ResearchGate Q&A lets scientists and researchers exchange questions and answers relating to their research expertise, including areas such as techniques and methodologies.
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- 3Need some help with sulfonamide antibiotics applications and their biological target?
how were they discoverd
how do they worand clinical application
You may read chapter 2 at the link.Following
- 90Do you get to feel a sense of attachment for the people you meet in a virtual community such as RG? How do you explain it?
In an early, highly influential book in the field of Internet studies, The Virtual Community (1993), Howard Rheingold wrote that “the idea of a community accessible only via my computer screen sounded cold to me at first, but I learned quickly that people can feel passionately about e-mail and computer conferences. I’ve become one of them --added Rheingold--. I care about these people I met through my computer”.
Online groups have some advantages over real, offline communities. A social networking site such as RG is joined by people from a unique diversity of backgrounds, countries and demographics. What brings us together is a common interest: research, science, a particular discipline or topic. We are able to communicate with each other and share and exchange information beyond constraints of space and time.
But human relationships are not just a matter of information exchange. Feelings and trust are essential. Online communication has disadvantages in this respect, because it transmits much less nonverbal cues than face-to-face interaction: facial expressions, vocal intonations, gestures, postures and movements, on which mutual impressions and emotions are based.
To what extent can we talk about a “genuine community” if the relationships among its members lack at least some sense of attachment?
“The poverty of social cues in computer-mediated communication inhibits interpersonal collaboration and trust”, said one of the main experts on social capital, Robert D. Putnam (Bowling Alone, 2000). Because of this, “computer-based groups are quicker [than real life groups] to reach an intellectual understanding of their shared problems”, but “they are much worse at generating the trust and reciprocity necessary to implement that understanding”. Putnam adds: “Building trust and goodwill is not easy in cyberspace”. Cheating would be more common online than offline.
However, the current massive diffusion of social media has proven that “a major facet of social networking and part of its vast success” lies in “the communicational desires and motivations –the need to connect and relate to others” (Fenton, 2012, in Curran, J., et al.: Misunderstanding the Internet). This author notes that “social media have been invested with the ability to facilitate the development of strong relations with family members and friends and weaker relations with a range of acquaintances”.
What are your views on these arguments?Dear Iolanda-Gabriela,
This situation is very well discussed in the book Sapiens of Yuval Noah Harari.
Your observation is true and it is explained by the following.
-The human being evolved with its life based on a family inside a community where each one knew the other.
-In most cases this is not true any more. Then, we try to compensate what we lost by creating and belonging to groups that resemble our family and community ties.Following
- 2Is it possible to program an ARM microcontroller by MATLAB to work as an ADC?
to whom may concern!
I am working on a project witch I need an 8 channel ADC by ARM microcontroller Xmega xx. As I know nothing about programming an ARM microcontroller, I've decided to program it by MATLAB.
Is there any way to convert MATLAB code to program this microcontroller? Infact I mean without installing MATLAB itself on the microcontroller to compile the program.
In principle it should be doable with Simulink (extension of Matlab). But you will find out that this is more about complicating the task than about easing it.
You could look for an 'Arduino' board (see https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arduino) sporting the 8 analog inputs you obviously need. If one is available, the arduino 'ecosystem' to some extend might ease your task.
BTW: xmega does not have an ARM core but the Atmel proprietary AVR core.Following
- 1Are there studies suggesting differences in skin microbiome profile in young and old human skin?
There are some anecdotal evidence suggesting changes in human skin microbiome in young and old skin. Are there any biomarkers or class of bacteria that could be targeted to revert to the microbiome profile in young skin.
We did some work on microbiome of mithuns of different ages and there was significant difference among young and adults, you may look at:https://www.researchgate.net/publication/274250823_Aerobic_mesophilic_bacterial_flora_of_vagina_of_healthy_mithun_Bos_frontalisFollowing
- 1What are disadvantages and limitations of mutant enrichment with 3'-modified oligonucleotides (MEMO)-PCR?
I am going to detect BRAF v600e mutation in colorectal cancer sample and currently looking for appropriate methods to compare and to use. I am thinking of doing MEMO-PCR but still lack of information about the disadvantages of this method, comparing to prior methods.
The following publication describes the mentioned method (MEMO) along with its limitations and advantages. The opinions depicted in this article are for some experts in the field:
Korean Group Develops Inexpensive Sequence-Enrichment Method for Mutation Detection
Nov 03, 2011
By Ben Butkus
Scientists from Korea's Samsung Medical Center have developed a sequence-enrichment technique for identifying trace mutant DNA sequences in a high background of normal DNA, according to research published last month.
