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  • Ajaz HUSSAIN Spengku Pa asked a question in Human-Wildlife Conflict:
    New
    Need questionare survey format for human wildlife conflict?

    for human wildlife conflict survey, species which i am targeting are Common Leopard, Rhesus Macaque and Wild Pig.

  • Naveen Manuja added an answer in Incisor:
    3
    For Missing upper central incisors due to truma at young age, which is more preferable implant or aesthetic bridge?

    Reference to Zakrisson work that you need to change the crown of the implant every 5 years.

    Naveen Manuja

    Implant ahould be given after the cesation of growth. At younger age removable prosthesis is the treatment for missing incisor. Bridge should be dalayed because of wide pulp chambers.

  • Kalinka Kaloyanova added an answer in Information Systems:
    5
    What current issues in the business world that can be used as a research topic, especially in information system area ?

    I was interested in IT governance, but this topic seems to be a regular topic today. I'm very confused to determine a good research topic in information system area. I desperately need ideas.

    Kalinka Kaloyanova

    Hello,

    You could follow the topics of AIS (Association for Information Systems) conferences:
    http://aisnet.org/
    Besides The  International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS 2016)
    http://aisnet.org/?ICISPage
    there are also different more local conferences - European (ECIS 2016), Mediterranean (MCIS 2016), etc.

  • Bikash Sharma added an answer in Love:
    2
    What is love ?

    Why do we love for someone or something? Is it just for fulfilling our physical, psychological, emotional, financial or social needs or something else?   Is it for mutual fulfillment of these needs -not the zero sum gain? Or if it is beyond what we expect from others, then how can we nurture such unconditional love within?      

    Bikash Sharma

    Dear Beatrice,

    Many thanks for sharing highly illuminating articles and it is fascinating to investigate how and why even the  agapic orientation of people toward love may change over varied phases of their life history. 

  • J.D. Desai added an answer in Spray Pyrolysis:
    23
    How to avoid powder formation during thin film deposition by Spray Pyrolysis?

    I am depositing pure metal oxide thin films by spray pyrolysis. I am getting good quality films. Whenever I am  trying with the doped metal oxides deposition with the same optimized conditions(distance between nozzle and substrates, molarity, solvents,quantity, temperature, air pressure and solution flow rate), films are not uniform. It is observed that after very thin deposition, powders are forming and it is in turn avoiding the deposition further. How shall I come out of this problem? What might be the effect of ultrasonic cleaning of thin films after deposition? Will it creates any defects in material and films?

    J.D. Desai

    what are the solutes, solvent etc. should be mentioned, so that it can be answered more accurately

  • Nuha I.bh asked a question in Sodium:
    New
    Can i prepare folin denis reagent by sodium tangustate and sodium molybdate with phosphoric acid and hydrochloric acid ?

    difference between folin-denis and folin-ciocalteu is lithium sulfate and bromine.

    preparation method of  folin-denis : mixing sodium tungstate , phosphomolybdic acid and phosphoric acid (2hr under refluxing ).

    preparation method for folin-ciocalteu : mixing sodium tungstate , sodium molybdate , phosphoric acid and conc. hydrochloric acid (10 hr under refluxing ) then add lithium sulfate and bromine .

    can I prepare folin-denis by mixing sodium tungstate , sodium molybdate , phosphoric acid and conc. hydrochloric acid (10 hr under refluxing ) or not ?

    can I replace phosphomolybdic acid by sodium molybdate and conc. hydrochloric acid and increase reflux time to 10 hr ?

  • Maciej Wawrzczak added an answer in Burial:
    1
    Examples of burials of amputated limbs (apart from hospital contexts and martial trophies)... Any ideas ?

    Dear archaeologists,
    I am currently working on partial burials for my PhD. work. I am looking for examples of burials of amputated limbs (apart from hospital contexts and martial trophies)... Any ideas ?

