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In order to have a general idea of my participants' cognitive level, I have calculated a composite score with the results of different tests (working memory, spatial attention, language, inhibition). Depending on the age of children, sometimes these variables do not correlate one with the other. Therefore, given this lack of correlation, do you think that it makes sense to calculate a composite scores involving all the variables ?
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Dear Catherine,
If subtests in children only don't correlate depending on age, and if in younger it correlates less, it could be due to development - e.g. language skills are not yet developped or similar.
If correlation is not given in all ages, there are many other reasons, e.g. you are measuring a very heterogen construct with no second level factor. Depending if this is what you want, it can make sense or not.
May I ask, why you don't use an established instument like WAIS-IV for adults or WISC-IV for children? There you have an overall idea an given psychometrical quality.
These just a few ideas. Kind regards
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Look for studies that focus on working memory and motivation
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Hello, there فرح بن يحي
I have found some articles that seemed very interesting. Maybe you could take a look at them and see if they are related to your perspective.
  • Gareau, Alexandre, and Patrick Gaudreau. "Working Memory Moderates the Effect of the Integrative Process of Implicit and Explicit Autonomous Motivation on Academic Achievement." The British Journal of Psychology 108.4 (2017): 701-20. Web.
  • Grogan, John P, Govind Randhawa, Minho Kim, and Sanjay G Manohar. "Motivation Improves Working Memory by Two Processes: Prioritisation and Retrieval Thresholds." Cognitive Psychology 135 (2022): 101472. Web.
  • Groß, Daniel, and Carl-Walter Kohlmann. "Predicting Self-control Capacity – Taking into Account Working Memory Capacity, Motivation, and Heart Rate Variability." Acta Psychologica 209 (2020): 103131. Web.
  • Hill, Benjamin D., Joshua D. Foster, Channing Sofko, Emily M. Elliott, and Jill Talley Shelton. "The Interaction of Ability and Motivation: Average Working Memory Is Required for Need for Cognition to Positively Benefit Intelligence and the Effect Increases with Ability." Personality and Individual Differences 98 (2016): 225-28. Web.
  • Krawczyk, Daniel C, and Mark D'Esposito. "Modulation of Working Memory Function by Motivation through Loss-aversion." Human Brain Mapping 34.4 (2013): 762-74. Web.
  • Yüvrük, Elif, Aycan Kapucu, and Sonia Amado. "The Effects of Emotion on Working Memory: Valence versus Motivation." Acta Psychologica 202 (2020): 102983. Web.
Best regards.
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Hi Everyone,
I'm looking for a working memory test administered to adults. I'm planning to administer a listening test to my participants and I need to measure their working memory capacity to be used as a covariant in the later statistical analysis. I'm wondering what kind of working memory test would be appropriate and where to find the test?
Thank you!
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Hi Angélique,
Thanks for your answer. I'll check that out.
Best,
Tingting
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Hello,
I am currently assisting a neuropsychology fellow with articles. She wants to know more about adults who did not receive an ADHD diagnosis in childhood. They do not qualify for an ADHD diagnosis. They have inattentiveness symptoms, but they do not have hyperactivity symptoms. They have high processing speed scores and low working memory scores. Further, they have high levels of intelligence. We do want to look at assessments. Again, they have high processing speed. Any suggestion for search terms. So far, I have used \
1. fast processing speed, assessments and ADHD
2. fast processing speed has been implicated in ADHD-C
3- Implications of Fast Processing Speed
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Hi,
Maybe some of these references could be of help to you:
Karalunas SL, Huang-Pollock CL, Nigg JT. Decomposing attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-related effects in response speed and variability. Neuropsychology. 2012 Nov;26(6):684-94. doi: 10.1037/a0029936
Carte ET, Nigg JT, Hinshaw SP. Neuropsychological functioning, motor speed, and language processing in boys with and without ADHD. J Abnorm Child Psychol. 1996 Aug;24(4):481-98. doi: 10.1007/BF01441570.
Kofler MJ, Irwin LN, Sarver DE, Fosco WD, Miller CE, Spiegel JA, Becker SP. What cognitive processes are "sluggish" in sluggish cognitive tempo? J Consult Clin Psychol. 2019 Nov;87(11):1030-1042. doi: 10.1037/ccp0000446
Hwang-Gu SL, Gau SS. Interval timing deficits assessed by time reproduction dual tasks as cognitive endophenotypes for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. PLoS One. 2015 May 18;10(5):e0127157. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0127157
Uebel H, Albrecht B, Asherson P, Börger NA, Butler L, Chen W, Christiansen H, Heise A, Kuntsi J, Schäfer U, Andreou P, Manor I, Marco R, Miranda A, Mulligan A, Oades RD, van der Meere J, Faraone SV, Rothenberger A, Banaschewski T. Performance variability, impulsivity errors and the impact of incentives as gender-independent endophenotypes for ADHD. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2010 Feb;51(2):210-8. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.2009.02139.x.
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Currently we are working on a review that surveys the cognitive/neural mechanisms of tactile working memory. We propose a sensory recruitment model, which suggests that prefrontal regions interact with somatosensory cortex to encode, maintain and retrieve tactile working memory. Please leave your email address if of interests.
Thanks,
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I am interested in neuro leadership studies
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Hi!
I am working on a patient group that has mood and affect related changes. I want to know if there is a paradigm (cognitive task) that can see the effect of mood or affect on working memory performance?
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@stephen Joy
That also seems to be plausible.
Thank you 😀
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Digging into human visual working memory tasks, I did not find a consistency in the exposure of the encoding time to the sample stimuli. A consistency should help in comparing different tasks' performances. What did make the exposure time so different between tasks?
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In my opinion, a brief presentation (sometimes followed by a mask) prevents saccades and reorienting attention, and ensures a "one-shot" visual input; whereas a long exposure, in some cases even longer than 500 ms, enables active exploration of the stimuli. Sometimes the researchers have a rational reason for choosing one or the other option (or manipulating presentation time as an independent variable); however, sometimes the choice of a presentation time is only based on personal intuition and common sense, so Erica Fongaro your question is very sensible.
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I'm looking for Change Detection Task & Automated Working Memory Assessment.
Anybody knows where can I get a quote for these tests?
Thank you!
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PAR
PEARSON
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My friend is looking for coauthors in Psychology & Cognitive Neuroscience field. Basically you will be responsible for paraphrazing, creating figures, and collecting references for a variety of publications. Please leave your email address if you are interested. 10 hours a week is required as there is a lot of projects to be done!
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My master's thesis topic is on the benefits of oral interactions after shared reading sessions for the development of both language skills and the understanding of narratives, which contributes to better reading skills in the short and in the long term. My view is that it might be too demanding to expect from four and five-year-olds to be able to remember the key elements of a story, concentrate on the teacher's questions/feedbacks and make well-structured sentences all at the same time. It might be more efficient to dedicate specific sessions to teach language, and if books can be used to do so, then they shouldn't be chosen among children literature which is often far too complex for that. I would highly appreciate to know the opinions of people who are more expert than I am on this topic.
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Valuable information and discussion
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Recent studies of children's tool innovation have revealed that there is variation in children's success in middle-childhood. In two individual differences studies, we sought to identify personal characteristics that might predict success on an innovation task. In Study 1, we found that although measures of divergent thinking were related to each other they did not predict innovation success. In Study 2, we measured executive functioning including: inhibition, working memory, attentional flexibility and ill-structured problem-solving. None of these measures predicted innovation, but, innovation was predicted by children's performance on a receptive vocabulary scale that may function as a proxy for general intelligence. We did not find evidence that children's innovation was predicted by specific personal characteristics.
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I appreciate Gebre Yitayih Abyu for the valuable topic. Would be interested to know as well.
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More specifically, I am trying to image the three phases of a Sternberg Item Recognition working memory paradigm (encoding, maintenance, and retrieval) using an event-related design for M/EEG. The total active period may extend up to 8500 ms (in an experiment with a maximum of 5 memory set items shown sequentially for 1000 ms, with a 3000 ms maintenance period, and a 500 ms test probe) and I am unsure how to define an objective baseline. There will be a ITI of 1100 ms. The three phases would be captured in these windows: encoding (0-5000 ms), maintenance (5000-8000 ms), and retrieval (8000-8500 ms), with 0 being defined as the onset of the first memory set item.
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Thanks to Dr. Robert D. Torrence 's EEG experience I was able to answer this question by consulting Steven J. Luck's "An Introduction to the Event-Related Potential Technique, second edition" and Mike X. Cohen's "Analyzing Neural Time Series Data: Theory and Practice." The length of the baseline depends on both the length of the epoch as well as the purposed analysis (ERP/ERSP). In general, baselines in M/EEG experiments should be a minimum of 20% of the length the overall duration of the epoch. Typically, the baseline for a 1000ms epoch in an ERP design should be about 200 ms long (-200 to 0ms). Whereas, a time frequency analysis would require a baseline between -400 to -100ms, making sure to use multiples of the duration of one period (100ms) of the lowest frequency of interest (alpha: 10Hz). Additionally, in spectral analyses, the baseline should be offset from the stimulus onset to avoid temporal smearing effects. Thanks again for a clear and concise answer Dr. Robert D. Torrence!
