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  • Alfredo Pereira Junior added an answer in Cognitive Systems:
    99+
    Is Chalmers' so-called "hard problem" in consciousness real?

    In his 2014 book "Consciousness and the Brain: Deciphering How the Brain Codes Our Thoughts" Stanislas Dehaene wrote "Chalmers, a philosopher of the University of Arizona, is famous for introducing a distinction between the easy and the hard problems. The easy problem of consciousness, he argues, consists in explaining the many functions of the brain: how do we recognize a face, a word, or a landscape? How do we extract information form the senses and use it to guide our behavior? How do we generate sentences to describe what we feel?

    “Although all these questions are associated with consciousness,” Chalmers argues, “they all concern the objective mechanisms of the cognitive system, and consequently, we have every reason to expect that continued work in cognitive psychology and neuroscience will answer them. By contrast the hard problem is the “question of how physical processes in the brain give rise to subjective experience … the way things feel for the subject. When we see for example, we experience visual sensations, such as that of vivid blue. Or think of the ineffable sound of a distant oboe, the agony of an intense pain, the sparkle of happiness or the meditative quality of a moment lost in thought … It is these phenomena that poses the real mystery of the mind”."

    Stanislas Dehaene's opinion is "that Chalmers swapped the labels: it is the “easy” problem that is hard, while the “hard” problem just seems hard because it engages ill-defined intuitions. Once our intuition is educated by cognitive neuroscience and computer simulations, Chalmers’ “hard problem” will evaporate".

    Personally, I agree with Stanislas Dehaene's opinion.

    Alfredo Pereira Junior

    Dear Erkki, you wrote:

    "Through “communication” the SELF attains feelings, emotions etc. and construes the subjective experience. I do not see any phenomenological gap. What other way is there?"

    Alfredo: Communication requires a source and a receiver, and the transmission of a message between them. My point was that self-reference is not communication, because in self-reference the source and receiver are the same system and there is no message being transmitted (just the Self perceiving him/herself as a sentient system).

    The gap appears when we try to apprehend the Self cognitively; in this case, we focus on the objective projections of the Self (images, representations, symbols) instead of referring to the Self him/herself. There is a gap in the sense that the Self who is the subject of these objective experiences remains hidden from our apperception! Only with some training (as in meditation, Socratic philosophy) it is possible to move attention from the projections and refer to the Self him/herself. When this shift happens, a feeling emerges in the place of the projections.

    I know that these assumptions are not shared by cognitivists like Arnold. I came a long way from cognitivism until I grasped this alternative approach and related it with brain tissue activity.



  • Yongfeng Wang added an answer in Geology:
    7
    Calculation of norms?

    Does anybody have a program or worksheet to calculate the norms of a spinel lherzolite using the calculation schemes of Kelemen et al. (1992, Nature). The same method has been followed by Walter (2003, Treatise on Geochemistry). Thanks. 

    Yongfeng Wang

    Hi, Michele, I appreciate it very much for your quick answer. I will talk to you later on this problem once I get my all data processed.

  • Neha Chhattani asked a question in Browsers:
    New
    Which programming language can be used for web based image processing on browser side especially for large tiff images?

    I want to do image processing in browser for remotely sensed images. i want to know which programming languages can be used for this??

  • Mohsen Ghanea added an answer in Clustering:
    4
    Can anyone help with FCM clustering?

    Does anybody know if scikit-fuzzy is available for FCM clustering? Any suggestions of what programming language I should use?

    Thanks

    Mohsen Ghanea

    To gain more information about FCM, you can refer to the following publication:

