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Hi...
"I m working on controller placement problem in Software defined networking - and I keep finding data sets of network topology in .gml format-
I can read it fine in a text editor- How can convert this into a MATLAB friendly format? I just want an Internet ZOO Topology and I don't know how I would convert it myself-This is link of datasets "http://www.topology-zoo.org/dataset.html"
Kindly Help....
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I have been working with ontologies (RDF/OWL) a lot of time, using mostly them as an engineer, because they permitted SPARQL and rules essencially.
It's only recently, this year, that I started to really pay attention to the theoretical grounding of OWL. This lead me to dive into the zoo of many Description Logic and their desirable or undesirable properties.
I think there is some serious issues in the multiplication of work on DL, which are almost never considered under the perspective of actual usefulness, of their ability to describe the specific structures that are at core of many domains (law, clinical science, computer science...).
Quite some of the theoretical work in DL and logic seems to formally study and prove property about language (DL are language) that nobody is speaking or will ever speak. This is quite salient when considering the very little number of working reasoners (which are covering only a small fragment of DL described formally).
It seems to me that, after the incredibly fecund periods that started with Frege, Russel, Tarski, Hilbert, Godel, Carnap... The theoretical work was somewhat considered to be done and less attention was focused on formal language for Domain Description.
On the other hand, questions related to problem solving (planner) became treated only as SAT problem needing optimisation. With almost no reference to first order logic and thus having poor link with DL.
Finally, on the third hand, modal logic, which has clearly deep link with first order logic (the square operator/diamond operator and the existential quantifier/universal quantifier in particular), has been abandoned by computer scientist and become, more or less explicitly, a field of philosophy.
I think this state of affairs isn't satisfying and that there is a work of conceptual clarification and of revision of the foundation of mathematics that would integrate these development.
To that end, something that does seem absolutely essential is to give each other an easy access to reasoners. By easy access, I don't mean a program written in some obscure language whose source must be compiled on a specific linux.
I mean an access to the reasoning service through a (loosely standardized) REST API. These service should be accompanied with websites giving relevant example of using the reaoner, with an "online playground".
I think this could be done for classic DL such as EL or SHOIQ but also for modal logic in it's various kind (epistemic, deontic), and that could also could be done for planification based on First Order Logic.
I'm currently cogitating about the engineering question that would raise from such a logical zoo, and about a grammar that would be usable for every reasoning problem description involving this kind of logic.
If you are interested by the question and/or have skills in modern full stack architecture and Dockerisation, I'd be interested to have your opinion about the current situtation and the feasability of such a logic zoo, which would be an useful tool for clarifying the domain.
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I suggest that you make contact with the automated theorem proving communit. One starting point is the Wikipedia entry
another is the long running series of Conferences on Automated DEduction (CADE)
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National Geographic April 5,2020 article is titled: Tiger tests positive for coronavirus at Bronx Zoo, first known case in the world.
If wild animals, including birds, can be a reservoir hosting COVID-19, that may pose additional hurdles to limiting and containing COVID-19.
Are there reports or studies bearing on this issue?
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Do we need to understand zoonotic diseases better to avoid more pandemics in future? Should we all turn vegetarians? Is eating animals the only issue or there are some other human-animal interactions which need to be understood? Will vising the zoos be safe? Or even keeping pet animals?
Please have a logical discussion around these and ask related questions.
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Aman Arora Thanks for raising this important issue, I do agree with prof. Manal Hadi Kanaan And prof. Frank T. Edelmann
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When talking to visitors of our museum/zoo, some of the most frequent questions asked are "Why is keeping species from going extinct an activity worthwhile to pursue?" or "Why does it matter if this midge or that tick is going extinct?".
While most biologists will probably reply that species have very specific roles in their ecosystems and thus the extinction of one species can probably affect others, too, or that each species is part of the richness of our nature (a value in itself so to speak), some non-biologists are often not that easily convinced (especially when you refer to species not very attractive to the human eye). What even more hampers an easy answer is that more than 99% of species that ever existed have died out in the course of evolution. So what is all that conservationist effort, to 'preserve the current state' all about? Changes in biodiversity and mass extinctions have always happened, so why don't we let it just happen now (to put it insensibly)? There are also some human related arguments, for example "we breathe air and thus need plants of some sort". But that does not mean I need every plant species on the planet to produce oxygen, crops will do that, too...
I would like to hear your thoughts on this to have some good arguments at hand when dealing with the next inquisitive visitor. ;-)
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A watch can work without the glass covering the clock face. A watch surely can work removing one of the tiny gears from the inside. And will probably still work if you remove a different tiny gear instead the one we mentioned before. You can also wet a bit the clock, and hopefully it will work without much problem...
But a watch will probably fail if we remove too many pieces or damage it too badly... And then you will have to buy a new one.
So, the World is a watch, and biodiversity are the gears that keep it moving.
How many pieces we want to remove or how much damage we want to apply to see if it stop working?
The problem is that buying a new World is not in the immediate schedule!
And so, that is why conserving biodiversity matters.
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We've got a workbook to do with SPSS and I understand how to do the tests in SPSS, but I don't know what to do with this data set in order to know what test to do. To me, this has 2 different IV's - the zoo it is in, and whether it had high or low visitor density. One of which is independent, one is paired samples. We have to calculate the descriptive statistics - which ones? We tried the mean, but do we find the mean for the set as a whole, or for each zoo/density. We haven't been taught properly and I have a decent understanding but this is going above me. I will try and attach the actual question and data set.
Scenario 1 –
To investigate if resting behaviour of Lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla) was affected by crowd density, researchers observed gorillas in 5 zoological institutions across Europe. For each enclosure, resting behaviour was recorded in randomised 30-minutes sessions under two conditions: high number of visitors and low number of visitors. For each condition, the observations were repeated 3 times. The data collected in these sessions is summarised below:
Table 1. Time (minutes) spent resting in relation to visitor numbers in 5 zoological institutions.
