ResearchGate Q&A lets scientists and researchers exchange questions and answers relating to their research expertise, including areas such as techniques and methodologies.

Browse by research topic to find out what others in your field are discussing.

Browse Topics

  • Sahar Sharaf asked a question in FFPE:
    What are the guidelines to extract DNA from FFPE (slides) for NGS?

    NGS for metastatic cancer colon

  • Akram Hourani added an answer in Mathematical Models:
    Are the physics laws true by themselves?

    Or are they just mathematical models that are accepted to predict experiments ?.

    Akram Hourani

    It is a good point F.Leyvraz and Edward, I am not really sure what does the word "true" mean. But i can think of a true law as an ultimate law which is always correct and will be always correct, so nature itself follows the law and not vise versa.

  • Erik Verbruggen added an answer in Crop:
    How can green manures be categorized most effectively based on their impacts on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi?

    I’m planning a research project on the effects of previous green manure crops on arbuscular mycorrhizae on organic farms, as measured in a common current crop. I’m wondering if anyone has insights into how green manures could be grouped most effectively in terms of effects on mycorrhizae. Mycorrhizal versus non-mycorrhizal plants seems to be an oversimplification when thinking about the many functions that green manures can serve. Are there significant differences between plants within the mycorrhizal group that would warrant further categorization?

    Erik Verbruggen

    Dear Carolyn,

    from my previous research I have some indication that in particular perennial grass-clover mixtures could greatly improve AMF diversity in later crops (see 2010 New Phyt). However, this was not a randomized trial (only correlative) so by no means proves these are superior over others. I could imagine making the distinction legume/non-legume within the mycorrhizal group, as well as C3 versus C4 grass as there are indications these differ systematically in aspects of mycorrhizal symbiosis (e.g.  Reinhart et al 2012, attached). Also mixtures or monocultures may be a useful distinction?

  • Amna Pervaiz Chaudary asked a question in Humidity:
    What are the storage conditions (temperature and humidity) for anti biotics in raw form?

     What temperature and humidity required for anti-biotics in raw form when kept in pharma industry ware house?

  • Joe Graymer added an answer in Chemotherapy:
    Do you know Chemotherapy Protocols with a frequency equal or higher to 30 days?

    For instance, in FOLFOX the frequency is every 2 weeks (the treatment is repeated every 2 weeks).

    Joe Graymer

    To Sinan Karaasian: the PCV is mainly used in some specific Brain cancers as Anaplastic Oligodendroglial tumors, where it was recently shown that withdrawing Vincristine may have no loss of activity (PMID 26408710, Webre C, 2015), but there are two versions of this protocol, (PMID 1122488, Gutin PH, 1975), and the one you proposed (PMID 7407756, Levin VA, 1980), is the more complex one, the other has a reduced number of drug dosings, being more convenient for patients and staff (PMID 954059, Postma TJ, 1998), NitrosoUreas do have a prolonged, biphasic, and accumulative bone marrow toxicity.

    Regarding the inital question by Angel Monteagudo-Insua, there are also some other protocols with dosing intervals close to or over 30 days, for example, in Uterine Cervix Cancer, a delay of dosing from the usual 3 weeks to 4 weeks, along with reduced doses of drugs, yielded better results, perhaps the reason why was that too intensive chemotherapy does reduce patient immune defense mechanisms, this paving the way for tumor growth. Salut +

  • Mubashar Rehman added an answer in Bioavailability:
    How can I study delivery of a drug with poor bioavailability?

    To study release of a hydrophobic drug, I need a method that may to evaluate how much drug dissolves in PBS in time? I have some difficulties to obtain good results using UV-vis, can someone recommend any articles on this topic? 

    Mubashar Rehman

    I agree with Rafik

  • Rithesh baliga Bantwal asked a question in R:
    How to analytically calculate the harmonic response of a beam ?

