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Questions related to Wood Science
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i'm working on extraction of fiber from bamboo
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Dear @Goran Schmidt,
I am looking for a bamboo machinery if you could help with this regards.
Looking forward to hearing from you,
Layth
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How many APC free journals are there in the field of wood sciences?
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Dear Saman,
It is depending on your research's topic. For general wood science, you can try these journal:
1. Cellulose - Springer
2. Wood Science and Technology - Springer
3. European Journal of Wood and Wood Products - Springer
4. Journal of Wood Chemistry and Technology - Taylor & Francis
5. Wood Material Science & Engineering - Taylor & Francis
6. ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering - ACS Publication
7. Green Chemistry - RSC Publication
8. Journal of Applied Polymer Science - Wiley
9. Biomacromolecles - ACS Publication
10. Macromolecules - ACS Publication.
Those Journal are hybrid journal (you can check their website), which provide options for traditional publishing method (APC free) and open access (requires APC).
Best regards,
Muhammad Adly R. Lubis
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There are a lot of researches on wood combustion modification, as well as fire resistance of full-scale wood elements. Why the application of the modification in the improvement of fire resistance of elements is very few.
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@ Sauradipta Ganguly
Hi, thanks for the answer and your valuable suggestion. Yeah I guess so. A balance between the added cost and performance increases is important. The flammability of wood materials is the primary problem in the application of timber structure, especially in high-rise buildings. Experimenal studies will be carried out in the futural work.
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I'm looking for some physical and mechanical properties of 2 wood species:
Nothofagus pumilio and Berberis sp.
Specifically, their density, Young's modulus (i.e., elasticity), and Poisson's ratio (longitudinal, radial, tangential).
Is anyone willing to provide data or references?
Thanks in advance!
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This may interest some of you:
Ruffinatto, F., Crivellaro, A. (2019). "Atlas of Macroscopic Wood Identication". Cham: Springer.
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As an undergraduate student in wood science and technology, I have vast skills in graphic design . I want to use the skills in design and wood science to solve problems and use it as a project topic for my final year thesis. All suggestions are warmly welcome. Thank you!
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Looking for the work of Mauritius Escher a Dutch graphic artist, he can take you into the realm of patterns, woodcutting or even the construction of wooden figures that fit together.
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How can i ensure that the collected data from shear test is true?
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I invite you to have a look at the below article, I believe that it would have some interesting information about the fracture properties of wood and wood based composites,
Fracture Properties of Wood and Wood Composites
  • July 2009
  • Advanced Engineering Materials 11(7):600 - 606
  • DOI:
  • 10.1002/adem.200900048
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I want help for the method of preparation of bamboo charcoal.
Kindly Contact me via research gate.
Thanks.
Ankur Dwivedi
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Yes I am working with bamboo charcoal. Please help me .
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I surfed  internet a lot  but I am not getting teak orthotropic properties. I need these for analysis purpose.  Please provide any source for it. or  Suggest me alternative way to do its analysis in the  ansys software
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I think using the strain and force measurement methods to calculate it with the definition of the mechanical properties is a good way to find.
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I am looking to identify meetings and sessions in the field of xylem/plant water transport. If you have ever organized or attended a conference session or meeting dedicated to any aspect of this area of research please share the name of the conference. Any information is greatly appreciated.
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The next Xylem International meeting will most likely be organized by the University of Padova in Italy i September/October 2019. We are finalizing the organisation right now and I will let you know when I know more.
And yes, Cavitation will be "la part du lion" in this meeting!
Hervé
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A technical question to forest products roundwood equivalent (RWE) conversion factors: For sawnwood it is easy to find the appropriate conversion factors from the FAO publications. However, for engineered wood products (and for value added wood products in general) it gets more complicated. Specifically, for CLT, it would appear to be lower than for sawnwood, I have used the factor 1.5 (meaning that it takes 1.5 m3 of wood biomass to derive 1 m3 of CLT). However, it is not clear, if this is correct or not. That is, are the CLT facilities completely separated from sawnwood production (so that one does not count the intermediate sawnwood production into this figure)? If so, the scale of the conversion factor above should be indicative. However, if one assumes that CLT is made of sawnwood coming from separate sawmills and only afterwards processed into CLT, the factor should be much higher. Any thoughts or experiences on this?
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As a rule I'd say this is the case, yes. So it doesn't substitute sawnwood, but rather increases the demand for it. It's a question of moving downstream in the value chain.
Not sure if one should somehow differentiate here between integrated facilities where the intermediate product is an integral part of the process and CLT mills that purchase sawnwood from elsewhere (if such facilities exist). Also, it may be possible to use lower diameter logs and lower quality logs in the CLT production process, so the RWE may be also smaller than presented above.
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Fast blue B salt, Fast red B Salt and benzidine/NaNO2 all stain the heartwood of Pinus sylvestris dark red. What is the mechanism behind this reaction? What is the target molecule for the stains?
By the way: Why is the carcinogenic benzidine/NaNO2 still used frequently while the Fast Blue B and Fast Red B salts are easier to handle and rather harmless?
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I tried Pinosylvin and Pinosylvin-Monomethylether. Fast blue B salt lead to a fast and intensive red staining of Pinosylvin but not of Pinosylvin-Monomethylether. Both substances show an intense flurorescence when illuminated with UV 365 nm. Obviously the heartwood detection and the fluorescence and the staining of coatings over the heartwood of Pinus sylvestris with Fast Blue B salt is caused by Pinosylvin. 
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If we use raman's spectroscopy what things we can identify from wooden samples, composition of wood, chemical constituent of wood, cellulose, nano cellulose and what things we can use?
