• Subhash C. Kundu added an answer:
    What is your definition of 'fitness'?

    It's all in the question


    Subhash C. Kundu

    Fitness includes both mentally fit and physically fit.

  • Paul T Monis added an answer:
    RT-PCR threshold algorithm failed, what does it mean?

    What does it mean if RT-PCR machine from thermo fisher writes threshold algorithm failed and exponential algorithm failed for some samples? How can I correct it, or should I ignore the results and not trust? How frequently should i ignore this when it happens?

    Paul T Monis

    Do you actually have any amplification when you get this error (or is there no amplification as suggested above)? As suggested above, an image of the amplification curve is needed to provide any advice.

  • Hamid Mobasheri added an answer:
    Is there any attempt to model "Physics of Cancer"?
    Cancer consists of a series of diseases based on undesired cell proliferation. The cancerous cells are continuously formed in infectious organs whereas the human immunity system regularly identifies and destroys the unhealthy cells. When the defense system fails to demolish these malignant cells because its mal-function then the proliferation takes place in a definite rate (constant or increasing).
    In this case, the patient needs to be treated by chemo-therapy to hinder (or slow down) the peroliferation rate. This may be done by using vaious techniques available such as employment of the nanostructures, novel bio-clusters, bio-stimulation, thermal therapy and laser techniques or hybrid methods of treatment accompanied by traditional chemo-drugs to enhance the efficiency.
    Hamid Mobasheri

    There are growing attentions to the physics of biological systems, focusing on the malfunctions and diseases by laws of physics in particular in the field of cancer. The nature of the living systems that can be presented by the different laws of physics, electricity, mechanics light, and even quantum mechanics  at spatial and temporal nano levels have provided the means to implement different high-tech instruments to address the fact at molecular, cellular and tissue level. The atomic and molecular nature of these ultra-complex systems that partially revealed by system biology, molecular dynamics, crystaloographic and single molecule approaches has shown the susceptibility of the system to the external electric, magnetic, electromagnetic and even gravity fields. The susceptible molecules, polyelectrolytes, and systems that have gone out of control in different diseases including cancer has provided the means to elaborate the mechanisms involved and to introduce possible treatment regimes. The dynamic charge distribution that is manifested as the electric profile of the cells at different stages of their life, including; differentiation, division, mutility and so on reveals the atomic and molecular differences between the normal and malignant cells. Targeting this systems by external fields have already shown the devastating consequences that cause diseases like cancer. On the other hand, the unique nature of cells has been used to define diagnostic instruments like MRI, SQUID, EEG and so on. Our current research is focused on the biophysics of cells to address cell mutility and migration, regeneration, division, wound healing, drug delivery and so on. Our results already at cellular and molecular level has shown the possibility of cell polarizability, positioning, and manipulation of microtubule polymerization by external magnetic and electric fields due to the unique characteristics of these charged and oscillating molecules in cells that provide the means for intracellular trafficking, cell mutility, migration and so on. The unique dynamic dielectric of system at molecular, cellular and tissue level have already provided the promising results for defining the status of tissue, cells and molecules on different normal and abnormal paths that paves the paths for defining the electric profile of the cells and tissue at different normal and malignant stages.  Accordingly, we believe the understanding and monitoring of the biological systems and putting the effective treatments depends on the level of multidisciplinary approaches and in particular investigations nourished by the physicists and laws of physics plays a major and vital role in the remote non-invasive biomedical engineering of the system.   

  • Richard Ewers added an answer:
    I need any new research on Avascular Necrosis?
    I just found out I have it. The Dr. States that if you find out you have this disease it is probably too late.
    Richard Ewers

    I was also diagnosed with AVN of femoral heads and went thru a a double hip replacement in September of 2014 my left hip was detected and and no sign of AVN in right, but thru recovery my right hip hip began to display the same senstations that my left hip did, and was immediately taken back in for a THR with a massive amount of deterioration in only 5 months. Feb 2015.