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I am looking for a recommendation for a working memory task (n-back, visuospatial, ....) for an undergraduate project in my lab that can be run remotely online. With quarantine in place, we are not able to use our custom, in-person software. We had planned to compare working memory capacity among particular groups of interest, but, in the current scramble to finish this project before graduation and during quarantine, any basic working memory task would suffice as long as participants could access it online. We would vastly prefer a free version, with the plan to upgrade to a paid license if we need to continue this online format. Does any one have any suggestions? Thank you!
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PsyToolkit is a good option for sure, and as Jonathan says there is an N-Back task prebuilt on the home site. You also might want to check out PEBL and PsychoPy. As far as I know, those are the three free/open-source programs for this sort of thing. Naturally you should expect some students to have difficulty making any system work on their own computers (or phones lord help us) and some family pets to hit the delete button.
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I am working on a meta-analysis about executive function in ADHD and I have found that some papers use different measures for the same outcome, for example, they report the mean and SD for Digit Span for working memory and in the same paper they also report the mean and SD for number and letters task for working memory too. My question is ¿How do I decide which measure to use for? or ¿How di I do to take into account both measures? Thanks for your help.
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It sounds like this would be because working memory has multiple sub-components, at least according to many theories. So I suggest it depends what you are seeking to focus on. A digit span task will measure V-WM capacity, while perhaps the letters/numbers task measures processing and perhaps executive function (in line with the different sub-systems in Baddeley's model, for example). Does that fit with the paper you read?
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I've heard that people are most responsive to messages delivered at an 4th grade reading level. 
If anyone has analyzed cognitive complexity scores at this level, have you found a mean complexity score equivalent?
I am not entirely sure where I'm going with this, but I am thinking I want to see how cognitive complexity theories fits into Hogg's uncertainty identity theory.
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I think that determining the degree of cognitive complexity of the average level of fourth-grade reading depends on several things, including: the economic and social level of the country, the nature of the curricula offered to students, the level of teacher performance, as well as the educational environment.
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We want to do a study that test if the placement of your mobile phone effects your memory. If it being next to you, decreases your memory by disturbing your attention. So the phone will either be next to you on the table, in your pocket/bag or in another room.
Is it necessary to have multiple complex tasks, such as the operation span test and another one or is that one enough?
As we are quite short on time, studying long term memory is not possible.
Thank you for your answers.
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There are studies on the subject on the Internet, you can benefit from.
my best wishes.
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I am currently testing for my undergraduate dissertation looking at TDCS . I was wondering if what was done/thought/spoken about during the stimulation would change the effect of the TDCS at all?
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Good Answer Christopher S Y Benwell
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Hi everyone,
We are conducting a meta-analysis with a focus on single–session tDCS effects on working memory. If there is anyone who is willing to share their unpublished work or manuscript not yet appeared in the following databases: MEDLINE, SCOPUS, ScienceDirect, PsycARTICLES or CENTRAL, we would be happy to include it in our study. Also, research with data on WM measure following single–session tDCS (e.g. N –back), without that necessarily being a prime focus of a study, would be of great value for us. We would also like to include data from a PhD or master thesis, so please feel free to share it as well.
If you have any further questions, I am happy to answer.
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Good Answer Martin Marko
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Dear Colleagues,
It seems to me that a single working memory measure can not be used for all L2 projects using the same population. Sounds like one needs to take into consideration the cognitive load of the tasks used in a specific L2 project and accordingly use the most appropriate WM measure placing more or less the same memory demand in order to have reliable results, irrespective of whether there are significant or insignificant relationships between that memory measure and dependent variables. I think even if multiple memory measures are used in an L2 project, one still needs to care about the weight of dependent variable(s) used in that project first and then choose the right memory measure which could well match with those variables in tapping WM. I would much appreciate it if you share your experience and thought with me.
Many thanks
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Thanks Yousif for your answer.
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The study aims to find whether three types of depression (mild, moderate, severe) affects memory differently. Also, there will be a control group. Thus there are 4 groups.
There are three types of memory tests to assess three types of memory namely:
Long term memory
Working memory
Visual memory
For each of these memory functions three different tests have been administered with each test yielding a single score that. Thus we have 3 different DVs corresponding to each memories i.e., long term memory, working memory, visual memory.
Coming to the hypothesis I have 3 hypothesis. Whereby predictions are made regarding performance of each group on these 3 measures. So:
H1: severe group will perform poorly in comparison to other groups on visual, working memory and long term memory measures.
H2: Moderate group will perform poorly in comparison to mild group and the control group on long term memory measure.
H3: Mild group will perform poorly in comparison to the control group on measure of working memory.
Now in such a situation should I go for
MANOVA or ANOVA?
I get pretty confused when people say that I should use ANOVA as each ANOVA will be testing each hypothesis and thus chances of rejecting a true null hypothesis will not be their.
PS: I am assuming that my data is following the basic assumptions required to conduct both of these tests.
Thanks
Regards
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MANOVA
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I am looking for visual stimuli that produce a similar effect than the well know “Dalmatian dog illusion” (see Figure attached).
If you look briefly  at the Dalmatian dog illusion  for the first time, it looks like a pattern of meaningless black and white stains (left panel). However, once a priming cue is briefly presented (the red contour in the right panel) the representation of a Dalmatian dog in a field becomes apparent. Once “seen” this representation will remain apparent even after the priming cue is removed and can't be unseen (look at the left panel again without the red contour).
Do you know other types of visual stimuli containing a hidden object shape that never pops-out before and always pops-out after the transient presentation of a priming stimulus? 
Thank you!
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Here is a similar one, which you will never be able to not see it again once you've found it:
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I am developing a project on the effect of working memory training on instrumental activities of daily living.
There is a pretest - training - Posttest phase
Both in the assessment phases I am using the same tests
It is a clinical trial
How can I reduce the chances of the Learning effect?
Is randomization already controlling this fact? or should I space both assessment periods for at least 6 months ?
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Hi Daniel,
A possibility is to change your study in a between subject design including a control "training" condition. In this way you can compare the two groups and explore if they differ for the training effects (thus reducing the impact of the learning effect in explaining your results).
good luck!
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The capacity of the working memory is commonly measured by asking participants to remember a list of items and then counting how many letters they can repeat.
I have noticed that for some L2 learners who have majored in English for more than 8 years, English words could be recalled more easily than their L1.
Thanks in advance for the response
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I think that is the case, and the language of WM test can affect the results for EFL learners
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Research suggests that both working memory capacity and language analytic ability explain individual differences in L2 learners' production of modified output. However, it is not clear which one has a greater effect size in explaining variations in producing modified output? I was just wondering if any colleagues could kindly advise me in this regard in case he/she has conducted a research on this?
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Hello Mohammadtaghi,
I am not sure about what you mean by "modified output", but in general both language analytic ability and working memory capacity are important in language learning (both L1 and L2). Possibly, the importance of language skills is more general, because many but not all aspects of language learning are constrained by working memory capacity. For example, please see this:
Best regards,
Sergio
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Dear researchers,
I have data which is quiet complicated for me to analyze. I need an advice which statistical analysis I should use.
In my experiment, participants performed a working memory task in 3 different difficulty with 3 different stimulus type. Also half of the participants completed color version 1st and the other half completed color version 2nd.
Finally, I also measured their eating behavior with a scale. So I have 1 score for evey participants. First I wanted to use median split method to create dichotomous variable (such as high or low eaters) to make anaylsis easier for me but I figured out that it not the best method to use.
So my question is: which statistical analysis I should use?
My data is 3 x 3 x 2 and scale scores
3: task difficulty (within)
3: stimulus type (within)
2: color type (between)
Scale scores
Thanks in advance,
Emre
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Stephen Joy , thank you so much for the asnwer.
Best regards
Emre
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I am working on a project in which we need to study the working memory of mice before and after treatment. I have tried using the 8-arm radial maze but the mice are not at all interested in the food even after 4-5 hours starving and so I have been unsuccessful in training them. I tried using a modified 8-arm maze with an arm open because initially the mice wanted to escape and it worked for a while but the mice seemed to have learned that there is no reward on escaping. Could anyone suggest a method that works with all strains of mice?
