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  • Louis Brassard added an answer in God:
    What is the origin of the laws and principles of nature?

    More precisely, "what is the origin of the regularities in nature which are represented (or purported to be represented) in our various recognized or accepted laws and principles regarding nature and natural events?" (this is H.G. Callaway's formulation of the original question). Such a philosophical question should be of interest to all scientists. 

    In classical philosophy, there are two ways of answering it:

    a) Looking for an explanation outside nature. The concept of a transcendent God, the creator of nature and its order, explicitly appeared in Thomas Aquinae (the world comes from God and returns to God), Modern philosophers and scientists. It reappeared in the Contemporary epoch as a refusal of Darwinism, and/or related to some interpretations of Quantum Theory;

    b) Looking for an explanation inside nature. Nature itself, being composed of both Form and Matter (Aristotle´s Hylomorphism) produces its order, in a process that has been currently called "self-organizing". In this view, God is not the creator of Nature, but - as in Aristotle´s concept of a First Mover - an ideal of perfection projected by natural beings.

    It is clear that in spite of Aquinae´s affiliation with Aristotle, their philosophies are in opposite position in regard to the question about the origin of nature´s order. 

    Spinoza tried to conciliate both approaches, by equating God and Nature. In this case, God is not conceived as a transcendent being who creates Nature from nothingness, but as a being who is somehow immanent to Nature.

    Plato, before Aristotle, presented a combined solution, assuming both the autonomy of natural principles (Ideas) and a Demiurge who prompts the manifestation of the principles into the world of appearances.

    There is a possible third alternative, advanced by Kant in his cognitive approach to philosophical issues: to assume that laws and principles of nature are 'a priori' forms that the human mind imposes to sensory "matter". However, this alternative is actually reducible to the others. Cognitive forms should be natural or created by God (both possibilities are compatible in Spinoza's approach). For instance, the Piagetian version of Kantism assumes that these forms are biological, deriving from processes of interaction with the physical and social environment - therefore, he was committed to the self-organizing view.

    Louis Brassard

    It is not possible that one day will exist a theory of the origin of all that exist. To proove this I will do a thought experiment:  Theory A has unified all other theory and pretend to describe the initial state of affair and how everything unfolded from it.  They by simply asking where does the original state of affair that theory A assumed? Bang theory A is forced to assume an intial state of affair and since it is not explain by definition it cannot be the origin state of affair.  Anything assumed as the original state of affair is by definition not explained in evolutionary term and so is not the original state of affair.  There is a old tale about an old sage telling his theory about how the earth is sitting on a big turttle.  Then came the question: what sustain the big turtle.  The sage said: it is turtles over turtles all the way down.  

  • Deon Canyon added an answer in SAFE:
    Can Ivermectin given to animals kill off some of the mosquitos that spread the Zika virus?

    Ivermectin is sometimes given to pet dogs to kill the heartworm parasite. Are mosquitos attracted by dogs that are exposed to them? Is there a significant number of mosquito bites per dog? In countries with a large number of street dogs, is there a possibility of using them to fight Aedes aegypti and other types of mosquitos? Mosquito borne diseases are said to cause a million deaths/year around the world; visit http://www.mosquito.org/mosquito-borne-diseases

    Is there a safe dose of Ivermectin or other such drug, toxic to invertebrates but relatively safe to vertebrates, that can be given to street dogs? How effective will this be in reducing the mosquito population?

    How long does Ivermectin remain effective when introduced into a small pool of water outside a house? Can one prevent breeding of mosquitos using this technique? The basic principle that covers both the ideas mentioned here is that of attracting and trapping mosquitos. This could be far more effective in comparison to techniques like fogging. It will also result in much less damage to the environment.   

    A slightly longer discussion of this idea can be found at http://newstudentresearch.blogspot.in/2016/02/killing-mosquitos-that-spread-zika-virus.html 

    + 1 more attachment

    Deon Canyon

    The answer is probably yes, but ivermectim is not available for human use in many places. I know of trials in which lice have been killed off with oral ivermectin, but lice blood feed many times so not sure if a single blood feed by a mosquito would kill it.

