ResearchGate Q&A lets scientists and researchers exchange questions and answers relating to their research expertise, including areas such as techniques and methodologies.

Browse by research topic to find out what others in your field are discussing.

Browse Topics

  • YOGESH CHANDRA TRIPATHI added an answer in Teaching and Learning:
    What role you visualize for teachers given the onslaught of digital technologies?

    Various disruptive technologies have affected teaching learning process. . In view of this , can we contemplate role for teachers, especially in higher education? He/she should be a coach, facilitator, technology savvy etc. What else can we visualize?


    There is an onslaught of technology on the modern education system. Indeed, technology can open doors, expand minds, and change the world but not going to replace a teacher. In fact, with the influx of technology, there is a greater need for teachers who must be willing to take chances and able to figure out not only how technology works, but also how it works for each student, and where its use is most appropriate.

  • Piyushkumar Patel added an answer in Atmospheric Correction:
    6S Radiative transfer Atmospheric Correction of Landsat 8 using GRASS GIS?

    Dear all, 

    Can anyone help me , How to perform 6S radiative transfer atmospheric correction of Landsat 8 using GRASS GIS. I am new user of GRASS GIS. Or any easy way to perform 6S radiative transfer. Please looking for your valuable guidance.   

    Thank You 


    Shouvik Jha 

    Piyushkumar Patel

    Dear Mr. Shouvik

    I am not aware about GRASS GIS but before running the 6S, you should decide that which version of 6S your are using.

    Is it vector version or scalar?

    in the vector version you can run 6S for point base instead of full image.

    If you want to run full image then you have to go for older version of 6S.

    We are using 6S but not for the atmospheric correction purpose but for the calibration purpose. We are running in the FORTRAN and batch mode for the point base.

    Now here in our organization people have developed such software using older version of 6S to do atmospheric correction for the full image. Now I am not sure that the software can run on Landsat 8 image or not.

    If you want I can provide you a consult person contact. So you can contact him for the detail information.

    Thank you

    With Regards,

    Piyush Patel

  • Ahmed Mostafa Sira added an answer in Hepatitis C Virus:
    What is the best questionnaire for evaluating the awareness by hepatitis C virus in a community?

    Community such as University students or high school students 

    Ahmed Mostafa Sira

    Thanks for the prompt response and help.

  • Keinoosh Batebi added an answer in Hydroxyapatites:
    Please see the attached file, Is there any additive I should add for making suspension for antibacterial test?

    . I saw that hydroxyapatite precipitated in PBS and i can't take the test with that

    Keinoosh Batebi
    Thanks. There is no difference between PBS and saline solvent, as long as the pH of solvent is neutral, hydroxyapatite can't be solved in it, but in the papers they all diluted it in PBS. I don't know how? If the material precipitated at the bottom of container, can I take the antibacterial test?
  • Nunix Frentyna asked a question in Likert Scale:
    Is Coefficient Alpha Robust to Non-Normal Data?

    Dear researcher.

    Would you like to help me? I have a question about a reliability test with non normal data distribution.

    I have a data, N = 992, p values = 0.000 sig (Shapiro wilk / K-S). I use Likert scale, I use Cronbach Alpha to measure a reliability, and I use corrected item-total correlation for validity. But I have a doubt whether Is that a proper method or not.

    Thank you,

    Warmest regard.

    Nunix W. Frentyna

  • V. L. Beena asked a question in NTSYS:
    How to how to interpret PCoA 3D scatter plot generated by Ntsys for diversity analysis

    interpret dendrogram in Ntsys

  • Nirav Lekinwala asked a question in Aspen HYSYS:
    Is there a way in which we can extract the mathematical model equations from process modelling software like Aspen Plus and Aspen Hysys?

    Is there a way in which we can extract the mathematical model equations from process modelling software like Aspen Plus and Aspen Hysys.

    The equations may be the differential equations that define the system 

  • Abhishek Pariyar asked a question in Grinding:
    While making of mounts for EPMA, my epoxy is getting lodged with SiC powder during grinding. Is there a way to avoid that?