    Maciej Wawrzczak

    Hi Jennifer

    Maybe this can help:

    M. Tempelmann-Mączyńska 1992; "Specyficzne pochówki" kultury wielbarskiej; Acta Universitatis Lodziensis. Folia Archaeologica, 16: 191-199.

    http://repozytorium.uni.lodz.pl:8080/xmlui/bitstream/handle/11089/7561/Folia%20Archaeologica%2016%201992%20188-196.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y

    Best Regards

    Maciej Wawrzczak

  • Arsham Banisadr added an answer in Ligation:
    2
    Why I get wrong sized band after heat shock transformation?

    Hi dear scientists

    I really need your advice. I want to clone my gene by length of 750 bp in pET 22 But I faced a trouble.

    I’ve digested cloning plasmid(pGH 8) then extracted my gene using bioron gel extraction kit. After that I’ve done similar process for digested pET 22. Then I’ve read 260 od for each one and then perform ligation according to Neb formula for 2 hours at 22® C. In addition to check if ligation was successful I’ve done a PCR. PCR product size shows that ligation is done correctly. Then I transformed 15uL of my ligation product to 50uL of BL21 competent cell using EMBL heat shock transformation protocol. After that I want to screen correct colonies using pcr but unfortunately all colonies give bands with wrong size. Our pcr product size should be 939bp but as you can see no band at this region are available.(fig 1)

    In addition pcr condition are set up as you can see its performance in detecting intact pET 22 in BL21(fig 3)

    I repeat this process with another vector called pET26(fig 2)

    + 2 more attachments

    Arsham Banisadr

    Dear bashir Thank you very much for your comment.
    About a control without insert (I mean digested vector)I agree and will try that But about insert only, before transformation I checked my BL21 bacteria by culturing on kan+ and also amp+ plates and I saw no colonies.

    But strange thing is that this kanamycin resistant bacterium has recognition site for my specific primers. So I say that it may be because of fraction in my insert gene is it possible?

    Sincerely
    Arsham

  • Muruganandam Nagarajan asked a question in Collaboration:
    New
    Inviting collaboration to do research

    Dear friends, we encourage the collaborative studies in different infectious diseases

    If, any on interested please come forward 

  • Krishnan Umachandran added an answer in Vocation:
    1
    Are concepts like collaboration, consensus, negotiation, commonality operational in the real world? Which is what and why some are not?

    How each, or some, or all, or none of these terms help or harm the cultural, social, scientific and/or vocational advancement of knowledge?

    Krishnan Umachandran

    Large open source software development communities are quickly learning that, to be successful, they must integrate efforts not only among the organizations investing developers within the community and unaffiliated volunteer contributors, but also negotiate relationships with external groups hoping to sway the social and technical direction of the community and its products.

    • Source
      [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
      ABSTRACT: Large open source software development communities are quickly learning that, to be successful, they must integrate efforts not only among the organizations investing developers within the community and unaffiliated volunteer contributors, but also negotiate relationships with external groups hoping to sway the social and technical direction of the community and its products. Leadership and control sharing across organizations and individuals in and between communities are common sources of conflict. Such conflict often leads to breakdowns in collaboration. This paper seeks to explore the negotiation of these conflicts, collaborative efforts, and leadership and control structures in the Netbeans.org community.
      Full-text · Conference Paper · Jan 2005
  • Amit Arya added an answer in Neuron:
    2
    I want to implement the spiking neural network for classification. How to get the different timings(input time, delay time etc.)?

    How to get the firing time of spiking neuron and how to get the delay time from the input layer to hidden layer(at implementation level how to capture delay)? I am looking for any source or suggestions which are useful to implement this kind of network.

    Thank you.

    + 1 more attachment

    Amit Arya

    Leaky integrate and fire neuron model.

  • Mehmet Sinan Iyisoy added an answer in Splines:
    5
    Should My statistical model be flexible or not ?

    Assume that I have a large number of predictors and a limited number of observations; How should I build the statistical model? should it be flexible (Spline) or inflexible (Linear Regression)?

