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  • Ayman Negm added an answer in k-means:
    Is c-means same as k-means in clustering algorithm context?

    The k-means concept states that every cluster must contain at least k elements.

    The c-means concept states that there should be exactly c number of clusters. 

    So, according to me these two concepts are different.

    Also, how do we categorize these two classes of algorithms? Means they come under supervised or unsupervised category?

    Ayman Negm

    Dear Mr. Tripathy,

    In both types of clustering, the number of clusters (not the number of elements in a cluster) is specified exactly, so this is not the difference between them. The difference is that in case of K-means, each element is assigned to only a single cluster, while in case if C-means, being a Fuzzy clustering technique, each element is assigned to all the available clusters with a different membership degree for each cluster.

    Both types of clustering fall into the category of Unsupervised Learning.

  • Martín Cañón added an answer in Epidemiology:
    What is the philosophy behind the use of the cross-sectional descriptive design?

    Researchers use designs which are underpinned by certain philosophies. I would like to know from colleagues the appropriate paradigmatic stance that is consistent with the cross-sectional descriptive design.

  • Ebot Walter Ojong added an answer in Biochemical Analysis:
    Can anyone please provide me with information on nutrient content of leaves of Prosopis cineraria, Tecomella undulata and Hardwickia binnata?

    Leaf N, P, K ,Ca, Mg, cellulose and lignin 

    Ebot Walter Ojong

    Useful nutrient analysis of Prosopis cineraria leaves.

    I hope these articles will be useful

    + 2 more attachments

  • Azzam K Almosallami added an answer in General Relativity:
    Universe is static!!! Yes or no?

    Space of Universe is static! Yes or no?

    Question: Are there any observations that do not fit into the model static space of Universe, are there any theoretical obstacles to the existence of such a model?

    I assume that the Universe is eternal, infinite and static, it is not expanded and not curved, it is possible to construct a preferred inertial frame of reference in which the CMBR is most isotropic. The matter in this space evolves, but the average density of matter and energy (in large enough volumes) fluctuate within a rather broad range.
    The light in this model is "tired", the speed of light depends on the optical density intergalactic medium. Gravity is also "tired" t.i. weakens a little faster R2. The energy of destroying matter goes into the surrounding vacuum. The excess energy from the vacuum give rise to new particles of matter.

    I state that all the observed cosmological effects can be explained in such a Static Model of the Universe.
    See attached "Basic_Cosmological_Formula_1_En.pdf"

    Dear colleagues, I do not ask, what are the problems faced by other theories (though I would be interested in your opinion on that. The General theory of relativity is not applicable to the entire space of the Universe).

    Azzam K Almosallami


    When I said there is no dark energy, that is built on quantum theory when it is unified with gravity  according to the Copenhagen school by refusing the reciprocity principle. So criticise what I said by science.

    You said also; 

    I do not exclude that my mathematical methods could be applied also in this direction. The greatest difficulty is to have enough phenomenological information on the human brain. It is well-known that very big experimental projects in this direction have not obtained important results.


    Quantum tunneling experiments have shown that 1) the tunneling process is non-local, 2) the signal velocity is faster than light, i.e. superluminal, 3) the tunneling signal is not observable, since photonic tunneling is described by virtual photons, and 4) according to the experimental results, the signal velocity is infinite inside the barriers, implying that tunneling instantaneously acts at a distance. As G. Nimtz claimed "We think these properties are not compatible with the claims of many textbooks on Special Relativity."  Review these references 

    [1] G. Nimtz, A. Stahlhofen, " Evanescent Modes and Tunnelling
    Instantaneously Act at a Distance", AIP Conf. Proc. -- March 6, 2008 --
    Volume 977, pp. 310-315.
    [2] G. Nimtz, W. Heitmann, Phys. Lett. A 196 (1994)p. 154.
    [3] G. Nimtz, A. Stahlhofen, " Macroscopic violation of special relativity",
    submitted Aug/5/2007, arXiv:0708.0681v1.
    [4] E. Merzbacher, "Quantum Mechanics", 2nd edition, John Wiley &
    Sons, New York (1970).
    [5] S. Gasiorowicz, Quantum Physics, John Wiley & Sons, New York
    [6] C.K. Carniglia and L. Mandel, Phys. Rev. D 3, 280 (1971).
    [7] G. Nimtz, Gen. Rel. Grav. 31, 737 (1999); G. Nimtz, Ann. Phys.
    (Leipzig), 7, 618 (1998).
    [8] O. Bryngdahl, Progress in Optics, 11, 167 (1973).
    [9] P. Weiss, Sci. News 157 (2000) p. 375.