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Open-field ambulation before and after maze learning was my PhD. There was no problem to motivate the mice also of different strains. I can attach a picture of our maze:
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(see one of my last, previous posts for the perspective on Psychology)(not really much translation involved, in the following):
The aspects of my perspective that are typically missing in AGI's (artificial general intelligence) ideas of "cumulative learning" [(see "Cumulative Learning", By Kristinn Thorrison et al )] include:
True Hierarchical learning -- which is more than a new category and a responses using and building on existing behaviors PATTERNS of otherwise of the same nature (as those used in the past).  (Note the thinking always in PATTERNS -- it is thus that behavior patterns show detectable changes, which are the new behavior pattern itself AND by which behavior patterns are defined (as in classical ethology) -- i.e. DEFINED BY THE PATTERNING OF BEHAVIOR "SURROUNDING" THEM.)  Then realize: True hierarchical learning ADDS new elements (in the behavior/response pattern), which shifts some key pattern(s) _AND_ which promote (IS) fuller sensing/perception of the key aspects of the situation(s) BY the Subject -- literally PERCEIVING NEW CONCRETE ELEMENT(s) (as indicated, AND these may be across several times and across several circumstances -- especially later in ontogeny; such is the power of SOME of our Memory systems; we simply must use "more imagination" here, both the Subjects and as researchers/theorists).  The sub-elements (lower level elements OF the previous responses to "such" situations) may change in their nature as they are used differently (e.g. "tagged" or "typed"),  or at least when associated with new-different circumstances; some may certainly be truncated or dropped out (think: new "chunking").
Foundations in PERCEPTION -- yes, THAT kind-of basic process.   It is with/in perception (and later, attention FOLLOWING THAT) that  provides for (IS) "new elements which promote full sensing/perception of the key aspects of the situation BY the Subject literally PERCEIVING NEW CONCRETE ELEMENTS [(or elements in a distinctly new context)]".   Resolving that seeing SUCH new things and JUST THAT (see above), as the foundation of each new level of abstracting ability (i.e. abstraction) -- THAT is a major seemingly paradoxical set of "things" which simply must be resolved ("bucking" the philosophies of the past).
Ontogeny involves a new type of learning at each stage, unfolding in response to (or included in the response to) NEW elements of the concrete situations/circumstances  (and, given the sophistication of some of our Memories: this can be across times and spaces.)  Here, it is important to see/find TRUE ANALOGIES (not just "trumped up" analogies).   These are doubtlessly useful in generalization to "other" circumstances -- seeing other situations similarly better by seeing MORE there "too".  PLUS: We must get rid of the idea that "learning" is always the same type of thing IN ACTION; it changes qualitatively there, BY VIRTUE OF CONTENT, AND CHANGING RESPONSES TO THAT.  Ironically, in my system , in another sense, all learning is the same in that it conforms to simple associative learning patterns-- that is all that is needed (or likely), given what else is going on.  [ Of course, good integration, consolidation and generalization of earlier behavior patterns must occur before "moving on" from one stage-type ("level"-type) to the next. ]
Thus, the AGI machine must contingently, after previous developments and integration/consolidations/generalizations, SEE MORE) BASIC [(here meaning: additional)] ELEMENTS OF THE SITUATION.  And, JUST THIS, provides for moving in-key-part(s) the whole system -- allowing more abstractions (things seen conventionally as "more abstract"), and THUS yielding more refined responses (whether they are specialized or not -- to some extent an open question -- BUT THEY ARE NEW w/r to the important sets of overt, express, explicit circumstances (AT LEAST clear at the inception of such a new sort of processing)).  Likewise the BEHAVIOR PATTERNS, AT LEAST AT FIRST ARE ALSO overt, directly observable and clearly expressed. It is important to realize that although initially overt, directly observable and expressly and explicitly seen IN patterns of behavior, such overt-ness of direct, observable overt evidence of change may be short-lived, as the Memories change and incorporate the new (new type) of learning behavior (perhaps VERY quickly) (This is why, for humans, eye-tracking technology and associated technology (e.g analysis software) likely have to be used.)
Given the distinct limitations of short-term memory (I should say "working memory") and the LACK of limitations of other Memories (e.g. visual-spacial) make it understandable that small changes in response (including PERCEIVING) must be able to yield BIG changes in understanding; this is why this perspective and theory make sense (and ONLY something like it could make sense).  AGI simply must figure out such ontogeny as I have described AND DO IT.  In AI you have the great ability of trial-and-error, quickly and over-and-over, that allows for a fair amount of guessing (I would guess) -- and give the "locality" of the beginning of new patterns in behavior COULD (in theory, with a thoroughly educated view/approach) BE GUESSED AT.   But none of this is possible without an appreciation for True Hierarchical Learning during ontogeny -- very, very likely occurring in qualitatively different stages.  The machine must make ITS OWN analogies, and only such analogies are appropriate (as has been the case in science "forever" ).
Something very much like I propose (above) OR attempts at AGI (as is and has been the case with Psychology) can continue-on, basically the same way as they have been for decades -- i.e. no big progress (as is acknowledged, again and again in the AGI field).
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Hi. In R l used the mixed-effects model and found a tsignificant hree-way interaction between working memory (as a continuous variable), syntactic position (subject position v.s. object position) and ambiguity type (ambiguous v.s. unambiguous). The dependent variable is reading time. Then I looked into the two way interaction between working memory and ambiguity type for each syntactic position but none of the tests reached significance. Does this mean the way I did the follow-up test was not right? Is there any other way to conduct a follow-up test for a three-way interaction in a design like this?
Thank you in advance.
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Thank you so much for this. I will have a look.
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Hi!
I am trying to segregate different components of verbal working memory and visuospatial working memory.
In order to assess verbal working memory I am using an auditory version of n-back task with a load level from 1 to 2. The task requires the participant to respond when they here the same consonant repeatedly (1-back condition) or when they hear the same consonant at an interval of another consonant (2-back condition)
In order to assess visuopatial working memory I am using a spatial n-back task. The memory load ranges from 1 to 2. A set of cards are shown to the subjects sequentially, each card has a small back color dot on a white background. The position of the dot changes from card-to-card. The subject has to respond when they saw the dot appearing on the same location in comparison to the previous card (1-back condition) or after an interval of one card (2-back condition).
I am not sure whether it can segregate the components of verbal and visuospatial working memory.
Is there an article that might give me a clue as what component is tapped in the 1 n-back load level and 2 n-back load level?
Thanks
Vatsal
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Hi Vatsal,
Maybe this paper can help too: Pelegrina S, Lechuga MT,
García-Madruga JA, Elosúa MR, Macizo P, Carreiras M, Fuentes LJ
and Bajo MT (2015) Normative data on the n-back task for children and young adolescents. Front. Psychol. 6:1544.
doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01544
Normative
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Does anyone know from where can i have the online version of odd one out task as a measure of non-verbal working memory for kids (4-7)yrs to assist my research?.. Thank you
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Why using an odd-one-out if you intend to measure w.m.? With that age range and for that purpose, I would rather use the Mr.Cucumber test.
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I am working a project that investigate the cognitive factors on reading comprehension process for second and third grade studenst. Hovewer, I couldn't decide how to measure working memory perfomance related to reading comprehension.
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Dear Mustafa, the idea of ​​your project is interesting and up to date. Cases of poor reading comprehension are more and more common in children with dyslexia. They are part of the heterogeneous neuropsychological symptoms in these cases. Keep in mind that working verbal memory is one of the factors to understand, but it is not basic - you can remember everything but you can not understand it. You can use a graded memory assessment system - from understanding phrases with literal and transcendent meaning (allegories), understanding the syntax of grammar constructions of isolated extended sentences to understanding the read text. It is best to use the classic way of checking the memory is a repetition of the reading, but for this purpose you need to design quantitative evaluation criteria yourself.
Another option is to check the memory of a material that is independent of the read text - learn 10 words (Luria`s test) and compare results with reading.
