European Union

European Union

  • Sohail Mahmood added an answer:
    Can we refer to the High Representative of the Union for foreign affairs and security policy as institutional innovations for the EU construction?

    What are the differences between the High Representative of the Union for foreign affairs and security policy and the former would-be minister of foreign affaires of the EU as envisaged by the Constitutional Treaty? Thank you

    Sohail Mahmood

    The EU doesn't have a foreign minister as such as it is a union in the making. The EU may one day become a union that may have a foreign mister or any such office. Not at the time being but getting there,

  • Barbara Dietz added an answer:
    What are the most relevant studies on human rights and diversity protection throught the European Union?

    We are interested in the most relevant  references on anti-discrimination measures along the European Union, on EU institutions/agencies/bodies actions to foster human rights protection and on migration policies. Please help!

    Barbara Dietz

    You may have a look at the webpage of the European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights, see:

  • Dr. Ghassan Ossman added an answer:
    Can anyone please advise where to access EU Trade Commissioner speeches pre-1999?

    Currently, on DG Trade's website one can access speeches up to 1999, inclusive. I found that paper copies are stored in the EUI and some of the oldest speeches are made electronic AEI, but there seems to be a gap. Can anyone advise where I can locate those from 80s and 90s? 

    Many thanks in advance!

    Dr. Ghassan Ossman

    On-line search is not enough, try the Public Record Office in London.   

  • Alfonso M Rodríguez de Austria Giménez de Aragón added an answer:
    Is the motto of Karl Marx “Proletarier aller Länder vereinigt Euch!” (Workers of the world, unite!) being forgotten by Catalan Independence Movement?
    To solve the crisis, wouldn't it be better to unite the forces instead of divide them?
    How can the Left Catalan Parties forget this socialist principle?
    Alfonso M Rodríguez de Austria Giménez de Aragón

    Jajajaja! It's a very good question, Michele!

    Don't you think it's a great coincidence that the rise of nationalisms came together with the raise of international unions of labourers?

  • Vladimir N. Džamić added an answer:
    Should the E.Commission initiate introduction of sanctions against Hungary due to violation of fundamental values of the EU in immigrant crisis?

    The Treaty on European Union (TEU) in its Article 7, provides possibility to introduce sanctions against the Member-State which violates basic principles of the European Union. It was used before in case of Austria, because of the appointment of neo-nazi Chancellor, Heider.

    Hungary has seriously limited basic human rights, against basic legal acts of the European Union. Using force against refugees on the border line with Serbia, and also using force against journalists, as well as limitation of fundamental rights of refugees due to state of emergency in two Hungarian provinces, demand strong reaction of the EU institutions.

    What do you think? Should the European Commission, as a keeper of the Union, use its right to initiate legal procedure and demand sanctions against this member state?

    Vladimir N. Džamić

    Hello Isabelle,

    Actually, my point was based on Article 7 of the Treaty on the European Union as the international treaty. As in some former cases, due to violation of basic principles of democracy, human and civil rights, "On a reasoned proposal by one third of the Member States, by the European Parliament or by the European Commission, the Council, acting by a majority of four fifths of its members after obtaining the consent of the European Parliament, may determine that there is a clear risk of a serious breach by a Member State of the values referred to in Article 2. Before making such a determination, the Council shall hear the Member State in question and may address recommendations to it, acting in accordance with the same procedure."

    In my opinion, Hungary and Poland are two (different) cases where the strong reaction is quite necessary, even if it includes sanctions and suspension of vote in the EU institutions.

  • Olga Laguta added an answer:
    What solutions do you propose for the reception of immigration to current Europe ?

    Due to the wave of immigration to Europe that has become more pronounced in recent times, what solutions do you propose for the reception of emigration to Europe ?

    Your answer will be greatly appreciated.


    Olga Laguta

    Thinking on Christmas and refugees... It seems the people in Egypt of that time were able to find a solution, dear Helena and dear All.  