    More than happy to share research and facts of my case.

    The AVN was attributed to 15 ESI's "Epideral Steroid Injections" using Corticosteroids The ESI procedures were given within a years timeframe in 2009-2010 with my PCP and Pain Management Physician at the same office, which is a huge amount given the FDA has now limited the use of Corticosteroids to 2 injections per year according to a new set of surgeons and team of doctors who did not pick up on the AVN in xrays, it barely appeared in the MRI of my lower back for surgery (L4-L5-S1) , and I reported feeling like I had a pulled groin, and had climbed stairs ad thought it was a strain, but my Nuerosurgeon said he felt it could be my knees, and a knee surgeon of took one look at the images and said its not bursitis , you have Avascular Necrosis in your Femoral Heads, and explained what that meant and your spot on in what your provided as AVN diagnosis.

    To answer your question. Is it too late, depends on what you want to do>and what stage your in . I was in stage 3 and 4, surgery was pretty imminent in stage 4, but an two options were presented in stage 3.

    Three holes can be drilled thru femoral head with the hopes of bone regeneration with and without marrow. 50/50%. Now I hear that an ArthroKinectic approach can help with presenting your own bodies blood and a specific collection. like Plasma from the blood that heals the body. Barely in FDA but approved, If your in pain and its disrupting your quality of life, then be comforted in the fact the procedure of hip replacements has come along way. I was up and walking the next day, and six weeks later was ok. I think I would have survived perfectly without having the THR on right whichleft me with a bad gait in my walk.  In my case , yes, a sedentary job for two years after ESI's lead to slow degredation of Femoral heads unknown to me as I thought I just needed back surgery and wasn't thinking of hip replacements at 42 years of age and healthy.

    thru a sedentary job  developed into total blockage of blood flow to legs on right side, and 75% on left causing the AVN.

    I can provide the research I have or medical findings if that helps you understand AVN from a Nuero Surgeons dictation.

  • Bhuvaneswari Kasi added an answer:
    Is it worth publishing with Lambert Academic publishers?
    My inbox has repeatedly been spammed from lambert Academic publishers. Is it worth publishing with this publisher. Do they have any authenticity. There is a lot of bad stuff written about this. Still, people publish their thesis with them. How one could publish your results in the form of book when its already published in the form of research articles. Are they peer reviewed....Suggestions welcome

    Bhuvaneswari Kasi

    sir, hope you are doing well, sorry to disturb you sir. this is mageswaran from chennai (madras), India sir. early, i was worked as a (S/T) project manager, in Elsevier Publishing Services, in chennai division, under els niehaus management sir. also, i have 12 yrs exp in pre-press field, like proof-reading, checking, authour"s corrections are carried out or not, like that sir. now, I look forward to work with you sir, like work from home sir.please advice me sir, i"m ready to work with you sir, like 24X 7, sir.

    mageswaran B.

  • Mahmood Habibian added an answer:
    Is EDTA the same as Na2EDTA?
    It seems they are the same but I am not sure.
    Mahmood Habibian

    This question and answers were very helpful for me. Thank you so much.

  • Kalpani Bandaranayaka added an answer:
    Can anyone help me about identification of this ciliated protozoa? Is it Paramecium or another?
    I detected it in drinking water. The image was viewed at magnification 100X.
    Kalpani Bandaranayaka

    It looks like  diatom in my eyes

  • Joginder Sharma added an answer:
    How do I concentrate the PCR products ?

    I have PCR product for sequencing and its too low concentration. How do I get more yield of PCR products. 

    Joginder Sharma

    Just rePCR your PCR product. or do the nested PCR.