    (i)I am trying to calculate harmonic response of beam  using the method provided in book (2.5.2 RESPONSE OF A CANTILEVER BEAM TO
    HARMONIC TIP FORCE) . The url of book is provided in the  below link


    (iii) I am using the following matlab code to get the result

    Matlab code 



    wf=2*pi*f;% excitation frequency
    Nr=1*sin(wf*t);% load is 1 kgf

    for r=1:3
    z=0.02; % damping coefficient

    r1=wf/(2*pi*wn(r));%frequency ration




    (iii)I am not able  to get the correct answer . I can provide more details if required 

    I wanted to know the value of t to substituted

  • Reem Yassine added an answer in IT Systems:
    Can different frequencies have different damping?

    i have got a response of a vibratory system over a range of frequencies.I have got the natural frequencies of the system and i know the mass of the system.From the available i have calculated the damping of the system.my question is whether the damping of the system change with each natural frequency?because i am getting different damping value for different natural frequency.

    Reem Yassine

    how to calculate the natural frequencies in ANYS-APDL???/

  • Elaheh Azizian Farsani added an answer in Abaqus:
    Which subroutin should i choose in abaqus software for low-cycle fatigue?


    I want to model low-cycle tension-compression fatigue of a cylindrical model in abaqus with thermal conditions. I need a tutorial for writing subroutin for this example.

    which subroutin should i choose for that?

    Thank you

    Elaheh Azizian Farsani

    Dear Dr. Yasseri

    Thank you so much for your helpful comments and suggestions.

  • Gabrielle Daniels-Gombert added an answer in SmartPLS:
    Use of Lisrel and SmartPLS in the same study?

    I have just read a paper in which LISREL was used to construct and asses the measurement model and PLS used for the structural model.

    (Predicting Intention to Adopt Interorganizational Linkages: An Institutional Perspective. Teo, K. K. Wei and I. Benbasat Source: MIS Quarterly, Vol. 27, No. 1 (Mar., 2003), pp. 19-49).

    Does anyone know how common and/or accepted such an approach is?

    Gabrielle Daniels-Gombert

    Your 'two cents' certainly add to the clarity, Florian.  Thank you for taking the time to share them - much appreciated.

  • Jan Seifert added an answer in User Experience Design:
    What are the differences/similarities of customer experience design and user experience design?

    As UX designers we help design the experience of human-machine interactions. I recently prepared a talk on a pretty well rounded UX example on a screen provided in a store but then noticed it was also well interlinked with the overall experience in the location, which I found out was customer experience design. But the "user" also being the "customer" I asked myself: where does one stop, the other begin? Does UX express the customer experience design like the visual design of a website expresses the corporate design? I am interested to find out what you think. 

    Jan Seifert

    Hello All!

    If I had to present the different fields in a hierarchy I'd choose this: Usability Engineering (UE) is a part of HCI is a part of User Experience Design (UXD) is a part of Customer Experience Design (CXD). I am not sure, though, a hierarchy is really adequate. It might work on a theoretical level (wouldn't vouch for it without taking a closer look). But it sure fails on a practical level. Someone capable of working in CXD is not necessarily qualified to do usability or UXD. Working in CXD you can completely ignore the technological aspects. You cannot if you work in UXD. But, while I am typing this, my own words raise doubts. All these areas are interdisciplinary by definition. Of course, no one has all skills required in each field. It may just be wrong to look at the skill set on an individual level. The hierarchy may still work then.

    Something else comes to my mind. I based the hierarchy above mostly on aspects like "field of practice", "required skill and knowledge set", "the designed product" (IT products or not). What if we try to approach this from a different point of view? When I talk with colleagues I sometimes get the impression that when referring to User Interface Design they have a certain design approach in mind. That approach is related to Simon (1969) who theorised that design is about creating artefacts. On the other hand, that is clearly not the case in UXD. It is much closer to theories outlined by Krippendorff (2006) who considers the goal of design to be creation of meaning. Maybe that would be a way to get a better grasp on how to distinguish the variety of terms?

