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  • Beatriz Sabater-Muñoz added an answer in Insecticide:
    What kills the monitored bugs?

    What is currently (2016) used in your countries/ projects as the killing agent or toxicant in the monitoring traps (beside sticky plate/ delta traps)?

    Beatriz Sabater-Muñoz

    Hi Yoav, 

    Even banned in all EU, in Spain DDVP is still allowed only as plugs in Steiner-like traps, when applied by registered professionals and only for citrus and olive crops (some regions had also this extension for pear and apples). This is a special extension of use from UE, limited to march-october period. This extension should be asked for approval for each Spanish region governments in a yearly basis. 

    During the rest of the year, another alternatives are also available, like the one explained with deltamethrin but in this case with cypermethrin in cardboards within the trap (KILLDISC(R) from SANSAN).  This pyrethroid had better results in killing than deltamethrin. Also Deltamethrin covered trap-covers are being used (from PROBODELT). 

    But in some regions of Valencia, citrus growers prefer liquid based traps (STARCE from Biagro or CERATRAP by BioIberica), just by cost, as the dry-traps require also the attractants plus the insectice.

    Almost all these companies had equivalent traps for olive fruit fly and drosophila suzukii. And other pest insects that are killed in the same way. 

    Hope this helps Yoav,


  • Fernando Momo added an answer in Ecological Niche Modeling:
    What is the ecological role of barnacles/balanids in a marine trophic food web?

    What role do the barnacles play in a trophic food web? I would appreciate getting some references on fossil barnacles in this context.

    Fernando Momo

    Hi colleage. I think that the most clear and important works about the ecological role of barnacles are the published by J. Connell.

    First, you can read: Joseph H. Connell. The influence of interspecific competition and other factors on the distribution of the barnacle Chthamalus stellatus (PDF). Ecology 42(4) (Oct. 1961), 710-723. and furthers.

  • Hassan Bardania added an answer in Macrophage:
    Identification of Macrophage by immunocytochemistry?

    isolation of macrophages and confirmation of this cell in  liquid sample

    Hassan Bardania

    Hey Mohammad, thank you for your excellent question...

  • Jake Bowers added an answer in Causal Inference:
    Why should correctness be the primary property of a procedure of causal inference?

    Correctness is widely, but tacitly, understood in the literature on causal inference to be the primary criterion when evaluating the properties of a procedure/method of causal inference. However, I haven't found any reference that actually explains why this is so. Does anyone know an eminent work that explains why correctness should be the primary property of a procedure of causal inference, with completeness etc. following only as secondary criteria?

    Jake Bowers

    In the statistics literature the properties of procedures tend to be statistical ones --- like unbiasedness (of estimators of causal effects, or of tests of causal hypotheses) and other such properties. I haven't seen "correctness" or "completeness" in that literature.

  • Rajesh Chaudhary added an answer in Diabetic Foot:
    Is there anyone using honey for the dressing of wounds? why aren't the people convinced about it's efficacy in wound healing?

    in  my clinical practice i've been using honey for the treatment of venous ulcers, bed sores, burns, necrotising fascitis, burst abdomen and even in case of diabetic foot too. i heve seen wonderful results. there is scarcity of data in terms of trials and most of the surgeons don't agree to accept it but is a good debriding agent.

    Rajesh Chaudhary

    Cochrane review has not found much evidence of its effectiveness in diabetic foot ulcers but it was found effective in other type of ulcers like burn wounds and venous ulcers. Yes RCT#are required .

  • Abhishek Khetan added an answer in Decoherence:
    Is there a Wave Function of the Universe?

    Different physicists disagree on whether there is such a thing as the wave function of the universe.

    - In favor of its existence is the fact that, in the Big Bang picture, all particles (and hence downstream objects) were correlated at the inception of the Universe, and a correlation that has existed at some point in the past ever so loosely continues thereafter since full decoherence never truly sets in. A number of pictures  - Ghirardi-Rimini-Weber, Bohm, even Hugh Everett, et al., - demand that  the existence of the wave function of the universe, denoted Ψ(U).

    - Two main categories of objection however belie its existence.

    The first category ultimately boils down to a not very solid rejection of non-separability, i.e. to an argument that a full separation between an observer and an observed must always be upheld if any observation or measure is to be objectively valid, and a wave function ascertainable.