The method, called mutant enrichment with 3'-modified oligonucleotides, or MEMO, can be used in tandem with quantitative real-time PCR, high-resolution melt curve analysis, or downstream Sanger sequencing to detect common cancer mutations with a high degree of sensitivity and specificity, and is cheaper and easier to use than existing methods, according to the researchers.
Despite the technique's potential cost savings, however, it may not provide the same degree of enrichment for downstream PCR analysis as current methods, and may not be able to enrich unknown mutations in longer sequence stretches, according to one expert.
The researchers from Samsung Medical Center, an independent research institute and teaching hospital of the Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, described the MEMO method in a paper published in October in theJournal of Molecular Diagnostics.
The technique, they wrote, is similar to PCR clamping techniques that use peptide nucleic acids or locked nucleic acids — the rights of which are owned by Life Technologies and Exiqon, respectively — to increase probe specificity and binding strength.
However, in MEMO the PNA or LNA is replaced by 3'-modified oligonucleotides that feature an extension-inhibiting compound on their 3' ends and are added to a PCR reaction mixture along with two generic primers.
The blocking primer encompasses the target mutation site and complements the wild-type sequences. One of the two generic primers overlaps with the blocking primer by several bases, neighboring the target mutation site and thus competing with the blocking primer, the researchers wrote.
In turn, the DNA binding of the blocking primer "dominates for wild-type sequences, whereas its affinity for mutant sequences is markedly reduced due to mismatches," the researchers wrote. "The loss of competition of the blocking primer enables selective amplification of mutant sequences by the generic primer pair."
As described in the JMD paper, the Korean researchers evaluated the ability of the MEMO method to detect common cancer mutations in the EGFR, KRAS, BRAF, TP53, JAK2, and NPM1 genes, and observed sensitivities ranging from 10-2 to 10-6 when combining the technique with downstream Sanger sequencing.
According to the researchers, this sensitivity depends on the properties of the primers and the experimental conditions, as well as the nature of the mutation and its surrounding sequences.
In addition, although MEMO can potentially be coupled with subsequent quantitative real-time PCR and melting curve analysis, the researchers found that the technique's sensitivity suffered in these instances.
"Although MEMO-PCR and Sanger sequencing showed sensitivities up to 10-6, MEMO-PCR and melting curve analysis showed ambiguous patterns in samples with very low mutant concentrations (from 10-6 to 10-4)," the researchers wrote. "This might be attributed to the fact that the resolution of melting curve analysis is affected by many factors including template or final DNA concentrations."
Nevertheless, the authors claimed that at the very least, MEMO combined with Sanger sequencing resulted in sensitivities similar to those of PNA- or LNA-mediated methods, and the MEMO probes "are much less expensive and are easy to design."
It is unclear how much less expensive MEMO probe design would be compared to PNAs or LNAs. The Korean researchers did not provide cost details in their paper, and the corresponding author could not be reached for comment.
Mike Makrigiorgos, an associate professor and director of medical physics and biophysics at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and inventor of a competing enrichment method — co-amplification at lower denaturation temperature, or COLD-PCR — told PCR Insider this week that although the MEMO technique was "elegant," it seemed to be a minor modification of concepts that have existed for a while.
"PNA [and] LNA probes that operate on the same principle as MEMO have been known for a while," Makrigiorgos said. And while he agreed that PNA/LNA probes are more expensive than MEMO probes, "one would expect that they provide a better enrichment of mutant DNA during PCR. Finally, high-resolution melting techniques already use unmodified oligonucleotides … similar to MEMO … to identify base changes and SNPs following PCR."
Makrigiorgos also noted that COLD-PCR and an improved version recently developed in his lab called Ice-COLD PCR have an advantage over MEMO and techniques such as PNA- and LNA-mediated clamping because "they uniquely enable enrichment of unknown mutations at any position of longer sequences," for example, of 150 to 200 basepairs, "and hence match well with downstream sequencing technologies. Techniques like MEMO and LNA/PNA essentially address mutations at known positions of sequences up to 20 bases long."
Indeed, the Korean researchers noted in their paper that current limitations of MEMO include the fact that "only mutations in a known target region (within the coverage of blocking primers) can be enriched, and sensitivities may vary according to different base substitutions in the same target regions."