    • User Interface Design would be about designing objects then? Not by definition, but in designers heads.
    • Usability would then be about designing behaviour (the interaction between user and computer)? That is difficult, because it seems to ignore the  "satisifaction" component in effectivity, efficiency, and user satisfaction. I could only save it by claiming that satisfaction is based on the fit between the users' expecations and the actual behaviour. But I don't think questionnaires about usability would reflect that. Still, my impression is that the major focus of usability work was/is behaviour.
    • User Experience and Customer Experience would mix up into a single approach trying to design the users experiences.

    Finally, a question (@Delene): does that still mean that you would speak of "UI Design" even if there is no IT component and, thus, no user interface to be designed? I'd be very interested what criteria this is based on or how you define UI.

    Sorry for the long answer. I got carried away :-)

  • Ralph Samwell added an answer in Educational Systems:
    How should / could we improve the Educational System, to adapt modern times, and future generations?

    Most would agree that Education plays a fundamental role in solving many of the humanity's current problems.

    I believe in a better World.

    Mass education for all youngster can play a good role in the near future.

    Should we change our system?

    Should we act on University level?

    Should we act transversally from kindergarten, through basic education?

    I should like your valuable contributes.

    Ralph Samwell


    this guy puts it far better than me

  • Dominic Pardede added an answer in Longitudinal Studies:
    How to run the logistic regression for longitudinal study?

    To run the logistic regression (binary/dummy dependent variable) for longitudinal study, should I put time dummy variable in my model to investigate the effect of regulation (as independent variable) over the time (years before the regulation implemented: 0 (nil) and years after the regulation implemented:1 (one)) or how?

    Does the longitudinal study mean to run the regression by year by year data or to run all the years data and analyse the effect over the time?

    Dominic Pardede

     Hi Michael,

    Thank you for your suggestion

  • Rudolf Ritt asked a question in Social Networks:
    Do scientists tend to gain preferably informations which confirm their opinion and fade out contradictory statements?

    I heard (Süddeutsche Zeitung, February 6/7th 2016), that people like to sit in a "reverberation chamber", they are consuming only informations which confirm their opinions, because it feels good to be liked or confirmed.

    The social networks tend to strenghten this behavior, especially with the help of new filter systems, which gain new connections by evaluating the personal data of the user.

    Is this contradictory to objective thinking and having an open mind?

    What about the filtering systems of RG?

  • Aleš Kralj added an answer in General Relativity:
    Universe is static!!! Yes or no?

    Space of Universe is static! Yes or no?

    Question: Are there any observations that do not fit into the model static space of Universe, are there any theoretical obstacles to the existence of such a model?

    I assume that the Universe is eternal, infinite and static, it is not expanded and not curved, it is possible to construct a preferred inertial frame of reference in which the CMBR is most isotropic. The matter in this space evolves, but the average density of matter and energy (in large enough volumes) fluctuate within a rather broad range.
    The light in this model is "tired", the speed of light depends on the optical density intergalactic medium. Gravity is also "tired" t.i. weakens a little faster R2. The energy of destroying matter goes into the surrounding vacuum. The excess energy from the vacuum give rise to new particles of matter.

    I state that all the observed cosmological effects can be explained in such a Static Model of the Universe.
    See attached "Basic_Cosmological_Formula_1_En.pdf"

    Dear colleagues, I do not ask, what are the problems faced by other theories (though I would be interested in your opinion on that. The General theory of relativity is not applicable to the entire space of the Universe).

    Aleš Kralj

    From wikipedia:

    Thermodynamics is a branch of physics concerned with heat and temperature and their relation to energy and work. It defines macroscopic variables, such as internal energy, entropy, and pressure, that partly describe a body of matter or radiation.

    How does one define temperature and pressure of the universe?
    The universe is not a thermodynamic system and can not be viewed as such. To use thermodynamics on something it must allow for thermal coupling of its inner parts. This is not present in our universe. Our universe does not have a definable temperature for example.
    We could somehow fudge its entropy if only we knew statistical mechanics of all its constituents. But we don't. We have opened issues with dark matter and even darker energy. :-)

    So, tools of thermodynamics are ill conceived for such matters.