    SiC is getting lodged in the epoxy mount and the sample. I wanted to know if the same effect of thinning the epoxy to expose the samples can be achieved by some other method. 

  • Achyut Raj Pandey added an answer in Epi Info:
    Statistical software (free of cost) which can be used by researchers who do not have statistical background - Any suggestions and recommendations?

    Researchers from social sciences and various other fields find it difficult to use statistical packages. In Nepal, most of the researchers use SPSS and Epi - Info, I would like to know about statistical software which are free and more user-friendly?

    Achyut Raj Pandey

    R could be the option.

  • Shiv Kumar Yadav added an answer in Pharmaceutical Manufacturing:
    Which organic solvent is allowed to be used in pharmaceutical manufacturing industry by regulatory authority?

    Quality management system, 

    Shiv Kumar Yadav

    as per pharmacopoeia solvent s have categorised to safe, toxic& severely toxic .and safe limits also have prescribed in  API. . BEAWARE OF BENZENE it is totaly  prohibited due to its carcinogenic nature

    consult any pharmacopoeia  before use any solvent in last stage of API

  • Umer Farooq added an answer in Reinforced Concrete:
    If the allowable deflection exceeds in a doubly reinforced concrete beam, how will the compression and tension blocks behave?

    How the compression and tensile stress will react in a reinforced concrete beam when the allowable deflection exceeds?

    Umer Farooq

    Dear Bennet Kuriakose,

    when the deflection exceeds permissible limit, because of non-linear effects, how different the tension & compression blocks will behave? I mean what will change in their behaviour?

  • Manish Verma added an answer in Forest Fires:
    Does anyone know how to get forest fire data?

    Hi all,

    Does anyone can give me suggestion (papers, web site links, etc), where I can find remote sensing data (or others) about forest fire hot spot data?

    Thank you

    Manish Verma

    Not sure if this is what you are looking for, but University of Maryland produces MODIS fire product http://modis-fire.umd.edu/index.php. This is a gridded product available in different formats (HDF, GeoTIFF etc.)

  • Choon-Hwan Shin added an answer in Ion Chromatography:
    How can we measure sample containing high concentration of NH4+, PO43- and mg2+ by ion chromatography?

    My waste water contains higher concentration of ammonium ion, magnesium ion, phosphate ion and nitrate ion.The pH of my sample range from 7 to 11 and i use 1M NaOH to control pH. I want to detect Mg²⁺ + NH₄⁺+ PO₄³¯  by using metrohm 83 ion chromatography. I diluted my sample 10000 times but could not get good result. can anyone tell what is the problem and how can i solve it? Thanks in advance.

    Choon-Hwan Shin

    You can use theoretical method of pC-pH diagram about NH+ and PO4-P at first.  And then,according to this result you can  compare with analytical result. 

  • Amir Javad Ahmadian Hosseini added an answer in Coal Combustion:
    Where can I find some materials to understand SOx formation mechanisms in coal combustion and its relation with Combustion pressure ?

    Some mechanisms to explain SOx formation (example :- Zeldovich for NOx)

    Amir Javad Ahmadian Hosseini

    Dear Kalimuthu Selvam 

    One of the easiest and best references about mechanism of SOx formation is ANSYS theory guide. In this reference you could find the mechanism of SOx  formation and its' equations in different type of fuels like liquid fuels, coal and etc.

    Good Luck

    Amir Javad Ahmadian Hosseini

  • Arun Gunasekaran added an answer in Himalaya:
    Is there any package in R that can be used to calculate Snow Cover Area (SCA) from MODIS image?

    I am planning to study the snow cover variation of one of the river basin in Central Himalaya using MODIS? Can i do it in R?

    Arun Gunasekaran

    You can follow this link in order get code structures https://cran.r-project.org/web/views/Spatial.html

    Main tools like rgdal and maptools are useful for ur application. Please explain me weather you are using modis snow cover product (daily/8daily/monthly) or modis image (containing DN values) for your application.