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Isn't grounding all interactions (& our understanding of particular interaction) best done by better understanding the Memories AS (being) EXPERIENCE ITSELF? I see this as one of the 2 consistent common groundings for properly coming to an understanding of concepts we come to have as a being, and this includes the development of not just bare simple concepts, but even the development of contingent SETS of such concepts, AND it includes that which come of the developed and developing Memories which allows for abstract thinking -- abstract concepts and abstract processing. Let me elaborate on this first type of thing:
First, realize: By the definitions of the Memories (our basic types of memory, all rather well defined by EXISTING research already), there is no way not to see EXPERIENCE as the operation of the Memories themselves (and THAT is EXPERIENCE ITSELF, literally true BY THE DEFINITIONS in modern perspectives and research). AND, CONCEPTS MUST BE ALL BASED ON THIS. Thus as experiences "grow" and as application of our concepts (defined by interaction with environments: social and/or otherwise, linguistic and/or otherwise) become (to the extent that they can) more widely seen as relevant and applied, this simply occurs by way of the simple forms of associative learning (the definition of such FORMS something that can be well agreed on); NOTE: All this eventually will only suffice WITH the second set of required groundings "emerging" for prompting MAJOR developments in ontogeny (see below) -- those influencing attention and learnings A LOT. Yet simple associative learnings seem to partly work (for a lot of the more bit-by-bit development) given evidence OF the existence of concepts/representations/ways-of-looking in the first place (such as its there, at least at later levels of child development). _AND_ these very simple associative learnings are ALL that would needed at the major points in development, in addition to the base perceptual/attentional shifts (described below). In a sense, yet still, they will be THEN AND THERE all that's needed -- those simple learnings STILL being ALL of what's necessary to "put things together" even WHEN THE SECOND SET/TYPE OF MAJOR FACTOR IS FOUND AND SEEN (and as and when such shifts are occurring). Yet, so far (i.e. the above) would not provide a complete picture of human learning and development . AT BEST, the Memories as they are at any point and associative learnings are still just "half" the picture (as already has been indicated). BUT: What's the other "half", at least more specifically/functionally? :
These other major necessary factors are basically the capacities (or capacities within capacities, if you like) developing with very subtle innate guidances (which are not-unlikely and certainly possibly, at least for a time, quite situation-dependent); these, of course, leading to some of the most major developments of the Memories and HERE, of qualitatively new learnings (still combining with the "THE knowns" and with each other JUST THROUGH THE SIMPLE ASSOCIATIVE LEARNINGS). These innate guidances are at first just sensing more: THAT OF _THAT_ which is _THERE _IN_ any given concretely definable situation (where more adaptation is needed). This is reliant upon and given also the way our Memories have already developed (given our past learning, and earlier innate guidances, the products of which have become well-applied and consolidated (etc.) and all which yields "the time(s)" for some new types of learning) . And now (from the good processing and consolidation ; and discriminations here, perhaps just associative learning as dis-associations) giving us, in a sense, a new or greater capacity in working memory (through more efficient "chunks" and/or some situations-specific "trimming" of the old chunks, and both WITH CHANGES IN OUR _WAY_ OF CHUNKING (and realize: this may not preclude other adaptive reasons for an adaptive increase in the effective capacity of working memory (WM)). The details of the nature of the periodic innate guidances:
What is newly, or at least now truly sensed, sensed as "the-more": that is sensed (and at least glanced at, if not gazed-upon) in a situation or situations, will lead to new perception of at least something more in the scope of "what's there". This will rather quickly go to perceiving more and then to perceptual/attentional shifts (applying some of our past-developed categories and processing to the new "material" -- AND at such also-adaptive points offering more "material" to refine or moderate one's responses/interactions). Here, there will be more in WM , and thus provide more that can be "associated-with" via the simple forms of associative learnings (now, with some new content: new parts and likely new wholes). These developments might be quite situations-specific at least at first, but they may develop to be concepts of rather great scope -- observations and other research which may well be possible are the ONLY things that will clarify all this. All we can say is that this will be some sort of BASIC KEY species-typical cognitive developments (with their inceptions, as indicated) during ontogeny [(birth to 18 yr. old, minimally 5 MAJOR hierarchical levels or stages are historically seen (but with several modern theorists hypothesizing phases within each level); all this can be seen in the overviews of great classic theories, still the most prominent in textbooks of General and Developmental Psychology)]. This very outline of this sort of process has NO limits (except human limits) and it includes the abilities to know, have, and use abstractions, INCLUDING contingent abstractions (holding true in just only some sets of apparently similar circumstances; AND, eventually, with ontogeny and the development of sufficient abstract abilities, ALSO enabling the ability to think and classify across previously differently-seen [(i.e. seen as different)] circumstances -- putting such complexes together in a concept -- this sort of thing including the most sophisticated abstract concepts and processing there is) : in some ultimate ("final", "rock bottom") analysis this all is possible because of demonstrable development and changes in the Memories, WHICH CAN BE RESEARCHED (as other characteristic of the Memories HAVE BEEN researched to date); AND the inceptions of new MAJOR LEVELS (those being with the "perceptual shifts" ... ) can also be directly observed and researched, using the new eye tracking technology (and ancillary technologies) -- and this will greatly guide one to fruitful research on the Memories.
The reasons, likelihood, justifications, better assumptions involved in having this viewpoint and understanding, AND the qualitative changes that which are developed this way (basically starting with key, adaptive "perceptual shifts") is what I spend much of my 800 pages of writing on: 200 pages, written some decades ago, and some 600 pages, written just in the last three years -- a lot of this latter being the job I did not finish back in the late '80s (and I really had no reason to pursue until the development of new technologies, esp. eye tracking and related technologies, came into existence to allow for testing my hypotheses). I also have take great pains in these latter writings to contrast this perspective and approach as thoroughly and completely as I could with the status quo perspectives and approaches in General Psychology and Developmental Psychology . And, to show all the ways this [what I have dubbed] Ethogram Theory is better in so many, many ways, including in its basic foundations, clearly more empirical (as directly as possible) than any perspective and approach heretofore.
I both show in details what is wrong with the "old" and much more likely correct and useful -- and more than plausible (and Biologically consistent and plausible) -- through this new general view. (Again, I provide related testable hypotheses -- verifiable/falsifiable.)
You will be able to see this new approach as better empirically than any other. Related to this: the great benefit that the FIELD of study is ALL clearly and firmly based (grounded/founded) on just 2 "things": (1) directly observable KEY overt phenomena (behavior PATTERNS, here in Psychology ) and (2) on certain clear directly observable and present aspects of circumstances/situations (aka "the environment) active in KEY past developments and/or present now. This is simply the return to the original and intended definition of Psychology _AND_, frankly, is THE ONLY WAY TO BE BEST-EMPIRICAL. (Think about it: NO MISSING CONNECTIONS.)
READ:
and
and
(see the Project Log of this Project to see many important Updates)
ALSO (not among the 200 pages of major papers and 512 pages of essays in my "BOOK", you already have been directed to) the following link gets you to 100 more pages of worthwhile essays composed after the 512 pages: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/331907621_paradigmShiftFinalpdf
Sincerely, with respect, Brad Jesness
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Dear Randy Reiss
Thanks for your remarks. They didn't hurt ; they help indicate the dimensions of our memory : Present; "mind-reading" and for the future; of-the-past. Indeed this helps illustrate the great representations intimately involved with/in memory -- yet even these things many seem to forget or not to take into account .
No real (or possible) dualism for memory, but for convenience.
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I am carrying out a meta-analysis to investigate the relative degree of impairment for subcomponents of executive functioning for people after brain injury (ie. cognitive flexibility, inhibitory control, working memory and planning/organisation ability).
Some studies report mean and SD for two or more measures of a given aspect of Executive Functioning (eg. two measures of inhibition). Given that they are conceptually similar, can you somehow combine these two means to get a pooled effect size for that study?
Following this, can you and how, do you combine this effect size with the effect sizes from other studies included in the overall meta-analysis.
Any advice would be greatly appreciated,
Thank you!
Mary-Kate.
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You can include multiple effect sizes per study/sample if you carry out a 3 level meta-analysis (or commonly known as multilevel meta-analysis). Its one way of 'combining two or more measures' within a study, without you having to make any arbitrary decisions on the weight of each within study effect size. This 3 level meta-analysis does not require the assumption of independent effect sizes since an intermediate level is included to model the dependence between effect sizes within a study.
You can easily run a 3-level meta-analysis in R using package 'metafor' . There is a really helpful tutorial here https://pure.uva.nl/ws/files/26092656/p154.pdf if you want to do that
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I am hoping to obtain the experiment files for a validated verbal and/or spatial n-back task, in order to use correlational data from these tasks to validate an n-back variation involving emotional verbal and spatial working memory.
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In case you looking for web-based versions of n-back task, our https://www.cognitionlab.com product includes a read-to-use n-back test paradigm that can be configured to use letters, words, pictures, geometrical patterns, or location as stimulus material.
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Does anyone have any experience with conducting the novel object recognition test while administering a drug that has a short duration of action (so that it may "wear off" during the seemed-to-be "obligatory" 1 hour of retention time between the "training" session [T1] and the "test" session [T2])? Should it be administered nevertheless, before the T1? Or maybe after the T1? Or in any other way?
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I think it depends on which stage of memory formation you want the drug to be active. If you want it to active during acquisition, then inject before training (T1). If you want it to be active on consolidation, you should inject it right after T1. But if you want it to be active during retrieval, inject it right before testing (T2). If you don't know the mechanism of the drug, maybe you should consider doing all of these possibilities and find out on which stage of memory formation the drug works best.
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Hello RG community,
I was wondering if there is a test to assess children' working memory in a group setting (class room). The sample is composed by 3rd-to-5th grade italian children.
Thank you in advance for your help,
Antonio
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Dear Antonio,
I ne nepsy II, subtest figure memory is spatial memory from new visual material. I don( t know if you get it in Italian norms but you could use it it is non verbal. And in CMS, children memory scale, you could make qith Points location , visual non verbal subtest, also faces immediately remind and the optional subtest for animals and vehicles immediate visual memory.