    The results produced by our modified special relativity theory are in agreement with the results produced by quantum tunneling experiments by refusing the reciprocity principle, and thus it explains theoretically what occurs in quantum tunneling and entanglement. It proves the events inside the tunneling barrier should occur at a faster rate than the usual situation in the laboratory. It provides a new concept of time contraction which is not existed in the SRT. The concept of time contraction in our theory is proven by many experiments where some enzymes operate kinetically, much faster than predicted by the classical ΔG. In "through the barrier" models, a proton or an electron can tunnel through activation barriers. Quantum tunneling for protons has been observed in tryptamine oxidation by aromatic amine
    dehydrogenase. Also British scientists have found that enzymes cheat time and space by quantum tunneling - a much faster way of traveling than the classical way - but whether or not perplexing quantum theories can be applied to the biological world is still hotly debated. Until now, no one knew just how the enzymes speed up the reactions, which in some cases are up to a staggering million times faster. Seed Magazine published a fascinating article about a group of researchers who discovered a bit more about how enzymes use quantum tunneling to speed up chemical reactions "Researchers explain how enzymes use quantum tunneling to speed up reactions, Maggie Wittlin, Seed, April 18, 2006."

    So how can I understand all of that within the framework of the reciprocity principle in SRT interpretation of Lorentz transformation, and thus according to the reciprocity principle you hide the entanglement, and the possibility of faster than light without violation the invariance of energy momentum and causality!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

    All of that can be interpreted by how the Twin Paradox disappeared by refusing the reciprocity principle. In this case it is resulted space is invariant and it is only time!!!! There is no space time continuum!!!!!

  • Denny Gunawan added an answer in Ions:
    What is the major difference between lithium and sodium ions?

    i need the the differences of sodium and litium ions in every things that you think.

    it is important for me to know all of them.

    Denny Gunawan

    Due to their transportation in aqueous solution, mobility of Na ion is greater than Li ion because Li ion is more hydrated than Na ion. So, Li ion move slower than Na ion in electrodialysis process.

  • Manuel Schnabel added an answer in Materials Science:
    In Material science we do Raman characterization Why, explain?

    Respected all, In Material science research we do Raman Characterization for samples (example SnO2/rGO). Why we have to do Raman, What we will get, what is going to be happening to the sample material (bonds etc..) while doing Raman characterization? Please ....Thank you

    Manuel Schnabel


  • Wilmer Silva added an answer in Trypanosoma cruzi:
    Can you help me to download this item?, please : Aspirin treatment exacerbates oral infections by Trypanosoma cruzi?

    Aspirin treatment exacerbates oral infections by Trypanosoma cruzi?

    • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
      ABSTRACT: Oral transmission of the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease, has been documented in Latin American countries. The reported cases of infection were due to the ingestion of contaminated fresh fruit, juices, or sugar cane juice. There have been few studies on the physiopathology of the disease in oral transmission cases. Gastritis is a common ailment that can be caused by poor dietary habits, intake of alcohol or other gastric irritants, bacterial infection, or by the widespread use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). This study investigated in a mouse model whether gastric mucosal injury, induced by aspirin, would affect the course of disease in animals infected with T. cruzi by the oral route. The CL14 and G strains of T. cruzi, both of low infectivity, were used. To this end, groups of BALB/c mice were treated during 5 days with aspirin (100 mg kg−1) before oral infection with T. cruzi metacyclic forms (4 × 105 or 5 × 107 parasites/mouse). Histological analysis and determination of nitric oxide and TNF-α were performed in gastric samples obtained 5 days after infection. Parasitemia was monitored from the thirteenth day after infection. The results indicate that aspirin treatment of mice injured their gastric mucosa and facilitated invasion by both CL14 and G strains of T. cruzi. Strain CL14 caused more severe infection compared to the G strain, as larger numbers of amastigote nests were found in the stomach and parasitemia levels were higher. Our study is novel in that it shows that gastric mucosal damage caused by aspirin, a commonly used NSAID, facilitates T. cruzi infection by the oral route.
      No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Experimental Parasitology
    Wilmer Silva

    ok, as you sent it? by mail or facebook?

