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  • Shyamalima Sharma asked a question in Band Gap:
    In the band gap calculation graph is it necessary to put the unit of αhυ if we calculate it from the UV absorbance data?

    In some literature it is mentioned as a unitless quantity, and in some other cases it is shown in (cm-1.eV).

  • John Cluett added an answer in Muslim:
    Are there any lessons from social science that would allow non-muslims to reach out to the Muslim Community Worldwide?

    Currently, some political candidates in the United States have done their best to further alienate the world-wide Muslim Community.   What can we do as social scientists (and U.S. citizens) to neutralize the effects of crazy candidates like Donald Trump?

    John Cluett

    Convivencia speaks to the integration of three cultures as described in  “Interacciones narrativas árabes, cristianas y judía: convivencia literaria en el  Medievo peninsular” . Thesis written in Spanish.  

    David Navarro, “Interacciones narrativas árabes, cristianas y judía: convivencia literaria en el  Medievo peninsular”.  February 2013, University of Western Ontario –Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

    "The thesis developed a critical study based on the theory, intergroup relations and social discourse of cultural symbiosis between the three religious communities of Medieval Iberian Peninsula – Christians, Jews and Muslims – reflected in books written of the period from eleventh to fourteenth centuries. The study is divided into two sections – one the analysis of the term convivencia coined by Americo Castro in his contributions to this topic as well as those made by his followers and his opposition. The second part consists of three chapters and cultural interactions that emerged during the convivencia period." Text from "Convivencia A Model for Peace between Christian, Muslim and Jewish Cultures.  War against ISIS, Peace in Syria, What next?" published by me in Researchgate. 

    For those opposed to this concept of social harmony, Convivencia, a more radical Eurocentric model could be more acceptable.

    We all have the right to expression and no one can discard Convivencia claiming it is deceiving the public as Duchesne does in  his previous communication.    

  • Sandeep RAJ R added an answer in rel Genes:
    How can I perform qPCR analysis of different genes within the same sample?

    Hi there,

    I'm trying to do a simple experiment on paper but I can't find information on how to perform it properly. I want to compare the expression of different target genes within the same sample of cDNA. Thing is, in the CFX software that I am using, and in all the tutorials to analyze qPCR data I have checked, they require a minimum of two samples (like treated/untreated, or wt/mutant) for calculate the gene expression. Nevertheless, In my case I only have one sample that I am interested into, and I can't find how to calculate the relative gene expression of my targets in that sample. Any tips?


    Sandeep RAJ R

    relative quantification can be never done without having control cells or reference sample and without endogenous control gene, as both these are required only then we can find the relative fold level decrease ya increase of your target gene in your target sample

    secondly if you want to use same cDNA to quantify for two or more genes in same reaction dont go for dye based chemistry like sybergren or eva go for taqman based chemistry 

  • Sabyasachi Roy added an answer in Boating:
    How to clean the quartz tube used for CVD synthesis of MoS2?

    How to clean the quartz tube used for CVD synthesis of MoS2 using sulfur and MoO3 powder?

    The quartz tube was covered by Sulfur and MoS2(black). 

    Also, alumina boat was covered by Sulfur and MoS2.

    1. How do I clean the quartz tube and alumina boat?

    Following post suggested that Nitric acid is effectivly clean the tube. 


    I'm afraid that S + HNO3 leads to formation of NO2 which is toxic although cleaning would be processed in fume hood.

    2. Is it proper to use of HNO3 for cleaning of quartz and alumina boat?

    Thank you very much.

    Sabyasachi Roy

     99.5% Alumina or higher does not react with Nitric Acid. I fully agree with process mentioned by Dr. Alain Celzard. We used to suggest cleaning by following process

    1. Please provide a long soak with nitric acid will be good;  Need to be cleaned by continuous water flow
    2. After drying, put into the high-temperature furnace for 6 hours slow heating to 800 degrees Celsius;
    Removed after cooling can be used.
    The link is in addition to impurities, insoluble into soluble nitrate removed;
    Kindly keep the heating rate slow, otherwise the crucible may have skin brust.

  • Abdulhafeez Mohamed Khair added an answer in Neurodegenerative Diseases:
    Is Multiple Sclerosis a neurodegenerative disease?

