowledge transfer between identified stakeholders (that's part of the trick to identify them all)  is, I guess in part political and it appear to have broke the impasse on some issues.  Didn't your Ben Franklin say politics is the art of the possible? 

    Yes its not "clean" and analytical. but is tries to obtain a good insight on he dynamics of a Social Ecological System, as a narrative from different perspectives.


  • Kishore Kovvali added an answer in Glomosim:
    How to implement my own routing protocol in GloMoSim?

    Hi there.

    I want to implement my own routing protocol in Glomosim. Is there a any documentation for this. I did not find any usefull documentation about it.

    Looking forward to seeing your helps.

    Thanks in advance,

    Ahad M.

    Kishore Kovvali

    You could also look at a commercial simulator like NetSim (http://www.tetcos.com/) since direct support from their technical team will save you a lot of time, when writing your own protocol.

  • Adnan Aslam asked a question in Research Papers:
    How to provide someone with my progress on ongoing research?

    i am a teacher in a college and conducting research on IOT systems independently. how can i provide someone the progress i have made until know, who may be a employer, a scholarship award person or i am applying for a research post? (as my research paper is in progress and will take some time to publish it)