    In case you are using modis image you have to write few line custom codes to convert DN to Reflectance and perform (NDSI).

    In case you are using SCA product you can just reclassify and calculate area.

  • Gianluca Polgar asked a question in General Ecology:
    Necropsy protocols for terrestrial tetrapods?

    Dear all,

    I am looking for published necropsy protocols on model terrestrial tetrapod species (mammal, bird, reptile).

    I am also looking for literature on the scientific use of necropsy data in conservation or general ecology.

    Any info out there? 



  • V. L. Beena added an answer in Biodiversity:
    Any advice on how to use NTSYS pc 2.02 software for genetic diversity analysis?
    Looking for step-by-step advice.
    V. L. Beena

    how to interpret PCoA 3D scatter plot  generated by Ntsys for diversity analysis

  • Bipul Das added an answer in Imaging:
    How can I add the scale bar to an image acquired with Leica SP5 confocal microscope using ImageJ?
    I am finally assembling immunostaining pictures for publication, and would like to add the proper scale bar. The images were acquired with a certain objective and at certain zoom (I have precise track of them). I normally use ImageJ software to open the .lif files and I would like to know whether there's any conversion parameters/ calculation I could use to add scale bars to the pictures.
    Bipul Das

    If you are using Leica SP5 confocal microscope you can directly use the software for image acquisition comes with the microscope. But if you do not have the software or you are not familiar with the software, then try the following link for ImageJ.


    Hope this will be fine with you. Make sure that you use the same microscope for acquiring the image of the linear scale as described in the above link.

  • Sajeev T K asked a question in Refolding:
    How to refold powder form of bovine RNase A?

    Please suggest me a way to refold the crystalline form of RNase A 

  • Arif Saeed Malik asked a question in Costing:
    Are conventional probabilistic production costing models are still in use by the deregulated electricity industry for generation planning?

     I am interested to know if conventional probabilistic production costing models are still in use by the deregulated electricity industry? Do reliability indices such as the Loss of Load Probability (LOLP) and Expected Energy Not Served (EENS) are still useful concepts or have gone through some modification/changes? I am more interested to know the industry practice rather than the academic exercises.

  • Arun Kumar asked a question in Abaqus:
    How to use bounding box dynamically in between some process on abaqus?

    i have a script which does some operation . Once script imports model into abaqus and does minor operation, i need to select some portion of elements using bounding box which is input to further process. how to do that?

  • Yong-jun Choi added an answer in Health Services Research:
    Do you know any literature on people's perception of diverse time span (week, month, etc.)?

    I am now writing the discussion section of the paper on the medical care ecology in South Korea. This study adopted the model proposed by Kerr White, a US guru in the health services research field, where the pattern of care utilization is analyzed with a unit of person-month.

    Does this practice have any benefit over other approach?

    I think the reference period of 'month' fits the rhythm of people's daily living. Although they are paid per week basis in some countries, people in many countries are paid per month. This provides them a kind of living cycle with which people make a plan of their living.

    The time length of month is manageable for lay people. It is longer than day and week and shorter than year. In other words, month is long enough to make a plan and is short enough to remember events and manage time. 

    We health services researchers use diverse time units depending what an analysis objective is. Despite that, month can be a very natural time unit for analysis when we adopt a user-centered perspective, I think

    Would you make any comment on the above or recommend any relevant literature?

    Yong-jun Choi

    Thank you for your recommendation, Dr. David Portnoy.

    On your recommendation, I asked a librarian to get a copy of the book's chapter but she could not find the book in South Korea (sic!). Instead, I accidentally a book titled "On time and method: research in health care settings" in the library, which was edited by Joseph McGrath. Would you have any idea on this book? Thank you in advance. 

  • Dobromir Dobrev added an answer in Circuits:
    Who knows the properties and the working principle of this circuit?

    Recently I came across with the shown circuit.

    It has some interesting properties. Is there anybody who has used such a circuit already? Both opamps are assumed to be ideal.

    Dobromir Dobrev


    I'm not arguing...I'm teaching you in easy understanding of electronic circuits :)

    Anyway, attached is a schematic for hand calculations, illustrating the operating principle of this circuit.