Best regards
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Practical intelligence concept given by Sternberg.Can anyone describes its relationship with executive functioning (working memory,inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility).
also give reference
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Thanks sir
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I've a study where I am assessing verbal working memory and visuo-spatial working memory. In order to assess visuo-spatial working memory I am using a paper pencil version of n-back test. While to assess verbal working memory I am using verbal auditory n-back test. I am not too sure if I am really assessing verbal working memory since I am using an auditory modality.
Can anyone please guide me on this?
Thanks
Vatsal
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re: Opris, A. M., Cheie, L., Trifan, C. M., & Visu‐Petra, L. (2018). Internalising symptoms and verbal working memory in school‐age children: A processing efficiency analysis. International Journal of Psychology.
Many thanks for attaching this most valuable article!
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I am planning a study in which I want to experimentally manipulate autobiographical memory coherence. The main task is that participants will have to recall and write about important autobiographical memories. I am interested in how a concurrent (non-verbal) task (which would increase cognitive load) impacts the coherence of participants' narratives. The hypothesis is that reduced working memory capacity will lead to less coherent narratives. Can someone recommend a suitable secondary task?
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There are few considerations to be taken care of. If the writing is independent, such like the participant can write as he or she thinks, the working memory involvement is relatively low and long term memory effect is more active. In stimulus guided writing - following some visual cue and writing will cause more involvement of working memory.
There could be some approaches as follows:
1. Incorporate disturbance in the stimulus: undesired visual elements in and around the focus point.
2. Verbal arithmetic could be another way of disturbance, as it is totally working memory performance.
3. Visual pattern matching task.
4. n back tasks could be good one: you can increase the level of difficulty: 1 back, 2 back, 3 back(mostly participants will fail to do).
you can consider the performance error as a parameter and can correlate it with the change in cognitive load during multiple working memory performance.
But, it is still confusing if the brain perform working memory tasks through parallel processing or not. Your study could reveal this too.
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I am gathering a literature review for an EEG study investigating whether working memory capacity can mediate the association between rumination and internalizing disorders.
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That is the question, lover of life, lover of others, empiricist or scientist ; thus finding the actual sequences which are causation(s) (aka the proximate causes). Better and better 'seeing', less ignorance ... , less confusion. Said also to be with less wanting and/or greed and with less suffering, as well. And as more is found, more opens up. Could anything else be the case? [ Such conclusions can come from checking the research on the Memories which, as they are (by definition), must be experience itself. ]
Let me give an example of what I speak of above (an example in my field: the very important and most vital field of developmental psychology (very much 'including' ontogeny) ). In Psychology what I am talking about is: proper perspective, properly viewing Psychology ("psychologizing" one's psychology, in a proper way, if you will) and THUS 'seeing' the ways there are of realistically (and rationally) AND thus actually having/doing conceptualizing and thinking (<-- those very things) as they really are (and of getting one's own and one's Subjects' real limits and abilities defined). In attempting this in Psychology (or in any science) one must "believe in" and maximize empirical grounding (all that is possibly there and detectable), showing EVERY SORT OF BEHAVIOR, related clearly and in an important ways (at least at their inception), TO directly observable particular overt behavior patterns of the Subject *. AND, this is BY DOING IT (for the researchers and the Subjects) in the REAL terms of the basic capacities of their species-typical Memories (also knowing and considering the hierarchical relationship of more adult concepts and thinking, compared to that of children) -- KNOWING ALL THAT, and using ALL THAT, required before doing decent psychology that will lead to real, lasting, and progressive discoveries on the development of cognition (that being central to other major other behavior patterns that develop). [ It may be hard, but you will get used to it; and, it is necessary; AND, actually, it is likely less hard to do than the 'theoretical,' unjustified "contortions" presently done today (which inevitably "dead-end") . ]
If you can but only agree, please read my writings (most all -- 1000 pages worth -- available through ResearchGate). [ NOTE: My writings include specific hypotheses for the direct observations of the overt behaviors central to thinking and concept development -- each of the major inceptions -- all found/put into the proper contexts (and "spelled out" as different and as alternatives from today's perspectives/'procedures' -- these latter also "spelled out", and shown in detail, as lacking and incorrect). ]
* FOOTNOTE: This perspective and rightful attempt (approach) AT/for DISCOVERIES is exactly what I outline as clearly as possible in my writings [ "as clearly AS POSSIBLE", that is, before the new, CLEARLY-PRESCRIBED, needed research, with clear testable hypotheses, is done (i.e. before having those hypotheses indeed tested) ].
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But appearance of language must not deceive you into glossing upon epi-phenomena you have deficit of adumbrating.
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I'm conducting research on the correlation between working memory and intelligence in college aged students. Can anyone help me find an intelligence test to use, and if so, tell me where to get a usable copy of it from? Thanks in advance!
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Hi Matthew,
one of the measures I would suggest using is the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-IV). The scale has been standardized on a sample ranging from 16 to 90 yrs, so it should work in your case.
You can also look at single subtests if you don't want to spend >60 minutes administering the whole scale. The scale should also provide a WM index.
Otherwise you can look at Raven's Matrices (there is a similar test within the WAIS), it should provide you with an index of people's abstract reasoning abilities/non-verbal fluid intelligence.
Regarding the usable copy, since they are not free tools, you should check if your department/library had already bought them in the past or is willing to acquire them.
Hope this helps,
Tiziano
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What are the advantages of working memory model (Baddeley & Hitch, 1974) over the Atkinson and Shiffrin model (1968)?
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You may want to read his paper What are the differences between long-term, short-term, and working memory? Prog Brain Res. 2008;169: 323–338. doi:10.1016/S0079-6123(07)00020-9.
Atkinson & Shiffrin tried to create a model of memory functioning, while the model by Baddeley and Hitch is more focused on one specific aspect of short-term memory. In my clinical and research practice, the Levels of Processing model by Craik & Lochart is more useful than the one by Atkinson & Shiffrin. For example, you might expect that a patient with Alzheimer's disease recall more words from a list if presented with a semantic category (Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test) than if presented auditorily (Rey auditory Verbal Learning Test), even if words from both lists are temporarily stored the same amount of time in the A&S short-term store. This can be later used for intervention (e.g., repetition within the short-term store is not a good way to teach patients with AD verbal material, definitely not better than deep processing).
Regards,
Javi
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I am currently wrapping up a chapter on 'Working memory as language aptitude: the Phonological/Executive Model', in which I develop the argument based on previous research that phonological WM (PWM) is a language acquisition device that subserves L2 knowledge of vocabulary, formulaic sequences (formula), and morpho-syntactic constructions; while executive WM is a language processing device that regulates and coordinates attentional resources during L2 comprehension and production activities (esp. online and offline processes during the four sub-skills of L2 listening, speaking, reading, and writing) (more can be seen in Wen, 2015, 2016)..
Meanwhile, I also argue that it is better to implement separate WM span tasks for PWM and EWM, such that, the simple (storage-only) version of memory span tasks (e.g., the digit span, nonword span etc.), while complex (storage plus processing) span tasks (e.g., reading span task, operation span task...) should be used to measure EWM (Wen, 2012 & 2014).
These are old stuff, I am also arguing that future EWM tests should focus on more fine-grained (secondary) mechanisms and executive functions of WM. In this case, following Miyake & Friedman (2012), EWM can be demarcated into information updating, task switching, and inhibitory control. I wonder, if anyone can give me more insights, if we want to adopt well-established tasks to measure each of these executive functions in a second language/bilingualism contexts. In other words, what might be the most well-established tasks? The recent paper by Indrarathne & Kormos (2018) has provided a nice reference and a good example. Still, I wish to check if there are other key references that I can refer to (esp from cognitive psychology or psycholinguistics). For now, I am arguing for adopting the 'Running memory span' task (Bunting et al., 2006) or the 'Keep track task' for measuring updating; Task switching numbers (Linck et al., 2013) or the 'Plus minus task' for measuring task switching; Antisacade or the Stroop task for measuring inhibitory control. How would these sound (advantages and disadvantages?).
Shall be very grateful if anyone can offer me some insights or refer me to some key references (I've got some in my own repertoire of references provided in other projects, which is available for all to download), but still wish to hear more for my consideration.
Thanks in advance for your input!
Edward
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Dear all,
Many great thanks to you all for the nice answers or for the interest in this question as followers. I am glad to say that I have finished the chapter on 'Working memory as language aptitude', and it will be published in our forthcoming volume on 'Language aptitude: Advancing theory, testing, research and practice” which hopefully will be published around March 2019 (do keep an eye on that project.
That said, I am now co-authoring with Alan Juffs from Pittsburgh on a new chapter on "Measuring working memory" to be included in an edited volume "The Routledge Handbook of Second Language Acquisition and Testing". So, the answers to this question posted here are still very much welcomed!
