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  • Phil Barbonis added an answer in Innovation Management:
    Do you have any suggestions of financial variables, the level of which affects company’s innovation activities?

    I assume that financially healthy companies may spend more on innovation activity. For the moment I use the measures of profitability (e.g. margins), liquidity (e.g. current ratio), and leverage. Could you suggest others?

    Phil Barbonis

    Mr Szutowski,

    An obvious one is spending on R&D, I would think given that those you identify do not explicitly point to this sort of spending. It may well be that it may come under another heading.

    A profitable bank may not be spending on innovation, except perhaps in marketing, and IT. But IT may be off-the-shelf... so financially health is no indicator of interest in innovation.

  • Fawad Sadiq asked a question in Innovation:
    How would one can define the phenomenon of Disruption at individual level?

    Considering Disruptive Innovation as a subset of Innovation with radical characteristics on Market dimension, how would one can define the phenomenon of Disruption at individual level? Or to say Disruptive output of an individual? Comments and thoughts are welcomed.

  • Parinyathip Thongduang added an answer in Sarcopenia:
    What is the most weakness muscle in the quadriceps in aging?

    If muscle decline in sarcopenia, may it have effect in VMO or VL ?

    How is the balance between VMO VL in aging?

    Parinyathip Thongduang

    Thanks you very musch.

  • Mohamed A. A. Mahdy added an answer in Cryosectioning:
    What are the best markers for rat macrophages, fibroblasts, Scwann cells and PNS axons for IHC in frozen sections?

    I am currently working on peripheral nerve repair on rats after transection injury. I would like to visualise macrophages, proliferating fibroblasts and Scwann cells, and growing axons in frozen sections using IHC chromogenic methods. Can anybody suggest the best target markers for such application?

    Mohamed A. A. Mahdy

    for macrophages you can use CD11, for fibroblast you can use vemintin

  • Notion Mabwe asked a question in Organizations:
    Who are the great authors in Organisational politics' influence on both organisational citizenship behaviour and leadership?

    articles of organisational politics' impact on organisational citizenship behaviour and leadership

  • Aleš Kralj added an answer in Gravity:
    Can we design the orbit of a satellite with Einstein’s curved space?
    I think that the most successful theory of gravity is that the orbit of planet can be explained with this theory and the orbit of satellite was designed with this theory. To design an orbit of a satellite, the three of the factors of the orbit: 1) The radius, 2) The inclination angle, 3) The eccentricity, must be calculated. And, the Newtonian theory of gravity is the only theory that can calculate the three factors. In another words, if there was not the Newtonian theory of gravity, the orbit of the satellite could not be designed. It was known that, from Einstein’s field equation, the orbit of planet can be deduced. And it was used to explain the advance of the Mercury perihelion. But, I cannot find the method to calculate the three factors with Einstein’s field equation.
    Aleš Kralj

     Kåre, you allways make me read!  :-)

  • Eugene F Kislyakov added an answer in General Relativity:
    Universe is static!!! Yes or no?

    Space of Universe is static! Yes or no?

    Question: Are there any observations that do not fit into the model static space of Universe, are there any theoretical obstacles to the existence of such a model?

    I assume that the Universe is eternal, infinite and static, it is not expanded and not curved, it is possible to construct a preferred inertial frame of reference in which the CMBR is most isotropic. The matter in this space evolves, but the average density of matter and energy (in large enough volumes) fluctuate within a rather broad range.
    The light in this model is "tired", the speed of light depends on the optical density intergalactic medium. Gravity is also "tired" t.i. weakens a little faster R2. The energy of destroying matter goes into the surrounding vacuum. The excess energy from the vacuum give rise to new particles of matter.

    I state that all the observed cosmological effects can be explained in such a Static Model of the Universe.
    See attached "Basic_Cosmological_Formula_1_En.pdf"

    Dear colleagues, I do not ask, what are the problems faced by other theories (though I would be interested in your opinion on that. The General theory of relativity is not applicable to the entire space of the Universe).

    Eugene F Kislyakov

    Every electron can be in principle black hole and universe. Scales is no matter here if Planck's limit is absent. It is old ideas of Markov and other Dubna people from sixties. Seventies is my studentsheap.

  • Annangi Subba Rao added an answer in Soil Science:
    What is the best method to determine mineral nitrogen in a compost sample with an ultraviolet– visible spectrophotometer?

    I looking for method to determine only the amount of mineral nitrogen (NH4, NO3, NO2) but not of organic nitrogen in a compost sample. 

    For exemple : the Nessler method 

    Annangi Subba Rao

     Total N can be estimated by combustion method.But incubation method may not estimate all the organic N.It  may mineralize only 50 per cent of total organic N.So it is difficult to get mineral N by deducting mineralized organic N from total  N.One can extract mineral N by extracting with 2 M KCl and extract clarified by treating with acivated charcoal as suggested by Dr.Paul.After that ammoniacal and nitrate N can be estimated any of the methods suggested by colleagues like Dr.Elephant.