    • Source
      [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
      ABSTRACT: In studies of high-resolution satellite (HRS) imagery, the extraction of man-made features such as roads and buildings has become quite attractive to the photogrammetric and remote-sensing communities. The extraction of 2D images from buildings in a dense urban area is an intricate problem, due to the variety of shapes, sizes, colours, and textures. To overcome the problem, many case studies have been conducted; however, they have frequently contained isolated buildings with low variations of shapes and colours and/or high contrast with respect to adjacent features. As an alternative, this study uses continuous building blocks along with high variation in shape, colour, radiance, size, and height. In addition, some non-building features include either the same or similar materials to that of building rooftops. Thus, there is low contrast between building and non-building features. The core components of the algorithm are: (1) multispectral binary filtering, (2) sub-clustering and single binary filtering, (3) multi-conditional region growing, and (4) post-processing. This approach was applied to a dense urban area in Tehran, Iran, and a semi-urban area in Hongshan district, Wuhan city, central China. A quantitative comparison was carried out between the proposed and three other algorithms for the Wuhan case study. GeoEye multispectral imagery was used in both case studies. The results show that the proposed algorithm correctly extracted the majority of building and non-building features in both case studies. The short running time of this algorithm along with precise manual editing can generate accurate building maps for practical applications.
      Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · International Journal of Remote Sensing
  • Mostafa Iravani asked a question in Petrophysics:
    New
    What is "I.O.I%" in XRD results?

    I have petrophysical properties of a core included I.O.I% which is about 10% and I wanna use the results to model a geochemical mechanism.

  • Marcelo Guimarães Silva added an answer in Biotechnology:
    2
    What is the future of bio medical engineering?

    biomedical engineering is important for millions to help heart patients and all  tools to help artificial organs ,which are now required by millionsThe human heart is a pump that is made of muscle tissue. A special group of cells
    called the sinus node is located in the right atrium. The sinus node generates
    electrical stimuli that make the heart contract and pump out blood. The normal
    human heart beats about 75 times per minute (i.e., about 40 million times a year) –
    i.e., the heart pumps 5 l of blood per minute. The normal systemic blood pressure is
    120/80 mmHg. The mechanical power (calculated by multiplying the pressure by
    the flow rate) of the human heart is about 1.3W. However, to provide this
    mechanical power, the heart requires 10 times much higher rate of energy turnover,
    owing to its low mechanical efficiency (less than 10%).
    However, the development in biotechnology can open the opportunity for
    tissue engineering (a branch of biotechnology) – a prospect of saving people with
    extremely complex or irreversible failure heart will still be realized using mechanical
    heart support devices.
    During the last half-century, various blood pumps were introduced into
    clinical practice, which can partially support or replace the heart during openheart
    surgery or considerably for a longer time period until heart recovers or
    until transplantation is performed. Several millions of people owe their health
    and lives to these devices.so what are the future of this topic now?

    Marcelo Guimarães Silva

    Dear Tareq,

    Biomedical engineering (BME) is a scientific area which is growing and is a vital and growing part of the health investigation. This expansion is due to many factors, including:

    - scientific and technological advances in molecular and cell biology, materials science, and engineering disciplines;

    - the increasing recognition of the role of interdisciplinary strategies to solve complex biomedical problems;

    - the aging of the population leading to increasing health-care needs and the associated demands and costs.

    In addition, I reccomend these following material:

    - Mechanical ventricular assistance as destination therapy for end-stage heart failure: has it become a first line therapy? Hypothesis & Theory ARTICLE, Cardiac Surgery, Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, University of Florence, Florence, Italy, 2015.

    - Rachit M. Shah, Megha Goyal, Suchi Shah, Sharath Kommu, Anit Mankad and Rohit R. Arora. Ventricular Assist Devices: Expanding Role for Long Term Cardiac Support. Medicine » Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine » "Recent Advances in the Field of Ventricular Assist Devices", book edited by Kazuo Komamura, (chapetr 1), 2013.

    I hope these previous studies about this subject can help you. In any way, these are the new studies or investigations in this science domain.

    Sincerely yours,

    + 1 more attachment

  • Edmilson Ozorio asked a question in Aurora:
    New
    Is it possible for a cell to express CASP3 (I have seen this by WB) without cell death (I have seen it by time laspe assay under the same conditions)?

    Is it possible for a cell to express CASP3 (I have seen this by Western blotting assays) without cell death (I have seen no cell death by time laspe assays under the same conditions).

    In my cell-based model I use A549 (KRAS-active lung cancer cell) and treat them with Aurora Inhibitor II (a dual inhibitor which blocks both mitotic Aurora kinases A and B) for 72h. There is an incresing in CASP3 expression. However, during time-lapse assays I noticed that my cells enter in mitosis and readhere to the plate without completing cell divison. So they became polyploid, without dying...