Thanks,
Edward
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Commas, spaces and other separations in long digit-strings
1. facilitate user understanding,
2. reduce the risk that users will make interpretation errors,
3. reduce strain of human working memory during economic decisions, and
4. generally impose a order that seems to be appreciated by central banks in almost any other domain.
Yet very few use them for large denomination bills, apparently preferring unedited strings like 100000 or even 1000000.
Does anyone know why?
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Hi Peterson K Ozili!
Which central bank are you referring to? I notice that Nigeria, for example, doesn't separate in the naira.
Brett Matthew
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Good morning everyone
I study cognitive functions (working memory and selective attention) and reading in Children monolingual and bilingual Arabic French
Can I study code-switching between Arabic and French?
If yes
How can the procedure be?
thank you
RegardsـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــAhmed
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Yes. You can always study/learn two languages and practise code-switching between the two. I note that you target languages are Arabic and French. I think you need one language as a Mother tongue and the other language which you learn sufficiently well; otherwise it won’t really work. In brief, code-switch in two languages or even three is fun and admirable. To do well, you need training and love of languages.
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This is about my PhD thesis where I am trying to see the pattern of memory deficit among different types of hypothyroidism. I have used a between subject group design. I have 1 IV with three levels. I have 4 four groups which are:
Subclinical Hypothyroid group N= 14
Overt Hypothyroid group N= 15
Euthyroid group N = 12
Healthy Control Group N = 15
I am using multiple types of memory measures broadly speaking I have administered 1 test of verbal memory with 6 types of scores (DVs) and 2 Tests for working memory with 4 types of scores (DVs). I have been asked to apply One-way MANOVA.
Coming to the issue I am facing is that applying One-way Manova would require meeting several assumptions which my data does not. My data fails to meet the following assumptions:
1.Normality (univariate): Shapiro-wilks test came significant on few dvs.
2.Linearity within DVs: scatterplot showed non linearity among different variables and bivariate correlation also showed non significant correlation between DVs.
3. Violation of homogeneity of variance assumption.
I had applied box-cox transformation using on some variables but that did not helped me solve the problem.
I pretty confused what to do. Whether I should go for multiple ANOVA instead of One single MANOVA. But in that case the alpha would be inflated and would cause type 1 error.
Would appreciate if someone could suggest something on this
Thanks
Vatsal
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Yes. I know of no non-parametric multiple-variate, multiple-group test. One may have been created by someone, but a quick web search and Google Scholar search just now showed nothing of interest. I prefer to use the well-validated tests described by Siegel in 1956.
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If the EF is linked with brain function where it can control working memory and the cognitive ability. Then, what is the connection between EF and ADHD behaviour? And how EF and ADHD are linked?
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There is a theory, that it is connected with delay of prefrontal cortex maturation. More here:
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It seems to me that working memory (involving the episodic buffer AND some -- to all the types -- of the Memories) is constantly at work and is our very experience itself.
Thus, I cannot see how the Memories (with at least some of them always active, determining and "recording" experience -- which most prominently and significantly active, dependent on circumstances) can be considered something separate from our knowledge OR our knowing OR our awareness OR our conscious being (all those: inclusively), i.e. as ANYTHING ever considerable as separate from experience itself.
Correct? Seems to me such a dualism would be a most-major problem. (This may be the biggest and perhaps primary dualism of them all, in reality (phenomenologically), though the nature/nurture dualism may seem worse -- but the latter may be somehow related to the former and even may have to be somehow related.)
Yet, we do seem to talk about "them" (the Memories, usually called "memory") at times as just one aspect of who we are (we seeing ourselves somehow as more than that "one 'aspect'")(and "memory" as sometimes something to consider, and other times not), don't we? (BUT: Wouldn't this be delusion "incarnate"?)
In short, we never "just are" (nor are we in any other way): these mechanisms having capacities and capabilities are ALWAYS at "work" since we ARE biological beings, in every way (like other animals) and at all times.
The Memories are central to good psychology understanding (or progress) and to good science in this "realm". The other major consideration (to have any generally good understanding of our reality/animal reality) is innate-guidance of behavioral development (especially throughout ontogeny); and, the question becomes : how does the innate-guidance aspects of behavior emerge along with (or, actually: "in") our other behavior patterns?; the fact of the always-present Memories can be an indication of the "acceptable" integral nature of emerging innate-guidance and why "perceptual shifts" become by far the likely candidates for what they (innately-guided behavioral aspects), along with other relevant behavior patterns, look like and ARE (<- including the "automatic" nature of our reality due to the past developments of the Memories and those "bringing forward" the very nature of what a good part of our reality looks like and IS).
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Dear Brad,
Through the lens of functionalism, we can say that memory cannot be fully appreciated without understanding the context in which it was formed. This is not an easy question to explore; nevertheless, it is an important one. The nervous system, indeed the entire body, acts as an integrated whole. Therefore, memory must play an important role in maintaining the integrity of that whole. How memory was formed may implicitly or explicitly play a role in how and when it will be used. Context, hence, must play an important role.
This will be a meaningful dialogue to engage in and I hope to hear back from you. Please take a look at the meta-analytic study by Smith and Vela (2001), which I have attached so that we can use some shared language for future conversations.
Best wishes,
Micah
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I am looking for a good review article that has been recently published and that summarises the recent developments in working memory.
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Hi, Vatsal,
Working memory is not my field, but if I were looking for a short, current summary of the field, I would search in the journal Current Issues in Psychological Science. That is this journal's specialty.
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Hi. I am doing growth modeling with 3126 paritipants. Working memory was collected over 8 data points. Before I add SES into the model, I set up a basic model. But the basic model does not have good model fit. Based on my attached output, is there anything you would suggest?
As you can see, I already used modification indexes to create relationships.
Thanks for all of your help!
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As suggested by Mark, extending the model to a growth mixture model may be interesting, as you probably have a good sample size for that.
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Is there any research on N-back task that may report modality effect?
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With my pleasure (manuscript in Attachment).
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Hi, we are recently doing a working memory experiment in healthy, normal subjects with EEG and eye-tracking measurement. We have no prior background in psychology, but we have heard that some psychology lab let the subjects do some questionnaires before the actual experiment.
We wish to know is it a standard practice to do questionnaire before actual experiment in human neuroscience research? If yes, how can I find appropriate questionnaire? If no, then what kind of experiment need a questionnaire before hand?
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In natural sciences observations and preliminary experiments provide first experience with a phenomenon. We can not ask questions without experience with nature! There is no appropriate questionnaire without detailed knowledge of the phenomenon. Therefore, after consulting the previous knowledge in literature it is essential that one learns about the phenomenon in hands on experiments. In neuroscience our personal experience frequently generates doubts about results published previously.
Thus, we can not ask questions without knowing what the questions should be about.
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I was using the T-test to compare between the stroke patient's and healthy subject's working memory in terms of Spectral entropy and relative powers. I want to find the FDR and its relation with the p value.
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Regarding the FDR-adjusted p-value here's a formula:
i=Ranked p value (eg. 1-100)
m=Number of tests e.g. (1-1000)
Q= The false discovery rate (5%-25%)
Formula: (i/m)Q=FDR-adjusted p-value (can also be called q value).
Here’s two websites that explain it well:
These are covered in more detail in Bejamini-Hochberg's 1995 and 1998 papers.
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Friends,
The difficulty to form and execute plans of action is diagnostic of large prefrontal lesions. The expectancy of reward activates many neurons, especially in orbital prefrontal cortex. All four major executive functions of the lateral prefrontal cortex (planning, executive attention, working memory, and decision-making) are prospective, “look” to a more or less distant future. The prefrontal cortex is rightfully called the “organ of creativity,” as it is capable of organizing novel actions and speech (it has “memory of the future,” Ingvar 1985). It is also capable of “imagining” what’s to come, and to estimate future risks and benefits. The stock market is moved up or down by the collective prefrontal cortex of countless investors. In sum, here is a brain structure that is literally driven by the future, eminently teleological. Many seem to ignore such an obvious fact. A bit of reflection is here in order, however.
For the self-respecting scientist, teleology is anathema and intolerable absurdity, because it reverses the natural temporal order between cause and effect. That reversal in the prefrontal cortex is only apparent, however, because for that cortex, as for the rest of nature, there is “nothing entirely new under the sun.” Thus, all new planning, all new creation, all new imagination, and all new decisions are based on history and prior experience. All of them are simply re-creations of the past.
Thus the absurdity is gone. But think of how dull, how witless, how plain and how barren would be a world without the prefrontal cortex!
Cheers,
Joaquín
J.M. Fuster and S.L Bressler – Past makes future: Role of pFC in prediction. J. Cogni. Neuroscience, 27: 639-654, 2015.