Even so, the researchers believe that MEMO has the potential to provide a cheap and easy alternative in situations where "minority alleles of clinical significance are present and sensitive detection is required."
Besides cancer mutation detection, the authors suggest that the technique can be useful for identifying variant strains in infectious diseases, detecting minor mutant alleles in patients with low-level somatic mosaicism or mitochondrial heteroplasmy, and characterizing fetal mutations from maternal plasma samples.
To view the original article, please use the following link:
I am also attaching the original paper in which full description of the method is illustrated.
Hoping this will be helpful,
- 2Mozilla has very interesting campaign for Gb/s future of the networksPlease contribute, comment, validate, show value, enhance and vote.
Feb. 6th 2016
I was alarmed to learn about the Natick Project given my earlier project proposal in August 2012. In that year, I submitted the very same idea of underwater data centers through the Mozilla Ignite contest. I had hoped that such an idea would benefit human kind and the planet. But also I had hoped that by having this idea in the public sphere, corporations would be prevented from patenting the idea. As you can see, the Natick Research Project website describes the problems in a very similar manner as I had. (See https://www.mozillaignite.org/ideas/169/)
The team admits to having thought of the idea well after I had published my idea. I have a difficult time imagining that Microsoft would not have done their due diligence in searching to see if others had previously expressed a similar idea. Indeed, had they done so, I imagine that my project would have been found.Following
- NewCan you share your experience in implementing Framework-based teaching for Financial Reporting Standards in your countries?
We want to learn from you. Thank you.Following
- 1How to compare the result of the antibiotic susceptibility by disc diffusion method for the lactic acid bacteria and i dont have ATCC control?
What is the reference for the result of antibiotic susceptibility for lactic acid bacteria? i already measured the zones of inhibition but how to compare the result to classified my isolates to resistant, intermediate and susceptible?
Note: i didnt make ATCC bacteria as control.
You may do it now for some strains with reference ATCC strain or you may use reference tables provided by the producer of the discs. For more You may see chapter two at the link:Following
- 11Does anyone have experience with Splenocytes attachment to plates?
Hi, I need some help for my mixed lymphocytes culture to determine cell proliferation. I irradiated my splenocytes for about 7Gy to block the proliferation but I'm not sure whether it will block the proliferation or not. Then, I found out many splenocytes attached on the place after I re-suspended it before I proceeded to flow cytometry analysis. I can not determine the proliferation because I just took suspension cells which are mostly dead cells. Any idea? Thanks.
I think it is impossible to let the splenocytes to attach as many as possible because it is a mixture of different cell types. My previous experiment was to stop its (stimulator) proliferation so that the proliferation of responder cell can be determined.
For your aim, I'm not pretty sure how to improve the number of attached splenocytes but according to my previous experiment, the number of attached cells increased after prolonged culture period. It must be the apc.Following
- 3Linkages between Sociology and Malnutrition?
what is the linkages between Sociology and Malnutrition or how to link Sociology with Malnutrition?
I think the answer to your question is YES there is connection between the social culture and the nutrition. many of the studies have proved that the child nutrition is affected by the culture. Various national programs are devoted to promote the nutritional values in India at least.
Exactly what you want to do in these subjects is not clear.Following
- 2Does anyone have an idea about segmentation brain tissue MRI images for detecting tumor?
Hi all, I need suggestions for segmentation method for brain MRI images. In first part of my work, I should have segmentation of brain images and then detect the tumor with my method. Segmentation is an importance part of my work. If anybody is relative with segmentation algorithms, please help me?
Thank you for your answer. However, I saw these papers before, but these are so useful.
In my work, I try to combine meta heuristic algorithms with recent powerful approaches. Do you have any idea in this topic?Following
- 1II have a paper on determinants of focused ante natal care. Which journal can publish for me?
Duration, cost and journal reputation is critical
There are hundreds of journals that you can choose. The point is that you need to be prepared for rejections and corrections because an average of 70% of the manuscripts submitted to prestigious journals are rejected.
Even rejected, you receive important corrections that allow you to prepare a much better version of the manuscript.
I am sending you a list of journals with their respective impact fator. Choose one from this list to submitt your manuscritp.
I wish you good luck,
- 1What is gel characteristic should i use to run very small fragment of dna (50-100 bp)?
i extract exosomal DNA and i tried to run it on gel (2% agarose gel) but i did not see any bands, i think my DNA could be smaller than 100 bp. has any one have an idea ???? do i should tray higher concentration of gel?