  • Saeid Afshar added an answer:
    Do I need to filter after dissolving drugs in DMSO?
    I am preparing drug stock in DMSO. To take the weight of drug I need to expose it outside the cabinet. Thus I am wondering about microbial contamination. Do I need to filter it with 0.22um syringe filter?
    Saeid Afshar

    I think that dmso kill microbes and filtering isn't necessary 

  • George Stoica added an answer:
    Is it realistic for a physicist to become a biologist?
    I work in material science (specializing in TEM microscopy and magnetism). Right now I'm finishing my Ph.D. However, lately I feel a bit dissatisfied with this particular field. I'm very interested in biology (topics like programmed cell death and ageing), however I have doubts whether it's realistic at this point to change my career path.
    George Stoica

    Dear Anna,

    In the last 30 years, a lot of mathematicians blended their interests with biology, most of them keeping both math and biology as main domains of interest. Modeling is of the essence in biology, and mathematics has something to offer.

    Sincerely, George   

  • Wolfgang Engelmann added an answer:
    Does anyone know anything about the influences of Moon and / or cosmic periodicities and rhythmicity on plants physiology?

    Moon gravity influences plants, animal reproduction, human behavior, etc. It is time to demonstrate to the scientific world that the cosmic and lunar periodicities significantly affects, even in the field of biological clocks.

    Since 2014 they are beginning to appear incredibly many studies about these topics before then were almost nonexistent since the nineties.

    Wolfgang Engelmann

    Have a look at:


  • Ankardiansyah Pandu Pradana added an answer:
    Are there any special techniques to increase the diversity of endophytic bacteria that are isolated in NA or TSA medium?

    TSA and NA are the medium generally used for the isolation of endophytic bacteria. Do you have experience modifying the media to increase the diversity of bacteria?

    Thank you in advance

    Ankardiansyah Pandu Pradana

    Dear Dr. Faegheh Etminani

    Thank you very much for your reply. I'll try to use KingsB medium. Thanks for the sugestions

  • Damien Aubert added an answer:
    Do you agree with the last classification of living things (Ruggiero et al. 2015)?

    This work really reflects a consensus of the work done on this issue?It has any connection with the theory of endosymbiosis? There is a phylogenetic relationship from its origin? Be right handle the classification by or Supergroups Kingdoms?They correlate with studies of genomes of viruses? From that point of view the classification should be done ?.
    In the images that I uploaded is a summary before 2015 classification of eukaryotes.

    Let's discuss this important topic, thanks for your contribution.

    + 2 more attachments

    Damien Aubert

    I think that Ruggiero et al.'s work is a nice attempt to stabilize the classication. I like the fact that it is not a cladist classification. Supergroups are nonsensical, they don't accurately catch the macroevolutionary leaps in eukaryotic evolution. This system of 2 empires and 7 kingdoms is a clever one, but I think there are too many phyla, especially in bacteria and in animals. The use of traditional names like Plantae and Heterokonta instead of respectively Archaeplastida and Stramenopiles is a good thing. However, I find it very strange that birds are considered reptiles ? Maybe some cladists are responsible for this absurdity.

  • Bertrand Blankert added an answer:
    Does anyone have experience with the Journal of Visualized Experiments?
    We are currently debating about subscribing to JoVE in the categories "Neuroscience" and "Behavior". Could anyone comment on the overlap of both categories or the usefulness of the individual categories or even articles? So far "Behavior" only contains 39 articles. Could it be supposed that JoVE is growing? I have seen some colleagues publishing there, but it still seems to be off the typical pursuit of impact points. Could it be supposed that JoVE will receive an Impact factor in the future?
    web: http://www.jove.com/
    Bertrand Blankert

    Currently, an IF is available


  • Douglas Larin added an answer:
    Where can I find websites to get free scientific publications?

    Please I need links like http://gen.lib.rus.ec/ or http://www.freefullpdf.com/; I´m from Bolivia and sometimes it is too expensive buy scientific papers, usually it is not one or three, also for the students could have access without having a account where you have to be endorsed for a institution to get it (like on reserchgate). Also publications in other fields such as art, music, etc. Thank you for answers

  • Ioan Sorin V Leoveanu added an answer:
    Should we question the credibility of international conferences?