  • Martha O'kennon added an answer in English Language:
    Do you think that English is a good language for Science?
    I write literary books and scientific articles and for expression of more details I prefer my native language because I think it is more complex and has a wider vocabulary. On the other hand, English expresses well many things with less words. When I translate scientific papers to English, I prefer the latter because it makes things clear with less words. (And with this amount of words normally it is more clear than with more words in my language). I think it is a good language for science.
    Martha O'kennon

    Barry, I seem to recall back in the 70's they would say about programming languages, that there would be new names for programming languages, but they would all be Fortran.  Thank goodness that was wrong.  (IMHO)

  • Gabi Lipede added an answer in History of Art:
    Philosophical understanding of art
    I am interested to hear from anyone who can point me in the direction of work on philosophical understandings of fine art. I am especially interested in more abstract and conceptual forms of art. For example, the use of the Klein Group to explicate figure - ground relationships in contemporary, abstract art. I would really like to hear about her's and any other approaches.
  • Warren D. Miller added an answer in Corporate Strategy:
    Does name change improve financial performance of the firm?

    A number of studies have examined market reaction to name changes, Cole et al. (2015) examines impact of insurer name changes on growth in premiums, which is a component of income. However, sparse literature exists on impact of name change on financial performance. What do you think would be the impact of corporate name changes on the bottom line? Please share your thoughts..

    Warren D. Miller

    First things first: Congratulations on getting your article accepted by Emerald. That's a nice accomplishment.

    On its face, an R-squared > 30% runs circles around one of 4%. The latter is utterly meaningless. Beyond that, though, I can't respond substantively to your questions until you're able to share the paper from Emerald or provide us with a link to it. Perchance is a copy @ SSRN.com?? If not, would you put a version there so we can access it promptly, please?

  • Geng Ouyang added an answer in Natural Numbers:
    Rational Number Set is bigger than Natural Number Set!Is anything wrong?

    It is believed that there are the bijection relationships among Natural Number Set, Even Number Set, Odd Number Set and Rational Number Set, but following simple “stories” tells us that Rational Number Set has far more elements than that of Even Number Set, Odd Number Set and Natural Number Set:

    1, According to the definition, the Natural Number Set can be divided into Even Number Set and Odd Number Set (otherwise it can not be called Natural Number Set, Even Number Set and Odd Number Set). People have been using two deformed Natural Number Set of (1x2, 2x2, 3x2,...,nx2,...) and (1x2+1, 2x2+1, 3x2+1,...,nx2+1,...)  and just used the components of even numbers and odd numbers (natural numbers, but not the whole thing of “2,4,6,8…2n” and “1,3,5,7,9…nx2+1”) to map natural numbers, of cause they map very well because it is N ----> N itself but not 2n ----> N and nx2+1----> N. 
    What are the mappings to natural numbers: the even numbers and odd numbers or the components of even numbers and odd numbers?!

    2,The elements of tiny portion of rational numbers from Rational Number Set (1, 1/2, 1/3, 1/4, 1/5, 1/6, …, 1/n …)  map and use up (bijective) all the numbers in Natural Number Set (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, …, n …); so infinite rational numbers (at least 2,3,4,5,6,…n,…) from Rational Number Set are left in the “one—to—one element mapping between Rational Number Set and Natural Number Set”------- Rational Number Set has infinite more elements than Natural Number Set and they are not bijective at all.

    In present classical infinite related science system, the confusing “potential infinite” and “actual infinite” make people (including Kantor) have been wondering between these two confusing “infinites”.

     There have been three suspended questions in present classical set theory ever since:

    1, the definition of set------should the definition of set concern the nature of elements inside the set? Will the nature of elements inside the set decide the existing state of the set as well as its relationship with other set? Such as if we call a set as Even Number Set or Odd Number Set, must we consider the nature of elements inside the Even Number Set or Odd Number Set as well as each set’s relationship with other set?

    But, it is “the different natures of the elements in real number set and natural number set” that make Cantor proved the different cardinalities between the two sets.

    2, how to judge a set belongs to “potential infinite set” or “actual infinite set” or both “potential infinite set” and “actual infinite set”? What kind of nature do the elements have inside “potential infinite set” or “actual infinite set”?