  • Mohamed A. A. Mahdy added an answer in Endnote:
    Alternative of end note for android tablet ?

    Thomson reuters provides endnote app only for ipad not for android. Is there any alternative software for arranging and reading bibliography on android tablet ?

    Mohamed A. A. Mahdy

    did you check for mendeley? 

  • Alsiddig Osama added an answer in Medicinal Plants:
    Why do we need to realize the quality control of a medicinal plant?

    Please give answer with example.

    Alsiddig Osama

    medicinal plants contain large amount of secondary metabolites which have wide rang of biological effects, the concentration of these substance is largely depend on environmental factors and measuring the quality of these plants can give us a clue of its secondary metabolites quality

  • M. Anbuchezhiyan added an answer in Nanoparticles:
    In which solvent SnO2 nanoparticles will be dissolved?

    in which solvent SnO2 nanoparticles will be dissolved?

    M. Anbuchezhiyan

    try ethers or alcohol may be used as solvent

  • Jose A. Mompean added an answer in Phonetics:
    I am looking for sources outlining the phonetic inventory and/or orthographic systems of Early Modern French (1500 to 1750). Any suggestions?

    I'm basically looking for any ideas about what the sound patterns of early Quebec French (or corresponding French from France) would have sounded like and/or was represented. Merci!

    Jose A. Mompean

    Dear Rebekah,

    I've found this information that might be useful.

    R. Mougeon &  É. Beniak (dir.), 1994. Les origines du français au Québec. Québec: Les Presses de l'Université Laval.  

    You can read it at:


    (see also the table of contents in the document for further references).

    There is also this website titled:



    With reference such as:

    Poirier, C. 1975. La prononciation québécoise ancienne d'après les graphies d'un notaire du XVIIe s. Dans M. Juneau & G. Straka (dir.). Travaux de linguistique québécoise, vol. 1. Québec: Les Presses de l'Université Laval, 193-256.

    I hope this helps.

    With best wishes,

    Jose A. Mompean

  • Arumugaperumal Arun asked a question in R Programming:
    In R, is there any way to read data from the second, third,... sheets of .csv file?

    In R programming, I need to import data from excel file. I converted it to .csv file so that the data import bacame fast. But the next problem came as to I was unable to read data from the sheets except the first one. Is there any way to tackle this? My major concern is that importing large amount of data from excel file takes more time as i have data in only the first two columns. Other columns are left blank. 

  • Mohamed A. A. Mahdy added an answer in ImageJ:
    Re Masson's trichrome stained tissue. What format (ie., jpeg, Tiff, etc) do I save the image for analysis via Fiji (ImageJ)?

    I am interested in quantifying the amount of collagen in lung tissue regardless of thickness of the section. The sections will be imaged in bright field using a Zeiss scope.  In addition, I found a video showing step-by-step the analysis using ImageJ. Would others agree with this tutorial? 



    Mohamed A. A. Mahdy

    Hello Shirin

    You can save it as JPEG file and measure by ImageJ easily

    I used it to quatify fibrosis in picrosirius stained muscle sections 

    I just adjusted the threshold and measure 

    you can refer to my paper


    • Source
      [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
      ABSTRACT: In the present study, we examined muscle regeneration following two types of chemical injuries, cardiotoxin (CTX) and glycerol, in order to compare their effect on the morphological characteristics during muscle regeneration, in addition we studied the structural changes of the intramuscular connective tissue (IMCT) during the regeneration process, by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) after digestion of the cellular elements of the muscle with sodium hydroxide. Tibialis anterior (TA) muscles of adult male mice were injected either with CTX or glycerol. Muscle degeneration was greater in the CTX-injured model than in the glycerol-injured model at day 4 post injection. Muscle regeneration started at day 7 in both the CTX and glycerol models. However, the CTX-injured model showed a higher myotube density and larger myotube diameter than the glycerol-injured model at days 10 and 14 post injection. On other hand, adipocyte infiltration was detected in the glycerol-injured model. In contrast, no adipocytes could be detected in the CTX-injured model. Furthermore, ultrastructural analysis showed a significant difference in myofiber damage and regeneration between the two models. SEM of the IMCT showed a transient increase in endomysial collagen deposition at early stages of regeneration in the CTX-injured model. In contrast, glycerol-injured model showed slight endomysial collagen deposition. Our results suggest that changes in IMCT affect the efficiency of muscle regeneration. Studying the three dimensional structure of IMCT may help clinical therapies to reduce skeletal muscle fibrosis. To our knowledge this is the first time the changes in IMCT following CTX and glycerol injury using SEM-cell maceration technique have been compared.
      Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger
  • Robert Kiss added an answer in Breast Cancer:
    Has anyone ever noticed a changed in morphology of MCF7 breast cancer cells?