    We see most of international conferences accept more than 90 percent of the papers that they receive regardless of the quality of the papers or plagiarism possibilities. Shall it make us think that the conferences are only business?

    Ioan Sorin V Leoveanu

    The aim of conferences consist in knowledges exchanging and human links. A lot of papers are reviewed and accepted by similar reviewers as the Journals, if the Conference Editors wants a high credibility conference. In the other hand, the questions are utile, whatever they are and some different opinions about similar problem are welcomed.  Is possible that some of Conferences to be used only for meeting or written articles in Data Bases.

    Why when you want to valued of a researcher or his articles in a narrow area of interest to not use the International DataBases, as Scopus, or the evaluation made by JST, or ARC or zentralblatt-math.org (STMA-Z)or other national or international filters?

  • Manuel Morales added an answer:
    Are errors of thinking and judgement, which Francis Bacon called idols, still alive in natural, biological, and social sciences?
    There are four Idols – errors of thinking and judgement – according to Francis Bacon’s Novum Organum (1620) which beset human minds. These are Idols of the Tribe – false assertions that the sense of man is the measure of things; Idols of the Cave – idols of the individual man; Idols of the Market Place – formed by the intercourse and association of men with each other, and Idols of the Theatre – stemming from dogmas of philosophies and … wrong laws of demonstration. We wrote a paper showing that these idols are still alive in demography and we think that they are also present in the other scientific fields. Did you put some of them in evidence in your scientific field?
    Manuel Morales

    Daniel, I have found that all the explanations that one could possibly make will never suffice those who refuse to learn.

    I have been asked to make my findings as clear as possible. The "Flawed Scientific Method" document was designed to go with the public invitation to help science self-correct. In essence, this one page document illustrates for the public the mechanics of the discovery of Einstein's nonlocal hidden variables which in turn revealed how the scientific method is flawed and how to fix it (see "A Flawed Scientific Method" above).

    I cannot make clear to those who refuse to see.

    "I will say that it is necessary to make clear what you want to say in order to discuss a precise point."

    As the unambiguous empirical evidence has shown, energy and the two acts of selection are one and the same. Energy is an act that can only come into being, and thus, is not conserved.

  • Carlos Eduardo Maldonado added an answer:
    Any suggestions for a platform for concept biology?


    I, conveying  on behalf of a small group of life science researcher, wish to create a non-commercial web site (www.conceptbiology.com) to simplify concepts in life sciences.


    We are quite aware of the fact that most of the biological e-resources available are more informative rather than concept clearing. Our team, being a group of young researcher, understands the need of conceptualizing the subject, for the sake of knowledge, scientific advancement as well as building career.


    This web site would serve as a platform to visualize and understand the subject through interactive notes, animations and assignments. To achieve this we need your voluntary contribution. We want active support from young scholars, researchers and scientists in helping us build a strong all in one concept clearing platform.

    We are still a very small group and thus want active participation from researchers and scientists where they can help contribute something in their respective field of study. I hope for engagements from many colleagues and faculties to help make this initiative meaningful. Your suggestions and advice is needed and would be highly appreciated.

    Interested people may kindly mail me at below mentioned e-mail address or message me or provide their e-mail in this thread. Contributing members would be duly acknowledged and certified.

    " We are also looking for experienced scientists as a reviewer cum mentor for our web-site and scholar/student good at Photoshop or making animations"

    For any other queries, please feel free to contact. 


    Carlos Eduardo Maldonado

    Dear Aditya, what a great initiative. I strongly believe that there are numerous advances in science and research all around, and yet most of them are minimalist, if I am allowed to used this expression. Technical and minimalist. What we lack is a strong sense of conceptual work, say a more synthetic one.

    I just published a small book in that direction and I am currently working on another one aimed at being published next year.

    Congratulations to you and tour group.