    3, can we have many different bijection proofs with different result between two infinite sets? If we can, what conclusion should people choose in front of two opposite results, why?”

    Geng Ouyang

    Dear Dr. Gabriel Thomas and Dr. SIMON RAJ F, thank you.

     "Potential infinite and actual infinite" have been used for "infinite" ever since. But, the very trouble is: people accept “potential infinity” and “actual infinity”, but no one so far in the world can provide the proper definition for potential infinity and actual infinity and people have been keeping arguing and debating on the natures of them ever since-------endless and unsolvable.

    This is one of the fatal defects in present infinite related classical mathematics system: no one knows what is in front of you when treating “infinite things”--------“potential infinite” or “actual infinite”, how and what to do with different infinity?

     Can any infinite things in present classical "infinite" related science system be excluded from "potential infinite and actual infinite"?

    Best regards,


  • Carmen Wrede added an answer in Philosophy of Social Science:
    Praxis versus academic noises?

    Karl Marx states in "Theses on Feuerbach" that "The philosophers have only interpreted the world in various ways; the point, however, is to change it." (Thesis Eleven) I must admit that I'm all the more persuaded by that statement as time goes by. When was the last time you heard voices of conviction and righteousness oozed out from academia and how often do you see an academician get his/her hands dirty?

    If you want to get you hands dirty, here's a link:


    Hm, I guess this post so far has not been qualified as a question. So let me ask this: what do you think of Marx's Thesis Eleven in "Theses on Feuerbach"?

    Carmen Wrede

    Let's see it how it is, Louis: He produced a two-edged sword. But than again... this is how Marx was. Sometimes pretty fuzzy.

  • Snezana Sretenovic added an answer in Multiple Myeloma:
    What is preferred regimen in transplant-ineligible multiple myeloma?

    There are many regimens developed for the treatment of multiple myeloma. A subset of patient is in frail and some combination therapies are often difficult to apply. Because treatment strategy in our institution is not concreted, i'm seeking good treatment strategy which can apply to patients with myeloma, regardless of their comorbidity or physical status.

    Note) in Japan (i'm Japanese), P-I study has completed in the Cy+Bor+Dex, Vel+Mel+PSL, and Vel+Thal+Dex regimens, but dose reduction was generally required due to higher toxicity than results of foreign study.

    Currently, following agents are available.


     Chemothrapeuic agents (cyclophosphamide, melphalan, doxorubicin)



     corticosteroids, such as dexamethasone or prednisolone

     [Refractory or relapsed]



     [Following agents will be available near the future]



    Please let me know your consideration!


    1st: Bor+Dex

    2nd: Bor+Dex+Thal (if poorly responded)

    = treatment-free (or maintenance with Bor+Dex?)=

    3rd: Bor+Len+Dex (when CRAB appeared or not responded)

    4th: Bor+panovinostat+Dex

    5th: Len+Dex+elotuzumab or carfilzomib-based regimen (when available).

    Snezana Sretenovic

    Dear Norioshi

    I am from the Serbia. The standard first line regimen is cyclo-thal-dex (CTD) except in those with renal  insufitienty or Thrombophilia when is first line  of terapy is with Velcade. In oldery  with comorbidites we  will give MPT  in first line. Our standard second line treatment is Velcade -dex in oldery , olso depended of performans status.

    In young patient with big tumor mass We have good experians with PAD .Best wishes.

  • Manuel Morales added an answer in Science Education:
    Why do science students get taught so little about the scientific method?
    Both at school and university in science the student is taught a lot about biology, physics or chemistry but very little about the different (good and bad) ways of doing science.

    Why is it so late in a person's scientific life when they are told about things like inductive reasoning and the better ideas of Karl Popper (falsificationism)?

    I found out about these things while reading "What is this thing called science" by Alan Chalmers.
    Manuel Morales

    The January 30, 2016 deadline for a researcher to submit their keyword findings for first cause has come and gone. First researcher to submit their findings will win the $1200 prize for this category (see link for details).

    • Source
      [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
      ABSTRACT: Abstract: Grade school, high school, and college students as well as the general public are invited to verify if the scientific method needs an overhaul by simply doing searches for the keywords "direct selection" and "indirect selection" in peer-reviewed scientific papers. In doing so, the public will be able to confirm if experiments used to validate quantum mechanic theories are based on a fundamental omission error or not. The attached "Flawed Scientific Method" document was designed to go with the public invitation to help science self-correct. In essence, this one page document illustrates the mechanics of the discovery of Einstein's nonlocal hidden variables which in turn revealed how the scientific method is flawed and how to fix it.
      Full-text · Article · Sep 2015
  • Shelley Minteer added an answer in Enzyme Activity:
    Methods to Determine Enzymatic Activity?