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I am an absolute proponent of the role of the prefrontal cortex in goal-directed behavior. I agree that the idea of goal-directed actions is neglected. In my opinion there may be two reasons for this. First, most of researchers still use paradigms in which the idea of goal-directed behavior is not used or unimportant. It is of interest that the manifestation of such paradigms can be found in the question presented because it can be derived from the question that the prefrontal cortex is only “the organ of the future” and the rest of the brain functions in a stimulus-reaction mode. This is not a case. The whole brain is the predictive organ because the function of the brain is the satisfaction of the organism’s needs and needs are always aimed at the future. For example, animals and humans feel hungry before there is a real shortage of nutrients in the organism or in novel and unusual situations humans and animals may feel stress and anxiety even if nothing happens, etc.
The other reason is that most of the mechanistic models of how pFC constructs goal-directed actions from the past and the present are still not sufficient to explain corresponding data. The article attached, to some extent, is an example of this. The article demonstrates the prefrontal cortex is strongly involved in goal-directed actions but the authors does not suggest specific mechanisms which the prefrontal cortex would use to construct and pursue goals. Such special mechanisms are necessary if pFC is the predictive system. Cognits and the PA cycle in itself obviously are not unique characteristics of pFC
My position is that the main function of the human prefrontal cortex is the formation of learned needs, which are so strong and long-term as innate needs and then the execution of goal-directed processes associated with these needs. The prefrontal cortex constructs the goal and the means of a goal-directed process jointly on the basis of the criterion of minimal construction costs.
Prudkov, P.N. (2010). A view on human goal-directed activity and the construction of artificial intelligence. Minds and Machines, 20, 363-383.
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Hi,
I would be thankful for any piece of literature introducing short, accessible and uncomputerised psychological tests for executive functioning and visual-motor processing. I am most interested in assessment of spatial and hierarchical planning.
Thank you
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Stephen, thank you for the reply. I didn't correctly express myself and have now corrected the question. I am not interested in one test which would merge all the functions but in all the tests available which cover the mentioned (not all in one test).
I am familiar with the Tower of Hanoi and I saw that the set can be bought online for a reasonable price, but was still hoping that other planning assessment tasks would be available.
Thank you for suggesting the Porteus Maze test, I will look into it.
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There are many factors that affect drivers to drive safely, such as visual and cognitive factors, reaction time, working memory, and etc.. Is theres any good methods or tools to evaluate whether a driver is fitness to drive?
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Hello, it is different if you are asking about legal procedures to obtain the driving license, or about research in this area. As for legal procedures, in Spain there are certain psychotechnic tasks, i.e., to guide an object in a screen along a road, or to anticipate the apparition of an objetc hidden by another. It is supposed that drivers are evaluated with respect to their vision, their ability to move an object coordinating both hands, etc. Other countries are including a test about hazard perception, to check if the future driver detects possible hazards. I hope this can help you in some way.
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Memory components in MANNs are pretty basic. I know of models with multiple attention components. Are there Deep Learning (DL) architectures that employ a multiple-component approach for memory as in Baddeley & Hitch, 1974 and Baddeley, 2000?
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Have such models been given a Deep Learning spin? Has anyone tried to run them on / integrate them with a Neural Turing Machine (NTL) / Differentiable Neural Computer (DNC), for instance?
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I'm looking for working memory evaluation in adolescents.
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Look at the two manuscript, which used modern approaches to assess working memory in adolescents in a comparative perspective.
In the Attachment.
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Dear All,
I am currently collecting data for my research and i am using both the WRAT-4 and TOMAL-2 assessments. I am investigating whether a working memory intervention can improve academic performance. Therefore, i will be using a pre and post test analysis with the WRAT-4 and the TOMAL-2.
My question is, how can i analyze the results from each test as they have more than one numerical outcome.
For example, the WRAT-4 produces scores for reading, writing, spelling and maths and so i can find out if a participant is above or below an average. But when it comes to statistical testing i'm unsure of what method to do.
Could i collate all the scores together for each separate test and then produce an average? thus being able to use the average scores for pre and post testing ( e.g. using a t-test analysis)
Thanks in advance
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Measuring change (what you're calling a test of difference) is straightforward. Yes, you could use a series of t-tests, though someone might take you to task for running so many separate analyses (four WRAT subtests and about six TOMAL subtests, right?). The t-tests in question would be single-sample ones using the change score (i.e., post-intervention score minus pre-intervention score) as data. Other than a Bonferroni correction, which might be too stringent, I'm not sure how best to address the problem of running so many t-tests. Maybe you can get away with just using an alpha level of .01 instead of .05?
Measuring strength of association is fine, too. But if you are looking for a change in the correlation after the intervention, expect disappointment. Even if such a thing happens, it's quite difficult to establish a significant difference between two correlation coefficients. If you want to try, use Steiger's z test.
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I've a cognitive task that assess working memory. It has 20 trials with 9 trials having a target to which they've to respond by saying "yes". While for the non target trials they don't have to respond.
The test will yield a hit score and two error scores i.e., error of omissions and commissions.
I know I can calculate the hit percentage by dividing the hit score and dividing it by 9. But I am not sure how should I calculate the "false alarm rate" ( error of commission) and the "miss rate" (error of omissions)
Can anyone please help me on this??
Thanks
Vatsal
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Hi Vatsal,
In your task, a hit would be define as the trials where the target stimulus (signal) was present, and a false alarm as the trials where the participant responded the target stimulus was present when in reality it wasn't. Misses are answers where the signal was present and the participant responded it was absent. Then, like Jessica said:
Hit Rate = number of hits/(number of hits+ number of misses)
Miss Rate =number of misses/(number of hits+ number of misses)
False Alarm Rate = number of false alarms/(number of false alarms + number of correct rejections).
If you want to calculate sensitivity (d') and criterion, you can do the following:
d' = P(Hit) - P(False alarms) (probabilities in Z scores)
Criterion = - (P(Hit) + P(False alarms))/2
Best!
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Hello all,
I am trying to design an Operation span task using Psychopy's 'Builder' module (using mainly the GUI). I think I managed most things except finding a way to incorporate multiple input keys. Could anyone suggest what I need to change so that I can register multiple response inputs??
This would really help
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I think I have already tried that.. I will try it out and get back to you two.. Thanks fr the suggestions
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I am recently conducting a meta-analysis on working memory. I want to know whether there is a minimum requirement of the number of articles for a meta-analysis? Moreover, I've been through several meta-analysis on working memory, an found that several studies did not distinguish WM from STM. I wonder whether such a treatment is appropriate.
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The main objective of a meta-analysis is to give an answer cumulatively based on the available studies. Therefore, the more the better. However, two is minimum for non-Cochrane meta-analysis. However, for Cochrane meta-analysis, one is enough as you need to update every 2 years. Having said that, I believe it would be difficult to publish if you have 1/2 included studies only in your meta-analysis and you can't do a lot of analyses including publication bias (As more than 10 studies are recommended to perform) when you have less studies.
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I want to present you with a possible particular concrete example (instance) of a perceptual shift, i.e. the inception of a stage shift (in 'seeing' and [at first, very vaguely,] in some sense IN cognition), showing all the 4 phases of a perceptual shift for the overall process of the beginning of a qualitative stage shift part of the development of cognition -- before purely associative learning "holds sway" by itself again.
This hypothetical example comes from the ape (gorilla) social "world", from which our abilities to have progressively developing levels of concepts and thinking likely first evolved. Well, HERE IS IS:
Think of an child ape, not an infant but perhaps a mid-age-child individual. He has from his previous development a conceptual idea of the dominant (adult) male gorilla (and his behavior patterns, relating to this).
But, then he "notices" that this dominant male, at times rushes towards other adults, to seemingly show other ways to express his dominance (or other aspects of that dominance) which he has not shown before (or which the young ape has not clearly seen, noticed, or processed before).
This is the kind of thing indicating [with him, this child] innate guidance, given he has good, refined earlier knowledge: AT FIRST BEING some gap in the child ape's conceptual understanding of the OVERALL structure of this adult dominance behavior. That "gap", (phase 1) of the now first-emerging of a NEW perceptual shift, may show itself in a situation (or early situations) as just something involving automatically vaguely orienting TOWARD the key situation and behaviors (and would be shown behaviorally simply in prolonged gaze when/after this dominance phenomenon shows itself).
Soon (perhaps VERY SOON) he will better see such dominance events WHEN THEY OCCUR (because of the specific "gap" existing in his understanding); this second phase (of the perceptual shift) will show clearly: orienting to the aspects of this new-to-understand type of dominance expression (still, for the most part, not conscious).
In the third phase of the shift, he will reliably have seen regularities as he continues good orientation needed to observe things associated with this dominance event. HERE he can be said to be expressly and explicitly and consciously ATTENDING to occurrences of this event.