    It is commonly said that Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease but recent researches have showed some opposite results where immune reaction happens after degeneration. Unfortunately nothing is proved. In this scenario I want to ask a question what is MS? Autoimmune or neurodegeneratiove? Its like chicken egg paradox !!!!!!!!!! 

    Abdulhafeez Mohamed Khair

    Primary progressive MS is now a well-defined category. It represent 10-15% of the cohort of patients diagnosed with MS. So I think we can classify this entity as being neurodegenerative in nature. 

  • Lotfollah Alipour added an answer in Thermal Comfort:
    Has anyone ever used RayMan to calculate PET?

    My research relates to outdoor thermal comfort and I want to calculate PET & PMV to determine outdoor thermal comfort.  

    Lotfollah Alipour


    The reason for this difference is mainly due to the restrictions that mentioned for the PMV model of ASHRAE-55.
    In my opinion, a comparison between these two indices will not be true. Because the index of PMV in ASHRAE-55 specified for indoor conditions, while the calculated PMV by RayMan is for outdoor environment.


  • Mohammed Hassan Gaballah asked a question in Taqman:
    Does anyone have any experience of the TaqMan protein expression assays using protein extracted from tissue??

    technique of lysate extraction from tissue 

  • Peter Mathew added an answer in Electrodeposition:
    Range of values for electrodeposition of Nanowires???

    For the fabrication of nanowires using electrodeposition method and alumina templates some journals are available. But, the corresponding values for the fabrication using electrochemical workstation are not reported or very less details are available. What is the reason?

    Peter Mathew

    This is quite an interesting question. And thanks for asking it Udaya Kumar. The major reason why the electrodeposition values are not disclosed might be astonishing. Researchers chiefly employ the trial and error method to find out the range at which the electrodeposition is done using electrochemical workstations of various makes. Its a meticulously painful task to find out the optimum values at which the deposition is done. (Perhaps they've spent several months trying to optimise it !). Some consider it a "deeply guarded secret" so as to not have competing publications in the same work; which is quite confusing and ridiculous as one must have to cite their work if the values are referred to anyway.

    It solely depends on the call for altruistic nature of the researcher or the research group to disclose the values. Once again, it takes a good-hearted researcher to share this valuable information with others.   

  • Sandeep RAJ R added an answer in RNA-Seq:
    Is there any pipeline for detecting, quantifying and comparing alternative splicing from RNA seq data of plants?

    I need to detect, quantify, identify differential splicing, and compare the alternative splicing across different RNA seq datasets of plants. 

    I am the beginer in this field. Please suggest the best pipeline.


    Sandeep RAJ R

    yes the easy one is go for partek flow software

  • Ng'ang'a Kibe added an answer in Groundwater:
    I am having some difficulties in importing boreholes data into Groundwater Vistas. My boreholes are in UTM format. how do I add them to GW vistas?

    The boreholes are in UTM and I dont know how to import them. Also when I import a shapefile to GW vistas, it does not come to same position as my grid. Kindly help.

    Ng'ang'a Kibe

    Thanks, I will try and get back to you

  • Hazim Hashim Tahir added an answer in Political Socialization:
    Who is a sycophant? Is sycophancy an Art?

    We see sycophants in all the fields - political, social, administrative ......

    Do you think it is an art that is harmless or something that harms the organisational culture severely.   

    What kind of sycophants are prevalent in your part of the world.

    Hazim Hashim Tahir

    Dear Colleagues,

    Good Day,

    “Buy a gift for a dog, and you'll be amazed at the way it will dance and swerve its tail, but if don't have anything to offer to it, it won't even recognize your arrival; such are the attributes of fake friends.”
                                                         ― Michael Bassey Johnson

  • Abdulrahman Alqadami added an answer in CST:
    How to define Ferrite in CST?

    I want to simulate a isolator in below resonance in CST>

    Abdulrahman Alqadami

    Freq at which Ferrite data measured is correct. 

  • Elias Ali Yesuf asked a question in In Depth Interviews:
    I am designing in-depth interview guide for health administrators. Should I put questions on their background at the beginning or at the end?

    The in depth interview is about performance of health departments. 

  • Chris Biemann added an answer in Sentiment Analysis:
    I need big dataset for sentiment analysis. Anyone have recomendation?