  • Lakshya Uttrani added an answer in Cognitive Radio:
    Can someone provide a MATLAB code for CR spectrum sensing?
    I want to simulate the basic concept of spectrum sensing in cognitive radio using energy detection. Can anyone help me by sharing the source of MATLAB program for Spectrum sensing or provide me a link where I can find it.
    Lakshya Uttrani

    close all
    clear all

  • Amir Javad Ahmadian Hosseini added an answer in Combustion:
    How to choose a Combustion model based on Turbulence effect inside the combustion chamber.?

    I am working with HCCI mode of Combustion.

    Amir Javad Ahmadian Hosseini

    Dear T.Karthikeya Sharma

    One of the best combustion models that based on turbulence effects is Magunessen Eddy Dissipation model, this model is simple because of eliminate number of species and has a powerful validation advantage with experimental data.

    Good Luck

    Amir Javad Ahmadian Hosseini

  • Gianrocco Tucci added an answer in Hermeneutics:
    As science cannot critically verify its assumptions, should we resort to 'pre-understanding' referring to previous interpretations of reality itself?

    Language, as an expression of the various 'knowledge' is subject to continuous transformations. I’d like to focus in particular on one of them in the field of scientific research.

    As science can not critically verify its own assumptions, it is up to history, epistemology, philosophy and to the analysis of language to deepen the horizons of pre-understanding of each scientific proposition. In particular this is the understanding of a reality based on the assumption and tradition of antecedent interpretations, which precedes the direct experience of reality itself.

    Popper was very attentive about  the instrumental aspect of science (and therefore also to language), not interested in things in themselves, but to their verifiable aspects through measurements. Therefore, he invited not to interpret theories as descriptions or using their results in practical applications. He recalled that, as "knowledge", science is nothing but a set of conjectures or highly informative guesses about the world, which, although not verifiable (i.e. such that it is possible to demonstrate the truth) they can be subjected to strict critical controls.

    This is evident from various texts and  Popper emphasized these ideas in ‘The Logic of Scientific Discovery’: "Science is not a system of certain assertions, or established once and for all, nor is it a system that progresses steadily towards a definitive state. Our science is not knowledge (episteme): it can never claim to have reached the truth, not even a substitute for the truth, as probability .... "

    We do not know, we can only presume. Our attempts to conceit are guided by the unscientific belief, metaphysical in the laws, in the regularities that we can uncover, discover.

    A kind of approach which is not exempt from ethical questions because the operation has fluid boundaries. The borders can be crossed, leading to the possibility of manipulation and abuse of power against the same identity and autonomy of the persons involved.

    As Bacon we could describe our contemporary science - the method of reasoning that today men routinely apply to Nature - consisting of hasty advances, premature and of prejudices. But, once advanced, none of our advances is supported dogmatically. Our research method is not what is to defend them, to prove how right we were; on the contrary, we try to subvert them, using all the tools of our logical, mathematical and technical ‘baggage’".

    Hence the maximal caution: "The old scientific ideal of episteme, of absolutely certain and demonstrable knowledge, has proved an idol.

    The need for scientific objectivity makes it inevitable that every assertion of Science remains necessarily and forever to the status of an attempt. The wrong view of science is betrayed because of its desire to be the right one. Since it is not the possession of knowledge, of irrefutable truth, that makes a man of science, but the critical research, persistent and anxious for the truth ".

    [In this regard I consulted the following texts: H. R. Schlette, Philosophie, Theologie, Ideologies. Erläuterung der Differenzen, Cologne, 1968 (Italian transl c / o Morcelliana, Brescia, 1970, pp. 56, 78); G. Gismondi, The critique of ideology in the science foundation's speech, in "Relata Technica", 4 (1972), 145-156; Id., Criticism and ethics in scientific research, Marietti, Torino, 1978].