    [just a general remark, repeated though]

  • Ramesh Joshi added an answer in Empower:
    Is there any relationship between leader's empowering behaviour and follower's psychological capital?

    I am planning to conduct research on the relationship between leader's empowering behaviour and follower's psychological capital along with moderating effect of perception of organisational politics. would be obliged if anybody can help by sending relevant articles.

    Ramesh Joshi
    Dear Harshavardan Jee,
    Thanks for your kind support. Just want to share that attachments are missing. So, please if you have, would be thankful.
  • Abbas Cheddad added an answer in Detection:
    Can cross correlation do matching between two images, with the first as sample and the second as similar object belonging to this sample?


    I am working on hand gesture tracking. since I have detect hand then based on candidate regions, I want to detect hand region on successive frames. my question is, can I get benefit from cross correlation to do matching with each candidate region so that can I get the correct detection ? Or there is another method can you suggest?

    please help me,

    thank you all,

    Abbas Cheddad


    Your explanation is very vague, it is very hard to understand your problem. Well, I would suspect that your data is still noisy since your classifier has difficulties finding the right blob. Another thing that may affect your results is if the extracted set of features are not robust enough, but knowing that you used SURF, Gabor, corner detection etc, which are good descriptors, I would just think of the first scenario (your data needs more refinement to eliminate noise).

    You said that you are restricting the search window to only skin-like regions, I failed then to understand why  the "matching went to wall or misplaces other than hand region"?! Something is wrong here.

  • Panayot Tanchev added an answer in Orthopedic Surgery:
    Would you stop or correct antithrombotic prophylaxis (LMWH) in case of abundant postoperative wound haematoma after hip or knee replacements ?

    What is right ? To continue with pharmaceutical prophylaxis for fearing DVT or stop (reduce) it to avoid wound complications ?

    Panayot Tanchev

    In the last 2 decades there was an aggressive introduction of chemical prophylaxis of DVT for major orthopaedic surgery (THA,TKA,etc.) supported by a number of "firma-oriented" consensus documents. This sort of anti-coagulation became "mandatory" for joint replacement, and I think it is done without proper selection of the DVT-at risk-patients. A fear for  judicial problems is present among surgeons.

    On the other hand, it is generally acknowledged that anticoagulants (Warfarin, LMWH, etc.) are among the potential causes of wound haematomas and wound drainage with a serious risk of deep infection.

    In my practice I  stop or reduce the dosage of anticoagulants if a persistent  wound drainage continues after 48-72 hours postoperatively unless these patients belong to the group of high risk for thromboembolic complications.  

  • Marco Fedi added an answer in Quantum Mechanics:
    Are there any of the mysteries of physics that are beyond our intellectual capacity to conceptually understand?

    Richard Feynman said, "If you think you understand quantum mechanics, you don't understand quantum mechanics.” Is the problem that the human intellect is incapable of understanding some aspects of quantum mechanics or are we merely missing a model which will make the mysteries of quantum mechanics conceptually understandable? Another quote attributed to Feynman is “Shut-up and calculate”. This implies that a student is being told to suppress their natural desire for conceptual understanding and instead work on mathematical analysis. Do you feel that some questions are beyond our intellectual capacity to successfully answer? If so, perhaps you should identify these to stimulate discussion. For example, questions about the composition of fundamental particles or string theory strings are often treated as unanswerable. What are your thoughts?

    Marco Fedi

    I think that the problem is just the opposite. Too often our intellectual capacity (and our academic interest) over-complicates simple things. So "we" are the problem. On the contrary, I impose on myself to simplify things. Just an example:

    to explain quantum gravity and quantum relativity we have elaborated theories (M-theory > strings) which use more than 20 dimensions, we persist to search gravitons and so on. This is a clear example of overcomplication.

    While by hypothesizing a fluid quantum space everything go to the right place, as I've recently shown in my works.