    Now I conducting research on sentiment analysis using sentiwordnet. But I still didn't any open dataset suit for my research. I need help. Thanks

    Chris Biemann

    There are several free datasets for Sentiment Analysis of various flavors and for various languages in the SemEval initiative, e.g.





  • Sandeep RAJ R added an answer in RNA Extraction:
    How to remove RNaprotect from lysited cells before RNA extraction?

    my samples are disrupted cells in RNAprotect + PBS. I have tryed to perform RNA extraction using Trizol but i get litle RNA concentration and pourly clean. Any suggestions about removing the RNA protect? Thank you

    Sandeep RAJ R

    we do a simple sqeezing of cell mass whether animal or plant in sterile kimwipes, remove as many as liquid within the cells and then proceed with kit protocol;

  • Muhammad Ayub Khan added an answer in Corporate Governance:
    How corporate governance variables effects firm’s financial performance?

    i am going to develop a model on the governance variables (Explanatory variables) like ownership structure, institutional ownership, board independence and audit committee independence etc with the dependent variable i.e. firm’s financial performance.

    Any current work on this area so far?kindly share with me.

    Muhammad Ayub Khan

    Tanusree Jain Thanks so much for your cooperation.

  • Abdulhafeez Mohamed Khair added an answer in Motor Learning:
    How to differentiate between Heredity Spastic Paraplegia and Cerebral Palsy?

    I am working on a family with autosomal recessive in which affected members have CP characters so how will i differentiate between whether it is Cerebral Palsy or Heredity Spastic Paraplegia?

    Abdulhafeez Mohamed Khair

    Dear Arif

    That might be quite difficult, especially for cross-sectional evaluation as the disease course is the main differentiating feature. You may try to search for clue towards CNS involvement pointing towards CP, e,g impaired cognition, intellectual disability, poor vision, swallowing dysfunction, etc. However this might be tricky too as HSP has a big spectrum & it is known that signs of CNS involvement can be elicited in few patients.

  • N. Venkatathri asked a question in Originality:
    What is mean by Research novelty or originality ?

    In Research It is a important factor.  When any one of this factor is exist it will highly appreciated.  Any thing further about it ?

  • Charles Francis added an answer in Gravitational Field:
    Would it be better to say "It is as though space is curved"?

    Do we take models too seriously?  Is space curved in different ways by gravitation, electromagnetic fields, the weak force, and the strong force in order to enable these four interactions, or is this only one of many ways to explain the same phenomena?  Let's be careful not to add the equivalent of endless epicycles to make things fit as was done 2,000 years earlier.  In the 1960's R.H. Dickie showed that the advancement of the perihelion of mercury may be explained by the sun having a small quadrupole moment--has this been tested?   General relativity is founded on the Principle of Equivalence (POE) and the Principle of Covariance.  The "Einstein elevator" is a poor way to demonstrate the POE because gravitation is caused by sources so that given enough volume you could distinguish between an accelerated reference frame and a static gravitational field. Thus, the POE is often called a "local principle"--but then how can it be applied in astronomy?  

    Charles Francis

    The law of entropy specifies a closed system with a defined initial condition. It applies to subsystems of the universe, but not to the universe as a whole. Gravity is not constrained by entropy, because it allows no subsystem, and because geometry does not in general allow us to add properties at different places.  In an expanding collapsing cosmology, the final collapse will reset an identical initial condition, recharging the universe for a new cycle.

  • Kjetil K. Haugen added an answer in Parkinson's Disease:
    Good advice is needed for relatively fresh patient. Does anybody have any experience with unconventional medication for Parkinson's disease?

    I am newly diagnosed and struggles with sleep, digestion etc. Maybe somebody has some experience with creative medication. I have heard rumours on Marihuana for instance.

    Kjetil K. Haugen

    Thank you all for interesting answers. I have been put on a low dose of L-dopa with very good effect on movement disorders (trembling and walking). Unfortunately, the non-motor symptoms sleep, digestion, memory etc seems to be less (positively) affected. Is this to be expected?

  • Abraham Mansouri asked a question in Modeller:
    Boundary condition for electrode in Comsol?