    Como posso adquirir o seu livro "Methods to Determine Enzymatic Activity"


    Shelley Minteer

    Also, if you are purchasing enzyme from a manufacturer, they frequently have enzyme activity assay they use for evaluating the enzyme. For instance, Sigma-Aldrich has a whole database of enzyme assays written step by step and easy to follow for their enzymes.

  • Louis Brassard added an answer in Vampires:
    Any recommendations for texts that examine the evolution of vampire in film and literature?

    We can see how, in the last 20 years or so, some traditional horror myths are changing their essential features. Perhaps, the best example is the vampire, who is becoming a sympatethic figure. 

    Louis Brassard

    Whitman 's Influence on Stoker 's Dracula


    When Bram Met Walt


    Coming Out of the Coffin

  • Farhad Shokraneh added an answer in PubMed:
    What's the difference between Pubmed and Medline?

    If PubMed includes Medline articles plus other things, Why do most meta-analyses -I've seen- use Medline for the search rather than the freely available PubMed?

    Farhad Shokraneh

    Already answered here:


    But searching only PubMed or searching only MEDLINE via Ovid SP or searching both are acceptable for systematic review anyway.

    The reason to use MEDLINE via Ovid SP rather than PubMed is that Ovid SP provides more/better search facilities comparing to PubMed.

    1. You could use adjacency (adj) in Ovid SP but not PubMed.

    2. I have seen PubMed making a mess in search sometimes and I could never find the reason!

    3. Using truncation in PubMed sometimes gets you only first 600 variations of terms not all of variations but in MEDLINE via Ovid SP, truncation operator will get all the variations, you can try searching nano* to see the results in both PubMed (check the red error too) and MEDLINE via SP.

    4. You can shorten a sequence of search lines in MEDLINE via Ovid SP for example you could search or/1-10 it means you could put 10 search lines together but in PubMed you can to write it like this #1 OR #2 OR #3 OR #4 OR #4 .... OR #10!

    5. PubMed has more records than MEDLINE via Ovid SP; for the reason please check the link.

  • Teruo Matos Maruyama added an answer in Artificial Intelligence:
    How can I convert a raster curve to a vector curve?

    I want to calculate the length of a fiber in a raster image as accurately as possible. Maybe using a vector curve I will get it.

    Teruo Matos Maruyama

    I am using the horizontal, vertical and diagonal neighbors (8-neighbors).

    Thank you so much! I will try it!

  • Daniel Kasper added an answer in Structural Equation Modeling:
    How can we attach the timeseries data with the likert based data in Structural Equation Modelling??

    Can we use the time-series data along with the Likert based data for Confirmatory factor Analysis or in Structural Equation Modelling??

    If it possible, please help me in getting the reference paper.

    Thanking You

  • Ijsbrand Reyneveld added an answer in Culturing:
    Freezing and culturing Human T-cells?

    Please, Could you tell me what is the best condition (cell density/media..)to freeze and to culture human T-cells? How long time T-cells can be in culture?

    Thank you in advance


    Ijsbrand Reyneveld


    Do not culture more than 1 million T-cells / mL medium. For freezing: 20 million cells / mL freezing medium (e.g. 90% FCS, 10% DMSO) is the maximum I used and 5 million the minimum. I don't know if it's the best, but it worked for me.


  • Peter Geyer added an answer in Personality Psychology:
    Is MBTI the horoscope of psychology ?

    Is the MBTI a useful tool for building a successful career and personal life, or does it fall under the same category of horoscopes and the zodiac (granted with a less fanciful turn)? Does this widespread acceptance for MBTI came from believing horoscope practices ?

    P.S. : I asked the same on quora.com [https://www.quora.com/Is-MBTI-the-horoscope-of-psychology]

    Peter Geyer


    I'm an independent researcher in the area of personality, focusing on Jung's typology and the MBTI. Some of my work is here on this site. I have taught the MBTI and other type questionnaires for over 25 years.