    There is a safe dose - consult medical recommendations - its used a lot to control internal parasites in people and animals

    You're correct - fogging is 50% effective against Aedes ageypti so basically useless. Local authorities use it to look like they are doing something. I wouldnt put ivermectim in water sources to prevent breeding - Bacillus thuringiensis or sphaericus or IGRs are the preferred method for treating water. Besides you would go broke...

  • Lawrence Broxmeyer, MD added an answer in CASINO:
    Kung Hei Fat Choi! Are you, your country, town or community celebrating the New Chinese Lunar Year of the Fire Monkey?

    In 2007, we have started an ongoing research project on “Globalization of Holidays and the Calendar”. In the beginning, we were only interested in trying to understand the rapid spread of holidays that, as Halloween and St. Valentine, didn’t have any cultural tradition in Chinese communities but became an important economic asset as well as festivals mobilizing casinos, hotels, restaurants, then schools and associations, nowadays firmly installed in social networks exchanges. Thereafter, we have also started studying the diffusion of public and private festivities of the New Lunar Chinese Year along with the growing economic presence of China worldwide. We have been systematically inviting Master and PhD students to research the topic and I would like to appeal to your collaboration. Can you give us information, pictures, videos or any other documents regarding the diverse celebrations of the Chinese New Year in our country, town or local communities? If there aren’t any commemorations at all, can you explain the situation? What do you think about this clear globalization, industrialization and marketization of holidays that, in some cases relatively new, are being celebrated among other cultures and communities? Is there a main economic driven factor or there also are much more complex cultural and social elements?

    Lawrence Broxmeyer, MD

    Why of course, Ivo.

  • Andrew Worsley added an answer in Mass:
    If a non zero rest mass object is moved at speed of light how much its mass should be appeared?

    I know most of the answers will say infinity, but still this needs deeper look about its physical meaning and does it consider a practical logic?

    Infinity usually used for something we could not measure, however the reality may be different!

    Andrew Worsley

    Not sure where this is going, isn't  SR correct- surely the question is why is it correct?

    Answers without referring to 4D manifolds, (ie as near as to zero gravity as you can get where GTR effects are near  infinitessimal)

    With the greatest of respect stop naval gazing.

  • Sherelyn Atchazo asked a question in Teaching:
    What is the best strategy in teaching science?

    For heterogenous group

    For remote area

  • Lawrence Broxmeyer, MD added an answer in Tsunami:
    What kind of damage can cause nuclear undewater exposion 50-100 MGT in the middle of atlantic ocean on 42 paralel North ?

    Duing it on the ocean bottom at 1 km depth the explosion will cause enormous high pressure boiler 10 or more km in diameter, causing tsunami wave 500 m or more in high, propagating radially with speed about 800 km/hour. Such a wave hit Alaska in 1958 and was caused by reletevely modest eartquake. This wave is capable to run on the distance up to 20 km overland, completely engolfing sea side cities and their inhabitants.

    In the case such an explosion will by done in the middle of Atlantic ocean at 42 parallel North,the tsunami will destroy all costal cities of North America and Europe alike.

    Inland countries, or countries connected with open ocean by narrow straights are immune to this effect. Also, Arctic ocean will dump this kind of tsunami in short distance, due to ice crust.  

    Lawrence Broxmeyer, MD

    Hi Alexander. The heights of surface waves generated by deep underwater explosions are greater because more energy is delivered to the water.

    Deep underwater explosions are thus particularly able to damage coastal areas, because surface waves increase in height as they move over shallow water, and can flood the land beyond the shoreline.

  • Naveen Kalra added an answer in Environmental Impact Assessment:
    How does the challenges of 'Sustainable Development' make the goals of Environmental impact assessment more difficult to achieve?

    sustainable development and Environmental impact assessment

    give ideas and post journal articles

    Naveen Kalra

    for sustainable development, we need to ensure that resources are used appropriately, productivity is not declined, environment is not disturbed with the activity, factor productivity of input components not decreased, to ensure all these aspets, EIA has to be carried out in depth, the exercise has to take all the aspects in depth, process becomes more rigorous and tough, taking into account socio-economic and bio-physical aspects


  • Deon Canyon added an answer in Health Services Research:
    Do you know any literature on people's perception of diverse time span (week, month, etc.)?