  • Bernard H Casey added an answer:
    Why is the labour market in the European Union open to globalization while social security still suffers from a lack of resources?
    The labour market in Europe is becoming flexible and open, but social security is still closed in national boundaries. Less-developed countries are suffering because of emigration of the labour force and losing employees to more-developed countries. Rising costs for social security per capita in less-developed countries undermine the national business. At the same time social security in less-developed countries suffers because of a lack of resources. How can this dangerous vicious cycle be changed?
    Bernard H Casey

    what you need to do is to go back to before 1979  then compare data for pre 1979 to data for post 1979.  Then you'll see what I mean.

  • Cristina Blanco Sío-López added an answer:
    How did the EU engage the peoples of the CEECs?

    What are policies and measures taken by the EU to engage the peoples (general publics, interest groups, NGOs, political parties, social communities, etc), not the governments, of the Central and Eastern European Countries in their transition and accession periods? Any important literature and sources? Thanks a lot!

    Cristina Blanco Sío-López

    The following references could also be useful for your line of research:

  • Cristina Blanco Sío-López added an answer:
    Could you recommend key publications on social network analysis for the study of socio-political relations and democratic decision-making?

    I would also be interested in interrelated network visualisation tools as a point of departure for the analysis of evolving patterns of democratic decision-making. The main case study is the European Union, but it will be enlarged to relations with third countries as part of EU International Relations, thus including a comparative regional integration and global governance perspective.

    Cristina Blanco Sío-López

    Thank you very much for your recommendation.

  • Bakhtinur Khudanov added an answer:
    What are the opportunities in Horizon 2020 for research projects on Open Innovation?
    Anybody interested in discussing possible collaboration?
    Bakhtinur Khudanov

    We are very interested in collaboration in the framework of EU Horizon 2020. However no organisation has agreed to work together, yet. Do you have any idea?

  • Guillermo Enrique Ramos added an answer:
    Is the European Union democratic?
    This question is vital for each european citizen. I was one of the two million of signatories of the European Citizens’ Initiative, “One of Us”, which was vetoed by the European Commission illegitimately and anti-democratically.
    Guillermo Enrique Ramos

     Thank Selly for your input. The citizen satisfaction is a subjective measure about this matter. However I am more interested on objective criteria like that that I posted when I first formulated the question. 

  • Katerina Krimpogianni added an answer:
    Is multiculturalism failing in Europe?
    What are your views on the issue of multiculturalism in Europe? Some voices are suggesting that it has failed.
    Katerina Krimpogianni

    I think that indeed we're failing every day to encompass multiculturalism...For this to happen, we need a common consciousness of being the so called World Citizens. And being so, doesn't mean having no identity...It rather means knowing who we are and where we come from, having our roots deep in our culture and expanding our branches towards the others all by accepting them. Besides that, we have to face the socioeconomic issue...Because we would rather accept a foreigner from the same socioeconomic background than one who comes from an inferior one...

  • Ljubomir Jacić added an answer:
    Exchanging educational data: Are there any (emerging) international standards?

    Problem: More and more countries are getting involved in the globalized world, partly by strengthening such transnational communities as the European Union and the AEC (ASEAN Economic Comunity). The free movement of the workforce and of students is a fact in this regard. Besides the need for comparable transcripts there is also the need for the secure exchange of such data between national authorities. 

    What are current activities in setting up data international exchange standards (such as EDIFACT (Electronic Data Interchange For Administration, Commerce and Transport, United Nations) for educational institutions?

    Ljubomir Jacić

    Thanks for appropriate action dear @Michael. I am not a friend of downvoting also, so I tried to give advice him very friendly. 

  • Anthony Valcke added an answer:
    Does anyone have statistics on the residence and expulsion of EU citizens in Italy?

    I am looking for statistics (official or unofficial) on the residence rights of EU citizens in Italy.

    In particular, I am trying to find out the number of residence documents issued to EU citizens and family members in Italy, as well as numbers of EU citizens expelled from Italy. (This includes but is not limited to the expulsion of members of the Roma community).

    I have already consulted ISTAT (only total EU resident numbers available) and sent information requests to the Ministero dell'Interno (no response). 

    Anthony Valcke

    Hi Marco, thanks for your kind offer to assist. I have sent you a message to your university email.

