• Mohd Halim Kadri added an answer:
    Does anybody have literature on challenges and issues in adoption of Ind AS 109? in India?

    Accounting Standard


    Mohd Halim Kadri

    Dear Taral Pathak. One of the issues is adoption of fair value measurement. The following links may assist you.

    + 1 more attachment

  • George Silviu Cordos added an answer:
    What proportion of UK FTSE 250 and FTSE100 companies were audited by Big four audit firms in 2015 or 2014?

    I have already been through the Auditors survey in 2014 and 2015 on Accountancy Live but they only discuss the increase in revenue.What I am after is the actual proportion of FTSE companies audited by Big four and not the amount paid to Big 4.  

    Secondly I would prefer not to go too far back hence I specified 2014 and 2015

    However 2013 will be ok

    George Silviu Cordos

    Unfortunately I cannot help you with information for 2013, 2014 and 2015.

    I had analysed the situation for the first 25 FTS1000 companies (by market capitalisation), as is was in 2013.

    I had to manually download all Audit Reports / Annual Reports for information, so I suggest you do the same. And take 3 years, so 2013, 2014, 2015, for a better comparison and a trend.

    As a preview for what results I had had in 2013: all 25 companies only used Big-4 Auditors, and in the 2009-2012 that percentage stayed 100%. Any changes had only been switches between Big-4 auditors.

    But I am sure that it's not the case with all companies in FTSE100 and FTSE250.

    Good luck :)

  • Mahfoudh Hussein Mgammal added an answer:
    Any literature on harmonization of accounting practices?

    IFRS vs GAAP in the context of developed and developing countries will be more helpful.

    Mahfoudh Hussein Mgammal

    I hope this helpful for you:

    The Impact of Regulatory Enforcement on Harmonization of Accounting Practices: Evidence from China

  • Robert Courtney asked a question:
    Does anybody have the old "Gedanken Excercise" we used to show management (particularly accountants) the fallacy of GAAP accounting?

    First published in the late 1980's.  I studied it during my MBA at the University of Georgia.

  • Mehdi Nikravesh added an answer:
    Can anyone share with me survey questionnaire or interview questions or semi structured questions used in measures SMEs use of accounting?

    I am thinking of research in the area of identifying problems and challenges in SMEs accounting in the context of developing countries like Nepal. I am ready for collaboration as well.

    Mehdi Nikravesh

    Your welcome dear Nirmal. good luck.

  • Mohamed Hegazy added an answer:
    Has anyone done research which measures the impact of fair value accounting as per IFRS 9- Hedge Accounting on corporates? Any relevant papers?

    IFRS 9, categorizes Hedge Accounting into; Fair value hedge, Cash flow hedge and Hedges for foreign operations. Can any one recommend a good read on pre-post effect of applying the IFRS on energy derivatives?

    Mohamed Hegazy

    Please see a real case study about Maridive for oil and Marine services where some detailed explanation is provide for an important type of hedging "Interest Swap" where you will see the role of both accounting, auditing and regulations through my research gate research papers

  • Mohd Halim Kadri added an answer:
    Has anyone had research about accrual accounting implementation in local government?

    I'm trying to write a research about accrual accounting implementation in Indonesian Local Government. anyone can help me with the reference for this research?

    thank you in advance

    Mohd Halim Kadri

    Dear Sari Hanifah, I found this paper presented in 1998, a comparative study between Malaysia and UK. It may be useful for you.

  • Alireza Rahrovi Dastjerdi added an answer:
    Hi all. I want to know if someone could measure accounting conservatism with running a model in panel mode?

    Authors like khan and watts (2009) use a cross section one for that.

    Alireza Rahrovi Dastjerdi

    That was great! 

    Thanks a lot Mr Imran.

  • Soufiene Assidi added an answer:
    Can you share any publication about the accounting narratives?

    The importance of accounting narratives in the disclosure of information 

    Soufiene Assidi

    Dear professor Peter,

    Thank you so much
    I can not follow you
    Could you sent me your address mail.