Transfer the above data into excel and perform the following:
a. Import the data into SPSS
b. Determine the independent and dependent variable in the above scenario. You may also be quizzed on what type of data these variables are, and whether the samples are independent.
c. Calculate descriptive statistics . You may be asked to provide one or more descriptive values in the quiz.
d. Determine whether the data is normally distributed or not. You may have to provide p-values, degrees of freedom or test statistics and be asked to interpret the outcome of this test in relation to the null- and alternative hypotheses.
e. According to your interpretation of the normality test you performed, determine which statistical test would be appropriate to run on the visitor density data set.
f. Run the test you have chosen and save the output. You may have to provide p-values or test statistics and be asked to interpret the outcome of this test in relation to the null- and alternative hypotheses.
g. Create a graph that is appropriate for the test you have chosen and save the graph in your output.
h. Consider how you would interpret these results and their wider implications.
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Lauren Dowdeswell happy it helps!
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I would like to know some methodologies for captive condition of small carnivores in Zoos. … Read more
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You must develope your aim in this study in order to define methodology.
I invite you to see this link : Gidna, A., Yravedra, J., & Domínguez-Rodrigo, M. (2013). A cautionary note on the use of captive carnivores to model wild predator behavior: a comparison of bone modification patterns on long bones by captive and wild lions. Journal of Archaeological Science, 40(4), 1903-1910.
Benson-Amram, S., Gilfillan, G., & McComb, K. (2018). Numerical assessment in the wild: insights from social carnivores. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 373(1740), 20160508.
or this :
Ferreira, S. C. M., Torelli, F., Klein, S., Fyumagwa, R., Karesh, W. B., Hofer, H., ... & East, M. L. (2019). Evidence of high exposure to Toxoplasma gondii in free-ranging and captive African carnivores. International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife, 8, 111-117.
Good luck,
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I want to extract Hop count, link utilization and random placement from Topology zoo data set, and I have no idea how to do that. additionally, i'm going to use that criteria for SDN controller placement problems in matlab.
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This discussion is still open?
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Dear Colleagues,
Please see the following link and information for more details. If you are thinking about submitting, please feel free to reach out to me directly here or at edjfern@gmail.com.
The modern field of Applied Animal Behavior has brought about two major advances in the behavioral welfare of animals: (1) The use of environmental/behavioral enrichment, and (2) the implementation of voluntary training procedures to improve human-animal interactions. Both these practices have their roots in behavior analysis and learning theory. However, few studies have examined the learning effects observed in the application of these practices. For instance, most implementations of operant conditioning to the training of animals is done without measurement of the learning process. Likewise, the effects of enrichment, while originally proposed as a form of behavioral engineering to modify learned behavior, is almost exclusively measured in terms of its pre- vs. post-enrichment effect. Both modern advances thus miss a significant result of their implementation: How behavior is shaped by these environmental manipulations.
The following special issue looks to address how learning theory has been applied and measured to address the welfare of animals. Original manuscripts that examine any aspect of how learning theory has been applied to improve the lives of animals, from studies of behavioral training procedures to the modification of behavior as a result of some environmental change, are welcome submissions. Specific interest will be given to papers that use within-subject methodology to measure changes in behavior over time, as well as papers that address how behavior analysis has served the welfare of animals and can better contribute to the field.
Dr. Eduardo J. Fernandez Ms. Sabrina Brando Guest Editors
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i cannot add anything personally, but Stevan Harnad at Universite du Quebec a Montreal would be a good person to contact.
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Hello, I am seeking any advice on how to analyze my ethogram data. I have trouble with stats, so anything would be useful!
As part of my interdisciplinary project on the welfare of primates in sanctuaries in Costa Rica, I have 35.4 hours of observational data of capuchins (Cebus capucinus) from my field season this summer across 3 sanctuaries. This is only my first field season, I will be returning for more hours of data collection!
My hypotheses are that:
(1) tourist presence is a potential source of stress for captive caps.
(2) tourist presence has less of an effect on cap behaviour when the enclosure is more enriched.
My predictions are that:
(1) caps perform vigilance, territorial and aggressive behaviours in relation to tourist presence.
(2) caps in more enriched enclosures (more space per individual, places for privacy, complex structures, etc.) perform less vigilance, territorial and aggressive behaviours when tourists are present.
Each sanctuary differed in enclosure size and enrichments, as well as frequency of guided tours and number of tourists.
Sanctuary 1 (n=5): 15 sessions X 60 min =15 hours observation
Sanctuary 2 (n=3): 9 sessions X 72 min = 10.8 hours observation
Sanctuary 3 (n=3): 8 sessions X 72 min = 9.6 hours observation
Total = 35.4 hours
n = capuchin individuals.
I used both focal follow and group scan methods:
-Focal follows of 6 minutes alternating per monkey.
-3 group scans beginning, middle, and end of session (approx. 30 min apart).
I made notes (all-occurrence style) of when a tour group approached the enclosure and when they left.
I made all-occurrence observations of when capuchins did territorial noise-making (bang tail, throw rocks, bang items in enclosure, etc.).
I can say, anecdotally, I noticed that in the least enriched enclosure (Sanctuary 1), capuchins performed the most territorial and vigilance behaviour. This sanctuary has the most capuchins, the smallest enclosure, and the most tourist activity. Sanctuary 2 had the least tourism activity and the most enriched enclosure (lots of areas for privacy, located at edge of jungle, etc.) and I saw the least territorial and vigilance behaviour performed there. Sanctuary 3 was somewhat in the middle of both, so right now Sanctuary 1,2, and 3 feels like they are on a bit of a spectrum.
How do I demonstrate that tourist presence is correlated with caps' vigilance and territorial behaviour? I imagine creating a graph that looks like a time line of the observational session, with time stamps for when tourists approached and left the enclosure. In my mind, there would be a line tracking vigilance, aggression, and territoriality which would spike during the in-between section of the timeline during tourist presence (which I think of as sort-of like applying a treatment to the capuchin group).
I am wondering if this would be a good way to illustrate the effect of tourist presence, and if so, how to go about making this graph such as in Excel or R Studio.
As well, my understanding is that the individuals housed together are not independent variables because they influence each other’s behaviour. Does this mean that I would combine all their individual data for vigilance, territoriality, etc., when I noticed it was typically the alphas and usually one other individual who performed most of these behaviours?
I used Zoo Monitor to record observations. For behaviour tail-banging behaviour ("drum"), I was able to generate these graphs using the app where the y-axis is Rate (occurrence/min per session) of tail-banging, and the x-axis has dates of observation.