    How could I explain that?

  • Sameer Padhye asked a question in Postdoctoral Research:
    New
    Impact factor for post doctoral applications ?

    How important is the cumulative impact factor while applying for post doctoral positions ?

  • Vagelis Plevris added an answer in Model Selection:
    1
    It is my new paper which is published in the journal of neurocomputing. It propes a new model selection strategy in neural networks?

    http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0925231215014952

    Vagelis Plevris

    Publishing such a paper is very nice and congratulations on that. But why should you pose a question on ResearchGate about that? This is not what questions on RG are about. With all the respect, that's improper use of this feature.

  • Peres Ohawa asked a question in Procurement:
    New
    What are the effect of implementation of procurement practices in public institutions/universities?

    theories on procurement

    empirical review

  • Mohsen Ghanea added an answer in Clustering Algorithms:
    14
    Cloud you suggest me a clustering method ?

    hello all,

    I need a clustering algorithm that verify this condition:

    • Do Not require specification of cluster number a prioris.
    • The cluster density  is different in the data.
    • The complixity is minimum.

    I read about DBSCAN that verify some of this condition I don't know if it exist an other algorithm.

    Bast regards

    Thank you

    Mohsen Ghanea

    I suggest you K-means and FCM. To gain more information, you can refer to the following publication: 

    • Source
      [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
      ABSTRACT: In studies of high-resolution satellite (HRS) imagery, the extraction of man-made features such as roads and buildings has become quite attractive to the photogrammetric and remote-sensing communities. The extraction of 2D images from buildings in a dense urban area is an intricate problem, due to the variety of shapes, sizes, colours, and textures. To overcome the problem, many case studies have been conducted; however, they have frequently contained isolated buildings with low variations of shapes and colours and/or high contrast with respect to adjacent features. As an alternative, this study uses continuous building blocks along with high variation in shape, colour, radiance, size, and height. In addition, some non-building features include either the same or similar materials to that of building rooftops. Thus, there is low contrast between building and non-building features. The core components of the algorithm are: (1) multispectral binary filtering, (2) sub-clustering and single binary filtering, (3) multi-conditional region growing, and (4) post-processing. This approach was applied to a dense urban area in Tehran, Iran, and a semi-urban area in Hongshan district, Wuhan city, central China. A quantitative comparison was carried out between the proposed and three other algorithms for the Wuhan case study. GeoEye multispectral imagery was used in both case studies. The results show that the proposed algorithm correctly extracted the majority of building and non-building features in both case studies. The short running time of this algorithm along with precise manual editing can generate accurate building maps for practical applications.
      Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · International Journal of Remote Sensing
  • Arturo Geigel added an answer in Educational Technology:
    2
    How can we measure programming skills?

    Is there any validated instrument? I'm specially interested on initial programming but until now I only found instruments for advanced programming.

    Thank you

    Arturo Geigel

    I taught beginning, intermediate and advanced programming for several years and one flaw that I have seen during this time is trying to isolate learning by modules. While module assessment is useful for learning, programming progresses in an incremental fashion. My approach was to have the evaluations divided into module(had to do it because of departmental requisites), module comprehension on top of previous material and problem solving and troubleshooting sections. At the end of each course (even introduction to programming) the students needed to hand in a project of complexity commensurate to the course level.

    I have found from working in the industry that graduates who come seeking work based on module based programming learning to come with huge deficiencies in understanding problem solving. They know the syntax but do not know how to solve problems.

  • Refik Kanjhan added an answer in Primary Neurons:
    1
    Big capacitance value of cultured neurons when whole cell patch clamp: is it because of the surrounding glial cells in my culture?

    Dear all,

    I have primary cultures of hippocampal neurons from P1 mouse pups, plated on poly-lysine coated Mattek dishes. After about 10 days of culture (in Neurobasal/B27 medium changed every 2-3 days) I see glial cells in my cultures which proliferate quite a lot afterwards.

    When I patch my neurons at days + 10 to 17 (PatchMaster - HEKA amplifier), the values of capacitance I get when entering in whole cell configuration are very big (more than 90pF, increasing with time up to 150pF) and I can't compensate properly/at all (the neurons start oscillating and usually crashed).