Finally (in the fourth phase of the shift) he will integrate the essentials into memory: facts-for-occurrence, key aspects of this dominant male's behavior (with respect to dominance behavior patterns), and key aspects of the spacial and temporal aspects ("in the world"), associated with these dominance behaviors pattern's key content in visual-spacial memory (which he will be able to play back in his mind, when NOT present in the situation where the adult male dominance behavior occurs; i.e. he can "reflect"). BUT, TO DO ALL THIS:
This fourth phase shows the development of some fact/declarative memory (basically the main static features of the dominance act and their relationships to each other, defined) -- this is the declarative/"semantic" aspect of long-term memory he has developed and is developing. Also, some procedural knowledge develops (at the same time) about how to act in response to this dominance expression (especially if his has something "to do" with he, himself): this thoroughly developed, active and automatized response (or set of responses) is the procedural aspect of long-term memory he has gained: this aspect, known as procedural memory.
Also, in the fourth phase FOR THE MOST PART, he has a record-of-incident (episode) memory which is most prominently in the visual-spacial memory which is, in an indirect way, the actual thing he is able to play back key portions of in his mind, just as he sits and thinks about this dominance phenomenon -- given the EPISODIC BUFFER. (Other key aspects [mentioned above] of long-term Memories are also determining the nature of the BUFFER and are "there". ) So, the ability to do this out-of the situation reflection, just described above, relies on (and is delimited by) the content that will be a notable part of his EPISODIC BUFFER, doing some major contextualization of his working memory (entering into it) where further, now more-simple associative learning may now continue to occur, until all the Memories (each and together) are thoroughly refined.
He no doubt will also, through cued thinking (and likely some observation) relate this aspect of his concept of dominance to other aspects at the same conceptual level (and to/with earlier conceptual levels) that are related to shows of dominance. When ALL this (all of the 4 phases and associative learning needed for refinements and concept integration) has occurred (perhaps taking a year), he will be ready to notice other greater patterns BY HAVING a new perceptual shift (that, too, with 4 similar phases) -- these are the core foundational happenings in ontogeny (aka THE proximate directly observable causes of the development of behavior patterns via perceptual shifts) and that which AGAIN allows qualitative NEW learning new ways (using a qualitatively different kind of learning, and also using well-refined aspects from earlier stages): to AGAIN further develop his representation system(s)( aka concept structure), this being related to all major aspects of the Memories and likely mostly connected with through visual-spacial memories, and all the other Memories connected to that AND USED (in the final step of cognizance) BY THE EPISODIC BUFFER; then working memory can work on new "things".
[ Full explication and justification for this approach (and the implications of this approach) can be found via :
and
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I should note that this perspective can be seen as finishing Piaget's theory (and that of neo-Piagetians), by defining the stage shifts (associated with Equilibration 2, qualitatively described ONLY, and not accomplished with regular accommodation). In fact, Piaget just stated the major factor behind the main stage changes was "maturation". Unfortunately, most psychologists completely overlook statements about Equilibration 2 and either do not know of it or totally neglect to mention it in any regard. In any case: THEY NEGLECT TO SEE THE STARK FACT OF THE LACK OF EXPLANATION HERE, which Piaget MORE than clearly stated; they somehow (often, and maybe always, adding in fictional executive and meta processes) explain cognitive developments just with assimilation and accommodation -- BUT THIS WAS NOT PIAGET'S VIEW (he had a qualitative idea of the situation and nature of things that would evoke Equilibration 2, BUT PROVIDED THEN ONLY "MATURATION", otherwise, as an explanation and that is all (which he would himself see as empirically incomplete).
Thus, this perspective and approach is congruent in the main with the Piagetian perspective and all neo-Piagetian perspectives, just adding in the needed processes (and resulting in a way to throw out all those "meta" processes, because they are not only not well-founded, but they are not needed for explanation). Once these fictional (though on the "face of it" seeming totally descriptive) processes are eliminated, my perspective and approach is entirely consistent with neo-Piagetian theories.
It returns to the empiricism of direct observation to substantiate these "perceptual shift" hypotheses, something Piaget would be very happy with. We now also have the tools of eye-tracking and computer assisted analysis technologies to allow us to DISCOVER (see) what researchers previously could not. Researchers, today, with the new procedures now available should look for and see if they can find the overt phenomenon (though subtle) associated with my empirically hypothesized, directly observable phases of the "perceptual shifts". If only today's theorists could recall or review Piaget and see that JUST THIS is what was and IS mainly missing (and otherwise just modifying some accounts because of the "perceptual shifts" testable and provable account will have its implications on the descriptions of other processes/mechanisms, but those otherwise and mainly being almost phenomenologically correct ).
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Hello all,
Could anyone recommend an instrument (computer/maybe available online or paper and pencil task) to measure mental body rotation? Especially I am looking for advanced tasks to measure MBR in athletes.
Thanks in advance,
Malgorzata
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Mental Body Rotation Test
Please let me know if these references/sites are helpful to you:
1. What does the Mental Rotation Test Measure? An Analysis of ...
94 The Open Psychology Journal, 2009, 2, 94-102 1874-3501/09 2009 Bentham Open Open Access
2. What does the Mental Rotation Test Measure? An Analysis of Item Published in: The Open Psychology Journal · 2009 Authors: Andre F Caissie · Francois Vigneau · Douglas A Bors Affiliation: Ecole Normale Superieure · University of Toronto About: Mental rotationWhat does the Mental Rotation Test Measure? An Analysis of ...
3. What does the Mental Rotation Test Measure? An Analysis of Item Difficulty and Item Characteristics. 9 Pages. What does the Mental Rotation Test Measure?The Modified Total Body Rotation Test: A Rapid, Reliable ...
www.bioportfolio.com › Topics › Nutrition › Research
4. Summary of "The Modified Total Body Rotation Test: A Rapid, Reliable Assessment of Physical Function in Older Adults." OBJECTIVES: To describe a quick, modified ...[PDF]Measure of the ability to rotate mental images - Psicothema
The Measure of the Ability to Rotate Mental Images (MARMI) test was designed to measure the ability to rotate mental imagery ... Mental Rotation Test ... Published in: Psicothema · 2012 Authors: Alfredo Campos Affiliation: University of Santiago De Compostela About: REV
Dennis
Dennis Mazur
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I am conducting my MA dissertation and i will be looking at whether a working memory intervention programme can help to increase academic achievement with students who have a diagnosis of dyslexia.
Whilst I can find many computer based programmes for working memory (E.g. Cogmed), I was hoping there may be some which can be printed and used with students with pen and paper.
My aim is take 20/25 students and get them to complete working memory tasks twice on a weekly basis for a four weeks intervention.
Thanks
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Yes.....there are paper pencil tests available for assessing working memory. This includes - digit forward test, digit backward test, serial subtraction, maze test etc.
For a comprehensive assessment of working memory there is a test battery (named Working memory test battery) developed by Gathercole & Pickering, which you can consider using.
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I was looking for one that differentiated between the different memories but will settle for working memory for now.
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Thank you for the wonderful question, aimed at trying to restore important brain functions after a stroke. Please read the text of the scientific articles, whose authors are in solidarity with you (see the text of the articles below in the Attachment).
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what is the role of working memory and planning function in learning or perfecting motor skills?
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Dear Rehab,
reflecting Nicholas' answer, I once more would suggest to more precisely differentiate between "working memory" and "executive functions", the former being conceived as a fairly narrower construct than the latter, and then to decide which of these two (however interrelated!) concepts you want to associate with motor skill acquisition.
To come to grips with "working memory", the following paper might be helpful:
Wilhelm, O., Hildebrandt, A., Oberauer, K. (2013). What is working memory capacity, and how can we measure it? Frontiers in Psychology, Vol.4, Article 433. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00433
While there has been done a lot of work on the relation of executive functions and more global aspects of motor proficiency (i.e. team sports, general motor abilities in children & elderly, etc.), comparatively little studies are available that directly relate WMC (working memory capacity) and acquisition of specific types of motor skill.
Here, with respect to the implicit - explicit dissociation in motor sequence learning, I'd recommend the following two papers:
Janacsek, K. & Nemeth, D. (2013). Implicit sequence learning and working
memory: Correlated or complicated? Cortex · March 2013
DOI: 10.1016/j.cortex.2013.02.012
Bo, J. & Seidler, R.D. (2009). Visuospatial Working Memory Capacity Predicts the Organization of Acquired Explicit Motor Sequences. J Neurophysiol 101: 3116–3125. doi:10.1152/jn.00006.2009
Regards,
Klaus Blischke
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I'm looking for an easy, short task to test verbal working memory in children aged 5 to 8. I need the same task for all children, any suggestions? 
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Hi
I would recommend you take a look at the following:
Stone, J. M., & Towse, J. N. (2015). A Working Memory Test Battery: Java-Based Collection of Seven Working Memory Tasks. Journal of Open Research Software, 3(1), e5. DOI: http://doi.org/10.5334/jors.br
also at:
Of course I would recommend the above as I was involved in this! However, the software is freely available, open-source, configurable (you can shorten or lengthen the tasks etc), cross-platform and was developed to assess working memory in children.