Before running on gel, did you confirm (by UV or Qubit fluorometer) that sample extracted from exosomes actually contained detectable amount of DNA in it? I am not sure you would extract (if at all) enough DNA from exosomes that can be visualized on agarose gel stained with Ethidium bromide. A minimum of 10 ng DNA is required to be visualized on Ethidium bromide -stained gels.Following
- 18Does anyone have any input for my DNP project?
I am a DNP student online at Chamberlain College of Nursing. I am beginning my proposal for my project. My PICOT is: In the adult patient diagnosed with heart failure does remote monitoring compared to written discharge education reduce the 30 day hospital readmission rate? Any thoughts or input will be greatly appreciated. I have been so overwhelmed with work and school. I have had fleeting thoughts this week of giving up on the DNP journey. I have worked so hard the past 19 months. I know I have to sacrifice in order to receive. It is just so tiring. I have worked from the age of 19 as a LPN to my present MSN-working and going back to school. I currently teach nursing in a community college setting. I love what I do! I love nursing. Oh well. This was cathartic. I thank you ahead of time if you are taking the time to read this.
Don't stop. You are on the right path!! You have come this far. Keep going.Following
- 6Who bears the Environmental Costs in this City?
The importance of this question is to determine the different roles and its responsibilities in Designing and conducting Climate change action plan.
This is a very interesting questions. Ministry of Environment is the nodal agency with other department being instructed for guidelines to be followed in implementation. The respective departments execute their jobs for environmental controls. They provide basic instructions/education to various stakeholders and general masses for control of the environments through different communication media as well surveys/meeting them directly.
Some of the developed industries also take part in providing the instructions/trainings. It is basically public-private - corporate partnership.
Some sectoral based case studies are carried in order to work out the major polluters, to the industries through district/provincial pollution control boards the appropriate costs for polluting the environments are taken, as well strict instructions are passed to them for control options to be strictly followed, with strict warning too.
The contributors, who are poor or common masses, are to be further educated for the instructions to be followed for control of the environment and some rulings/controls on public distribution system will automatically control the environmental pollution.
Carbon credit type of venture is not feasible in this situation and some regular trainings/communications to the general masses are to be carried out for reducing the degradation, whereas the industries and other organisations, who are developed as well if creating the major point/non-point source of pollution should bear the cost and some of the organisations who believe in corporate social responsibilities should join with govt agency to provide the trainings and instructions
- 13The Definition of Set, Potential Infinite Set, Actual Infinite Set ？
There have been three suspended questions in present classical set theory ever since:
1, the definition of set------should the definition of set concern the nature of elements inside the set? How we distinguish different sets（Such as Odd Number Set and Natural Number Set）? Will the nature of elements inside the set decide the existing state of the set as well as its relationship with other set?
But, it is “the different natures of the elements in real number set and natural number set” that make Cantor proved the different cardinalities between the two sets.
2, how to judge whether a set belongs to “potential infinite set” or “actual infinite set” or both “potential infinite set” and “actual infinite set”? What kind of nature do the elements have inside “potential infinite set” or “actual infinite set” or both “potential infinite set” and “actual infinite set”?
3, can we have many different bijection proofs with different result between two infinite sets? If we can, what conclusion should people choose in front of two opposite results, why?
Dear Dr. Panchatcharam Mariappan, I am very sorry to say that I really don’t care “How many degrees is the earth tilted?”. So, I am unable to answer your question.
- 20Praxis versus academic noises?
Karl Marx states in "Theses on Feuerbach" that "The philosophers have only interpreted the world in various ways; the point, however, is to change it." (Thesis Eleven) I must admit that I'm all the more persuaded by that statement as time goes by. When was the last time you heard voices of conviction and righteousness oozed out from academia and how often do you see an academician get his/her hands dirty?
If you want to get you hands dirty, here's a link:
Hm, I guess this post so far has not been qualified as a question. So let me ask this: what do you think of Marx's Thesis Eleven in "Theses on Feuerbach"?
Work is instrumental? Art work is instrumental? How about producing less philosophy and doing more "manual" work or something that might be closer to "reality"? Probably what Marx meant? And what exactly means the monster vs. the Feminin side "caring, artistic, religious"? Beauty and the Beast? I'm lost here.Following
- 4How does the study of rock art and archaeology make a difference?
Are these studies relevant? Can they contribute anything to our contemporary industrial society? What types of people would see our academic and conservation efforts to be of value?