    I am now writing the discussion section of the paper on the medical care ecology in South Korea. This study adopted the model proposed by Kerr White, a US guru in the health services research field, where the pattern of care utilization is analyzed with a unit of person-month.

    Does this practice have any benefit over other approach?

    I think the reference period of 'month' fits the rhythm of people's daily living. Although they are paid per week basis in some countries, people in many countries are paid per month. This provides them a kind of living cycle with which people make a plan of their living.

    The time length of month is manageable for lay people. It is longer than day and week and shorter than year. In other words, month is long enough to make a plan and is short enough to remember events and manage time. 

    We health services researchers use diverse time units depending what an analysis objective is. Despite that, month can be a very natural time unit for analysis when we adopt a user-centered perspective, I think

    Would you make any comment on the above or recommend any relevant literature?

    Deon Canyon

    Search Google Scholar for "time perception" and "perceptions of temporality" - About 362,000 results 

  • Deon Canyon added an answer in Self-efficacy:
    How much impact does self efficacy have on community's or country's preparedness, mitigation and awareness to any disaster?

    Is self efficacy a hindrance to the mitigation, preparedness, awareness of disasters  in both developed and developing countries, if so, how and why? what are the impacts? if not so, why and how not so?

    Deon Canyon

    If we say that self-efficacy is a personal belief in capacity to take a certain action to produce a certain outcome then I don't see how it can be a hindrance to DRR. We believe that we can prepare or respond in certain ways and if we can then we do... More important is the need to educate people to improve the accuracy of their perception of self-efficacy.

  • Vikas kumar Patel added an answer in Vector Design:
    Requirements for minimal vector backbone?

    I am in the process of designing a targeting vector for TALEN-mediated knock-in into the mouse Rosa26 locus. The insert will likely be relatively big (8-12 kb) thus also increasing total vector size. I would like to exclude as much unneeded additional baggage as possible.

    What would be the bare essential elements requirement for cloning and propagation of the vector in bacteria before isolating, linearisation and transfection for the final knockin? If I understand correctly, I won't be needing either f1 or sv40 ORI which are often included in preexisting vectors. 

    I am planning to build the vector from scratch using modules (such as selection marker, origin etc.) from different template vectors. The final targeting vector will be sequentially assembled using Gibson assembley (NEBuilder HiFi).

    So far I am planning to limit the vector to following elements:

    Vector backbone

    • pUC origin
    • kanamycin resistance
    • bacterial promoter for kanamycin resistance
    • sv40 early promoter for mammalian G418 selection off of kanamycin resistance

    Insert for mouse knockin

    • Promoter + Gene + polyA signal
    • Rosa26 homology arms

    Genes to be knocked in will include fluorescent proteins, thus I am planning to reuse them for identification of successfull knock-in cells. This way I can avoid the unnecessary insertion of a resistance gene into the mouse genome.

    Is there anything that I am missing or would the minimal backbone suffice?

    Has anybody taken a similar approach or is this way too crazy?

    Thanks a lot for your input!

    Vikas kumar Patel

    you are missing MCS, I think you should also add the double homologous recombination sequences to insert your gene in mouse chromosome. Furthermore, you should modify any existing vector, by doing so you can save a lot of time.

  • Vladimir Dvoryanchikov added an answer in Stoichiometry:
    What are the products of AgNO3+CO(NH2)2 in 500 C? And how to balance the equation as stoichiometry?!?

    What are the products of AgNO3+CO(NH2)2 in 500 C? And how to balance the equation as stoichiometry?!?

    Vladimir Dvoryanchikov

    Such nuclear reaction at 700°C seems improbable.

  • Nagendra Singh Chauhan added an answer in Academic Writing:
    What is the difference between a journal indexed for pubmed and one indexed for Medline?
    Does it reflect on the quality of the journal?
    Nagendra Singh Chauhan

     dEAR @Mohamed Arnaout 


  • Deon Canyon added an answer in Public Health Policy:
    How to provide universal and uniform health services in India?

    Education and health are two basic components of human capital. But the public provision of these services is seriously inadequate and unsatisfactory in India. Not only the machinery but also the costs are gigantic.
    The solutions seem to be distant ones.