    Mehmet Sinan Iyisoy

    Ahmad

    Do you have small number of predictors or observations?

    You said previously you have limited number of observations, now saying the opposite. A typo?

  • Azzam K Almosallami added an answer in High Energy Physics Theory:
    42
    Why nobody see that Higgs boson and gravitational waves are the pure theoretical failures?

    Higgs boson does not interact with gluons which give energy for 99% of proton mass. How the Higgs boson gives mass to the proton, nobody has no clear answer. Why are we closing eyes and tolerating this model which does not have a minimal correspondence with physical existence? Energy and mass are both inherent physical properties of every particle. No particle can give mass to another particle; this is a complete misunderstanding. Higgs boson  does not prove anything, Higgs boson is artificially made flux of energy and nothing more. 

    Energy and mass are both inherent physical properties of every particle. They have the origin in the diminished energy density of quantum vacuum.  A given particle cannot be examined without this diminished energy density of quantum vacuum which determines its energy and mass. The idea that particles exist in an empty space deprived of physical properties is the biggest theoretical failure of physics since its existence. It has led  to the idea of Higgs field and gravitational waves which are both pure theoretical failure. No particle can give mass to another particle; this is a complete misunderstanding. Higgs boson  does not prove anything, Higgs boson is artificially made flux of energy and nothing more. And no wave can transmit gravity. 

    Azzam K Almosallami

    Dear Amrit,

    Your model is working exactly according to my model. Do not be disappointed. SRT did not prove Sagnac effect also.  Sagnac Effect explained in the framework of the ether theory, which give delta (t)=R^2 (2vL/c^2). Read this paper http://arxiv.org/pdf/1404.4075v1.pdf

    Now according to my transformation t=R^2(t'-vx/c^2). Now t-=R^2(t'-vx/c^2) and t+=R^2(t'+vx/c^2) thus delta (t)=R^2 (2vL/c^2) which agree completely with  explaining Sagnac effect in the framework of ether theory. But instead of ether theory it is vacuum energy dependent. Now what about the CMB anisotropy. It is explained completely with my transformation. In fact there is no graviton, it is photon mediates gravitation. Review my equivalence principle in my paper http://vixra.org/abs/1509.0059. 

  • Krishnan Umachandran added an answer in E-Learning:
    13
    What is the fate of e learning in higher education?

    E ;earning is a reality now. What will be the fate of e learning in higher education. will it survive?

    Krishnan Umachandran
    • e-Learning is the use of technology to enable people to learn anytime and anywhere.
    • e-Learning can include training, the delivery of just-in-time information and guidance from experts.
  • Apar Saoji added an answer in Dysmenorrhea:
    2
    Yoga as an alternative method of alleviating primary dysmenorrhea?

    We're looking for published studies regarding this matter. 

    Apar Saoji

    Hello Jude,

    There are very few publications available on Yoga therapy for dysmenorrhea. Following are the links for some good publications available in the field-

    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22963270

    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21514190

    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23647406

  • Nebras Shash asked a question in LS-DYNA:
    New
    How to define all the parameters modified johnson cook model in LS-Dyna?

    I'm doing a project about high velocity impact simulation using LS-Dyna and i got a problem about modelling the material modified johnson cook MAT107.

    I have all parameters material using modified johnson cook and CL failure criterion.
    I obtained the results, but the perforation was not completely, although the bullet passed the full thickness of the plate as shown in figure.

    I don't know, why? Can you suggest me, are there other parameters, I must I select in ls-dyna for the material modified johnson cook?

    Thanks a lot

  • Amrit Sorli added an answer in Gravitational Waves:
    2
    What type of a wave: the gravitational wave?

    Gravitational wave has now becomes a reality. It is analogous to the electromagnetic wave that is emitted by an accelerating charged object. What type of wave is it? A tensor, a vector or a scalar wave? With what speed does it travels? It composes of what fields and their relation to each other? How a tensor wave travels? Does it arise from dipole or quadruple radiation? Any other physical properties does it carry?