In the renaissance before cave painting were discovered, before science and archeology existed,Leon Batista Alberti (1404-1472), De Statua speculated how painting could have originated:
"I believe that the arts which aim at imitating the creations of nature originated
in the following way: in a tree trunk, a lump of earth, or in some other
thing were accidentally discovered one day certain contours that needed only a
very slight change to look strikingly like some natural object. Noticing this, people
tried to see if it were not possible by addition or subtraction to complete
what still was lacking for a perfect likeness. Thus by adjusting and removing
outlines and planes in the way demanded by the object itself, men achieved what
they wanted, and not without pleasure. From that day, man's capacity to create
images grew apace until he was able to create any likeness, even when there was
no vague outline in the material to aid him.”Following
- 3What effect would setting to zero the lower-order bit planes have on the histogram of an image in general?
As already stated, setting the LBS to 0 will eliminate every 2nd member (the odd ones) of the histogram. At the same time, the remaining members will show the sum of the previous even value (N) PLUS the value of its previous successor (N+1).
Be honest: are we solving your homework questions ?Following
- 2What ions are transported through the separator in redox flow batteries?
In vanadium redox flow batteries, what kind of ions are transported through the separator and why do we relate EDLC with redox flow batteries?
Yes, H+ ions pass through the PEM (proton exchange membrane). The direction depends upon whether it is being charged or discharged.
I am afraid I do not understand what you mean by "relate EDLC with redox flow batteries". Redox flow batteries are Faradaic, while EDLC are non-Faradaic; they are almost completely opposite approaches to electrochemical energy storage!Following
- 6How to quantify Cr (VI) and Cr (III) concentration in a given solution comprises other elements like Ca and Fe?
1) Except HPLC and Ionic Chromatography, do ICP-MS have the capability to separate and determine the concentration of Cr (VI) and Cr (III)?
2) Do titration using 0.1M thiosulfate standardization against potassium dichromate give reasonable outcome?
Thank you and looking forward to the respond from expert.
Have a nice day.
Dear M. Schmiech, M. Pach, G. Ploegaerts, R. Margarini:
First of all i am here to wish a Merrt Chinese New Year to you all.😇😇.
I had check for the available instrumentation and spec of my samples. Sadly, my Institute does not have IC. However my Institute do have ICP-MS which can determine concentration of Cr and Cr(iii). Mr M. Patch, just to double confirm, do you mean concentration of Cr minus Cr(iii) give me concentration of Cr(vi).
G. Ploegaerts, thanks for the reminder else i will do a childish job.
R. Margarini, i am able to determine total chromium. May i know more about how to determine Cr(vi) by UV-Vis with diphenyl carbazide. I will study on it first then consult you. I have no idea yet.
Frankly speaking, i dont aspect any reply as i am undergraduate student, Thank you for you all to give precious advise and direction when i am lost. Thank you again.Following
- 9Who is an orphan? How do you deal / help or treat orphans in your city/ country? Do you have enough orphanages in your city/ country?
Orphans are relatively rare in developed countries, because most children can expect both of their parents to survive their childhood. Much higher numbers of orphans exist in war-torn nations such as Afghanistan, Iraq and Syria.Following
- 31Who is a sycophant? Is sycophancy an Art?
We see sycophants in all the fields - political, social, administrative ......
Do you think it is an art that is harmless or something that harms the organisational culture severely.
What kind of sycophants are prevalent in your part of the world.
In fact, a sycophant, flatterer is an intellectual person; a good judge of nature and situation; possess presence of mind; has command over certain words; well-rehearsed way of presentation; a meeliflous tongue and immense patience to wait for the right moment. They rehearse their words many times silently before uttering them. ~ Prof. Shrikant PrasoonFollowing
- 1What is the mechanism and theory ofreduction of hexacyanoferrate by ascorbic acid?
The attached pdf file describes in details the theoretical and experimental parts of the reduction of hexacyanoferrate by ascorbic acid (Vitamin C). I have copied the first paragraphs from the publication for quick view.
THE OXIDATION OF ASCORBIC ACID
BY HEXACYANOFERRATE(III) ION
The Effect of Sodium Nitrate on the Reaction Rate2
I. PURPOSE OF THE EXPERIMENT
This is an integrated experiment that includes topics from inorganic, organic, analytical,
physical, and computational chemistry. It is designed to introduce you to the basics of:
• how to acquire experimental kinetic data for a chemical reaction;
• how to perform data manipulation in order to extract information such as reaction order
and rate constants from experimental kinetic data;
• how to assess the effect of the reaction environment upon rate constant. In the present
case, how adding a salt modifies the environment.