    As for as health is concerned, presently we have three systems working parallelly: (a) government health system, (b) private health service providers, and (c) an insurance-based health service segment.

    However, all of  these mechanisms are inefficient and inadequate ones relative to the health service requirements of a severely varied socio-economic demographic composition in India.
    How to solve the problem, particularly in the contemporary context of new liberal economic globalism adhered to by the government of India?

    Your views/viewpoints are humbly requested.

    Deon Canyon

    You will find some of the reasons why in this WHO publication on how health systems may be assessed. India's problem is a small health budget and a very large population with limited infrastructure. Unfortunately you cannot make one thing better while leaving everything else the same. Complex problems require complex solutions.

  • Dinesh Bhandari added an answer in Genotyping:
    What is the best possible method for long term preservation of Vibrio isolates intended for genotyping?

     I tried it in skim milk and trypticase soya broth with 10% glycerol and froze it at -80 degree celsius but to my dismay revival wasn't possible upon multiple attempts. Usually skim milk with 10% glycerol is best option for long term freezing with both fastidious as well as non-fastidious organisms but isn't it suitable for Vibrio? Please help me with the best possible option. Thanks in advance

    Dinesh Bhandari

    Thank you Dr. Sharma and Dr. Gomez-Gil. What I have bee doing is simply scraping the overnight culture of Vibrio in TCBS agar and transferring few loops full colonies in Skim milk and TSB containing 10% glycerol. May be I should try the broth culture. As Dr. Gomez-Gil Pointed out, I now realize the revival technique that I have been trying is not suitable, I tried to revive the frozen culture directly in TCBS. Now, onwards I will switch on to broth culture for propagation and an alternate media like 'Marine agar/broth' as suggested by Dr. Gomez-gill.

    Once again thanks to both of you.

  • Livia Quintana added an answer in Social Psychology:
    Could I find any study about reproductive decision making in Latin America and Caribean??

    I need find evidence about this topic in this region. I have found some interesting papers about it, but are referred to another regions.

    Livia Quintana

    Hi, Rathish:

    Thanks for your answer and for send me this paper. Actually, I had not found it yet.

    I am working about this topic in Cuba. I have published some papers about the decision making in teenagers, and some results about maternity and paternity studies, from a psychological approach. Now, I am working on systematize it, not only on this age group, even through all  reproductive period. I am connecting psychological and demographic approach.

    Thanks for your interest, if were possible I would like exchange the progress of the research work .

    Best regards,


  • Subir Bandyopadhyay added an answer in Papers:
    What would you consider if you have to review a paper for a workgroup you know they flood the journals with letters of insignificant research?

    A group of authors are flooding journals with short papers/letters with no significant importance discussing less than a dozen of patients in each paper or just commenting on others with no reason other than pushing others to cite their previous publications .. What would you consider in your review (if you are asked to review one of their papers) other the normal procedures? .. would you tell the editor?

    Subir Bandyopadhyay

    Dear Ahmad,

    You can inform the issue to the Editors but probably it will be of no use. You review nicely and publish it in another journal which good circulation in your region.

    Hope this helps  in checking the proliferation  of useless papers.

    With best wishes,


  • Sadeem Fadhil asked a question in H Index:
    Does the citation system and H-index evaluation need to be improved?

    The citations is an important factor to evaluate the impact of any work, however within last decade, due to some faults in the evaluation system, this factor seems not to describe the real impact of the cited papers and the cited authors.

  • Andrew Worsley added an answer in Newtonian Mechanics:
    How was the Newtonian mercury perihelion precession calculated?

    The additional perihelion precession of Mercury's orbit was considered the first confirmation of General Relativity theory. It is mainly the difference between observational data and Gravitational tugs of the other planets on mercury's orbit upon Newtonian mechanics.

    My question is how was the Newtonian effect calculated and how much are the methods used trustworthy.

    Andrew Worsley


    That would seem to be true, but the concept of gravitational time dilation was not available to him, but it can readily be included in his equation - to give the correct answer.

    Can be proven 

  • Deon Canyon added an answer in Chronic Disease:
    What is the pattern of mortality and morbidity of diabetes during and after disasters?