  • Parthasarathi Theivasigamani added an answer:
    What is the use or application of Phyton, Pearl language, relevant to Agriculture or plant science study?
    Programming language usage in plant biology?
    Parthasarathi Theivasigamani

    Thank you SAMARTH GUPTA

  • Anuraj Nayarisseri added an answer:
    Can anyone provide me a chimpanzee genomic DNA, urgently required?

    I'm looking chimpanzee genomic DNA for my research,



    Anuraj Nayarisseri

    Since this is an internet forum, I thought you are asking for Genomic DNA Sequence. For  dna sample you may follow Peter apps's answer.


  • Boris Zaslavsky added an answer:
    How to dissolve hydrophobic drug.......
    I am working on Tanshinone I, a Chinese herbal drug known for its anti-cancer properties. As this drug is highly hydrophobic in nature I can dissolve this drug only in the DMSO. This drug gets easily dissolved in dmso, but when I tried to make serial dilution from the stock solution(let’s say 10mg/200ul of DMSO) in the RPMI media or PBS, the homogenous mixture is not being formed. I want 0.2%v/v final dmso concentration to rule out its toxicity and to perform my MTT assay. Is there anyone who can help me out of this mess……. Plz do reply to this post
    Boris Zaslavsky

    Since in vivo your compound would bind to some carrier protein, e.g., serum albumin, I would suggest you dissolve your drug in solution of human serum albumin. It worked in my practice for dissolution studies...

  • John Bruce Langley added an answer:
    Which language can be an ideal or optimal lingua franca for science?
    To use a language as a scientific lingua franca can give advantages and disadvantages for the members of the scientific community on the basis of their culture and mother tongue. The status of a scientific or international language developed historically and not according to logical ideas and decisions on equal opportunity. I have tried to classify former scientific languages and some present candidates. I - as a European with my own experiences and preconceptions - have found Italian and German languages as the best fits. I am waiting for your opinion and reasons.

    Characteristics of the ideal international scientific language

    Grammar: easy
    Vocabulary: well known
    Script: easy
    Pronunciation: easy
    Giving equal opportunity: perfect = dead language
    Strong cultural background: yes
    Strong scientific background: yes
    Strong economic/political background: none (= economy and politics do not influence the choice)

    Characteristics of historical international scientific languages and candidates


    Grammar: not easy
    Vocabulary: well known
    Script: not easy
    Pronunciation: not easy
    Giving equal opportunity? yes, one mother country
    Strong cultural background: yes
    Strong scientific background: historically yes
    Strong economic/political background: none


    Grammar: difficult
    Vocabulary: well known
    Script: easy
    Pronunciation: relatively easy
    Giving equal opportunity? perfect
    Strong cultural background: yes
    Strong scientific background: historically yes
    Strong economic/political background: none


    Grammar: very difficult
    Vocabulary: very difficult
    Script: very difficult
    Pronunciation: very difficult
    Giving equal opportunity? too many native speakers
    Strong cultural background: yes
    Strong scientific background: historically yes
    Strong economic/political background: too many countries


    Grammar: I do not know
    Vocabulary: very difficult (for Europeans at least)
    Script: very difficult
    Pronunciation: very difficult
    Giving equal opportunity? too many native speakers
    Strong cultural background: yes
    Strong scientific background: yes
    Strong economic/political background: world power


    Grammar: at the beginning easy, then difficult
    Vocabulary: well known
    Script: OK
    Pronunciation: difficult
    Giving equal opportunity? too many native speakers
    Strong cultural background: yes
    Strong scientific background: yes
    Strong economic/political background: world power


    Grammar: difficult
    Vocabulary: well known
    Script: OK
    Pronunciation: difficult
    Giving equal opportunity? one mother country
    Strong cultural background: yes
    Strong scientific background: yes
    Strong economic/political background: none


    Grammar: relatively easy
    Vocabulary: well known
    Script: easy
    Pronunciation: easy
    Giving equal opportunity? two mother countries (Switzerland has four official languages)
    Strong cultural background: yes
    Strong scientific background: yes
    Strong economic/political background: none