    Amrit Sorli

    GW are the type of the wave which exist only a model, it has no physical existence, GW are  pure theoretical failure. 

    http://arxiv.org/ftp/astro-ph/papers/9906/9906058.pdf

  • Mehmet Sinan Iyisoy added an answer in P Value:
    6
    When the significant differences (P value less 0.05) should be consider as clinical important (seriously) ?

    Are there certain factors could make the statistical significant ( p value less than 0.05) clinically important as larger sample size or randomized controlled clinical studies?

    Mehmet Sinan Iyisoy

    My two cents, (mis)usage of p values and/or AIPE estimation seems to me a fallacy of frequentist methods. I have found an interesting article related

    • Source
      [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
      ABSTRACT: The main objective of the paper is to challenge the charge that frequentist testing, in general, and the severity evaluation, in particular, are susceptible to the base-rate fallacy. It is argued that the apparent similarity between examples like the Harvard Medical School test and frequentist testing is highly mislead- ing. A closer look at such examples reveals that the reasoning connecting a medical to a statistical test using the false positive and false negative rates as analogous to the type I and II error probabilities, respectively, is fallacious be- cause it grossly misrepresents frequentist testing. On closer examination, such examples have none of the basic features of a proper frequentist test (data, hypotheses, test statistics, sampling distributions), and error probabilities are replaced with conditional probabilities among events. Hence, in such exam- ples the ampliative dimension of frequentist testing is totally absent. Indeed, no learning from data can take place because their pretend 'error probabili- ties' represent simple deductive calculations of conditional probabilities among events within the context of a known data-generating mechanism.
      Full-text · Article · Oct 2010 · Philosophy of Science
  • Esa Säkkinen added an answer in Fundamental Physics:
    11
    C-global victorious – anyone strong enough to object?

    c-global says that the speed of light in the vacuum, c, is a constant of nature that applies not only locally, but globally. Hence if in-falling light takes infinitely long to reach the horizon of a black hole as is known, the downward distance is infinite, too.

    c-global was discovered by Einstein in 1905 and maintained by him up until mid-1911. It got re-discovered in the Schwarzschild metric in 2008 and in the equivalence principle in 2012. It presently waits to be incorporated into the by then completed field equations of general relativity.

    c-global has already dethroned the Big Bang and gravitational waves along with the associated Nobel prizes. Alone important, though, is the fact that the LHC experiment proves an acute threat to planet earth, which fact CERN refuses to contest by openly non-renewing its official safety report LSAG from early 2008.

    Is anyone on this unique  communication network RG strong enough to put an end to c-global – so physics can recover from its worst loss of face ever?

    Esa Säkkinen

    The route of the light is different from the observed direct piece of line. For example for the light went through glass you can measure two different distances: the distance in outside coordinates or the distance of the route of light based on its speed c.

    So the question is not so simple. If we define all light propagating at c and shall declare the real distances via complex routes, then we can model by global c in physics. But you see the result: very curved, even weird.

  • Francesca Amenduni added an answer in LinkedIn:
    2
    How Can we use LinkedIn in University training?

    I'm looking for articles and/or books about:

    - use of LinkedIn in University Training; 

    - assessment student by use of Linkedin

    I'm master degree student and I have used L. in my research thesis.

    I wish to compare my design with others in order to improve the work in the future.

    thank you!

    Francesca Amenduni

    In our study, LinkedIn was used to support transitional processes across boundaries between student's and professional communities.

    Student's could learn professional practices and discussed into LinkedIn groups, share their ideas and their works.

    Business contacts could find some motivated and skillful students.

  • Andrew Worsley added an answer in Shock Waves:
    3
    Gravitational shock waves?

    What does it take to produce or detect them? Have the massive black holes that gave rise to the chirp at LIGO created a shock wave? 

    Andrew Worsley

    Gravity waves have been found with 2 polarizations, i think we have to accept that, in so far as the  LIGO results have been published.