    Are there any techniques design to tackle complication that may arise from non communicable (chronic) diseases during and after disaster?

    If yes, have this been able to change the pattern of morbidity and mortality arising from chronic disease like diabetes during or after disaster?

    What are the current pattern of NCDs mortality and morbidity during and after disasters?

    Deon Canyon

    Hi Geoff - there are some good papers on this topic. Here is one to get you started. http://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/29/1/158.full.pdf

  • Gerardo Mendoza added an answer in Servqual:
    Steps of SERVQUAL. How do I use it?

    How are the steps of the serviqual please, all the procediments, and how I apply the interviews in the medition of SERVQUAL?

    Gerardo Mendoza

    Buenos días Jhorman,

    Para aplicar SERVQUAL correctamente es necesario establecer cuáles dimensiones son aplicables la servicio que vayas a evaluar.  Por ejemplo, si vas a evaluar un servicio de consultoría en el cual los para clientes no son importantes los elementos tangibles de servicio, o éste carece de elementos tangibles, esta dimensión no debería ser parte del instrumento de evaluación que desarrolles.  Por otro lado, es importante redactar las afirmaciones en un lenguaje que sea claramente entendible para los clientes que vayan a llenar la encuesta.  No es necesario redactarlas en los mismos términos en que están escritas las afirmaciones estándar incluidas en el modelo.  Espero que encuentres útiles estos comentarios.



  • Deon Canyon added an answer in Microcephaly:
    Is the high incidence of microcephaly in Brazil an outlier in the global Zika outbreak ?

    Zik V was recently declared a global emergency by WHO.  Reports suggest, however, that Brazil may have a higher than expected incidence of microcephaly in newborns.  What are  the factors driving the high incidence of microcephaly in Brazil ?

    Deon Canyon

    Zika has been around since 1947 and no cases of microcephaly have been reported there or in several islands in the Pacific. Perhaps it is a rare phenomenon that only becomes apparent when a very large population experiences an outbreak. Or perhaps the Brazilians had a previous infection that complicated the outcome. The factors remain unknown. Well worth while keeping an eye on this and seeing what the researchers discover.

  • Etienne Borocco added an answer in Financial Analysis:
    Is a REE fully revealing if the price is a an invertible function of the weighted-average signal?

    In my working paper, I have agents with a basic information structure:

    s = w + e

    s is the signal, w is the fundamental value (that we want to guess) and e a normal error.

    All agents in the same group have the same signal and the same risk aversions.

    Danthine (1978) says that if agent display different risk aversion or different information, there is not sufficient statistic for the fundamental value. Indeed, the price is an invertible function of the weighted-average signal.

    However, can we say that the weighted-average is linear sufficient and therefore, the equilibrium is fully-revealing?

    Etienne Borocco

    Thanks, I will look at it.

  • Ridhwan Muzaki added an answer in Primer:
    PCR mutagenesis: no transformed colonies failure?


    I've been trying to introduce a nucleotide substitution into a minigene. My protocol includes PCR amplification (with minigene as template) using KAPA HiFI PCR kit with 4 different forward primers(to introduce nucleotide changes at different position) and 1 common primer. Amplification is followed by DpnI digestion to get rid of parental bacterial template.  So far i could not get any colonies after transformation despite having tried annealing temperatures of 58 , 54 degrees celcius. I am certain it is an annealing temperature 'problem' as I performed gel electrophoresis on the PCR product but could not get any products.

    It is noteworthy that i the forward and reverse primer that i use has an overlapping region. I am not sure myself as to the strategy here as I am just an undergrad. but i hope the below information helps..

    Minigene template


    forward primers (online tool indicating melting temp in bracket)

    HFE exon2 muta -2C F (70.9 ºC)


    HFE exon2 muta 4C F (71.7 ºC)


    HFE exon2 muta 5C F (70.7 ºC)


    HFE exon2 muta 4C5C F (71.7 ºC)


    reverse primer

    HFE new muta cmnR (65.2 ºC)


    anyways i am trying annealing temperature at 50 degrees celcius, and another set at 48 degrees celcius

    i will keep you guys updated but is there anything wrong or advise that you can give as at this point?