    The second argument is more compelling, and says that if Ψ exists, then Ψ(U)=Ψ(Ψ,U) in a closed, self-referential loop. Ψ has thereby become an non-observable, unknowable, and as such better relegated to the realm of metaphysics than physics.

    What say you?

    Abhishek Khetan

    When i do computational physics, the very essence of the problem we're trying to solve is to get this one manybody wavefunction, because it is the only true respresentation of the system's state. Therefore, I do not get this question? I mean why would there not be one wavefunction for the multiverse since all the entities are correlated to each other? Or do we contest this proposition already that everything is not correlated to each other and there exist independent entities in the universe which are not influenced by anything, which are in the truest sense of the word  "free particles". Of course what I am proposing is not mathematically sound, but i don't understand the question in the first place.

  • Ahmad Albalasie added an answer in Automation & Robotics:
    How can I solve the problem of small discontinuity in trajectory for the robot?

    I have a robot which has two phases of motion. They have null space motion and the underactuated motion. The trajectory planning method for each phase is different. But these motions are integrated together in one trajectory by interpolation. Moreover, the null space motion is calculated first, then the underactuated motion is calculated by using the positions, velocities, and accelerations as boundary conditions for the underactuated motion. In these boundary points, how can I solve the problem of small discontinuity in trajectory for the robot as shown in the attached figure?

    Usually, these discontinuities are causing a high torque in the small period.


    Ahmad Albalasie

    Thanks for all of you

  • Meryem Berrin Bulut added an answer in Family Studies:
    Family Leadership? Leadership in Families?

    Dear all,

    Has anyone interesse in the concept of family leadership? It does not mean family companies and leadership therein but it means leadership within families (father, mother and children and may be more as grandpa)

    I am looking forward eagerly to see your response !!

    Have a good day..

    Meryem Berrin Bulut

    Geachte mevrouw De Mey,

    Bedankt voor uw reactie. Wij hebben studenten van universiteit als 'sample'. Onze leiderschap had vier factoren. Deze factoren zijn; economisch, sociaal, politisch en cultureel. Ik kan de scale aan u sturen.

    Met vriendelijke groeten,


  • Marius Kroll added an answer in ESI:
    The exact masses on ESI ms and msms are 0.018 lower. Why?

    1/2 of fragments are with exact masses. The basic molecule is with exact mass and has aminopyrimidine and thiasole ring

    Marius Kroll

    The FT-MS instruments are very sensitive to changes in cell populations. So if you measure a signal that had an intensity of 10E+8 in broadband MS mode and 10E+6 in MSMS mode, it could be possible, that the mass difference you detect is just a mass axis shift due to the above mentioned phenomenon.

  • Belas Ahmed Khan added an answer in Natural Fibers:
    How to determine the chemical composition of natural fiber?

    How to determine cellulose, Hemi-cellulose, Lignin Content of natural fiber?...What type of chemical treatment should done to determine these contents....Please provide the details which you find very useful.

    Belas Ahmed Khan

    There is a Chinese standard, GB5889-86: Method of quantitative analysis of ramie chemical component. This can be applied for other natural fibres to determine amount of cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin etc. I read many papers where the authors claimed to use that standard. Unfortunately it is written in Chinese. You can search if you get any English version. :) 

  • Parth Alpa Thakkar asked a question in OpenFOAM:
    How do we give boundary conditions in k omega SST model for airfoil simulation in OpenFOAM?

    I am working on a project in which I am analyzing methods of LSB control using Vortex Generators.

  • Ahmed Aljaaf added an answer in Signaling:
    From where can I collect recent raw data for both normal and abnormal ECG signal?

    If someone know any information from where raw ECG data can be collected or If anyone has already collected the raw data, can you send me or mail me.

    Ahmed Aljaaf

    Hi Sushant,

    I thinks the following link is what you are looking for: 




  • Sofia Cividini added an answer in Food Preferences:
    Does anyone have experience about evaluation of food preference by counting the number of faecal pellets?

    I've read some papers about this topic but I need some more references.



    Sofia Cividini

    @Prof. Zimmer

    What do you think of a crossover design or a loglinear Bradley-Terry model, please?

  • Cornelia Hintze added an answer in Thermal Evaporation:
    Lithium floride deposition?

    I recently deposited LiF on the surface of my silicon detector made of a silicon semiconductor substrate. The top contact is aluminium and that is where the LiF was deposited on.