    I was wondering if this could be due to the glial cells around which may make gap junctions with neurons, thus that I can't clamp properly,

    If so, do you recommend that I stop the proliferation of the glial cells?

    I could still patch the neurons before days+10 when there is still not so much glial cells, but I want to record NaV currents and I am not sure whether the neurons are mature enough to exhibit these currents before ten days of culture.

    Does anyone know something about the maturation of currents in primary neurons along time?

    Thanks for your help

    Zoe

    Refik Kanjhan

    Dear Zoe,

    Dye-coupling among neuronal cells is very high at P1, and Usually neurons and glia are not dye- coupled via gap junctions at this age group. Unless it is artefact introduced by the dissociation/culture conditions. I think it is more likely there is neuro-neuronal coupling (homogeneous) between your neuronal cells. I think if you implement my simple neurobiotin electroporation method you can find the answer.  The morphological examination after neurobiotin or biocytin filling will help you see what is going on: gap junctional coupling or just overgrown cells with extensive arborizations?

    best wishes, Refik

    • Source
      [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
      ABSTRACT: Intracellular sharp-electrode, whole-cell patch clamp and juxtacellular labeling methods have previously been developed for combined analysis of neuronal structure and function. We describe a novel electroporation technique for labeling neurons with Neurobiotin, using patch electrodes in a semi-loose seal configuration (R = 100-300 MOmega) with very small amplitude pulses (50 mV). The addition of 2% Neurobiotin to the intracellular solution in the patch electrode reduces the dielectric membrane breakdown voltage threshold by about threefold. The resulting pore formation allows for (1) the stable recording of spontaneous and light-evoked postsynaptic potentials without significant cytoplasmic washout and (2) the passage of dye without spillover. The efficiency and reliability of the method makes it particularly suitable for the serial recording and labeling of multiple neurons in a small area of tissue.
      Full-text · Article · Aug 2008 · Pflügers Archiv - European Journal of Physiology

    + 2 more attachments

  • Vagelis Plevris added an answer in Optimization Algorithms:
    8
    What are the particles (code wise) in Particle / Genetical Swarm Optimization algorithm?

    Hi, I am trying to implement Particle (or Genetical) Swarm Optimization. However, I am already stuck in the first step...

    I am getting confused on how to initialise the particles, and what these particles (in terms of code) are.

    Can anyone explain, please?

    Thanks.

    Andrea.

    Vagelis Plevris

    The simplest way to represent a particle is a vector. For example, in an optimization problem with 3 design variables, each design (particle) is represented by a vector [x1, x2, x3]. So each particle is such a vector and represents a point in the 3D space (that we all know and can imagine). For problems with dimension > 3 it is difficult to imagine the particle and its position, but with N=3 you get the idea.

    Also, please read the following publication which has helpful information about PSO and its implementation in structural engineering problems:

    https://www.researchgate.net/publication/220373400_A_Hybrid_Particle_Swarm-Gradient_Algorithm_for_Global_Structural_Optimization

    • Source
      [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
      ABSTRACT: The particle swarm optimization (PSO) method is an instance of a successful application of the philosophy of bounded rationality and decentralized decision making for solving global optimization problems. A number of advantages with respect to other evolutionary algorithms are attributed to PSO making it a prospective candidate for optimum structural design. The PSO-based algorithm is robust and well suited to handle nonlinear, nonconvex design spaces with discontinuities, exhibiting fast convergence characteristics. Furthermore, hybrid algorithms can exploit the advantages of the PSO and gradient methods. This article presents in detail the basic concepts and implementation of an enhanced PSO algorithm combined with a gradient-based quasi-Newton sequential quadratic programming (SQP) method for handling structural optimization problems. The proposed PSO is shown to explore the design space thoroughly and to detect the neighborhood of the global optimum. Then the mathematical optimizer, starting from the best estimate of the PSO and using gradient information, accelerates convergence toward the global optimum. A nonlinear weight update rule for PSO and a simple, yet effective, constraint handling technique for structural optimization are also proposed. The performance, the functionality, and the effect of different setting parameters are studied. The effectiveness of the approach is illustrated in some benchmark structural optimization problems. The numerical results confirm the ability of the proposed methodology to find better optimal solutions for structural optimization problems than other optimization algorithms.
      Full-text · Article · Jan 2011 · Computer-Aided Civil and Infrastructure Engineering
  • Rafał Bielas added an answer in Cellulose:
    5
    Can anybody kindly suggest how to remove bubbles from Cellulose-Ionic liquid solutions?