    Hi Rudi, thanks for the links - I did not know about CESTIM, so this is very useful to know.

    I plan to provide an overview of residence statistics in all Member States in the chapter 'Who does not belong here anymore? A statistical snapshot of Member States’ practices' in Herwig Verschueren (ed), Who belongs here? EU law and adjudication on the link between individuals and Member States, (Intersentia, forthcoming 2016)

  • Roman Senninger added an answer:
    Does anyone know any literature concerning the workings of the GUE-NGL group in the European Parliament before 2008?

    I have evidence to show how they have increased in their representation but I would like literature to demonstrate how this group uses committees and resolutions to attempt to achieve their outcomes.

    Roman Senninger

    committee rapporteurship: (includes some useful references)

  • Amanda Orza added an answer:
    How would you argue that the impact of European Integration on national public services is beyond those powers allocated by Treaties?

    Having in mind that a public service is an economic activity of general interest under the competence of the public authorities which define, set them in place and control them, looking into this area which can be seen as "integration without competence" can be difficult. Namely, alongside the influence of the integration process on the public administrations and convergence towards a common European Administrative Space, the impact on public services remains open. Still, undeniably the EU legislation has an influence and even a transformatory effect that goes beyond the legal thinking itself. 

    I have the problem that I have found very little written in this respect and would be immensely grateful if I'd receive some pointers and directions on this! Thanks!

    Amanda Orza

    Thank you all who so kindly took the time to contribute to my query, indeed I have used much of Ms Heidbreder's work especially in regards to the development of civil society on the European arena, while Europeanisation literature such as Goetz and Meyer-Sahling, Dimitrova and Verheijen along others I used for my master thesis research on PAR in a candidate country - Serbia. In this respect also, other recommendations such as OECD/SIGMA and EUPAN sources were used.

    In this particular short analysis, I really merely aimed to focus on SGEIs. In the end I looked at the narrow Treaty basis in Art 14, Protocol 26 on SGI, and Art. 36 on access to SGIs in the Charter, and compared them with the examples when these were invoked in terms of competition and state aid, and freedom of movement of workers so as to show a greater reverberation on the ground. In that sense, I used significantly the book by Wolf Sauter - Public Services in EU Law. Book DOI: 

  • Cristina Blanco Sío-López added an answer:
    Is there a convergence between public administrations within the EU?

    And if so can we speak of a European model of public administrations? How can we conceive the European public administrative space in these terms?

    Cristina Blanco Sío-López

    You're welcome. My best wishes for your research project.

  • Mohammed Nuruzzaman added an answer:
    Does anyone know about recent comparative studies on conflict mediation by regional organizations?

    I’m looking for books, journal articles, research monographs etc. focusing on conflict mediation by the Arab League, the African Union and the European Union from comparative perspectives.

    Thanks in advance for your help and cooperation.

    Mohammed Nuruzzaman

    Hi David,

    Thank you for drawing my attention to this book by Rahim and Blum. Though not directly related to my project, I'll check it out to see whether it can be useful in any way. Thanks again.

    Mohammed Nuruzzaman

  • Gwendolyn Yvonne Alexis added an answer:
    Are "Globalization" and "Regionalization" principally market-based phenomena that fortuitously have unintended social and political consequences?

    What I am pondering with this question is whether nation-states enter into extraterritorial pacts (WTO, NAFTA, EU, MERCOSUR, etc.) solely on the basis of perhaps deriving economic benefit  from these liaisons; i.e., without giving consideration to the social and political implications of becoming inter-connected with other sovereign states, all of whom relinquish some of their autonomy to a supranational body.

    This would, for instance, explain why Norway refuses to join the European Union citing the possibility of (a) loss of national sovereignty and (b) a diminishment of the quality of citizenship secured by Norway's Constitution (which establishes a 'horizontal union of free and equal citizens'); and yet Norway had no qualms about signing onto the European Economic Area (EEA) which, according to Erik Erikson ("Norway's Rejection of EU Membership has given the country less self-determination, not more" - weds Norway to the EU economically by granting it access to  Europe's internal market on an equal basis with EU member states.  Seemingly, Norway is willing to accept an economic union, but stops short of a political and social union with the EU member states.  In fact, the inability of EU members to agree on a European Constitution may be a reflection of other EU members having the same hesitance as Norway to become bound  politically and socially to each other.