Pieced together, correct information will elucidate the reaction mechanism. Also, the numerical
results allow a convincing check of the validity of the mechanistic assumptions.
This experiment will contribute to improving your lab technique in the following areas:
• precise volumetric and gravimetric measurements
• correct handling of the UV-VIS instrument
• use Microsoft Excel Solver (see Appendix 3) that provides the graphical and numerical
output resulting from your experimental data.
1. Ascorbic acid (Vitamin C): Pleasant, sharp acidic taste. Stable in air when dry. Aqueous
solutions are rapidly oxidized by air. Alkalies, iron, and copper accelerate the reaction. Used as
antimicrobial and antioxidant in foodstuffs. Not considered toxic except in immense quantities.
2. Potassium Hexacyanoferrate (III): The aqueous solution decomposes on standing. Avoid
contact with acid. Harmful solid. NOTE: cyanide (CN–
) ions are highly toxic but are tightly
bound to the iron nucleus in this compound and so are not available in solution. (This is what
happens when cyanide gets into your blood: it binds to the iron centers in hemoglobin making it
impossible for red blood cells to carry oxygen to the organism, thus killing by asphyxiation.) But
when hexacyanoferrate decomposes or hydrolyzes to release free CN–
, it forms a lethal poison.
3. Nitric Acid: Irritant, toxic, avoid eye contact, harmful if inhaled, causes severe burn. May
be fatal if swallowed or ingested. Strong oxidizer. Contact with other materials may cause fire.
4. EDTA: Harmful solid, irritant.
5. Sodium Nitrate: Avoid eye contact, ingestion. Strong oxidizer, toxic, irritant. Target
organs: Blood and nerves.
Hoping this will be helpful,
- 1An algorithm for an n*n filter, showing the nature of the computations involved and the scanning sequence used for moving the mask around the image?
You will easily find algorithms in the literature.
In general, these filters involve adding/subtracting (always), multiplication (often) and division (sometimes).
The scanning sequence tends to be 1st in x, then in y. But this is not mandatory, just convenience, as the images tend to be available as arrays[x[[y].Following
- 3What are the methods that I can used to determine a particular RNA binding on it's cognate RNA stability and translation?
Can anyone suggests me what are the methods that I can used to determine a particular RNA binding effect on it's cognate RNA stability and translation?
Thanks for all...Following
- NewAn addendum to my earlier question?
The idea of fixing the cells with 4% Paraformaldehyde/ ethanol is to make sure the cells do not wash off and are still present during the whole process .
So if I wanted to do this experiment the steps I would follow would be to
1. Remove media in which cells are initially growing
2. Wash gently with PBS without disrupting cells too much
3. Fix with 4% PFA for 10mins at room temperature
4. Incubate with mix of Calcien-AM and EtBr in PBS/serm free media for 30mins @ 37degrees
Now my doubts are should i skip step 3 and just go directly to step 4 or what other steps do I need to include so my staining works perfectly.Following
- 2How can i know about Helicopter Aerodynamics?
i want to prepare a seminar topic about Helicopter Aerodynamics.
I would also add this concise resource, with good references itself:
- 33Do we do everything consciously and intentionally?
Is it possible for our actions to be unconscious and unintentional?
Can we categorize our acts/actions as conscious nd unconscious and intentional and unintentional?
Dear Carlo Toljan,
the paper you have indicated, by Jeffrey M. Schwartz, Henry P. Stapp and Mario Beauregard, is really hard to understand. Can you make a brief account of it? I must be missing some key concepts.
What does it make change when we see brain as a quantum system? Are the authors thinking that the state of mind correspond to a quantum state of the brains system? As brain has a big mass, the quantum states must be extremely numerous and we may see them continuous.Following
- 10Are the laws of physics true by themselves?
Or are they just mathematical models that are accepted to predict experiments ?.
Akram Hourani ,
I take a theory to be a statement about Nature. And I do not take the theory to describe Nature in itself. It is not because the theory is not the ultimate theory or that because the theory is only approximative. It is because of the essential difference between what the theory predicate about Nature in terms of the theory itself and Nature itself. I is like the difference between a map and the territory. It is not by increasing the accuracy of the map that the map become the territory. The map or the theory is a guide to how I can move on the territory and it does not describe everything that can be described of what exist on this territory. So theories are created by us for interacting with the world, our getting around the territory but are not the territory description but usefull tool of interaction with the territory.Following