    Hi All,

    I am working on dry-jet wet spinning with the cellulose-inionic liquid solutions (which named dope). After cellulose or cellulosic samples dissolved in ionic liquids, the solutions become viscous with a lot of bubbles inside. I tried with vacuum oven to get rid of bubbles in my lab (100 celsius, vacuum of 0.8-1.0 MPa, with or without stirring), but it seems it does not Work efficiently.

    I am wondering do any one can suggest other ways to get rid of bubbles from such viscous solutions within 10 hours.

    Best regards,

    Ming

    Rafał Bielas

    Try ultrasounds for few minutes. It works for viscous polymer solutions in ionic liquids 

  • Andrew Worsley added an answer in Cosmos:
    49
    What is the resolution of the black hole information paradox?

    -According to quantum theory, information -- whether it describes the velocity of a particle or the precise manner in which ink marks or pixels are arranged on a document -- cannot disappear from the universe. But the physicists Kip Thorne, John Preskill and Stephen Hawking have a standing bet: what would happen if you dropped a copy of the Encyclopaedia Britannica down a black hole? It does not matter whether there are other identical copies elsewhere in the cosmos. As defined in physics, information is not the same as meaning, but simply refers to the binary digits, or some other code, used to precisely describe an object or pattern. So it seems that the information in those particular books would be swallowed up and gone forever. And that is supposed to be impossible. Dr. Hawking and Dr. Thorne believe the information would indeed disappear and that quantum mechanics will just have to deal with it. Dr. Preskill speculates that the information doesn't really vanish: it may be displayed somehow on the surface of the black hole, as on a cosmic movie screen.  (taken from http://www.oglethorpe.edu/faculty/~m_rulison/top10.htm)

    Andrew Worsley

    Of course the information would disappear the book would be far more mangled by black hole that any shredder.

    Unfortunately in GTR the book would never fall into the black hole as time time stops at the event horizon, so the information is preserved in an odd way.

    However, there are other theories  that suggest that the book would continue to fall into a black hole, without the paradoxes of GTR

    Einstein did not predict the existence of black holes, in fact he denied their existence in a paper published in 1936, Simply because that would imply the existence of singularities, with infinite density and zero time passage at the event horizon.

    The force of gravity in General relativity  (GTR) is thought to come form the curvature of space-time.

    Unfortunately the maths of GTR implies infinite curvature and zero time passage at the black hole event horizon  and the black hole becomes a singularity- and yet the black hole has a radius.

    The Misner Wheeler Thorne interpretation partially resolved this in  that the singularity rests inside the event horizon.

    But yet another paradox arises if time stops at the event horizon (frozen star) no matter would fall in hence  black hole could not accumulate matter, and all the in-falling matter would be situated at or near the event horizon.

    The solution is to alter the maths of GR.

    Additionally GR falls down in a number of areas, so any new maths should also resolve these problems

    Yes GR works in the weak fields of the the solar system, and Intermediate
    fields of neutron stars. 

    1). It produces infinite density singularities in the very strong fields
    such as in black holes.

    2).It does not necessarily explain dark matter in galaxy cores where we
    know super-massive black holes exist and the galactic dark matter
    therein,

    3). It does not explain dark mater present in galactic halo's,and galactic
    clusters such as the bullet cluster,

    4).It does not explain the presence of cosmological dark matter as a whole.

    5). It has not yet been fully corroborated by the studies of neutron stars
    and in black holes.

    6). It does not easily explain the presence of dark energy and cannot be
    translated in quantum gravity.

    7). It predicts that time stops at the event horizon

    Here I enclose a number of publications which explain all of these
    phenomena, whilst agreeing with the results of GR where it has been
    thoroughly tested.

    1).First to obviate the infinite density singularities.