    After deposition, I observed some cracks which led to some of the LiF come off the surface.

    I normally use Edwards E306A Thermal Evaporator to perform the deposition process. The thickness of LiF deposited is about 6um.

    Can anyone advise me on the best way to perform the deposition without have cracks after deposition? This can be from the viewpoint of pre-deposition, during or after the deposition.

    Cornelia Hintze

    Without knowing anything else, my first guess would be a difference in thermal expansion between film and deposit - is your substrate heated? it can be thickness-dependent whether the film delaminates or not, even if you use the same temperatures.

    If it was a one-off observation, try again on a different substrate. Check your vacuum - if the aluminium oxidises, it might push LiF off. Or, even more simply, you might have incorporated defects into your film which lead to stress concentrations and cracking of the film. Have you checked EDX or SEM with Backscattered electron imaging for impurities?

    If the deposition is not too time-consuming, it might be best to try again on a different substrate and if it works and the cracking does not happen again, it might just have been contamination of some kind.

  • Olcay Akman added an answer in Genetic Algorithm:
    What is the reason that binary string representation for genetic parameters is the preferred one?

    I'm new in genetic algorithm, when reading papers, author always say "There are two common representation methods for numerical optimization
    problems. The preferred method is the binary string representation method. The reason for this method being popular is that the binary alphabet offers the maximum number of schemata per bit compared to other coding techniques."

    However, I'm unable to understand this reason, so can anyone elaborate on this reason?


    Olcay Akman

    All numerical optimization methods have computational costs. Given unlimited computing resources brute force would be the best way to optimize an objective function. However in reality this is rarely, if ever, the case.  One of the most compelling reasons of implementing GA is its being computationally cost-efficient. Binary string chromosomes where each gene represents a particular trait of the variable at hand has been proven to be a cost-effective maximum-yield aspect of GA's.

  • Marković G. Đoko added an answer in Telephony:
    Do rays that mobile telephony antennas broadcast, can endanger health?

    That is the question.

    Marković G. Đoko

    I think that this kind of radiation a hazard for health.

  • Dr. Iva Ninova Kuznetsova added an answer in Cultural Communication:
    Kung Hei Fat Choi! Are you, your country, town or community celebrating the New Chinese Lunar Year of the Fire Monkey?

    In 2007, we have started an ongoing research project on “Globalization of Holidays and the Calendar”. In the beginning, we were only interested in trying to understand the rapid spread of holidays that, as Halloween and St. Valentine, didn’t have any cultural tradition in Chinese communities but became an important economic asset as well as festivals mobilizing casinos, hotels, restaurants, then schools and associations, nowadays firmly installed in social networks exchanges. Thereafter, we have also started studying the diffusion of public and private festivities of the New Lunar Chinese Year along with the growing economic presence of China worldwide. We have been systematically inviting Master and PhD students to research the topic and I would like to appeal to your collaboration. Can you give us information, pictures, videos or any other documents regarding the diverse celebrations of the Chinese New Year in our country, town or local communities? If there aren’t any commemorations at all, can you explain the situation? What do you think about this clear globalization, industrialization and marketization of holidays that, in some cases relatively new, are being celebrated among other cultures and communities? Is there a main economic driven factor or there also are much more complex cultural and social elements?

  • Tareq Alasadi added an answer in Sanitary Engineering:
    What do you mean by environmental engineering? ngineer?

    Environmental engineering is anew title  named for Sanitary engineering as one branch of civil engineering,Environmental engineering is a relatively
    young branch of the engineering
    profession but is projected to be among
    the fastest growing. It has developed
    in response to the serious problems of
    environmental contamination caused by
    the activities and waste products of our
    modern society. The U.S. Department of
    Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics projects
    that jobs for environmental engineers
    will grow by 25% from 2006 to 2016.
    Pollution has many sources and is found
    in the land, air, and water around the
    globe. Environmental engineers usually
    specialize in dealing with certain types of
    pollution or a particular resource:Water,sewages, water treatments  water  desalinization ,so how can we react  with environmental engineering to develope society? 

    Tareq Alasadi

    this subject is important,

    Using the principles of biology and chemistry,
    environmental engineers develop solutions to
    environmental problems. They are involved in water and air
    pollution control, recycling, waste disposal, and public
    health issues. Environmental engineers conduct
    hazardous-waste management studies in which they
    evaluate the significance of the hazard, offer analysis on
    treatment and containment, and develop regulations to
    prevent mishaps.