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It's worth taking into account all the previous research on the effects of visitors, as well as animal-visitor interactions, that have been done in zoos and similar settings. Here are several review papers that should help you identify similar studies. A lot of what you test could be accomplished with simple one-way or two-way ANOVAs, but the important part will be to look at what others have already done to test similar effects. Knowing and emulating what has already been done is always one of your best options:
Fernandez EJ, Tamborski MA, Pickens SR and Timberlake W 2009 Animal–visitor interactions in the modern zoo: Conflicts and interventions. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 120(1-2) 1-8.
Godinez AM and Fernandez EJ 2019 What is the Zoo Experience? How Zoos Impact a Visitor's Behaviors, Perceptions, and Conservation Efforts. Frontiers in psychology 10: 1746.
Hosey GR 2000 Zoo animals and their human audiences: what is the visitor effect? Animal Welfare 9(4): 343-57.
Sherwen SL and Hemsworth PH 2019 The visitor effect on zoo animals: Implications and opportunities for zoo animal welfare. Animals 9(6): 366.
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Here's a question that extends beyond applied animal behavior researchers, with hopefully a few researchers or even librarians with expertise in massive article searches that might be able to provide some help. The basics are this: We started a meta-analysis of enrichment about a decade ago:
The idea was to extend the three enrichment meta-analyses that looked at what effect enrichment had on stereotypic behavior in zoo animals (Shyne, 2006; Swaisgood & Shepherdson, 2005; Swaisgood & Shepherdson, 2006) to more than just stereotypies and in more settings than zoos. We were looking at the effects of enrichment on all different behaviors (e.g., foraging, inactivity, social) as well as across numerous species and in zoos, shelters, farms, stables, labs, etc. At the start of this project (2010), we managed to find 12,000 articles that were limited to 150 papers mainly by using the Google Scholar "OR" function (i.e., enrichment OR stereotypy OR welfare OR behavior...), and then limiting it to (a) peer-reviewed publications that (b) did some type of enrichment to baseline independent variable manipulation, and (c) measured at least one type of behavioral effect.
The difficulty we have run into is this: Google Scholar only allows any query to produce 1000 searches. And there have been a lot more studies done since 2010, with anywhere from 23,000 to 50k+, depending on how we exclude terms. We can search by year for each, but that is less effective. And, we could include other search engines, like Web of Science, to produce more accurate results. I just feel like we're going about this in a less optimal way if we start limiting searches by year. So that is essentially it:
What is the most optimal way to produce a large meta-analytic search on peer-reviewed publications that have examined the effects of environmental/behavioral enrichment on (a) any kind of behavior (b) in any setting?
It has to be at least partially experimental since we require a non-enriched baseline measure for comparison. Other than that, we would like to find all the papers we can, probably in the range of 250 - 500, and then start doing our meta-analysis on what those papers have to say about enrichment used with different species/taxa, different types of enrichment, different settings, and so on. Any suggestions would be much appreciated.
References:
Shyne (2006). Meta‐analytic review of the effects of enrichment on stereotypic behavior in zoo mammals. Zoo Biol, 25(4), 317-337.
Swaisgood, R. R., & Shepherdson, D. J. (2005). Scientific approaches to enrichment and stereotypies in zoo animals: what's been done and where should we go next?. Zoo Biol, 24(6), 499-518.
Swaisgood, R., & Shepherdson, D. (2006). Environmental enrichment as a strategy for mitigating stereotypies in zoo animals: a literature review and meta-analysis. Stereotypic Animal Behaviour: Fundamentals and Applications to Welfare. CABI, 256-285.
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Starting in March, I will be working on a behavioural study concerning two elderly female Asian Elephants in a zoo enclosure. My research question is to study their behaviour and to decrease the stereotypic behaviour that they show. Because I am still in the preface, I wish to dig as deep in other publications as possible. What are publications I should definitely read? Not just on elephant behaviour, but also on the methods of behavioural studies - since I have not done this for a longer time, so there might be a good article on that as well. Thanks in advance!
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Hello again, Annet,
Eduardo's input reminded me of another (relatively recent -- 2013) paper that I came across in the 'Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science' which should complement the "Asian Elephant Self-Recognition" paper by Plotnick et al. *2006); see attached::
Kathy Carlstead , Joy A. Mench , Cheryl Meehan & Janine L. Brown (2013) An Epidemiological Approach to Welfare Research in Zoos: The Elephant Welfare Project, Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science, 16:4, 319-337.
DOI: 10.1080/10888705.2013.827915
Cheers,
Ian
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Does anyone have any experience on how to set standards and manage responses and action on escaped birds from zoos? We found a greater flamingo at Schinias-National Park near Athens and it may belong to two escaped individuals from Attika Zoological Park (it is ringed, "LCA", see photo). Any replies on this specific case or general protocol elsewhere would be much appreciated.
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I'm sure this has already been resolved, but in case not; always contact zoos directly if you find an animal like this. Attika Zoological Park is an EAZA-accredited zoological institution, and most of their birds are tagged, like the one in the above picture. They could quickly determine if it is their bird, and if it is not, they will almost certainly help determine whose bird it is.
M. Cooper's responses above provide great details and protocols for how zoos take action on animals that escape from their facilities. I think the difficulty you've run into is how, as an academic, do you respond when being on the other end of discovering escaped wildlife, and is there a general protocol for such events? My simple answer is this: Always contact your local accredited zoological institution. Otherwise, contact local wildlife and/or rehabilitation centers. All of the above will make sure any animal, especially those that are tagged, are brought back to their home facilities.
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I am going to do some basic research on biodiversity, and looking for what species are there available at zoo/conservation. Are there any sources available for species census conducted in the zoo?
Thank You
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Hi Iqbal,
The International Zoo Yearbook used to do a census of rare species in captivity, and their records are available online https://zslpublications.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1748-1090.1988.tb03240.x . Unfortunately these are all historical records, but they might give you a starting place. A lot of zoos and aquariums are now using Species360, which is a global online record keeping system. I'm not sure that they publish a census though. Hope this helps.
Best wishes,
James
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For the 2019 American Society of Animal Sciences Meeting we are proposing a Symposium on "Sustainability of Meat and Fish Ingredients" it will be housed in the Companion Animal Program, however, it has a Comparative Nutrition focus (i.e., talks from other fields are acceptable - human, livestock, zoo housed-exotics).
We would love some suggestions from the wider field for consideration!