    Quantum gravity doesn't come from gravitons (doesn't come from force carriers in this case) but from space's quanta, the absorption of which causes flows which correspond to the gravitational fields. And - as a consequence - this absorption is able to easily unify all interactions (see link 1).

    Quantum relativity then. The same approach of a fluid quantum space immediately updates the equivalence principle to a "fluid equivalence principle" (see link 2)  and all Einstein's equations can be derived as a mere consequence, the relativistic effects of SR and GR are unified and reduced to mass increase.

    So, in my opinion, it's rather the fact that some leading academics force physics along paths that perfectly agree with their ideas and research, with what they know best, to stay in the limelight, though this fact let things appear more complicate than they are. Many don't want to step back. Thus, often, the correct approach, if not appropriate to mainstream, risks lagging behind for a long time, while we wonder "maybe this is then too complicate to be conceptually understood"?

    • Source
      [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
      ABSTRACT: By placing as a condition the already hypothesized and, in many respects necessary, existence of quantum space[1], its possible dynamics as a quantum superfluid is discussed to show how the phenomenon of quantum superfluid conical vortices, decreased to subatomic scale, could be able to incorporate QED, QFT, QCD, as well as to explain how the Yang-Mills theory gives rise to the physics of nuclei and nuclear constituents. This approach is compatible with special and general relativity. In light of this, the importance of mathematically scrutinizing and experimentally testing a theory of quantum space superfluidity applied to particles and fundamental interactions clearly emerges. Predictions are eventually formulated, which would besides indirectly demonstrate the existence of superfluid quantum space.
      Full-text · Article · Oct 2015

    + 1 more attachment

  • Julius Cloyd Alvarez Jala added an answer in Meiofauna:
    Good day everyone! Do you have a pdf copy of Giere's Meiobenthology :The Microscopic Motile Fauna of Aquatic Sediments?

    I'm a undergraduate student. This book would help my identification of meiofauna for my thesis.

    Julius Cloyd Alvarez Jala
    Thank you
  • Sandro Longo added an answer in Density:
    How is possible to use PIV for a fluid flow initially perfectly ate rest?

    I need to use planar PIV for detecting the instability cells in a Hele-Shaw cell triggered by a gradient of temperature, with a window size of 40x40 mm^2. The fluid in the cell (1 or 2-mm gap) is initially perfectly at rest, then increasing the vertical gradient of temperature instabilities develop at a given critical Rayleigh number. I need small particles (tens of micrometer in diameter) which do not settle or float for, say at least 10 minutes, to act as tracer. Probably some natural substance, able to absorb water and to equalize its density with the density of the ambient fluid, could represent a good solution. Does anybody have experience on the topic, in order to give me hints and suggestion?

    Sandro Longo

    Ciao Hubert,

    I thought the same thing. However we are working with a macro lens and the field of view is 40x40 mm2 at 1024x1024 pixels. The overall resolution is nearly 40 micron/pixel. Hopefully the pollen particles will lump in order to occupy at least a pixel. I will let you know, thank you.


  • Ewald Schnug added an answer in Gypsum:
    Is there a new technology of valorisation of phosphogypsum in the production of plaster?

    Research the new technology of valorisation of phosphogypsum in the production of plaster.

    Ewald Schnug

    There is a risk deriving from the Radium accumulated in this materials, which is its greatest problem in valorisation!

  • Reem Yassine added an answer in Composite Design:
    Can someone suggest a method to calculate natural frequencies for E-glass epoxy composite beam using Ansys?
    For Woven E glass-Unsaturated polyester 0/0]10 based composite beams wants to calculate the natural frequency .
    Is it possible to to calculate the natural frequency, buckling and mode shapes of composite laminate more accurately using ANSYS?
    The dimension of composite samples as well as boundary conditions is attached.
    I don't have ANSYS, can anyone help me?
    Reem Yassine

    how could i get the natural frequencies in APDL???