    They design municipal water supply and industrial
    wastewater treatment systems. They conduct research on proposed environmental projects,
    analyze scientific data, and perform quality control checks. They provide legal and financial
    consulting on matters related to the environment.
    Environmental engineers are concerned with local and worldwide environmental issues. They
    study and attempt to minimize the effects of acid rain, global warming, automobile emissions,
    and ozone depletion. They also are involved in the protection of wildlife.
    Many environmental engineers work as consultants, helping their clients to comply with
    regulations and to clean up hazardous sites.
    Environmental engineers should be creative, inquisitive, analytical, and detail oriented. They
    must have a strong grasp of mathematics, including algebra, geometry, trigonometry, and
    calculus; sciences, such as biology, chemistry, and physics; and computer systems. Abilities
    to work as part of a team and to communicate well also will be important as environmental
    engineers' jobs become more diversified and require interaction with specialists outside
    engineering. To hone these skills, recommended coursework includes English, writing, social
    studies, and humanities.
    "Environmental Engineering Overview"
    Prepared as part of the Sloan Career Cornerstone Center (www.careercornerstone.org)
    Note: Some resources in this section are provided by the US Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics.

  • Lael Werner added an answer in Immunohistochemistry:
    Anti-GLUT4 antibody for extracellular epitope

    I am trying to show that a compound induces translocation of glut4 in primary porcine muscle cells. I am working on blebbing giant membrane vesicles which I would like to immunostain for glut4. However, I will not be able to permeabilize the vesicles, and therefore need an antibody (commercial) that binds to an extracellular epitope on glut4 (if such an ab exists), and will react with pig glut4.

    Does anybody know of any ab that might work for this?
    Lael Werner

    Antibodies against the GLUT4 epitope are indeed problematic. I am also unable to find any antibodies (no matter the species) for FACS. Someone told me they get shedded from the membrane and that is why they are unavailable.

    Anybody know why there are no/ very hard to find antibodies against it?

  • Claude Pierre Massé added an answer in Quantum Mechanics:
    Help with Feynman's(thought) experiment with electrons?

    I read his description of the experiment but I still haven't understood as to how the results can't be predicted with "classical physics", what I mean is that electron gun which he has assumed throws out electrons randomly and since we do not know the initial conditions( because of randomness) we can't predict the exact trajectory , and therefore we can talk  only of probability, but I see that Feynman says constantly that "we can't really predict where the electron would end up being" but ain't that because of the random nature of electron emitting device??

    Obviously i am wrong somewhere but I can't catch it?

    Any help would be appreciated.

    Now Feynman has constantly  

    Claude Pierre Massé

    Dan, you can't reproduce the disappearence of the interference pattern when one of the two slit is closed, or when a detector is put there.

    Anyway, that's not the issue.  The Huygens principle describes the propagation of a wave.  If there is no wave, the Huygens principle doesn't have wrong reasons, it has no reasons at all since it doesn't apply.

    Be careful to use the vocabulary and the concepts correctly and precisely, you make people lose much time.

  • Rafael Caballero added an answer in MongoDB:
    Why is map-reduce discouraged in MongoDB?

    Map-Redude exists in MongoDB, but the documentation says:

    For most aggregation operations, the Aggregation Pipeline provides better performance and more coherent interface. However, map-reduce operations provide some flexibility that is not presently available in the aggregation pipeline.

    My questions are:

    1. Why is map-reduce so effective in Hadoop but discouraged in MongoDB
    2. Is there any example of "flexibility" of map-reduce not available in the aggregation pipeline?

    Thanks in advance

    Rafael Caballero

    Rafael Caballero

    Excelent answer. Thanks!!

  • Francis Steven Mickus added an answer in Corruption:
    Was Serpico (1973) the first film that took the public denunciation of police corruption for its subject?

    While many films prior to the 1970s raised the issue of pervasive police corruption (The Big Heat, Touch of Evil…), I tend to think that Serpico was the first film that dealt with cops denouncing police corruption. Is there any film prior to Serpico that would talk about the exact same thing?

    Francis Steven Mickus

    I would be very surprised if it were...

  • Parth Alpa Thakkar asked a question in Turbulence Modeling:
    Could anyone who has access to the paper "Two-Equation Eddy-Viscosity Turbulence Models for Engineering " please share it?