The following topics have been proposed:
  • Sustainability of Fish: An Ecological Perspective
  • Advances in LCPUFA Production: Fish, alagal and other oil sources
  • Ingredient Sustainability (Meat and Fish)
  • High Protein Diets: Animal and Alternative Protein Sources
  • Feed Sustainability & Consumer Education
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Selective breeding is better than molecular studies.
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I thought it might be nice to add recent references to this project (Wellness and Animal Welfare), since one of the goals seems to be increasing general knowledge of animal wellness/well-being. I'd be happy to include some of my own, as well as other recent references from zoo researchers and the like.
If we were to add references, what's the best way to go about adding them here? You can add files directly to questions/answers, and that's at least partially helpful. Any better ways to add suggestions?
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Thanks, Jon. I'll make sure to talk more with Sabrina about this as well. Right now, I'm leaning toward making an ongoing wellness-related reference list, and maybe splitting it up by categories, which ambient-related variables could be a category.
Another topic of interest is operationally defining differences between wellness and welfare specifically, which Terry has done in the past, for instance, in his most recent Professor in the Zoo book. But again, this is all just brainstorming at this point, so even just a reference list of all up-to-date empirical examinations of all things animal wellness/welfare related would be a great start.
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Hi everybody,
I am looking for papers treating the relationships between the (paleo) climatic-oceanographic perturbations and the morphological adaptation of marine (phyto-/zoo-) plankton. Any suggestions are welcome!
Thanks in advance.
Luca
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Many thanks Mr. Mitra and Macedo!
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Hi! I am struggling with the analysis of my data and could use some help.. I am looking at the effect of castration on the development of social behaviour in gorillas. I have observed 11 males, of which 4 are castrated and 7 intact. I have observed them for four years and for every male thus four data points: 2015, 2016, 2017 and 2018. I would like to compare the development over the years of castrated and intact males, but also take into the account the possible effect of age and zoo (as the males live in different zoos).
So far I figured I would do a repeated measures ANOVA, using the following code:
lme_aggression = lme(Aggression ~ Group + Age + Zoo, data=aggressionlong, random = ~1|Focal)
anova(lme_aggression)
summary(lme_aggression)
I really do not know that much of statistics, so I am wondering if this is correct?
If it is, the next problem is that the assumption of normality of residuals cannot be met for a lot of behaviours and using the Friedman test as an alternative for the ANOVA is not working in R...
I appreciate your help!!
Thank you.
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Is the rate an average of multiple observations for each individual in each year? I.e., is the rate fractional or integer? The reason I ask is if the response is integer the Poisson distribution may be a good error term.
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I am currently doing research about environmental enrichment for crocodilians for an internship, but I'm having trouble finding information about this theme.
Does anyone know of any studies or research to suggest?
Thanks!
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I would suggest that you contact the Reptile Keepers at the zoos/aquariums that have good populations/displays of a number of crocodilians. They are often conducting research on behavioral enrichment, know of unpublished work, and have ideas on what not to do. One way to find the keepers easily is to find out who keeps the breeders log or the taxonomic group information and they can get you good contact information.
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I am studying 6 behaviours in 2 separate groups of zebras in a zoo, and comparing them. I want to compare how long the 2 groups (as a unit) spend showing each behaviour. I will be observing them for 5 weeks and by the end should have a table like this -
Avg Duration (mins)
Behaviour Gp 1 Gp 2
forage
rest
social
vigilance
move
other
I'm not interested in within-group comparisons (e.g. Gp 1 forage compared to social), but I am interested in between-group comparisons. However not only would i want to compare foraging between the 2 gps, resting between the 2 gps and so on, but i would also want to compare e.g. gp1 forage with say gp 2 social - between categories of behaviours between the 2 groups.
Now I was thinking ANOVA is partly about whether 1/more variables of various levels have a effect on another variable, but the only variables i have will be time and behaviour. I don't especially think one will have a dircect effect on the other - it's purely just observational. So would I have to do multiple t-tests, since I'd only be looking for differences between 2 means at a time?
Cheers!!!
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I would use a chi squared test (Null: frequency of behaviours is the ~same across groups). I would start with all behaviours and, if there are significant differences, analze one behaviour at a time. You can do this with or without time as a factor (former is more complicated). e.g., Analyzing Frequencies chapter in Quinn & Keough (older versions of the text are available for free online). Let us know how it turns out!
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As part of my Bsc Zoo Biology course I am required to interview/ ask questions to people in my desired career to ascertain information surrounding the field. If anybody working as a zoo keeper or particularly in reptile conservation would you mind answering a few questions for me?
Thanks in advance - Louis Pereira
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Yes, of course, if you work in conservation, you should have very important information to publish for this science. I am an ethno-ornithologist, and I work for conservation in my country. If you have wildlife enhancement items or ecosystems, I think you can make it happen. So feel free to explain your need.
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I am currently looking into the behaviour of Hartmann's Zebra in a Zoo environment and am wanting to record my findings. Can anyone recommend a video camera or software package that may be suitable. I have been leant a digital video camera but the quality is poor making differentiating the stripe of the zebra difficult at any sort of distance.
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We either use a go pro for low resolution recordings or Dalsa Genie HM640 for 250Hz high resolution, but I think that could be too high for you!
We use streampix to gather and export videos.
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In Coupled line or in hairpin Band pass filter, how to keep line width of the resonator based on the value of Zoe and Zoo?
I mean what is use Zoe and Zoe. Do we have to take sqrt(Zoe*Zoo) and find Z and then from that we have to take W?
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thanks
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Dear researchers,
We're planning to begin a zoo project comparing animal behaviour when being observed, compared to camera footage. I don't suppose anyone could recommend good types of video camera for zoo recording? Most importantly, the camera would need to have a long battery life and be able to record for 3+ hours at any given time, but also have a relatively wide lens - and be fairly inconspicuous. Any suggestions would be very much appreciated!
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Hi
Have you considered CCTV cameras? Standard security CCTV cameras have infra red LEDs for night filming. An HD-TVI (or Turbo) CCTV camera plus an suitable recorder will allow scheduling, should you need it, and the ability to film with motion detection or continuously. Hikvision have a good range and can be relatively cheap. You can usually record 4 cameras at a time, should you want to. If mains is available, they can be viewed directly as well.