  • Radovan Bures added an answer in Heat Treatment:
    How to tailor magnetic texture of Ni-Fe alloys?

    Hi, does anyone have exact Methods to Control the texture of 50Ni-50Fe alloys, to get the best possible magnetic properties?

    I know a little that it is possible to engineer the texture by Alloying elements and heat treatments, but how exactly?
    Your input is highly appreciated.

    Radovan Bures

      Magnetic properties of Permalloy are influenced by alloyng elements, alloy purity, annealing parameters, but also by volume and shape of material and its surface quality. It is important information if it is sheet, thin film or powder particles. In general, domain structure of Permalloy thin film is mainly  cross-tie wall. Chain walls domain structure is observed in bulk. Permalloy powder particles structure depens on size of particles. Small particles are single-domain e.g. Alloing elements is complex topic. Mo is grain grow suppresor e.g. Si create nano-crystalline phase which induce domain wall pinning. It is necessary to define the goal of modification to specify alloing elements and relevant heat treatment. Is is really complex question.

  • Nicolas Thomas added an answer in Middle Ages:
    Does anyone know analogies for this kind of cauldron?

    Hi Everyone

    I,m looking for analogies to this bronze cauldron. I think it is from middle ages or from beginning of modern period.

    Especially I'm looking an analogies from Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Slovakia.

    Best Regards

    Maciej Wawrzczak

    + 9 more attachments

    Nicolas Thomas

    Hello Maciej, you can find bibliography (for Europe) here :


    see my own page on research gate...

    you can also send me an email privatly

    what is the context ?

  • Imed Romdhani added an answer in Glomosim:
    How to implement my own routing protocol in GloMoSim?

    Hi there.

    I want to implement my own routing protocol in Glomosim. Is there a any documentation for this. I did not find any usefull documentation about it.

    Looking forward to seeing your helps.

    Thanks in advance,

    Ahad M.

    Imed Romdhani

    I recommend that you implement your protocol using OMNET++ (https://omnetpp.org/ & https://omnetpp.org/doc/omnetpp/manual/usman.html).

    It supports all kinds of networks and routing protocols (Wired, Wireless, Mobile and Internet of Things). It's also well documented and easy to integrate with other libraries and simulators. 

    Good luck !

  • Alfredo Pereira Junior added an answer in God:
    What is the origin of the laws and principles of nature?

    More precisely, "what is the origin of the regularities in nature which are represented (or purported to be represented) in our various recognized or accepted laws and principles regarding nature and natural events?" (this is H.G. Callaway's formulation of the original question). Such a philosophical question should be of interest to all scientists. 

    In classical philosophy, there are two ways of answering it:

    a) Looking for an explanation outside nature. The concept of a transcendent God, the creator of nature and its order, explicitly appeared in Thomas Aquinae (the world comes from God and returns to God), Modern philosophers and scientists. It reappeared in the Contemporary epoch as a refusal of Darwinism, and/or related to some interpretations of Quantum Theory;

    b) Looking for an explanation inside nature. Nature itself, being composed of both Form and Matter (Aristotle´s Hylomorphism) produces its order, in a process that has been currently called "self-organizing". In this view, God is not the creator of Nature, but - as in Aristotle´s concept of a First Mover - an ideal of perfection projected by natural beings.

    It is clear that in spite of Aquinae´s affiliation with Aristotle, their philosophies are in opposite position in regard to the question about the origin of nature´s order. 

    Spinoza tried to conciliate both approaches, by equating God and Nature. In this case, God is not conceived as a transcendent being who creates Nature from nothingness, but as a being who is somehow immanent to Nature.

    Plato, before Aristotle, presented a combined solution, assuming both the autonomy of natural principles (Ideas) and a Demiurge who prompts the manifestation of the principles into the world of appearances.

    There is a possible third alternative, advanced by Kant in his cognitive approach to philosophical issues: to assume that laws and principles of nature are 'a priori' forms that the human mind imposes to sensory "matter". However, this alternative is actually reducible to the others. Cognitive forms should be natural or created by God (both possibilities are compatible in Spinoza's approach). For instance, the Piagetian version of Kantism assumes that these forms are biological, deriving from processes of interaction with the physical and social environment - therefore, he was committed to the self-organizing view.