    Grammar: difficult
    Vocabulary: not so easy
    Script: easy
    Pronunciation: easy
    Giving equal opportunity? too many native speakers
    Strong cultural background: yes
    Strong scientific background: yes
    Strong economic/political background: world power


    Grammar: easy
    Vocabulary: well known
    Script: easy
    Pronunciation: easy
    Giving equal opportunity? one country
    Strong cultural background: yes
    Strong scientific background: yes
    Strong economic/political background: none


    Grammar: not so easy
    Vocabulary: well known
    Script: easy
    Pronunciation: not so easy
    Giving equal opportunity? too many native speakers
    Strong cultural background: yes
    Strong scientific background: yes
    Strong economic/political background: too many countries
    John Bruce Langley


    Thank you for telling about this thread. And thank you for offering such vibrant comment on my current question. To your question, I am biased in that I am a native English speaker. However, I like you, am partial to German and Italian having lived in Europe for nine years in Germany and Italy. My genealogical roots have a strong background in these language groups so I also follow your similar conclusions.  Thanks for great discussions.

  • Vikrant Sahu added an answer:
    What is basic meaning of additive and dominance effect of qtl.?is this effective or useful in f5 population?


    Vikrant Sahu

    thanks sir

  • Lynn Ogden added an answer:
    What is the progression risk of Latent TB Infection?

    One of the issue which we do not clearly know about tuberculosis biology is the risk or rate of progression from latent infection to active TB diseases. However, ones  life time risk of progression from latent TB to active TB is reported  to be between 5 to 10% in the absence of other risk factors such as HIV in many  documents. Sadly, these reports  are not citing the original  studies (if they ever have existed).

    So can I find the relevant original references? Opinions on the risk of progression?


    University of Melbourne 

    Lynn Ogden

    What is the risk of those previously treated with BCG?

  • Heidi Hammerstein added an answer:
    What is the basic method for bacteriophage SDS-PAGE and How do i get all phage structural protein bands ?

    1. I am getting streaking with two big bands, two normal bands two/ three very small bands only between 70-40 kDa in 12 % SDS-PAGE gel (CBB strain). but i unable to remove streaking. Is there any method to remove streaking?. 

    2. I need to isolate from both Myoviridae and Shipoviridae phage

    3. Protein concentration was 43 ± 7µg/ml.

    Heidi Hammerstein


    I have not worked with your phages before, but I have had luck with a very fast cooling in -80 degrees C freezer before loading into the gel to decrease streaking.

  • How-Ran Guo added an answer:
    What is the significance of 50% in biology ?

    I was wondering that why is 50% considered so important in biology, as there are inumerable examples in experimental biology where we consider the 50% of something, starting from half life of biomolecules to tm value for primers, IC50, LD50, TCID50 etc.

    there must be a common logic !...

    How-Ran Guo

    I believe in many cases it is the cutoff between “likely” and “unlikely.” For example, exposure to a dose above LD50 is more “likely” to cause death than “unlikely” to cause death. This is very useful when there is only one case is under consideration or each case is considered individually. A cutoff value at 50% can help reach the best prediction (or best guess) between “yes” and “no.” In many other cases, it is an indicator of the central location. For example, median is the location of the center when all the values are lined up in descending or ascending order. This is very useful when there is only one indicator of location to use; using the center as the reference is usually more helpful than using another reference.

  • Saleh Alkarim added an answer:
    Does anyone know how to manipulate FGF23 level?

    I would like to investigate molecular mechanisms of FGF23 signaling during kidney diseases, have anyone suggestion how can I manipulate FGF23 level in blood serum in specific cells etc?  Should I use Crisper/Cas9 system or?

    Saleh Alkarim


    Agree with researchers . also , Look at the links here :

    Good Luck

    + 3 more attachments

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