The cameras give a good quality HD image.
The cameras use 12 volts, and can either be used with mains power (with a suitable plug adapter,) or with 12 volt batteries. Lithium batteries from Tracer power are the best. For CCTV equipment contact Handykam (Cornwall UK) as they are experienced working with researchers.
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Hello all,
I am wondering if there is any simple way to isolate intact (medium or high quality) total RNA from selected zoo animals. What is the best material for this? Fresh saliva, droppings, hair or something other? I am interested in some tumor supressor gene, which is probably low expressed.
My laboratory workflow:
sampling material -> conservation in RNALater -> RNA isolation -> reverse transcription into cDNA -> PCR -> sequencing PCR amplicon
Invasive sampling of whole blood or tissue is not possible due to many formalities and legislative obstruction.
Has anybody experiences with it? What is the best material and method for animal non-invasive intact RNA isolation?
Thank you very much for answers :-)
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What tissues are you interested in? We had some luck with RNA from feces, although you'll need to troubleshoot your isolation protocol because the quality can decay quite quickly. It's also best to collect the sample "before it touches the ground", so if the animals are quite big it can get dangerous.
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Informal learning was once constrained to places like libraries and museums. At one point in time zoos stood little chance of getting grants focused on informal learning. As STEM has risen in prominence I am wondering how informal STEM learning may or may not have changed the definition of informal learning. Where can it take place? Can it happen in schools and if so, under what conditions would it be considered informal, and finally are zoo, businesses, labs, and universities participating as locations for informal STEM learning and under what conditions? What operational definition are you using to include these former bastions of formal education only.
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If you are interested in STEM informal learning I would suggest reading Falk Rennie, Dierking, Stocklmayer and McComas as well as the authors referenced in their papers. The emphasis on informal learning seems to be that it is often driven by an individual's intrinsic interest in a subject and their own motivation. Falk also emphasizes that an individual exerts a much greater degree of choice and control over their learning in informal education. I believe it is Rennie who breaks down the most critical ways in which informal and formal education differ. Either way - a very good read.
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Im search to any one in Denmark exactly in Copenhagen and Netherlands wagenigen university that work on lighting and their effects on plants metabolism how I can find that?
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Dear Alessio
how i can do this? 
i search in google scholar. but this site just show article and their citation. 
how i can find citation as you send for me?
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I am wondering if it is possible to re-introduce big cats to the wild if they have been born in captivity, particularly when born in (European) zoos.
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I`ve heard of only one  quite successful project concerning tiger in India.
The main problem is the risk of cat predation on domestic animal and lack of fear of  human beings
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Is there any methods to reduce the abnormal behaviour of most bear in captivity instead of introduction of enrichment tools method?
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You have to give a variety of enrichments. I agree with Smith and John O'Brien.
You have to keep the bear very activity during the day time.
No food after 6pm and you start you feeding from 7am at different intervals.
Can call 013 6246918
Regards
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Hi, my name is Ivan...
I need to know what the abnormal behavior or stereotype is called by a family group of gorillas I'm studying at a zoo.
Both the alpha male and one of the females, somewhat older, eat the mucus very often, whether they are somewhat cooled or in good health.
-What is the name of eating the snot?
- Is it considered abnormal behavior or stereotypy if it is very often, the frequency?
For example, eating bowel movements, is said coprophagia, then ... eat snot?
Thank you very much for everything.
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In the wild gorillas graze almost constantly, and in captivity if they don't have access to food consistently throughout the day I've been told they can develop a behaviour of vomiting and then re-ingesting their food. Could this be a different variation of the same stress? I haven't worked with Gorillas myself but heard this from an experienced keeper.
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I was unsure as to whether you were trying to improve captive breeding program practices merely to increase their success rate and produce more individuals to be re-release, OR if you were trying to study the effects of captive breeding practices on the reproductive success rate of re-released populations.
One of my undergraduate majors was Zoo Science, so I find your topic interesting, and look forward to seeing the results.
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Please check this useful link and PDF attachments.
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I am currently employed in a small zoo, and we house cotton-top tamarins Oedipus sanguinius in an indoor enclosure.  We have installed a large UVB fluorescent tube array to provide for their UVB requirements but I think it may be inadequate.  UVB penetration from artificial light sources into animal enclosures is generally pretty poor, with the further you move away from the light, the less UVB is detected. I am just wondering if there is any information or research out there that discusses mammals' ability to self-regulate UVB intake (i.e. would the tamarins move closer to the light on there own for the primary reason of UVB intake) or would we need to design the enclosure furnishings to basically 'force' the primates to get close to the light?
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Thanks guys, I appreciate your answers and positive comments regarding our enclosure design.
I read through the relevant section on UVB requirements in the paper you provided Edward and came across the following statement on page 219:
"However, no empirical data on the effect
of UVB radiation on the behaviour and psychological well-being of marmosets and tamarins have been found."
As the paper was published in 2006, I wonder if there is any more current research in this area?
I know that the tamarins require UVB for Vitamin D3 synthesis so it definitely should be provided (and we are). I'm trying to ascertain whether the tamarins purposely move to a source of UVB for the express purpose of UVB absorption. My reasoning is that if the tamarins do actively move to the UVB source then we can provide furnishings up close to the light source, as the lights we are currently using do not emit huge levels of UVB over a large distance. If the tamarins do not actively move to the light source for the purpose of UVB absorption, then we may need to look at other more powerful UVB lamps (such as mercury vapour globe, etc) that provide much higher UVB levels and penetration into the enclosure so that the tamarins are receiving adequate UVB as they move around the enclosure.
Does that make sense? I'm not sure if I'm explaining what I mean very well!
Thanks again for your input - it is very much appreciated!
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I would like to know if there is a link or website where you can see all photos and behaviors-personality of all lowland gorillas who are captive in zoos, nature parks, bio-parks, etc., across Europe.
I want to do a study of personality as physical, but I need photos and data from a database behavior of them all.
Do you know if there is such a database on the web? And if not, it would be nice to create a demand for new scientific ..
Thanks for your help.
Ivan,
Master Primatology
Barcelone
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Ivan:
This link might prove helpful to you:
Best
Syed
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There are minor barriers that hinder adults who are disabled from participating in family events such as going to the zoo or museum. How would I find the data about these barriers? 
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Thanks to all for your answers. I am proceeding carefully. 