    However, there are other theories  that suggest this result without the paradoxes of GTR

    Einstein did not predict the existence of black holes, in fact he denied their existence in a paper published in 1936, Simply because that would imply the existence of singularities, with infinite density and zero time passage at the event horizon.

    The force of gravity in General relativity  (GTR) is thought to come form the curvature of space-time.

    Unfortunately the maths of GTR implies infinite curvature and zero time passage at the black hole event horizon  and the black hole becomes a singularity- and yet the black hole has a radius.

    The Misner Wheeler Thorne interpretation partially resolved this in  that the singularity rests inside the event horizon.

    But yet another paradox arises if time stops at the event horizon (frozen star) no matter would fall in hence  black hole could not accumulate matter, and all the in-falling matter would be situated at or near the event horizon.

    The solution is to alter the maths of GR.

    Additionally GR falls down in a number of areas, so any new maths should also resolve these problems

    Yes GR works in the weak fields of the the solar system, and Intermediate
    fields of neutron stars. 

    1). It produces infinite density singularities in the very strong fields
    such as in black holes.

    2).It does not necessarily explain dark matter in galaxy cores where we
    know super-massive black holes exist and the galactic dark matter
    therein,

    3). It does not explain dark mater present in galactic halo's,and galactic
    clusters such as the bullet cluster,

    4).It does not explain the presence of cosmological dark matter as a whole.

    5). It has not yet been fully corroborated by the studies of neutron stars
    and in black holes.

    6). It does not easily explain the presence of dark energy and cannot be
    translated in quantum gravity.

    7). It predicts that time stops at the event horizon

    Here I enclose a number of publications which explain all of these
    phenomena, whilst agreeing with the results of GR where it has been
    thoroughly tested.

    1).First to obviate the infinite density singularities.

    1a)
    https://www.researchgate.net/publication/32897680_An_advanced_dynamic_adaptation_of_Newtonian_equations_of_gravity?ev=prf_pub

    1b)
    https://www.researchgate.net/publication/269689554_The_formulation_of_Dynamic_Newtonian_advanced_gravity_DNAg?ev=prf_pub

    2).Secondly we explain the presence of dark matter at the centre of the
    galaxy.

    2a)
    https://www.researchgate.net/publication/228858219_Advances_in_Black_Hole_Gravitational_Physics_and_Cold_Dark_Matter_Modelling._The_Gravity_of_Dark_Matter

    3) Thirdly it is possible to explain the presence of dark matter in the
    galactic halo.

    3a)
    https://www.researchgate.net/publication/269689929_Advances_in_Black_Hole_Physics_and_Dark_Matter_Modelling_of_the_Galactic_Halo?ev=prf_pub

    4). It is able to explain the presence of cosmological dark matter

    https://www.researchgate.net/publication/32897680_An_advanced_dynamic_adaptation_of_Newtonian_equations_of_gravity

    5). It is corroborated in neutron stars (including Data from radiation
    damping ) and is corroborated by black hole studies.

    5a)
    https://www.researchgate.net/publication/32888463_An_advanced_modification_of_dynamicgravitation

    5b).
    https://www.researchgate.net/publication/269667939_Corroboration_of_Dynamic_Black_Hole_Gravitational_Physics_from_Observations_of_Cygnus_X-1

    6) it explains dark energy and translates into quantum gravity

    https://www.researchgate.net/publication/32899306_String_quintessence_and_the_formulation_of_advanced_quantum_gravity


    7). It does not offer infinite time dilation at the event horizon

    https://www.researchgate.net/publication/287213872_Finite_Gravitational_Time_Dilation_In_Black_Holes_Using_Dynamic_Newtonian_Advanced_Gravity_DNAg