    Best regards,


  • -- Bilal added an answer:
    Kindly suggest new topics for Research in Accounting and Auditing?
    Respected Professors, Assistant Professors and Other faculty members of Business Schools. Kindly share the new topics for Research in Accounting and Auditing. Also suggest the sources from where I will pick the topic as new learner.
    -- Bilal

    thanks a lot H Gin Chong and Mohd Halim Kadri 

    I will work on your valuable suggestions

  • Syed Ali Raza added an answer:
    I computed the ACF and PACF of inflation in eviews 8, may I ask among AR, MA or ARMA, which process seems most appropriate?

    I computed the Auto-Correlation Function (ACF) and the Partial Auto-Correlation Function (PACF) of inflation in eviews 8 and may I ask among AR, MA or ARMA, which process seems most appropriate and how I interpret it? Thank you

    Syed Ali Raza

    Understanding Econometrics with Economic Applications by Dennis Halcoussis

    I recommend this book for the ARIMA modelling. It has very simple interpretations of different time series econometric techniques.

  • Nabila Nisha added an answer:
    What are the new trends in open book accounting research?
    In our recent paper "Designing and implementing open book accounting in buyer–supplier dyads: A framework for supplier selection and motivation" we discussed a methodology to support the selection of suppliers with whom to successfully cooperate in OBA projects and the identification, for each buyer–supplier dyad, of appropriate incentives to enable cost data disclosure. However, several research opportunities exist in the field of OBA, such as the development of collaborative, two-way approaches. Which are the new trends (e.g. methodologies, industries...) and the new contributions?
    Nabila Nisha

    Kajüter, P., & Kulmala, H. I. (2005). Open-book accounting in networks: Potential achievements and reasons for failures. Management Accounting Research, 16(2), 179-204.

    Kulmala, H. I. (2002). Open-book accounting in networks. Liiketaloudellinen Aikakauskirja, 157-180.

  • Kashan Pirzada added an answer:
    What is the impact of tax information on financial performance?

    The connection between accounting and taxation in some context and the increase of tax burden present a motivations for manager to used tax accounting to influence tax due of firm. Tax information is important and it has  a significant influence on the performance of firm.

    Kashan Pirzada

    Mainly ROE will effect.

  • Olga Shegay added an answer:
    Can anyone reccomend an overview of Accounting studies, operating performance studies to evaluate the acquisitions?

    Apart from event studies there are also Accounting studies, which examine the reported financial results (i.e., accounting statements) of acquirers before, and after, acquisitions to see how financial performance
    changed. The focus of these studies ranges across net income, return on equity or assets, EPS, leverage, and liquidity of the firm. The best studies are structured as matched-sample comparisons, matching acquirers with non-acquirers based on industry and size of firm. In these studies, the question is whether the acquirers outperformed their nonacquirer peers. (Bruner, 2001)

    Olga Shegay

    Thanks a lot for your recommendations Fabrizio! 

  • Patrick Navatte added an answer:
    What is the specific theory that explains the relationship between firm age and company performance?

    Within the context of corporate finance research, it appears logical to include ‘firm age’ as a determinant of company performance (e.g. accounting returns or stock returns), and most studies include 'firm age' as determinant of company performance. But, the theoretical motivation for including firm age as determinants of company performance seems unclear. What specific theory explains the relationship between firm age and company performance (if any)?

    Patrick Navatte


    Firms' age may be a good proxy for firm size, Thus you may find a good correlation between firm age and firm total assets.  For sure the life cycle of the firm is at stake here (local sales, domestic sales then exports, and international development including investment abroad). But to enlarge your perspective  Corporate Social Responsability  seems also to be correlated with firm age but not with industry-adjusted Tobin Q, You can read the following paper to get some insights in theses fields:

    H Jo, M A Harjoto, "Corporate Governance and firm value : The impact of corporate social responsability" Journal of business ethics, 2011, 103, p351 -383.