    Ridhwan Muzaki

    Yes it is 4 individual reactions with each forward primer differing in 1 nucleotide as compared to the minigene template and thus 1 nucleotide change.

  • Peter Rehbein added an answer in Protein Aggregation:
    Any suggestions on how to break protein aggregation?

    what chemicals can be added during purification to inhibit protein protein interaction?

    Peter Rehbein

    Especially pay attention to the isoelectric point of your protein. Choose the pH of your buffer at least 1 pH-unit off the pI (in either direction), otherwise your protein will lose net-charge and aggregate/precipitate.

  • Gerardo Mendoza added an answer in ISO 9001:
    Implementing ISO 9001 into a small or medium-sized firm is harder than into big companies?

    What are the characteristics of SME that turn easier iSO 9001’s implementation comparing to larger ones? What are the characteristics of SME that difficult iSO 9001’s implementation comparing to larger ones?

    Gerardo Mendoza

    Dear Luis,

    A strong senior management committment is perhaps the most critical success factor.  If people perceive that their leader is committed in a QMS implementation based on ISO 9001, they will follow.  As well as in large organizations, there could be some kind of change resistance but, once again, a persisting senior management steering is crucial.

    Learning to work under a process approach is perhaps one of the toughest concepts to learn and implement, especially in companies with a strong functional approach culture.  Hence, it is necessary that senior management makes people understand that under a process approach, only the sequence of activities matter, and  functional boundaries must be broken.  This doesn´t mean that organizational charts and functional areas will disappear.  The process approach is only another way of thinking and managing the organization, for quiality purposes.

    I hope yo u find this first answer useful.

    Kind regards,

  • Vladimir Dvoryanchikov added an answer in Atopic Dermatitis:
    Is there any insight for a curative treatment in the cause of pediatric atopic dermatitis?

    Apart from statutory moisturizers and palliative care leading to corticosteroidal suppresion or calcineurin- or Janus kinase targeted immunosupression, is there any hope on other kinase targets eg. TrkA in paper 25594427 attached, relevant to keratinocytes  or skin constituents with possibly less adverse effects? The catch usually is the chronic application setting and a reversible -take it, it stops- stop taking it, it comes back with a vengeance- feature, that would best be minimized.

    Is there any value in personalised prick/allegy screen test of an exhaustive antigen repertoire including clothing fibers, food constituents, urban pollutants, less established or suspected allergens?

    Taking another twist, eg. paper 26385242 attached, have any "Genetic variants and epigenetic alteration as tools for the molecular taxonomy of AD provided the background for personalized management" ?

    + 1 more attachment

    Vladimir Dvoryanchikov

    Hi, Eva

    If only it is interesting to you and also you forgive me my English …

    It was in the 90-s last century.

    At that time in medicine actively took root immunological and molecular-genetic methods of diagnostics of chlamydias and mycoplasmas.

    And patients with such diagnoses began to address to us.

    We quickly have found ways of an eradication of these infections, but microbiological monitoring of cure was very expensive.

    Therefore we had to invent the inexpensive diagnostic method convenient for monitoring.

    Thus, by the end of 1998 we had effective methods of treatment, and  also a convenient method of diagnostics.

    Soon were obvious two important facts which without these methods could not be found out earlier:

    1. All variety of chronic illnesses (the European human) is caused by only 4-5 kinds of infections, among which are cardinal chlamydias and mycoplasmas. Also It’s possible that some contribution to the general pathogenesis is brought by mycobacterium and spirochetes. Other chronic infestants  (including funguses  and all or the majority of viruses) depend on presence of these bacteria at an organism. 

    2. We also have found that PCR and other "modern" methods are almost unsuitable for diagnostics of chlamydias and mycoplasmas.

    And it is quite explainable: bacteria manipulate their own genome, just as children manipulate toy Lego; they incorporate in the plasmid the genes necessary to them in the present state of affairs and extract the unnecessary. They do it so easily, like we change clothes.

    Such restructuring leads to change of sequences in DNA, and also can lead to an expression of superficial antigens different from typical. As a result - PCR and DIF, well seeing (in vitro) own strains, often lose one's sight in real clinical conditions.