Dee Stewart
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I am currently researching on the Savu Python (Liasis macklotti savunesis) and its ex-situ and in-situ programmes for my Dissertation of BSc of Zoo Management at Reaseheath College (Partnered by Chester University) in the United Kingdom come September 2016. I am looking for research on its behaviours, diet and feeding, possible enclosure utilisation or adaptations to environments. Any of scientific areas are welcome.  The attached file is part of my initial research.
Your support is greatly appreciated.  
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Di Indonesia ada usaha penangkaran dan jasa perkawinan ular Pyton yaitu di Depok - Jawa Barat. Maybe You can find out for your references comparation.. 
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Is there any water quality standards for animal drinking? My point is on captive animals at Zoo. If you think it as an absurd then comment here why? Do animals also need the one so? Do they also need to enjoy pathogen free /pollution free water? 
Greetings
Anila Ajayan
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This attachment has a lot of information on drinking water from forests and grasslands that might be helpful.  Their point is to seek out the best sources of water for drinking to save on treatment costs and know where the water comes from (the watershed) and that may help you determine what potential issues exist.  Forests are generally your best opportunity for natural pure water. 
I have not researched much the topic.  In a quick google search, I came up with a couple of items.  The best success I had briefly was searching on animal drinking water quality.  Whether zoos, pets, animal facilities, vet, research facilities, farms, etc., there should be some basic standards.  You have probably hit on something important and can champion the cause for proper drinking and living conditions for zoos.  These animals are essentially caged pets and we owe them as far as we can provide proper living conditions.
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The elephants are known to take warm waters of the lake up in their nose, it is possible that like humans it sometime goes up higher to cause PAM? Aggression followed by deaths have been reported in zoos, could it be due to PAM? 
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We know surprisingly little about animal infection with many opportunistic organisms, whether protists, fungi, bacteria, or other microbes.  Many of these opportunistic pathogens are probably more common in humans than we realize, but things like Naegleria, Balamuthia, and Acanthamoeba have been noticed more in countries with robust surveillance and clinical disease reporting requirements, even though they doubtless occur in other areas, perhaps even to a greater degree.  In terms of animals, there is little doubt that opportunistic amoebae do infect them, as the tapir study cited above and other reports suggest.  Opportunistic microbes such as Legionella are also known to infect animals, but this is poorly reported and poorly read even when published.  So, your idea is a good one, but there are many things that could cause some of the conditions in elephants that you describe, so any particular etiologic agent should not be assumed.  Some serological evidence might be sought for an easy look, but the actual organism must be located and identified in diseased tissue before we can make any legitimate statement.  Good luck with your search!
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Sometimes in zoos we can see diferents species living too close. We want to know how this forced proximity affect.
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Parasites can be readily transferred from one animal to another when they are held in close proximity in a zoo. This is especially a problem with cestodes of the family Taeniidae and species of the genus Echinococcus. A good reference on this can be found in the paper by D'Alessandro and Rausch (2008). Search for Gorilla in the text. You will be amazed at the report. Best wishes. Scott
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Captured animals are more susceptible to diseases than an animal in wild. I am trying to isolate microbes from a water body inside a zoo. This water may cause more health risks to zoo animals. Please provide the details of microbes if anybody know so that I can go selectively to culture them.
Thanks in advance!
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please download my research paper entitle A MODEL TO STUDY THE EFFECT OF BOILING ON WATER BORNE BACTERIAL DIARRHEAL AGENTS
i hope it will help you
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So UV lighting is seen as essential to a lot of captive lizards species, though there is still much debate as to whether it is beneficial to captive snake species as well. It is not viewed as a necessity in captive snake species, but I was wondering whether any research had been carried out as to possible benefits of providing UV in captivity. Thanks in advance.
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Hello,
I am a veterinary surgeon researching the use of UVB lighting with reptiles and amphibians (also mammals and birds). The papers cited by Dr. Ott are very relevant and worthy of a little discussion.
1. Any wild animal which exposes any part of its body to daylight (daylight, not necessarily direct sunlight) will be exposing that skin to at least some UVB. Many diurnal snakes bask openly in direct sunlight; others "mosaic bask" in dappled sunlight through foliage. Many crepuscular and nocturnal species do emerge during daylight hours, if only for very brief periods; even more species sleep in sheltered positions (such as tree branches and crevices in rocks) where daylight does reach them, albeit in small amounts. Therefore in the wild, there is almost always the opportunity for a snake to receive UVB, and to use this free natural resource to synthesise vitamin D3 in the skin.
The study by Ferguson et al (2010) describes the measured daily UVB exposure of five species of snake, all of which were considered either as crepuscular or shade dwellers, or partial sun/ occasional baskers. The authors conclude that providing suitably low levels of UVB to reptiles with similar exposure patterns would replicate their exposure in the wild. This paper does not, however, establish whether snakes do synthesise vitamin D3 in the skin... only that the species they followed in the wild definitely had the opportunity to do so.
2. Nature typically utilises free resources very effectively; we should not be surprised if it turns out that very few snake species are unable to synthesise vitamin D3 in the skin under natual UVB light. The first study to demonstrate this is the one cited, by Acierno et al. (2008). Corn snakes were offered very low-level UVB exposure and responded by vigorous elevation of vitamin D3 levels, as indicated by their 25(OH)D3 status.
The second study cited - Hedley & Eatwell (2013) - was unable to demonstrate elevation of serum 25(OH)D3 in an all-female group of 6 ball pythons given quite intense UVB exposure daily for 70 days. A control group, (mixed males and females) not supplied with UVB, also showed little change in 25(OH)D3 levels over the same period. However, there were some very curious features about this study. All the females in the experimental group (a batch from one owner) had extremely high 25(OH)D3 levels initially, compared to the control group (a batch from another owner) so the groups were not comparable from the start. Also, the females in both groups had far higher 25(OH)D3 levels than the males, both at the start and the end... the authors discuss the possibility of egg production stimulating raised serum 25(OH)D3 levels in these females. This surely raises the question as to whether, if vitamin D3 synthesis was indeed occurring in the females given UVB, any extra produced could have been transferred to developing eggs - which require high levels of vitamin D for embryonic development.