    1a)
    https://www.researchgate.net/publication/32897680_An_advanced_dynamic_adaptation_of_Newtonian_equations_of_gravity?ev=prf_pub

    1b)
    https://www.researchgate.net/publication/269689554_The_formulation_of_Dynamic_Newtonian_advanced_gravity_DNAg?ev=prf_pub

    2).Secondly we explain the presence of dark matter at the centre of the
    galaxy.

    2a)
    https://www.researchgate.net/publication/228858219_Advances_in_Black_Hole_Gravitational_Physics_and_Cold_Dark_Matter_Modelling._The_Gravity_of_Dark_Matter

    3) Thirdly it is possible to explain the presence of dark matter in the
    galactic halo.

    3a)
    https://www.researchgate.net/publication/269689929_Advances_in_Black_Hole_Physics_and_Dark_Matter_Modelling_of_the_Galactic_Halo?ev=prf_pub

    4). It is able to explain the presence of cosmological dark matter

    https://www.researchgate.net/publication/32897680_An_advanced_dynamic_adaptation_of_Newtonian_equations_of_gravity

    5). It is corroborated in neutron stars (including Data from radiation
    damping ) and is corroborated by black hole studies.

    5a)
    https://www.researchgate.net/publication/32888463_An_advanced_modification_of_dynamicgravitation

    5b).
    https://www.researchgate.net/publication/269667939_Corroboration_of_Dynamic_Black_Hole_Gravitational_Physics_from_Observations_of_Cygnus_X-1

    6) it explains dark energy and translates into quantum gravity

    https://www.researchgate.net/publication/32899306_String_quintessence_and_the_formulation_of_advanced_quantum_gravity


    7). It does not offer infinite time dilation at the event horizon

    https://www.researchgate.net/publication/287213872_Finite_Gravitational_Time_Dilation_In_Black_Holes_Using_Dynamic_Newtonian_Advanced_Gravity_DNAg


     
    Read full-text
    SourceAvailable from: Andrew Worsley
     

    • Source
      [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
      ABSTRACT: The equations for the general theory of relativity (GTR) have to date proved enormously successful. However, despite its success, there are a number of difficulties with GTR. Standard GTR predicts the formation of singularities in black holes, and it has enormous mathematical complexity. In this paper we find that the equations for GTR can be modified by mathematically defining the equations for the curvature of space-time, in terms of geodesics. Using these equations, we translate this curvature back into equations for an advanced Newtonian force of gravity. Using worked examples we show that such an advanced Newtonian equation can give results that agree very closely with GTR, but resolve the difficulties of standard GTR, including the formation of singularities. The formulation of this advanced Newtonian gravity can also potentially provide the basis for understanding the apparent missing mass of the Universe.
      Full-text · Article · Sep 2008 · Physics Essays

    + 7 more attachments

  • Paul Reed Hepperly added an answer in Social Care:
    12
    How can an educational institution at the university level help elderly people in the sphere of social and health care?

     What are the options if there are possibilities for cooperation with certain institutions such as centers of social care or organizations of retired people? What kind of activities or workshops can be delivered having in mind the needs of social and cultural inclusion and a psychological and physical health of that kind of target population? The question targets elderly people as population, especially the ones that has been recently retired and have more free  time then they are used to have, or the ones that are older and are not able to use technology or resources that are available by many social services. It is also very important to note that they may have specific health issues due to unhealthy nutrition habits or to their age. How can we, as educators, provide help and actively participate in improving their quality of life?

    Paul Reed Hepperly

    Some Thoughts about Growth

    As a society we have the free choice to honor or not every age in everyone's life. It helps to consider life itself as sacred.

    If we do not do this, we lose the ability to benefit from that value each stage represents. We should try to see a gift of each and every age and stage. This is a practical approach to overcoming in our lives and not polly anna poppy cock. It works.

    Growing in our lives is an adventure that does not stop therefore mature people need to look to being useful in different ways than how they were in their so called prime. We do change as we mature but rust is mainly a condition of disuse.

    We can remind ourselves that our youth was not perfect stage as sometimes we portray it. Because of our selective memory we forget all the past concerns and paint it as a paradise it never was. We need to happy exactly where we are in maturation.  