    In fact, one might view the "Margin of Appreciation" rule applied by the European Court of Human Rights wherein the Court bows to local customs (no matter how discriminatory these local practices may be) as the Court's recognition that member states are only fully committed to the economic benefits that can be derived from a union creating a market of over 450 million people.  Therefore, it is best for the Court to allow member states some wiggling room -- 'to cut them some slack'.


    Gwendolyn Yvonne Alexis

    Thanks, Francis, for your insightful comment.  Indeed, the strong bond between politics and economics is rearing its head here in the U.S. as I write this response.  I am thoroughly convinced that a Republican-led Congress will be unable to resist opening up trade with Cuba as swiftly as possible given the Republican penchant for supporting Big Business.  The clamor from their constituents to "get the show on the road" so the U.S. to Cuba tourism can start will become louder and louder and legislators up for re-election will become more and more nervous about stonewalling (in order to irritate President Obama) as the election year nears.


  • Joaquín Sarrión added an answer:
    Does anyone have recent articles on conflicts between market freedoms and fundamental rights in ECJ case law?

    From 2009-2011 I developed my research thesis on conflicts between market freedoms and fundamental rights in ECJ case law (Schmidberger, Omega, Viking, Laval, etc.) And I would like to update my work and to cite recent works on this topic. 

    Many thanks. 

    Joaquín Sarrión

    Many thanks!

  • Yuri Yegorov added an answer:
    Does anyone have electric production profile predictions for 2020 for Poland, France and Austria?

    I’m looking for electric production profile predictions for 2020 (% of coal, natural gas, wind, solar, etc….) for some specific European countries (Poland, France and Austria).
    If predictions from other European Union countries with high % of hydroelectric (like Austria), fossil fuels (Poland) or nuclear (like France) for 2020 are available, I will appreciate them also.
    Many thanks in advance
    Kind regards

    Yuri Yegorov

    I think that exact number are difficult to get because thy depend on the scenario.

    International Energy Agency in its World Energy Outlook 2014 suggests several scenarios for electricity production in 2020 in OECD Europe. The values are in Mtoe.

    In 450 scenario there will be: coal 176, oil 11, gas 137, nuclear 224, hydro 51, bioenergy 68, other renewables 63.

    In current policies scenarios there will be more coal (209) and gas (147).

    You may find current country data in Eurostat but I do not know where to find forecast for those countries. I would use current composition and the trend suggested by IAE to figure out that.

  • Rolf Bergs added an answer:
    Does the European Union need closer fiscal integration, and in particular a stronger fiscal center to become more resilient to economic shocks?

    A new IMF book, Designing a European Fiscal Union: Lessons from the Experience of Fiscal Federations, published by Routledge, examines the experience of 13 federal states to help inform the debate on this issue. It analyzes in detail their practices in devolving responsibilities from the subnational to the central level, compares them to those of the European Union, and draws lessons for a possible future fiscal union in Europe.

    The book sets out to answer three sets of questions: (1) What is the role of centralized fiscal policies in federations, and hence the size, features, and functions of the central budget? (2) What institutional arrangements are used to coordinate fiscal policy between the federal and subnational levels? (3) What are the links between federal and subnational debt, and how have subnational financing crises been handled, when they occurred?

    Rolf Bergs

    There should be more differentiation as regards recession (an issue of the business cycle) in contrast to structural issues. If there is the wish to have more centralised fiscal transfer management, the integration of institutional and economic structures needs to be first addressed. This would help boosting real convergence across the EU. Without real convergence no common currency works and if then a centralised fiscal equalisation scheme were launched there would be - probably - a perpetual one-way flow of funds. This is - you are right - a matter of democracy ...

  • Leon Iusitini added an answer:
    Is there any qualitative model and theory on political participation of minorities in democracy?