    Then, Hermeneutics, applied to language, to human action and ethics allows to articulate text and action. An action may be told because it is the human life itself that deserves to be narrated; it presents possible narrative paths that the individual highlights, excluding others. Story and action also confirm the inter-subjectivity dimension of human beings: the action can be told because it is the same human life that deserves to be told. The story presents thoroughly the three moments of ethical reflection: describe, tell and prescribe.

    Gianrocco Tucci

    Dear Philipp Altmann,

    Thank you for your inspiring contribution which gives me the opportunity to express some further considerations on Luhmann’s thought.

    Even social sciences have turned their attention to the society of information, and it has done so from various viewpoints. Authors such as N. Luhmann himself, E. Morin, J. Habermas, and Karl Popper have been occupied with the communication of information as a phenomenon with the capacity to generate not only a new style of social life, but also a new culture. The concept of a “global village” is increasingly used by social scientists. For example there exists a certain circularity between anthropology and the society of information. On the one hand, an information society is based  on a certain vision of human beings , and it conveys a specific image of people: the human being as consumer, as generator of economic profit, as the subject of cultural and scientific networks.

    Luhmann defines the two fundamental points that mark his departure from the traditional concept of communication.

    The first reverses the setting of the classic model, conceiving communication as a type of action, takes as the primary entity the subject that communicates, that acts. The proposal of Luhmann is instead to move from "those who understand", then to ask questions about the "communicator" and "what to communicate", i.e. on the intention and content.

    The second point of divergence is expressed as a rejection of the view that makes communication a transmission of information from a center to another, from one mind to another. This step always assumes a commonality, not only of code but also the scope within which the communication moves to select information

    Following Luhmann (for example his note: ‘What is Communication?’, Communication Theory, 1992, vol.2,3, 251-59), communication should not be conceived as a mere "transfer" of information and data between two processing centers (such as groups), but regarded as mastership and sharing of preliminary knowledge that allow the selection and diffusion of a message. To communicate therefore implies the upcoming and activation of an interpersonal circuit in whose informative range a set of interpretative processes combines and works for the recognition and acceptance (or their refusal) of the meaning and content of proposals. (essence of culture).

  • Marie Beaton added an answer in Vulnerable Adults:
    Research into the institutional abuse and neglect of people in residential care outside the UK?
    In my research so far, I have found very limited use of the term 'institutional abuse' in the literature and practically none outside the UK. The term refers to abuse and neglect that occurs as a result of the organisational practices, attitudes, morals, or management.

    Can anyone direct me to research on this theme outside the UK?
    Marie Beaton

    I came across this article in a review of the literature on resident-to-resident aggression: Banerjee, A., Daly, T., Armstrong, P., Szebehely, M., Armstrong, H., & Lafrance, S. (2012).  Structural violence in long-term, residential care for older people: Comparing Canada and Scandinavia. Social Science & Medicine, 74(1), 390-398.

    The focus is more on the staff than the residents, but the paper also reflects on how the poor quality of working conditions affects residents. I enjoyed the compare/contrast aspect. (Something I also benefited from when reading remarks about the UK & US in the preceding comments). 

  • Nishant R Swami Hulle added an answer in Antimicrobial Activity:
    How would you measure the concentration of Bee Defensin-1 in honey?


    I am measuring the antimicrobial activity of various honeys and would like to identify the composition of each also.

    I was wondering how would you measure the concentration of Bee Defensin-1 in honey?

    Also Methylglyoxal too, if possible.

    Thanks very much!

    Nishant R Swami Hulle


  • Rajeev Kumar Chauhan asked a question in Professionalism:
    What do you under stand by Professional?

    Be professional or be honest

  • Mohammd Rafiq added an answer in Human Interactions:
    What are the simple Hydrological Models available to estimate the discharge using simple parameters like precipitation and DEM parameters ?


    I want to simulate the discharge of arid/semiarid areas using basic input parameters like precipitation and watershed characteristics derived from DEM. i don`t want to get into the details of human interaction and sediment transport as SWAT and other models are available for that. HBV-Lite is also an option i think and if you can suggest some simple hydrological models with reference or links


    Mohammd Rafiq

    Thanks Sigit