    I am in an age of wisdom and prefer that to being classified as old which has a connotation of no longer useful. I chose to be blessing to others rather than curse any darkness around me. I chose to light my candle to show a way to my brothers/sisters who are struggling with me.

    As the Apostle Paul pointed out we are very flawed in our human nature but if we are dedicated we can finish well.

    Are we so concerned about our destination that we failed to enjoy our trip. When we see each moment as an adventure to serve we keep our thoughts from much avoidable morbidity.

    Regardless of our age we need to get focused on living our lives to the fullest one moment at a time.

  • Thomas O'Leary added an answer in Muscle Fatigue:
    5
    Who knows scientific papers that have analyzed the association between blood lactate and acute muscle fatigue?

    In an investigation about rescuer fatigue during chest compressions we plan include capillary lactate as a variable.

    Thomas O'Leary

    These papers have reported the relationships between lactate and muscle fatigue induced by cycling:

    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19056999

    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25051388

    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=o%27leary+central+and+peripheral+fatigue

  • Govind Pandey added an answer in Essential Oils:
    5
    How can i calculate retention index for constituents of essential oil?

     I want to calculate the retention index for essential oils from retention times in GC/MS analysis.

    Govind Pandey

    Thank you once again.

  • Mohsen Ghanea added an answer in Fuzzy Clustering:
    9
    Are there any data set to validate fuzzy clustering algorithms with gold stadard (ground truth)?

    I want to validate the result set of a fuzzy clustering algorithm externally. Someone know any data set (colection) that present a gold standard (ground truth) to do this??

    Mohsen Ghanea

    I validated the results of fuzzy clustring on binary image with reference maps in the following publication: 

    • Source
      [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
      ABSTRACT: In studies of high-resolution satellite (HRS) imagery, the extraction of man-made features such as roads and buildings has become quite attractive to the photogrammetric and remote-sensing communities. The extraction of 2D images from buildings in a dense urban area is an intricate problem, due to the variety of shapes, sizes, colours, and textures. To overcome the problem, many case studies have been conducted; however, they have frequently contained isolated buildings with low variations of shapes and colours and/or high contrast with respect to adjacent features. As an alternative, this study uses continuous building blocks along with high variation in shape, colour, radiance, size, and height. In addition, some non-building features include either the same or similar materials to that of building rooftops. Thus, there is low contrast between building and non-building features. The core components of the algorithm are: (1) multispectral binary filtering, (2) sub-clustering and single binary filtering, (3) multi-conditional region growing, and (4) post-processing. This approach was applied to a dense urban area in Tehran, Iran, and a semi-urban area in Hongshan district, Wuhan city, central China. A quantitative comparison was carried out between the proposed and three other algorithms for the Wuhan case study. GeoEye multispectral imagery was used in both case studies. The results show that the proposed algorithm correctly extracted the majority of building and non-building features in both case studies. The short running time of this algorithm along with precise manual editing can generate accurate building maps for practical applications.
      Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · International Journal of Remote Sensing
  • Govind Pandey added an answer in SOP:
    7
    How can I measure the antioxidant activity (DPPH) for crude plant extract?

    Is there any simple procedure or SOP to measure the antioxidant activity. Please help me. Is it necessary to draw the calibration curve by the standard sample such as Vitamin C or E. I saw some procedure to measure activity against the blank but I am confuging for this procedure.

    Govind Pandey

    Thanks for giving this knowledge.

  • Paul Rutland added an answer in Primer:
    3
    What is the exact annealing temperature for PCR

    forward primer Tm 60.1

    Reverse primer Tm 58.7

    Paul Rutland

    you should run a gradient pcr. There are many excellent papers on PCR theory but you are running it in practise. The annealing temperatures of oligos vary greatly depending on salt concentrations and sequence and on exact base composition but the online tools neglect one important variable. All PCR machines have their own characteristics so when you set an annealing temperature of 58c from a denaturing temperature of 94 it is likely that depending on the type of tube and volume of pcr mix that the temperature will undershoot the 58 momentarily to 56 or 57 and just a moment is long enough for your primers to anneal and extend ( at about 100+ bases a second). Even room temperature can affect the temperature profile of a PCR a little. The other advantage of a gradient is that it gives you confidence over what range of temperatures your pcr works and also specifically what  non specific bands you can expect if the pcr does not work well in the future. In silico pcr will tell you much about your pcr but less about bands caused by non specific binding of your primers elsewhere on the genome

  • Govind Pandey added an answer in Plant Extracts:
    3
    How to quantify vitamins in plant extracts

    Quantification and identification of vitamin in plant extract How to quantify vitamins such as A D E K in plant extracts? 