  • Pranesh Debnath added an answer:
    Is IFRS convergence significantly different from Harmonization?

    The 2 words are used in connection with IFRS and may not mean the same thing.It appears the word HARMONIZATION has been replaced by convergence as convergence is the term used more by the standard setters. According to FASB (2012), the international convergence of accounting standards refers to the goal of establishing a single set of high-quality accounting standards to be used internationally, and the efforts of standard-setters towards achieving that goal. Has anyone come across any literature why these words are used interchangeably or why harmonization appears to be replaced with Convergence?

    Pranesh Debnath

    At the cost of repetition, two words are explained for more transparency.

    The word HARMONIZATION in accounting and reporting perspective means reducing the disparity across the globe. On the other hand CONVERGENCE signifies that the following of common set of accounting and reporting standard subject to little modification as per the demand of economic, social, political, environmental setup.

  • Njo Anastasia added an answer:
    In which type of financial statements should the value of brand equity be positioned ?

    The question is related to the accounting in Business. The addressed three financial statements are : SOFP , CFS and PL.  Brand equity is considered on of the major intangible assets of a company, specially the well-known brands, the value of the brand is measured based on the marketing researches.  Can please anyone explain if the calculated value should be positioned in any of above financial statements ?

    Njo Anastasia

    Dear Amer Mustafa,

    If you are interested to take sample from Indonesia, I suggest you also read our rules state on PSAK 19. Thank you.



  • Faris Alshubiri added an answer:
    Can anyone help me to measure the social responsibility as quantitative financial or economic method?

    Can anyone provide me the methods of financial and economic quantitative methods (ratios) or (factors) to measure social responsibility or social behavior?

    Faris Alshubiri

    Dear My friends Elli Malki , Igor Perechuda  and Malihe Rostami

    Thank you for all , really  these contributions are very  useful , thank you again 

    Best Regards,

  • Wes Helms added an answer:
    Any opinions on Sector Neutrality of Accounting Standards for NGOs and the Public Sector ?

    Do u think that the NGOs and the Public Sector using the accounting standards which are sector neutral.

    Wes Helms

    My biased perspective is that assessing neutrality and transparency of any standard can be determined by understanding the standard development process and probably the oversight functions

    Countries have national standards bodies and accounting bodies have oversight committees. If you want to be value judgments on their neutrality you can assess how standards are developed and overseen. How many stakeholders are allowed in the process, the role of media etc. Just more general thoughts on the transparency of standards.

    • Source
      [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
      ABSTRACT: Increasingly within industries voluntary codes (standards) are being developed and subsequently used by firms to address social and environmental issues. On any particular issue multiple competing codes may be available for adoption by firms. Given a choice of codes, which ones will firms adopt? Building on existing institutional and economic research pertaining to voluntary codes this paper proposes a theoretical model as to why some codes are perceived as legitimate by firms and hence are widely adopted while others are not. This model proposes that, in addition to the role of the code's content, the characteristics of the adopting firm, and environmental factors, the origins of a voluntary code, including the characteristics of the developer creating it, the development process, and the opportunity for firms to engage in formalized 'normative conversations' regarding the code subsequent to its adoption, will influence whether potential firm adopters perceive the code as legitimating and hence decide to adopt it. Rather than code adoption simply reflecting institutional mimicry or a rational transaction by adopting firms this model suggests that both the creation and the maintenance processes surrounding codes play important roles in the perceptions of legitimacy and subsequent adoption of codes by firms.
      Full-text · Article · May 2014 · Journal of Management & Organization
  • Mohd Halim Kadri added an answer:
    Can anyone suggest a good accounting research topic for my phd which is new and can be applicable in the Middle East?
    Mohd Halim Kadri

    If the door is still not closed yet, I would like to suggest you to consider the implementation of Balanced Scorecard in Middle Eastern Countries as a topic.