    I modeled a ion transport problem inside a microchannel successfully, basically pressure driven flow in a charged microchannel
    my question is how can I modeled only the streaming current i.e. how to prevent potential difference built up due to
    the reservoir effect . In real life we place two electrodes at ends of microchannel, whats the the electrode boundary condition ?

    whats the the best approach?


  • Jerry Rhee added an answer in Human Science:
    What should a humanistic science education mean?

    What is the best that has been thought and said about humanism, science and education?

    Jerry Rhee

    Thanks Adrian,

    I’ve never read Bourdieu but I did not get a favorable impression based on the linked article.  Perhaps I misunderstood but the article appears to be a polemic against bad science and much less besides.  Their discussion treats scientific material as if “knowing anything is the same as knowing anything else” (Quest for Clarity, Bruner).  They neglect traditions that have earnestly struggled with the problem of balancing an optimal generalized/specialized curriculum. 

    Still, I appreciate the authors calling the issues to our attention since they are common enough to be talked about.  My major regret is that such outcry happens too often and not enough attention is paid to the best conversation.  So, where are we in that conversation? 

  • Peter Moono added an answer in Propensity Score:
    How to match individually on propensity score in SAS v 9.4?

    I have a dataset of 60,000 women with a propensity for vaccination ranging from around -0.5 to 1.5. What is the best way to individually match these women on propensity score in SAS? I know how to do this by creating multiple datasets, but I'm hoping there is a function that could save a lot of time/work? 

    Peter Moono
    Hi Annette, I think the weblink below will be a good starting point for your propensity analyses.

  • Sandeep RAJ R added an answer in Agrobacterium:
    How to prevent plasmid recombination in Agrobacterium?

    I am transforming Agrobacterium (AGL-1) with large multi-gene constructs (around 20kb). I have tried to minimise homologous sequences but I do have some similar sequences within the plasmid. When I do colony PCRs directly from the agro colonies I see the correct band sizes. However, when I grow up the colonies into culture, do a miniprep and do the same PCRs, some rearrangements seem to have occurred such that some of the plasmid appears intact but certain areas won't PCR at all. Is there any way to limit recombination in agro, ie growing conditions, strain, etc?

    Sandeep RAJ R

    PRI201 a takara vector with kanamycin selection marker can also be a good option,

    other option is redo directional cloing with diffrent restriction sites in MCS 

  • Josef Punčochář added an answer in Teaching:
    What is the best strategy in teaching science?

    For heterogenous group

    For remote area

    Josef Punčochář

    Dear Lilliana Ramos-Collado,
    Very nicely said - almost nothing to add.

  • Naga Venkateswara Rao Nulakani added an answer in Quantum ESPRESSO:
    How to calculate Hubbard U parameter for different atoms in a given compound?

    I am using Quantum espresso, I would like to know about calculating Hubbard U parameter using ACBN0 scheme for different atoms in a compound. since the selection of correct U and J parameter are necessary to find electronic structure and magnetization values. It will be more helpful if we can generate U values.

    Naga Venkateswara Rao Nulakani

    Hai Chaithanya, please  follow or check posts of  Mr Anji babu kapakayala who asked the same questions before

    . https://www.researchgate.net/profile/ANJI_KAPAKAYALA

  • Sandeep RAJ R added an answer in Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization:
    How to tackle high background signal in RNA- fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH)?


    In RNA- FISH using biotinylated probes and streptavidin- Cy3, I get a high background signal, even in the no probe control. I am using 5% BSA for blocking prior to incubation with SA- Cy3, and give subsequent washes with 2X SSC and PBS. How can I fix the problem? 


    Sandeep RAJ R

    the background signal can be caused mainly due to degradation of probes, try changing the incubation time with probes or check the flurescence to cy3 probes

  • Ashkan Vafadar added an answer in Geochemistry:
    What is Hebamorphinite ? what could tell about the Kerogen ?

    Geochemistry and source Rock

  • Md Shamsuddin Sultan Khan asked a question in Mitochondria:
    How to conduct the metabolic and enzymatic reactions in vitro?

    I want to perform a reaction between two human metabolites. The metabolites reaction is happened in the mitochondria in the presence of enzymes (catalyst). I need to know how can I simulate such reaction in vitro. What reaction vessel is suitable and where can I get this?

    Thanks in advance.