    Govind Pandey

    Thanks.

  • Rafał Bielas added an answer in Ionic Liquids:
    3
    Does anyone know of reputable suppliers of Ionic liquids?

    I am looking for reputable suppliers of ionic liquids, does anyone know of these?

    Rafał Bielas

    BASF
    I had problems with quality of bistriflimide ionic liquids from Merck 

  • Govind Pandey added an answer in Traditional Medicine:
    5
    How research can help in the conservation of traditional medicines?

    Traditional knowledge of plant based drugs are very important in the remedy of diseases.

    Govind Pandey

    Thanks.

  • Agostino Prástaro added an answer in Quantum Mechanics:
    54
    Are there any of the mysteries of physics that are beyond our intellectual capacity to conceptually understand?

    Richard Feynman said, "If you think you understand quantum mechanics, you don't understand quantum mechanics.” Is the problem that the human intellect is incapable of understanding some aspects of quantum mechanics or are we merely missing a model which will make the mysteries of quantum mechanics conceptually understandable? Another quote attributed to Feynman is “Shut-up and calculate”. This implies that a student is being told to suppress their natural desire for conceptual understanding and instead work on mathematical analysis. Do you feel that some questions are beyond our intellectual capacity to successfully answer? If so, perhaps you should identify these to stimulate discussion. For example, questions about the composition of fundamental particles or string theory strings are often treated as unanswerable. What are your thoughts?

    Agostino Prástaro

    Dear Andrew,
    your last post emphasizes a crucial point in the actual physics: quantum gravity.

    The reciprocal incompleteness of the QM and GR can be solved just with a correct formulation of quantum gravity !
    I have read your approach to quantum gravity, and frankly I considered it far to be the right approach. You have well understood that an important aspect is to restore the gravity as a force, but this can be done without to destroy the geometric aspect of the Einstein's formulation ... Really it is enough to reformulate it as Yang-Mills theory, namely a gauge theory. But this is not yet enough !

    In fact the fundamental step is instead to understand that in the quantum world the logic is not commutative. In other words, the geometry of the quantum gravity must be encoded in a suitable category of noncommutative manifolds. This category is just that of quantum (super) manifolds as I introduced.

    But neither this is sufficient to build a quantum gravity theory ! Really it is also necessary to build a geometric theory for quantum (super) PDEs, since quantum gravity must be encoded by quantum (super) PDEs. This is a new mathematics that I formulated in many decades ... By means of this mathematics it is nowadays possible to work with quantum super Yang-Mills PDEs, namely the master equations of the quantum gravity. For more information please look to the following papers (and my works quoted therein).
    [1] http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1468121812000491. (Already published on arXiv in 2009.)
    [2-3] http://arxiv.org/abs/1205.2894.
    [4] http://arxiv.org/abs/1206.4856.

    My best regards,

    Agostino

  • ABDULLAH BAŞÇİ added an answer in Bioreactors:
    5
    How to work with Matlab?

    Dear all,

    I recently done a bioreactor model with conventional PI controller. I know when we simulate, the closed loop response and the input is obtained in the scope.

    My question is how to evaluate the other studies by using matlab, ie. the concentration study, pH stability, etc.,

    My Transfer function for the process is

    G(s) = aS+b/S^2+bS+c

    where

    a-- product consentration

    b-- pH

    c-- Constant(mol/l)

    Is bode plot is necessary for this study?

    ABDULLAH BAŞÇİ

    hardware in the loop is better way for real time aplication

  • Govind Pandey added an answer in Steroids:
    5
    Please, can someone recommend the most suitable cell line that can be used as a model for ovarian steroid hormone production?

    I am working on the effect of toxicants on the ovarian production of steroid hormones. Please, can someone recommend the most suitable cell line to be used as a model for this assay?

    Thanks.

    Govind Pandey

    Thanks to all.