  • Mehdi Nikravesh added an answer:
    On a 1 to 10 scale (10=very likely) how likely is the U.S. to accept IFRS for financial reporting by U.S.-based publicly traded corportions?
    IFRS (International Financial Reporting Standards) are now required or accepted in over 120 countries. The U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission revised its rules in December 2007 permitting non-U.S. companies to file financial statements prepared according to IFRS without reconciliation to U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) if the financial statements are prepared in accordance with IFRS as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB). On a 1 to 10 scale (1=very unlikely, 5=neutral, 10=very likely) how likely is the U.S. to accept IFRS for financial reporting by U.S.-based publicly traded corporations?
    Mehdi Nikravesh

    In my opinion, SEC will not accept this change. If we review history of standard setting in both the US and international context, we comprehend FASB has an undeniable effect of standard setting over all the world. Even one of the main causes of forming IASC and IASB are EC and other developed nation's reaction to US standard setting. In my opinion, norwalk committee was a phase to achieve an agreement between US and international standard setter (agreement between anglo- saxon and continental approach). I don't expect more agreement in near future. As a person lives in Asia and  knows  US financial reporting regime from his studies, my opinion is 2.

  • Roland Bardy added an answer:
    I have been following sustainability accounting for some time, and I recently published on connecting this to public goods. Does anyone have any experience with that?
    The publication is,id=14462/
    and I would be highy interested in your comments.
    • Source
      [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
      ABSTRACT: Within ecological economics there is recognition of the need for new approaches to decision-making to support sustainable development initiatives. There is an increasing acknowledgement of the limitations of cost–benefit analysis approaches as a measure of the (un)sustainability of organizational activities. These are viewed as particularly inappropriate within the participatory settings that sustainable development proponents seek to foster. They also fail to deal with the highly contested nature of sustainable development discourse in contemporary pluralist democracies. While advances have been made in the field of multi-criteria decision-making, there is still a relative dearth of versatile models that accommodate monetization in a way that recognizes the limits of calculative technologies. This article introduces readers to developments within the accounting discipline designed to support sustainable development decision-making and evaluation. In particular, it proposes sustainability assessment models as a viable alternative to cost–benefit analysis. Sustainability assessment models are based on an inter-disciplinary approach that recognizes the need for “accountings” that facilitate more participatory forms of decision-making and accountability. As such, they address many of the weaknesses in current approaches to cost–benefit analysis. The authors’ first experiences with sustainability assessment models were with BP and the United Kingdom oil and gas sector, where models were developed as a means of making previously external costs more central to organizational decision-making. Later work has included exploration of a range of decision-making situations in private and public sector organizations in both the United Kingdom and New Zealand. This has involved more explicit attention to plural values and issues of participation, dialogue and democracy.
      Full-text · Article · Feb 2007 · Ecological Economics
    Roland Bardy

    Dear John Ikponwosa Otalor,

    thank you for referring me to this article. I have an acquaintance in Geneva, who is Professor Beat Burgenmeier and he is also publishing about the issue if how to improve cost-benefit analyses on public goods. I will try to download one of his papers and then give you the UYL.


  • Ishola Rufus Akintoye added an answer:
    I would like to know the state of forensic accounting in China and how it could set about to improve?
    Details mainly regarding how forensic accountants lack the skills required to detect and prevent fraud early and quickly compared to the US and UK.
    Ishola Rufus Akintoye

    Your question is incomplete.  Improve What? send complete question please.

    Ishola Akintoye

  • Warren Maroun added an answer:
    How to treat the expense of environmental activities in a company's accounting: in assets, liabilities or both?
    Need to clarify the classification of costs based on environmental activities for eg. Recycling process
    Warren Maroun

    This would depend on the nature and purpose of the transaction.

    General CSR spending would probably be recognized in profit or loss. Although IAS 1 does not specifically require separate disclosure, this could be justified if the amounts are material (and by taking into account relevant integrated reporting frameworks).