    In particular, religious minorities in European Union countries. Various ways of political participation, not only voting. 

    Leon Iusitini

    You could also check out Jan Leighley's (2001) book Strength in Numbers? The Political Mobilization of Racial and Ethnic Minorities.

  • Glenn E. Perry added an answer:
    Is there a standardised method to assess the europeanization of public administrations of EU member states and candidate countries?

    Can we speak of a toolkit to analyse the Europeanization of public administrations?

    Glenn E. Perry

    I ordinarily think of public administration as beyond my ken. But I recently made use of some of the EU Commission's progress reports on Turkey. The subject of administration comes up quite a bit. I realize that I am not quite answering your question, which focuses on methods of assessment, But it occurred to me that such reports on Turkey and/or other candidate members might be useful to you. See,for example, the 2014 report on Turkey:

  • Joaquín Sarrión added an answer:
    Is someone working on UK's opting out from the Prüm decision?

    Next 1 December 2014 finish the transitional period in respect of certain third pillar measures in the field of police co-operation and judicial co-operation in criminal matters (full ECJ jurisdiction for instance). UK opted out on June 2014, and it is possible to rejoin until 30 September 2015.

    Joaquín Sarrión

    Many thanks José Manuel, Suerte con tu investigación!

  • Catalina Maria Georgescu added an answer:
    What is the Subsdiarity Early Warning System of the Lisbon Treaty? What are the roles of parliaments within the new context of European integration?

    What are the roles of parliaments within the new context of European integration? 

    Catalina Maria Georgescu

    Thank you for your thoughtful and detailed answer. It helped a lot! 

  • Aline Conchon added an answer:
    Where can I find good articles on both the policies of austerity placed upon PIIGS and the effect it has had upon these countries?

    Sometimes coming by clear coherent literature on this subject is rather difficult as many articles are more concerned with explaining the causation of the Eurozone crisis rather than the policies being instituted at this current moment and the effects of them.

    Aline Conchon

    Dear Martin,

    You may find relevant analyses in the following book:

    There is an entire chapter devoted to the situations of GIIPS (Greece, Ireland, Italy, Portugal and Spain) which the author (Christian Schweiger) classifies as a new category of the VoC approach.



  • Anna-Lena Högenauer added an answer:
    What are national parliaments' veto rights in the European legislative procedure?

    Can you explain and supply examples on the use of veto rights by national legislatures in blocking European legislation?

  • Xavier Querol added an answer:
    How European Commission calculates financial penalties to member states for air quality Infringements?

    Dear colleagues,

    I am trying to get information on this issue I saw a case in 2011:
    24/11/2011: Commission takes Poland to Court over air quality and marine policy legislation and urges compliance with the Nitrates Directive
    The European Commission is referring Poland to the Court of Justice of the European Union and asking for financial penalties to be imposed for two failures to transpose EU legislation into national law. Despite earlier warnings, Poland has failed to notify the Commission about the transposition of legislation on the Ambient Air Quality Directive, which should have been in place since 11 June 2010, and about a strategy to protect its seas, which should have been in place since 15 July 2010. On the recommendation of Environment Commissioner Janez Potočnik, the Commission is asking the Court to impose penalty payments. The penalty payments requested are 71,521€ per day for the Ambient Air Quality Directive, and 59,834€ per day in the case of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive. The penalties take into account the seriousness and duration of the infringements. They consist of daily penalty payments to be paid from the date of the judgment (assuming that there is no compliance by then) until transposition is completed.

    I would like to know the procedure for calculation of the fine and how the number of days is determined.
    Do you know if the fine was paid¡ and how much was it?

    Xavier Querol

    10000 Thanks Marcel

  • Rafał Rosiński added an answer:
    Who would cooperate in field of tobacco taxation?

    I am interested in excise duty. I did an analysis of tobacco taxation in the European Union. Maybe you are interested in working in this field and write a joint article. I wait for feedback

    Rafał Rosiński

    Thank you very much for your feedback. I'll hope that we'll stay in contact. If anybody would to write common article in tobacco excise or going to write project about tobacco excise - please contact with me -

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