     
    Read full-text
    SourceAvailable from: Andrew Worsley
     
    Article: An

    • Source
      [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
      ABSTRACT: The equations for the general theory of relativity (GTR) have to date proved enormously successful. However, despite its success, there are a number of difficulties with GTR. Standard GTR predicts the formation of singularities in black holes, and it has enormous mathematical complexity. In this paper we find that the equations for GTR can be modified by mathematically defining the equations for the curvature of space-time, in terms of geodesics. Using these equations, we translate this curvature back into equations for an advanced Newtonian force of gravity. Using worked examples we show that such an advanced Newtonian equation can give results that agree very closely with GTR, but resolve the difficulties of standard GTR, including the formation of singularities. The formulation of this advanced Newtonian gravity can also potentially provide the basis for understanding the apparent missing mass of the Universe.
      Full-text · Article · Sep 2008 · Physics Essays

    + 7 more attachments

  • Amrit Sorli added an answer in Gravitational Waves:
    2
    Do gravitational waves affect their measurement devices?

    I have read the recent paper from Abbott et al about the recent discovery of gravitational waves by the LIGO experience. I'm wondering: if gravitational waves are an evidence of a change in the spacetime structure, they also affect the measurement devices (I mean everything except the arms of the interferometer). Was that taken into account in the data processing?

    Amrit Sorli

    GW are the pure theoretical failure. They exist only in the mind of some physicists, they do not have physical existence. 

    http://arxiv.org/ftp/astro-ph/papers/9906/9906058.pdf

  • Adam Ginsburg added an answer in Thin Layers:
    2
    Why do we heat substrate before deposition (PLD)?
    Pulsed laser deposition.
    Adam Ginsburg

    heating during deposition, as written above, will effect the material crystallinity. Heating the substrate before the deposition could be effective for the cleaning process to remove the layer of water, and dust that is formed in air, and get better adhesion

  • Sameer Karpe asked a question in Isatin:
    New
    Effect of substituent on reactivity of isatins?

    Please tell me the effect of substituents (such as halides present on benzene ring of isatin) on C3 carbonyl reactivity of isatin. 

  • Amrit Sorli added an answer in International System of Units:
    5
    What is Time?

    Time is a measure in which events can be ordered from the past through the present into the future, and also the measure of duration of events and the intervals between them. Time is often referred to as the fourth dimension, along with the three spatial dimensions.

    The fundamental unit of time in the International System of Units (SI) is the second (symbolized s or sec). One second elapses during the occurrence of exactly 9,192,631,770 (9.192631770 x 10^9) cycles of the radiation produced by the transition between two levels of the cesium 133 atom.

    "In the theory of relativity, the concept of time begins with the Big Bang the same way as parallels of latitude begin at the North Pole. You cannot go further north than the North Pole," says Kari Enqvist, Professor of Cosmology.

    According to you, what is Time?

    Amrit Sorli

    Time is numerical order of changes which run in the quantum vacuum where is always NOW. 

    + 1 more attachment

  • Ibrahim Abd El-Rahim added an answer in Bacterial DNA Extraction:
    6
    What is the best method for Bacterial DNA extraction from feces without using commercial kit?

    please i need to know what is the best method for Bacterial DNA extraction from feces because there is no availability for commercial stool DNA extraction kit.

    Ibrahim Abd El-Rahim

    You can use:

    Oven method;

    Enzymatic method;

    Boiling method or

    Detergent method.

    Please read this paper which published by my friend Dr. Omer B. Ahmed:

    Omar B. Ahmed, Atif H. Asghar  and Mogahid M. Elhassan.2014. Comparison of three DNA extraction methods for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of bacterial genomic DNA. Afr. J. Microbiol. Res. 8(6):598-602.

    All the best

  • Adi Jindal added an answer in Cardiomyocytes:
    4
    Lots of fibroblasts in primary cardiomyocyte culture. How to reduce it?

    While isolating primary cardiomyocytes from neonatal mice/rat, even after pre-plating the cell suspension the number of fibroblast remaining with the cardiomycoytes is very large. Iam pre-plating the cell suspension in horse serum after enzymatic digestion and leaving it for 2-3 hours in the incubator at 37 degree celcius. How can I reduce these fibroblasts in Cardiomyocyte culture without using inhibitors for fibroblast?