    I am wondering about the purpose of the question set by Ranjith as well as the knowledge-base of those responding ion good faith.

    It seems to me that if you wanted to find out about the MBTI, you would first investigate what it says about itself i.e. you would read its Manual (Myers McCaulley, Quenk and Hammer 1998, or Myers and McCaulley 1985), as you would do with any other questionnaire. You would find out what its purpose is, what its claims are, what its method is, how and why reliability and validity is determined (the MBTI is not a trait measurement) how to interpret it and so on. This basic start would enable you to assess the claims of critics. You could also read Naomi L. Quenk's Fundamentals of Myers-Briggs Assessment, published by Wiley.

    If you were me, you would also investigate the history and access comments made by Isabel Myers about her instrument, and what she intended. www.capt.org has the basic repository in their library; I have a personal collection of those materials.

    Note that at no stage would you need to go online to any so-called MBTI site and you are in the field of objective research, not opinion.

    If you did that, then you would be able to assess the critics of the MBTI. You would know that the Keirsey sorter isn't the MBTI (the MBTI is a specific instrument with copyrighted items), that the MBTI is an inference maker and doesn't contain anything about Jung's ideas of type dynamics and development or consciousness, that it is a sorting device in which amounts are not relevant and so on.

    So if you looked at the Reynierse articles outlined by Hendrika, you would see that he is making claims about the MBTI that the MBTI doesn't make about itself. He appears to think also that Jung's typology is dependent on measurement. You would need to know more to forage amongst his references and see that some of them to not say what he says they say, and need to know a little more to see that his study interprets items from a complex MBTI form (J) in a way that is completely different from that instrument. My comments on Reynierse and a debate of sorts with him can be found in the Bulletin of Psychological Type the APTinternational publication www.aptinternational.org. I have copies of my contributions here in my office.

    The Wikipedia reference can be examined in the same way. Many of the critiques of the MBTI reference the same articles, which appear unread by the author of the critique, otherwiae (hopefully) they would be embarrassed by their inclusion.

    This comes to the "horoscope" bit, which I presume is about what are known as type descriptions. Anyone can make up a type description, I've done it myself, after years of research, MBTI descriptions were intended by Isabel Myers to show a type at their best, partly as a counterpoint to pathological interpretations of personality based on a particular view of normality.

    The descriptions were not intended to be taken literally and it was never expected that what was contained completely described someone. An old benchmark used to be 70% agreement with what were expressed as tendencies, not definite prediction. Myers' original publication of Introduction to Type and subsequent editions were also ordered according to Myers understanding of the order of basic functions, so dominant, auxiliary, tertiary, inferior, so not at all Pollyanaish.

    The MBTI doesn't predict anything; however research shows things like different type distributions for different occupoations, which are at least socially useful. In type terms though career advice is not about prediction or occupation but how you get to do whatever work it is you engage in.

    I'll stop there. Read my MSc thesis Quantifying Jung: The Origin and Development of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, foe a bit of background if you're interested.

    The MBTI can certainly be critiques, particularly in the way it is used. But like anything else, finding out what it claims to do can save a lot of time dead-ends. You don't have to like it. I do, obviously, but I also have several reservations.



  • Deborah Jean Verran added an answer in Social Media Research:
    How do academics use social media?

    What sort of social media to academic find particularly useful and why?  Which forms are not as useful and why?  Finally, is social media more of a distraction than a benefit to academics? I have attached one link to an article, but I can't find much.

    Deborah Jean Verran

    There are a number of ways social media can be leveraged whether it be for collaboration, information streaming, sharing info and knowledge, contributing to organizational visibility or myth busting.  This is an example in healthcare and now involves the collaborative efforts of radiologists around the world-


    It is a form of wiki but is promoted via other social media channels including Twitter.

  • Ozgen Deniz added an answer in Molecular Biology:
    Is it possible to see different PCR profiles when I used genomic DNA instead of plasmid DNA?

    I have different PCR profiles when ı used genomic or plasmid DNA. is it possible to see different PCR profiles when I used genomic DNA instead of plasmid DNA?

    Ozgen Deniz

    If your primers flank the unique DNA sequence that is both in genomic DNA and plasmid DNA, the pattern should be the same. 

  • Ebot Walter Ojong added an answer in Organic Chemistry:
    What role does glutahione play in the reaction mechanism as catalyst?