    I have noticed morphological changes in my MCF7 cells (without any treatment). Has anyone ever experienced this? They went from a "cobble-stone" morphology to a smaller almost epithelial looking morphology.

    Robert Kiss

    Do not forget cell croos-contamination.

    See the attached comments.

    Best regards


    + 1 more attachment

  • M. Anbuchezhiyan added an answer in Bioorganic Chemistry:
    2,6-diaminopyridine does not soluble in alcohol, Tell me how i soluble that material in what solvent?

    alcohol or some other solvent or mixture of solvents

    M. Anbuchezhiyan

    use Xylene is a solvent. or use water or acetone is also a solvent

  • Noureddine Soltani added an answer in Glutathione Peroxidase:
    Simple method for glutathione peroxiadase measurement ?

    Can anybody suggest methods to measure glutathione peroxidase ?

    Noureddine Soltani

    Dear colleague,

    You can measure this activity by kits available in market (Sigma or Aldrich). See for details the folloowing reference:

    LAWRENCE, R.A., BURCK, F.B., 1976. Glutathione peroxidase activity in selenium deficient rat liver. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 71, 952–958.

    We have used this kit for determination of GPx in Donax trunculus (see attached this publication).

    Best regards N. Soltani

  • Amrit Sorli added an answer in Gravitational Waves:
    What are the philosophical questions raised by gravitational waves?

    'On February 11, 2016, the Advanced LIGO team announced that they had directly detected gravitational waves from a pair of black holes merging' (Wikipedia)

    This is to invite views what sort of philosophical questions might be implied by this discovery?

    Amrit Sorli

    The main question is that GW are pure theoretical failure and how is possible that have been discovered?

    NATURE http://www.nature.com/news/gravitational-waves-discovery-now-officially-dead-1.16830

    Prof. Loinger http://arxiv.org/ftp/astro-ph/papers/9906/9906058.pdf

    our research group: http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/specialissue/122019

    How now have been discovered is a big mystery fo me. Here there is something wrong. NATURE is respected journal. I think they are right. GW research is dead. This LIGO resurection of GW will not last long. 

  • Kamal Chandra Paul added an answer in R&D Management:
    Can anyone help me on literature of Innovation performance and R&D management practices?

    I'm planning to conduct a research on Innovation performance and R&D management practices. Can anyone help me on literature? The tentative topic will be "How the R&D management practices affect on innovation performance in software development industry". The study will be carried out in the Sri Lankan context.

    Kamal Chandra Paul

    Hi, Again you can read my couple of articles which is not listed in RESEARCHGATE all. Its all others journal. It will be helpful for your literature part.Just type my name KAMAL CHANDRA PAUL,UPM then send. Hope, you will get some answer from my published articles. --Paul,UPM

  • Vikram Zaveri added an answer in Gravitational Waves:
    How did Einstein identify existence of black holes in those days, with no experimental set up? Can gravitational waves be observed (now or in future)?

    There is an on going rumor that an advanced LIGO is about to detect gravitational waves that cause by merging of two black holes! Do you believe the discovery of gravitational waves through experimental setup(now or in future)?

    Vikram Zaveri

    Dear Prof. Toth:
    While going through the LIGO article in Physical Review Letters, I noticed that no mention was made about the negative energy of gravity and no mention of zero energy universe on which general relativity stands. It mentions that 3 solar masses x c^2 is the energy lost in collision of two black holes which gets converted into gravitational waves. Now the energy lost is the positive energy and the gravitational waves are the negative energy. So according to zero energy universe both these energies has to annihilate each other and then nothing can reach LIGO to observe. I did not see any of these discussed in the article. Instead it says gravitational waves are due to space like trajectories. The entire energy of the space time fabric is supposed to be negative energy and the gravitational waves are the ripples in this fabric. Can you kindly explain this?

  • Ivan Rios Cervino added an answer in Likert Scale:
    Is there a (statistically based) significance threshold for Pseudo R Square in Ordinal Logistic Regression?

    Model with Ordinal Independent Var (Likert scale) and ordinal Dependent var (Likert scale).

    Categorical Moderating Var.

    For example scores:

    Pseudo R-Square
    Cox and Snell ,161
    Nagelkerke ,177
    McFadden ,074

    Ivan Rios Cervino

    Dear Khandoker,

    Thank you for your thorough and knowledgeable answer.

    My search of both EBSCO and Google Scholar also delivered no academic papers about this subject.

    Your remeark that the two models can be compared is very insightful. I will proceed accordingly.