    Adi Jindal
    @Bin - we stained with alpha sarcomeric actinin, saw there were more number of nuclei then the actinin stained cells.
    @Helene- Ok. Could you tell me what is the approximate fraction of the cardiomyocytes in cell population with this method?
    @Noelia- we use horse serum
  • Sabrija Čadro added an answer in Water Balance:
    15
    Which soil water balance estimation would you employ to calculate the soil water change [balance] in the field?

    Data generated at the field through field-based monitoring and assessment include climate data: temperature (C), relative humidity (%), wind speed (mph) and direction, dew point, precipitation (mm), [Evapotranspiration (ETc), and we also have Evaporation measured from an evaporation pan (ETp)], Daily soil moisture (%), Adjusted Irrigation Rate; that is, if P < ETc and the average daily soil moisture was significantly lower relative to soil temperature. Given this information, which model of soil water balance would you use to compute the water balance?

    In its simplest form:

    Change in Soil Water  = Inputs of Water - Losses of Water

    If we break these two components further, we get:

    Water inputs is a function of = Precipitation + Irrigation + Groundwater charge 

    Water Outputs = Evapotranspiration + Deep Drainage + Surface Runoff

    Thus leading us to:

    Change in Soil water = (P + I + C) - (ET + D + RO)

    Some of these parameters are unknown, but can be computed, since we know others. We assumed surface Runoff (RO) to be zero due to drainage at the experimental unit, which means that RO wasn't an issue.

    Change in Soil Water:

    Inputs [P = Precipitation, I = irrigation rate [adj recharge + Cal Recharge], C = Groundwater Charge]

    Outputs [ET = evapotranspiration, DD = Deep Drainage, RO = Surface Runoff]

    Others would used the Water Balance Calculation (This is more of the general calculation of water balance and might not necessarily be applicable here.)

    Change in Volume (V) = [P + R + Bf] - [I + E + Et + O]

    Where:     P = Precipitation

                     R = Runoff

                     Bf = Baseflow

                     I = Infiltration

                     E = Evaporation

                     Et = Evapotranspiration

                     O = Overflow (this is usually not considered or considered to be 0)

    Soil Water Surplus was calculated using:

         S = P + I -ETc (SMa / t)

    Where S = Surplus, P = Precipitation, I = Irrigation, ETc is evapotranspiration, SMa = Averaged Soil Moisture and t = Time.

    Any ideas?

    Sabrija Čadro

    You can use Palmer Water balance. It simple, but better than usual backet water balance methods. Palmer Method separate soil into 2 different layers. You can find all in : https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/temp-and-precip/drought/docs/palmer.pdf
    This method is widely used for drought monitoring (Palmer Drought Index and Self Calibrated Palmer Dought Index). Finally, I made easy excela sheet for multiple Years calculation: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/294394888_Palmer_1965_The_Water_Balance_and_Z-index_-_Multiple_Years_Worksheet_v23

    • Source
      [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
      ABSTRACT: The soil water budget according to the Wayne C. Palmer (Meteorological Drought, Research paper No. 45, 1965). https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/temp-and-precip/drought/docs/palmer.pdf To use excel sheet, monthly precipitation and evapotranspiration (potential evapotranspiration or reference evapotranspiration, calculated with any available method: Thornthwite, Penman-Monteith, Turc, Boney-Cradle, Priestley-Taylor, Hargreaves, etc.) are required. The main calculation results are: - Actual evapotranspiration, - Runoff, - Deficit, - Aridity index, - Drought coefficients, - Z – Index, moisture anomality. All calculations are on monthly basis for multiple years (1949 - 2020).
      Full-text · Dataset · Feb 2016
  • Arshad Ali added an answer in Standard Error:
    4
    Does it make sense to calculate standard error (SE) of two individual values (i.e., N=2)?

    If you have two data points (N=2) for two individual analyses of a sample then is it logical to calculate standard error (SE)?

    Arshad Ali

    Thanks Carmen, Catherine and Jeannie for your helpful input.