Of course it is also possible that ball pythons do not synthesise vitamin D3 from UVB, but obtain all they need from their diet. Very high serum 25(OH)D3 in the experimental group, initially, before they had ever experienced UVB, clearly indicates that dietary supplementation with D3 works in this species!
It is also possible that these high serum levels inhibited formation and/or absorption of more D3 under the influence of UVB. Cutaneous synthesis is a self-limiting process in which, when the vitamin D binding protein is saturated, excess formed in the skin is "recycled" into apparently inert byproducts, owing to an equilibrium reaction dependent upon the wavelengths of UVB (and some UVA) present in the light....
As the authors themselves suggest, this study poses more questions than it answers, and hopefully further research will be done.
3. The paper by Chang & Zheng (2003) is quite different. They exposed the snakes to high doses of un-naturally short-wavelength UVB (from 290nm, peaking at 297nm, which means the UV contained considerable amounts of non-solar UVB) and examined the skin damage this rapidly produced at all but the very lowest exposure they trialled. The radiation they used was totally abnormal, and tells us nothing about the effect of exposure to natural "sunlight" levels. The authors conclude: "These results indicate that the skin of Cope's rat snake is more resistant to UVB irradiation than human skin partly due to a higher abundance of keratin."
By my calculations, the total UVB exposures causing damage ranged from 41.6 µW/cm² to 111 µW/cm², for 2 hours. Had this been sunlight, I think it is likely that little or no damage would have been caused. However, I strongly suspect that the UVB source with the described spectrum was a "phototherapy lamp", using phosphors similar to those causing severe skin damage in reptiles as reported by Gardiner et al (2009).
Gardiner DW, Baines FM, Pandher K. 2009. Photodermatitis and photokeratoconjunctivitis in a ball python (python regius) and a blue-tongue skink (tiliqua spp.). J Zoo Wild Med, 40(4):757-766
The high proportion of short wavelength UVB renders the radiation from these lamps much more harmful than the equivalent µW/cm² from sunlight. When I tested lamps of that type for that paper, I found that 100µW/cm² from one of the lamps was equivalent to UV Index 10.2 (Full tropical late morning sun)
For comparison, 100µW/cm² readings in sunlight are typically equivalent to approximately UV Index 1.5!
The snakes' resistance to such strong irradiation, however, does indicate that Cope's Rat Snakes are very tolerant of natural sunlight - which might imply that in the wild, they do expose themselves to it....
At present I am not aware of any other published studies on vitamin D3 in snakes. There have been several studies on UVB transmission through snake skin, indicating that transmission varies with likely exposure to sunlight: the more crepuscular the snake, the more transparent its skin to UVB - perhaps we can speculate that, like lizards, those that don't get much sun will have optimised the UVB penetration to ensure synthesis from very low UVB levels....
As regards other effects of sunlight / UVB exposure...anecdotal evidence is widespread about snakes selecting UVB lamps and "going crazy" to access them; increases in activity; changes in day/ night behaviours... all of which seem feasible if only as responses to UVA, which most snakes can see...
The only two scientific studies I can think of, are unpublished university dissertations.
One was one conducted simultaneously at ZSL London Zoo and Chester Zoo, in which groups of Jamaican Boas were exposed to gentle daytime UVB vs. "no UVB". Jamaican Boas, a crepuscular species, were found to be more active during the day when provided with UVB light, although this was not statistically significant. They did however, show statistically higher activity levels during night time observations (Bellamy & Stephen, 2007).
Bellamy, T., & Stephen, I. (2007). The Effect of Ultra-Violet B (UVB) Illumination and Vitamin D3 on the Activity, Behaviour and Growth Rate of the Juvenile Jamaican Boa Epicrates subflavus (Unpublished master's dissertation). University of London, United Kingdom.
Another found somewhat similar results in corn snakes (Nail, 2011)
Nail, A. (2011) Does exposure to UVB light influence the growth rates and behaviour of hatchling Corn Snakes, Pantherophis guttatus? (Unpublished master's dissertation). Reaseheath College and University of Chester, United Kingdom.
She wrote: "In conclusion, this study shows that snakes will voluntarily expose themselves to UVB light and that it has a positive effect on their activity levels. UVB exposure of 2% saw a notable difference in behavioural activities when compared to the other two groups in this study."
As regards lamp choice:
There is no need to use high-intensity UVB sources with snakes - indeed it would seem highly undesirable for most species, given their typical behaviours in the wild. Lamps such as the immensely powerful 300watt Osram UltraVitalux (minimum suitable distance for full sun baskers ~ 1 metre) would rarely if ever be appropriate. There are some very good sources of very gentle UVB now available to hobbyists, which have "safer" spectra with no abnormally short-wavelength UVB. Examples would be some of the T8 (1" diameter) fluorescent tubes, such as the Zoomed Reptisun 5.0 or the Arcadia D3 6%UVB ... or for even gentler UVB, the Arcadia Natural Sunlight 2%UVB. (NB. most other "natural sunlight" or "daylight" tubes, most being triphosphors for visible light, emit no effective UVB for vitamin D3 synthesis).
Best wishes,
Frances
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I am doing an essay on the feeding and nutrition of captive chameleons (in zoos amongst other wildlife institutions), and was wondering if much research has been carried out on specific nutrients, vitamins and minerals which are important to chameleons found in zoos. I've discussed the diets they are typically on, and compared those to wild diets, but have found less information on the nutrition aspect. Any comment would be greatly appreciated.
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Hey Thomas,
I've also never read chameleons eating amphibians ...
I think you'll gather from those publications that the most prominent nutrients that have been looked into (for herps in general) are calcium, phosphorous and Vit D. The first step in a diet formulation for most vertebrates and especially reptiles is ensuring there is a positive calcium to phosphorous ratio. In captivity this is accomplished by gut loading the inverts you are feeding, and/or by vitamin dusting (although this can affect palatability but hopefully if it moves they'll eat it). Vit D while being part of nutrition because it is a "vitamin" is obtained through husbandry, specifically with UVB lighting. All of these components are essential to prevent metabolic bone disorder which unfortunately many captive reptiles still get.  These have to be in order before considering anything else (In my opinion).
Many papers about gut loading and how much time after feeding are nutrients at their highest concentrations, look at the abstracts in the online version of Zoo Nutrition Volume 3 (available from www.eaza.net/nutrition).