    Glutathione is an amino acid, hence it exits as a zwitterion. My doubt is whether it acts as acid catalyst or basic catalyst. Please eleborate. 

    Ebot Walter Ojong

    Thank you very much Professor AA Hussain

  • Louis Brassard added an answer in Muslim:
    Are there any lessons from social science that would allow non-muslims to reach out to the Muslim Community Worldwide?

    Currently, some political candidates in the United States have done their best to further alienate the world-wide Muslim Community.   What can we do as social scientists (and U.S. citizens) to neutralize the effects of crazy candidates like Donald Trump?

    Louis Brassard


    What is your true crusade?  Are you really for humanitarianism?  Are you really against raping?  What is your real concern?

  • Walter Klöpffer added an answer in Environmental Impact Assessment:
    How does the concept of 'Sustainable Development' make the goals of Environmental impact assessment more difficult to achieve?

    sustainable development and Environmental impact assessment

    give ideas and post journal articles

    Walter Klöpffer

    From a life cycle perspective it is, of course, more difficult to meet three goals (Environment, economy and social aspects) in Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment (LCSA) than only one in LCA. The three should go in the same direction, but they will not always.do so. This is a challenge. We should use these instruments first  for learning in order to improve them and - in the long range - the products, life styles etc. and to increase the chance that humankind will survive the daunting problems we are facing. The chance is small, but greater than zero..

    Walter Kloepffer

  • Luisiana Cundin added an answer in Tsunami:
    What kind of damage can cause nuclear undewater exposion 50-100 MGT in the middle of atlantic ocean on 42 paralel North ?

    Duing it on the ocean bottom at 1 km depth the explosion will cause enormous high pressure boiler 10 or more km in diameter, causing tsunami wave 500 m or more in high, propagating radially with speed about 800 km/hour. Such a wave hit Alaska in 1958 and was caused by reletevely modest eartquake. This wave is capable to run on the distance up to 20 km overland, completely engolfing sea side cities and their inhabitants.

    In the case such an explosion will by done in the middle of Atlantic ocean at 42 parallel North,the tsunami will destroy all costal cities of North America and Europe alike.

    Inland countries, or countries connected with open ocean by narrow straights are immune to this effect. Also, Arctic ocean will dump this kind of tsunami in short distance, due to ice crust.  

    Luisiana Cundin

    Of interest

    + 2 more attachments

  • Marvin Alejandro Torrez asked a question in Bird Banding:
    Are anybody finding scarce presence of frugivorous birds during bird banding?

    bird banding


  • Manuel Morales added an answer in Biology Education:
    What is the procedure for finding misconceptions, present in students about science basic/common concepts?
    I want to identify and diagnose the misconceptions/alternative conceptions. I also want to make a remedial programme to minimize this misconception/alternative conceptions.
    What would be the basic procedures for this research work?
    Manuel Morales

    The January 30, 2016 deadline for a researcher to submit their keyword findings for first cause has come and gone. First researcher to submit their findings will win the $1200 prize for this category (see link for details).

    • Source
      [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
      ABSTRACT: Abstract: Grade school, high school, and college students as well as the general public are invited to verify if the scientific method needs an overhaul by simply doing searches for the keywords "direct selection" and "indirect selection" in peer-reviewed scientific papers. In doing so, the public will be able to confirm if experiments used to validate quantum mechanic theories are based on a fundamental omission error or not. The attached "Flawed Scientific Method" document was designed to go with the public invitation to help science self-correct. In essence, this one page document illustrates the mechanics of the discovery of Einstein's nonlocal hidden variables which in turn revealed how the scientific method is flawed and how to fix it.
      Full-text · Article · Sep 2015
  • Ebot Walter Ojong added an answer in Medical Applications:
    What are the effects of limonene?

    Could it be the effects of limonene the following?
    The D-limonene is also a possible candidate for a variety of medical applications, including cancer and AIDS, and has been noted to have insecticidal properties. In fact, recent studies seem to reveal that limonene has anti-cancer properties. Increases the levels of liver enzymes used in the neutralization of carcinogens. Limonene apparently promote the system GST (glutathione-S-transferase, involved in eliminating carcinogens) of the liver and intestines and balance out caused by carcinogens. Animal studies show that limonene has properties chemioprenventive in cancers and if present in the diet reduces breast tumor growth.

    Ebot Walter Ojong

    You are welcome Cotellessa