    It is curious that the idea that all chronic illnesses are caused by only several infections (them at that time named "miasmas") at first was stated by the great German doctor and the founder of clinical homoeopathy Samuel Hahnemann (1755-1843), but even his adherents have made a fun of it! It is necessary to notice also that against application PCR for diagnostics of bacteria actively protested its inventor Kary B. Mullis.

    I doubt that such situation arises  because of thoughtlessness of developers of test systems. Possibly, all it's more sad. Because, if doctors and patients see the real reason of chronic illnesses, someone can find and simple ways of liquidation of these several infections, and together with them almost all chronic illnesses. And it for pharmaceutical monsters is fraught with multi-billion losses.  

    You can freely use our method of diagnostics (see attachment) and in many things to make sure independently.

    It is possible also to try to do without our method: by the successful staining  these infections can be noticed even on method Giemsa. At usual staining by methylene blue “inclusion bodies” chlamydias also are well visible, but laboratory assistants take them as fragments leukocytic kernels, and in the report instead of chlamydias are cropped up leukocytes. :)

  • Qusay A. Al-Kaseasbeh asked a question in Probabilistic Models:
    How have they identified load factors in LRFD for structural design numerically?

    In structural design methods, load factors were been identified based on probabilistic models. as example, we use 1.6 as factor load for live load and 1.2 for dead load, could anybody explain how they determine that numerically? which means why they say 1.6 not another value.

  • Andrew Worsley added an answer in Quantum Mechanics:
    Help with Feynman's(thought) experiment with electrons?

    I read his description of the experiment but I still haven't understood as to how the results can't be predicted with "classical physics", what I mean is that electron gun which he has assumed throws out electrons randomly and since we do not know the initial conditions( because of randomness) we can't predict the exact trajectory , and therefore we can talk  only of probability, but I see that Feynman says constantly that "we can't really predict where the electron would end up being" but ain't that because of the random nature of electron emitting device??

    Obviously i am wrong somewhere but I can't catch it?

    Any help would be appreciated.

    Now Feynman has constantly  

    Andrew Worsley

    @ Charles

    Have sussed the spin 1/2 particle , and will publish the four wave projection  soon. 

  • Syed A Ali added an answer in Agglutination:
    In a tube agglutination reaction of Salmonella H antigen and antiserum, what is the purpose of incubating the tubes in 50 C waterbath?

    Just wondering what the purpose of this step is.

    Thanks in advance..

    Syed A Ali


    Generally speaking, it is about the rate of reaction or the time the reaction will take to reach to equilibrium. The higher the temperature (up to 50C; though 37C is just as good), the greater the kinetic motion of the reactants and therefore the more rapid the rate of reaction. More precisely, it is about the thermal optimum of the antigen-antibody reaction.  The thermal optimum depends on the chemical nature of both the epitope and paratope or more precisely on the types of weak bonds involved. Hydrogen bonds are exothermic and are relatively more stable at low temperature. Hydrogen bonds are particularly important when the antigen is a carbohydrate. Conversely, the strength of the hydrophobic bond increases with temperature.

  • Pedro M. Alcolado added an answer in Coral Reef:
    What are the three main causes and effects of coral reef destruction?

    I am currently writing a research paper on the causes and effects of coral reef destruction. My top three causes are climate change/ocean acidification, destructive fishing practices, and pollution. However, I am still fuzzy on the direct effects that are taking place today. If someone could provide insight on what they think the three main effects of coral reef destruction are that would be great.

    Pedro M. Alcolado

    I agree with you in mentioning climate change  (but acidification in a very long term), destructive fishing practices, and pollution. Additionally I mention  several ones in particular that have to be taken into account (including the ones you mention, and not ordered by priority)::

    - Direct human impacts (organic and chemical pollution, sedimentation, irresponsible diving, solid wastes or trash, destructive fishing gears and methods, overfishing of keystone species, anchoring, coral collection, explosives, ship grounding, nuclear bomb tests, military practices, etc)

    - Long term accumulated human impacts (water temperature increases inducing coral bleaching, a number of microbial diseases, increased hurricane frequency and strength, acidfication in the very long term, etc.)