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We have problems on our Bongo, Tragelaphus eurycerus, in which some individuals seem slender even we serve them sufficient leaves and pallets. If there Bongo keepers offer me the daily diet list of this animal? It will be helpful to compare the detailed contents for the nutrition issue on our Bongo. Many thanks.
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Thanks a lot! It is very helpful.  ^^
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I am looking at environmental enrichment on captive chimpanzees by evaluating enrichment devices being used in UK zoos. I was wondering if anybody could help me outline some of the ways manipulable environmental enrichment can encourage natural behaviour in chimpanzees and possibly the potential limitations of manipulable environmental enrichment devices.
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Personally, doing research in zoos, the biggest enrichment impact I can think of is forage feeding accmopanied by natural bedding (e.g., mulch). Primate have to spend a much larger portion of time searching for food producing activity budgets (for foraging) that are more in-line with what is seen in the wild. Other naturalist manipulanda include browse (promotes more appropriate nest-building/resting behaviors, also feeding/foraging), probe-mounds (for chimps, promote tool-use feeding).
There's a large literature for this field. You may also benefit from looking at the biomedical enrichment literature (promoting species-typical behavior). Many of the devices/enrichments are not naturalistic but have been associated with more species-typical behavior profiles & activity budgets after being introduced.
Another issue may not be the nature of the enrichment but the practicalities or its presentation (e.g., how presented, predictability, accessibility).
Just a few (recent)
Birkett, L. P., & Newton-Fisher, N. E. (2011). How abnormal is the behaviour of captive, zoo-living chimpanzees?. PLoS One, 6(6), e20101.
Mas, J., Stafford, R., & Jensvold, M. L. (2013). Captive chimpanzee preference for environmental enrichment: naturalistic vs. artificial.
Zaragoza, F., Ibáñez, M., Mas, B., Laiglesia, S., & Anzola, B. (2011). Influence of environmental enrichment in captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes spp.) and gorillas (gorilla gorilla gorilla): behavior and faecal cortisol levels. Revista Científica, 21(5), 447-456.
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  • We had some cases of bad coping of animals in our zoo (Neprintseva E., Iltchenko O., 2008. Do Changes in Animals’ External Stimulation Influence the Adaptation to New Captive Conditions? // Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Environmental Enrichment. Vienna, 2008. P.267-268).
  • Maybe someone heard about this problem in captivity?
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Hi Alex,
I am not sure I could provide a reference off hand, but a direction you might want to consider looking at  is animal learning. Just some food for thought, I hope it helps.
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I'm looking for some discussion on definitional and practical differences (if any) between these two terms. I've always considered therm relatively synonymous and used them so. In the literature from different fields I've seen them used both synonymously and/or selectively/preferentially (i.e., only one term, e.g., lab animal wellbeing vs. zoo animal welfare). In an admittedly short Google search I've not found any literature defining them as the same or different (and how/why). The only implied difference that I've even found was on the AMVA website - they seem to use welfare to refer to the animals holistic state of living/"being" and use wellbeing to refer to individual components that make up welfare (e.g., physical health/wellbeing, psychological wellbeing). Any help, comments, links, or references to literature are appreciated.
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  • Welfare is a wider term reflecting what is expected from the environment (e.g. humans towards animals) to respect the needs of individual (animal, child, employee).
  • Wellbeing is subjective state, that is correlated with welfare, but does not relate directly (some wealthy people experience poor wellbeing), and some poor individuals are happy. Sick animals experience often good care, and welfare, but the wellbeing is (due to sickness) quite bad.
Some animal lit:
Barber, J. C. E. (2009). Programmatic approaches to assessing and improving animal welfare in zoos and aquariums. Zoo Biology, 28(6), 519–30. doi:10.1002/zoo.20260
Panzera, M. (2013). Sickness and Abnormal Behaviors as Indicators of Animal Suffering. Relations. Beyond Anthropocentrism, 1(June), 23–31. doi:10.7358/rela-2013-001-panz
Scott, E. M., Nolan, A. M., & Fitzpatrick, J. L. (2001). Conceptual and Methodological Issues Related to Welfare Assessment: A Framework for Measurement. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section A - Animal Science, 51(sup030), 5–10. doi:10.1080/090647001316922983
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Looking at multiple factors of urban sprawl, the human race's exponential growth and how the built environment continues to consume natural habitat, how will the role of Zoo's, Aquariums and Natural Wildlife Parks change in the future? More to the point, how can good, sustainable and conscientious design contribute to the innovation as these amenities shift from a predominant entertainment facility to an educational and conservational role? Thoughts?
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I agree with Mr O'Brien overall. I'd say that all the world's ecosystems are already managed (consciously or unconsciously) by human activities, so let's do it with clear beneficial intentions. I suggest the following papers on my publications page of my website:http://www.joncoedesign.com/pub/technical.htm 1)" Deep Green Design"; 2) Third Generation Conservation" and 3) "The future of Zoos" https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r-qCIUXXEf4. I'd like to hear what you come up with.
Cheers, Jon
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Im doing genetic mapping studies, to compare conservation of genome arrangement across the animal kingdom. I need suggestions for animals that can be easily (relatively) cultured in the lab. Critera include: must be able to reproduce with just one set of parents; number of offspring at least 12 (50-100 would be ideal). We have already done this (or had collaborations) with things such as brine shrimp, sea urchins, hydra, and earthworms. Alternatively, they could be caught in the wild (as a brood or egg pouch). Please let me know if you have any suggestions, or have some animals in culture that youd be willing to collaborate with us on. For our part, we will do some high throughput sequencing, get a draft genome you can use, and do the genetic mapping. So far we have about a dozen animals we have been able to do this for, but wed like to expand our database by as much as possible. the bottleneck is the data analysis. There is not a lot of good genetic mapping data out there for the wide range of animals wed like to compare, so we are trying to establish that data ourselves. Weve got a good high throughput and data analysis pipeline to take advantage of, we just need to get our hands on more animals. Under represented phyla would be great. Also, those animals whose genetic map has already been constructed would be redundant, such as Drosophila, although having some reference genome for an organism would always be helpful, but we are prepared to work with non-model organisms.
Thanks, look forward to receiving input and possibly collaborating.
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I have a colony of reproducing hisssing cockroaches. Paternaty is easy to control. They give live birth to 20-30 individuals. Let me know what you think.