    Working with SPSS. Will check if McKelvey and Zaivona are available.

    Best regards,


  • Peng-Kai Hsu asked a question in PLM:
    How to calculate fixed effects from R plm function?

    I used plm function in R and choosed within model,

    but it just returned corfficient of the independent variable

    how can I calculate the fixed effects?

    can I use the formula in the figure I attached?

    Thank you so much!!

  • Alsiddig Osama added an answer in Free Radical Scavengers:
    How to calculate IC50 value of DPPH radical scavenging assay?

    If I follow this protocol: The antioxidant activity of the extracts was  tested using DPPH as previously described with some modifications (Zhang et al., 2011). Briefly, the DPPH free radical scavenging activity of grain extracts was determined using a 2 × 10−4 M DPPH solution. Each sample (0.5 ml) was mixed with 4 ml 2 × 10−4 M DPPH in ethanol. The mixture was shaken, and then left to stand for 60 min in the dark. The absorbance was measured at 517 nm in a spectrophotometer. The absorbance of the control was obtained by replacing the sample with 80% methanol. The DPPH radical scavenging activity of the sample was calculated as follows:

    % scavenged= [1- abs of sample/abs of control]x 100

    Alsiddig Osama

    I recommend you with EZ-Fit™ by Perrella Scientific, its simple and accurate

  • Amrit Sorli added an answer in High Energy Physics Theory:
    Why nobody see that Higgs boson and gravitational waves are the pure theoretical failures?

    Higgs boson does not interact with gluons which give energy for 99% of proton mass. How the Higgs boson gives mass to the proton, nobody has no clear answer. Why are we closing eyes and tolerating this model which does not have a minimal correspondence with physical existence? Energy and mass are both inherent physical properties of every particle. No particle can give mass to another particle; this is a complete misunderstanding. Higgs boson  does not prove anything, Higgs boson is artificially made flux of energy and nothing more. 

    Energy and mass are both inherent physical properties of every particle. They have the origin in the diminished energy density of quantum vacuum.  A given particle cannot be examined without this diminished energy density of quantum vacuum which determines its energy and mass. The idea that particles exist in an empty space deprived of physical properties is the biggest theoretical failure of physics since its existence. It has led  to the idea of Higgs field and gravitational waves which are both pure theoretical failure. No particle can give mass to another particle; this is a complete misunderstanding. Higgs boson  does not prove anything, Higgs boson is artificially made flux of energy and nothing more. And no wave can transmit gravity. 

    Amrit Sorli

    Luis you have free and independent mind. Main stream physics is fixed by some old ideas which belong to the 20 the century. 

  • Robert Kiss added an answer in Cancer Genetics:
    Can "predator" cancer cells compete with other cancer cells to benefit from the resources in the same tumor clone?

    Can  "predator" cancer cells  compete with other cancer cells to benefit from the resources in the same tumor clone?

    Robert Kiss

    Have a look on the attached articles. They could be of interest.

    Best regards


    + 2 more attachments

  • Alsiddig Osama added an answer in Natural Product Chemistry:
    Total phenols in black carrot. I tried to estimate total phenols in black carrot by folin-ciocalteu method. The values are varying with volume?

    Carrots are extracted with 80% alcohol

    Alsiddig Osama

    please follow this method

  • Annangi Subba Rao added an answer in Horticulture:
    Even though, STCR based SSNM studies has been thoroughly done in Agricultural crops, Why research is so scanty in Horticulture using STCR approach??

    In the era of sustainability, soil test based fertilizer approach is one of the viable options for the dynamic adjustment of nutrients based on soil fertility status. Even though STCR based SSNM concept emerged in the early 1960's and a lot of research has been done on food grains and cereal crops, why that kind of research has not implemented in flower crops till now. How far it is worthful if we follow in flower crops too???

    Annangi Subba Rao

    Ms.Lakshmi, one can use STCR approach for flowers if they are grown under field conditions like vegetable crops.

  • Chhuon Sopheavy asked a question in Herbal:
    What is the important of herbal drug quality control?

    Please try to keep the answer short and simple. Thanks!

  • Ali Akbar Sheikhy added an answer in Bioreactors:
    How to work with Matlab?

    Dear all,

    I recently done a bioreactor model with conventional PI controller. I know when we simulate, the closed loop response and the input is obtained in the scope.

    My question is how to evaluate the other studies by using matlab, ie. the concentration study, pH stability, etc.,

    My Transfer function for the process is

    G(s) = aS+b/S^2+bS+c


    a-- product consentration

    b-- pH

    c-- Constant(mol/l)

    Is bode plot is necessary for this study?

    Ali Akbar Sheikhy

    hi there

    i was worked with serial port of pc with hardware or i work hardware in the loop