    This paper was published by Menter in 1994 in the AIAA Journal. He proposed the K omega SST model in this paper.

  • Francis Steven Mickus added an answer in Stained Glass:
    Can anyone help me find the dimensions to the stained Glass at All Souls' College at Oxford?

    It would help to have the references as well.

    It's curious actually. You'd think that such 'vital statistics' would be readily available. but actually most works are content to discuss the window in terms of generalities. Even the Corpus Vitraeum Medii Aevi site doesn't provide this information!

    The most striking aspect of the question is that at All Soul's, the widows were moved around, and even at times had to be expanded, as in the case if the royal window, for example; yet no one seems to find it necessary to know what size it is in the first place!

    Francis Steven Mickus

    i did contact the crew at All Souls and they couldn't tell me! That is why I posted this question in the first place.

    What I find so curious about the affair is while professors and other professionals become increasingly interested in details, the matter of dimensions in stain glass windows has yet to become a standard feature in the vital statistics. The CVMA doesn't keep such records and the site the Rose Window doesn't either.

    The windows at All sousl are all the more curious in thsi mattter as Hutchinson points out taht they wer enlarged ot fit in their new frames, yet doesn't state their precice dimensions in his book.

  • Fernando Lima asked a question in Atlantic Rainforest:
    Where to publish species list?

    There is a great trend in modeling species ecological features and meta-analysis relying on occurrence information from databases. Every single database report survey gaps and sampling bias. In the opposite direction, there isn't much space for publication of basic species list. Despite the importance of reliable information on species occurrence, it is treated as minor and even despised some circles.

    I've been looking for species records in Atlantic Rainforest and decided to filter only using information actually published. It was a shock to see the small percentage that remained. Also using this filter I couldn't use reliable records from colleagues (and my own). Wondering about it and talking to colleagues the answer is that it is never a priority and the outcome as impact factor do not worth the effort. I wonder:

    Where to publish this basic, raw and yet essential information?

  • Jelina Haines added an answer in Value of Life:
    How to relate 1) life values and 2) hope and spirituality?

    Dear everybody,

    Currently I am working on a review about life values of elderly people suffering from incurable cancer. From the literature, values like honesty, continuity, dignity and the like came up. Obviously to me, they are life values. Besides these concepts, two other concepts arose: hope and spirituality. Both important of course, but I don’t know how to integrate them and link them to life values. Are they in some way a source of which life values derive, sources of nurturing life values or life values in themselves? I can't get my head around it.

    Does somebody have any ideas on how: to relate life values on the one hand and hope and spirituality on the other? Or does anybody have suggestions for literature about this?


    Jelina Haines

    Dear Anne,

    I would agree of what Napoleon suggest. I would based my response from personal experience. If I have to put a name on my childhood upbringing, it means that I was growing up in a foster homes before I was adopted. Without real family to full back, life values, hope and spirituality was my constant companion in life. Hope  and my beliefs gives me the strength and the life values I learned from the Elders provide me with sense of direction, skills and determination.

  • Jan Piwowarski added an answer in Western Blot:
    Can you show the picture of your worst Western blot, and explain the reasons for this disaster please?
    I start this topic in order to collect the gallery of the photos of Western-blots (WB) as ugly as possible. The detailed description of the problem and the technical solutions were applied to resolve it are strongly suggested, however ugly WBs without the clue what is wrong are welcome to discuss it here. The overall idea of this post is to help the young researchers to resolve the problem with simple and cheap tricks. On the photo below you can see the lightning in the middle, dust in the upper left corner, small air bubble in ECL solution in the upper right corner. The background is not fully grey, means ECL was not properly distributed, only band visible is not specific binding of the antibody to the slightly degraded marker band (right).
    Jan Piwowarski

     Dear Ravinda,

    What kind of samples are you loading?

    best - Jan

  • Beste Arslan asked a question in Antimony:
    ISO17378-1:2014 Water quality -Determination of arsenic and antimony -Part 1:Method using hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry HG-AFS?

    Could you please send me ISO 17378-1:2014, if you have.. I do not have access to download. 

  • Saravanakumar Subramaniyan asked a question in Pellets:
    What is the procedure for make pellets for ferroelectric studies and silver paste coating on pellets surfaces?

    What is the procedure for make pellets for ferroelectric studies and silver paste coating on pellets surfaces?