    Alfredo Pereira Junior

    Dear Harry,

    As you say, the way out of Louis` problem is to propose just one eternal turtle like the apeiron - although I do not think it corresponds to empty space. I conceive it as an "alphabet" of elementary energy forms that freely combine to generate the phenomena we observe and experience.

  • Robert Kiss added an answer in Drug Repositioning:
    Is there any other examples of drug repositioning for anti-cancer treatment?

    Dr. Ksenya Shchors et al. have recently published an original article on the drug repositioning of tricyclic antidepressants and anticoagulant ticlopidine, both of which provokes the autophagic cell death in tumor tissues. 

    Further, I have recently reviewed on metabolic reprogramming and conventional drugs targeting on tumor-specific metabolic pathways. 

    Is there any other examples of drug repositioning for anti-cancer treatment?

    + 1 more attachment

    Robert Kiss

    You should maybe look also at cimetidine (see the attached article).

    Best regards


  • Tim Woolliscroft added an answer in Academic Writing:
    Writing in active or passive voice - does epistomology matter ?

    I am currently working on a PhD and have been encouraged to write in the passive voice, I know this is not uncommon.  There however seems to be some tension between the subjective epistemology and reflexivity in the methodology and this approach to writing.  Given this I feel that writing in the first person would be more authentic.  Am I being naïve or are there arguments in favour of academic writing in the first person.  Also is it true that it is difficult to get articles published if they are written in the first person?

    The discipline is business / organisational development.  Any advice or recommended research on this area would be very much appreciated. 

    Tim Woolliscroft
    So you asked for a little more information. I am exploring healthcare efficiency through combining patient empowerment with information technology. Primarily qualitative methods, but not exclusively. There is no pretence at objectivity as it is not being conducted from an objective epistemology, although the ontology is objective. From this perspective whilst I will be collecting data, I am not assuming that the data speaks for itself it is all open to interpretation. By authentic, all I am talking about is writing in a style that takes responsibility for what I do and what I think. So I am not planning on indulging in writing about my own experience. I do however plan to acknowledge my own past experience and the insights that this gives to the process of data analysis. Re epistemology my thinking is that it makes sense to write up research from an objective epistemology in the passive voice, as the intention is to aim towards objectivity. However it seems to me that this makes less sense in relation to research conducted from a subjective epistemology, as there is no intent towards objectivity.
  • Alexander J. Babchin added an answer in Tsunami:
    What kind of damage can cause nuclear undewater exposion 50-100 MGT in the middle of atlantic ocean on 42 paralel North ?

    Duing it on the ocean bottom at 1 km depth the explosion will cause enormous high pressure boiler 10 or more km in diameter, causing tsunami wave 500 m or more in high, propagating radially with speed about 800 km/hour. Such a wave hit Alaska in 1958 and was caused by reletevely modest eartquake. This wave is capable to run on the distance up to 20 km overland, completely engolfing sea side cities and their inhabitants.

    In the case such an explosion will by done in the middle of Atlantic ocean at 42 parallel North,the tsunami will destroy all costal cities of North America and Europe alike.

    Inland countries, or countries connected with open ocean by narrow straights are immune to this effect. Also, Arctic ocean will dump this kind of tsunami in short distance, due to ice crust.  

    Alexander J. Babchin

    No, Joe, the largest H-Bomb USSR detonated was TSAR BOMB at 50 MGT TNT in 1961 over NOVAYA ZEMLYA at 4 km altitude. At the time, USSR had 100 MGT bomb, but Strategic  Bomber T-95 would not have time of escape. As Khruschev insisted that blust should be caused by real Bomb, descended from Aircraft, he had to agree with amaller bomb, 50 MGT,  still the largest ever exploaded.  I am originally from USSR, still remember well all these events.