    It is also possible that these costs form part of plant and equipment, inventory or intangible assets depending on the business model and the nature and purpose of the expenditure. For example, proceeds from recycled material could be included in the cost of self-constructed plant (see IAS 16). Costs incurred to develop new recycling techniques could qualify for capitalization as intangible assets (see IAS 38)  For any company in the recycling business, the costs are  likely to be included in the cost of inventory and recognized in profit or loss when the inventory is sold.

    Some environmental initiatives are more complex. For example, contacts linked to an environmental index could be derivatives and would accounted for as financial instrument according to the relevant accounting standard (for example IAS 39 or IFRS 9).  

  • Muhammad Arslan added an answer:
    Is there anyone interested in China accounting standard problem?

    I am working on the effect of prohibiting assets impairment reversal on the assets write-down behavior with the sample of listed firms in China. I have found some interested results. I am looking for someone interested in this problem as co-author.  Welcome to contact me, if you focus on this problem too.

    Muhammad Arslan

    Please count me in. You can send me message or email to discuss it in detail.

  • John Ikponwosa Otalor added an answer:
    Calculating capital adequacy according to Basel II, should "unaudited profits" be considered in Tier 2 Capital?
    Due to the difference between time that banks prepare its financial reports and the time that banks need to prepare capital adequacy reports, when this comes before the end of the fiscal year there is a profit that banks have on their balance sheets before auditing, the question is, is this profit considered in Tier 2 Capital ?
    John Ikponwosa Otalor

    Calculation of minimum capital requirements for operational and market risk os a regulatory function of each country's Central Bank and the Basel committee has laid down ground rules to be followed. Moreover I think the issue using unaudited financials does not arise because while some Stock demand for half year audited report,  some countries legislation require quarterly reports. 

  • H Gin Chong added an answer:
    What do you know about the forensics accounting?
    The forensics accounting and the its relationship by auditing
    H Gin Chong

    In many cases, forensic auditing is similar to conduct an investigation for achieving a specific purpose or report. This could be meant for an investigation on fraudulent transactions, accounting manipulations, cheating and even overriding internal control systems.

  • Andriy Boyar added an answer:
    How do I apply a simulation analysis in tracking an optimal taxation system?

    I am conducting a study on optimal tax systems and I'm willing to apply a simulation analysis on existing systems to see the differences and to move towards a system of taxation that best meets governments' interests!

    Andriy Boyar

    If you want to start from the very initial point and/or develop your own model of optimal taxation you might start from these basic works. Say, the Dalton’s principle of maximum social advantage could be helpful to model an optimal tax(es) burden(s) in a particular community.

    Wicksell, K. (1896) ‘Ein neues prinzip der gerechten besteuerung’. In Wicksell, K. (ed.) Finanztheoretische Untersuchungen nebst Darstellung und Kritik des Steuerwesens Schwedens (London: MacMillan), pp. 72–118.

    Lindahl, E. (1919) ‘Die Gerechtigkeit der Besteuerung. Eine Analyse der Steuerprinzipien auf Grundlage der Grenznutzentheorie.’ In Musgrave, R. A. and Peacock, A. T. (eds) Classics in the Theory of Public Finance (London: MacMillian), pp. 68–176.

    Dalton, H. (1923) Principles of Public Finance (New York: A.A. Knopf).

  • Amit Mittal added an answer:
    Is there an analysis on the IFRS10 the consolidated financial statements?

    I would like to know the new definition on the control and power less 50%.

    Amit Mittal

    There is a new title on Corporate Finance by Prof Jonathan Berk et al from Stanford, who deal with post crises issues and IFRS accounting impacts throughout the textbook. 

  • Md Shamimul Hasan added an answer:
    How can you get financial information on Egyptian companies?
    Md Shamimul Hasan

    Member organization can extract financial information of listed companies from the database of Bloomberg or Data-stream. If your university is a member of any database companies then you can extract financial information of listed companies from their source.

About Accounting

System of recording financial transactions.

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