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I extracted Lignin from various biological waste material. I am going to prepare adhesives from lignin. before that I have to estimate hydroxyl content and methoxyl content in lignin as both are dominating factors in adhesives.  can any body suggest the best suited protocols for this two tests? 
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You can find attached file for some information.
Hope this will help.
Regards,
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its about heat flow values in Eucalyptus species
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given the diversity of eucalyptus species (about 600 species, grown from tropical environments to semi-arid ones), with very variable growth rates and wood structures, the values above from Larry Baxter are as precise as one is going to get. If you have know the species you are interested, it might be possible to find some more precisse values.
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What design of molecular techniques says about  the functional quality of a plant? Say for example if the plant is a timber yielding by its economics?
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Dear Binoy Kurian,
The characterization of wood is usually performed through the physical, mechanical, chemical and anatomical. Furthermore, there are destructive and non-destructive methods for the characterization of wood.
I send you some journals where you can easily find these characterizations.
I hope I understood your question and helped you.
Best Regards!
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what are the causes of decomposition in dry and wet conditions
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Mugilan Muthumanikam
Plz discuss with Dr PC Sarkar and Dr MF Ansari ,ICAR-IINRG Ranchi.............They are doing on this aspect...........................decomposition process............
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I have a project to make carbon from lignin. The raw material (lignin) that I have is dissolved in alkaline solution (NaOH). So, I have to find a way to get pure lignin which in solid phase. Does anyone know how to purify the lignin and change it into solid? Best regards.
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yes
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how many tons of babul wood produced per year in India?
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JK PAPER ALSO USED SUBABUL WOOD AND DOING 5000 HA PLANTATION EVERY YEAR FROM 2010 TI TILL DATE.
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I want to know the carbon sequestration potentialities through tree core analysis. I have started to read Fritts, Stokes and Smiley.  Does there any modern techniques to measure ring width?
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Hi,
I also recommend CooRecorder and basically any flatbed scanner (higher resolution is better). It is worth mentioning that actually you are buying packed of softwares from Cybis. It is called Cdendro and includes two programs: CooRecorder, which is dedicated to measure ring widths and also other parameters and CDendro which is tool to test the quality of measurements, crossdate and build chronology.  It is easier to work using this couple of programs because the file formats is identical. I recommend using Cofecha, which is great tool or/and dplR only as a next step.
Good luck and don't hesitate to ask about details if necessary!
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How they are produced; which components; mixtures; availability
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Dear fellow:
It depends upon the kind of WPC. Is it polymer reinforcing wood, or wood reinforcing polymer?
I have attached one of the easiest literature I have ever read about the "polymer reinforcing wood"  topic.
regards
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I am looking for images of Fraxinus wood preserved by mineralisation in archaeological contexts, preferently conserved in contact to bronze objects.
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I have just gone through the literature stating that  torrefied wood is not biodegradable I am not understanding why it is so? Could anybody explain on this. I would like to know is there any way to make it biodegradable?
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Hello! Due to the high temperatures in the wood processing hemicellulose (wood sugar) decomposes. Low equilibrium moisture content. This eliminates the conditions for the emergence and propagation of fungus and microorganisms.
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Hello everyone,
We are running some experiments where we have some "normal" or control wood and some treated wood. We would like to compare after some time, how much did the wood decay, and for this we just plan to compare the dry mass before and after the decay. Does any of you know any other way which is also interesting to check how much the wood decayed? Some easy methods would be welcome, but some more complex ones can also be of interest.
Thanks a lot,
Aitor
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Thanks Mr. Pavel, you already gave me some fresh ideas :) I thought about hardness, but not others, I will have a look to them :)
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Could anyone suggest about producing wood composite for construction such as glulam, CLT, LVL, etc. from juvenile Eucalyptus, hardwood?
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Thank you very much for your answer, Adha. You understood correctly that I'd like to produce them from lamella. Its julvenile wood of young tree mechanical properties is in the lower tier of tropical hardwood, contains many knots, and has high shrinking/swelling (>20% by volume). I'm not sure that if those kind of product will improve the wood mechanical properties for construction use.
By the way, thanks again for your suggestion about the glue issue.
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So far I have been able to get clean cuts to expose the transverse section of wood charcoal. However, I have not been able to get clean breaks on the tangential or radial axis of the wood charcoal. I need to be able to image all 3 sides in the SEM for proper identification. If anyone knows of the best way to get clean breaks in the tangential and radial section please let me know.
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Dear Samantha,
As I know about the ultrastructure of cell walls of charcoal, the main problem is the tenacity in the fibre cell wall caused by rupture of lignin´s chain. So, as Michael said, I think you can only obtain small areas on tangencial and radial surfaces.
Ricardo 
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Demineralisation practice will be used to prepare carbons in our lab for 2017 draft plan which permits a highly oxidising atmosphere for this purpose.
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treating the raw lignin with sulphuric acid solution (1 wt%) for
1 h, in a proportion of 20 mL of solution per gram of sample, followed
by washing extensively with deionized water until neutral
pH in washing water was attained.
They are average values of triplicate
determinations, where the standard error did not exceed 5%.
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We are trying to calculate the carbon stored in wood of different densities.
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Dear Miguel,
A good approximation of the chemical composition of wood, regardless of the species, is: 50% carbon, 44% oxygen and 6% hydrogen. Therefore, to make an example, 1 kg of wood (at the oven-dry state) stores approx. 0.5 kg of carbon.
As for the comment of Suresh, the density of wood varies with the species and counts to calculate the carbon stored, of course it depends if you consider weight or volume. Referring to the above example, 1 kg of wood always stores 0.5 kg of carbon, but occupies different volumes depending on its density. To say this with a more analytical example:
1 kg of wood with oven dry density of 400 kg/m3 = 0.025 m3 = 0.5 kg of carbon
1 kg of wood with oven dry density of 500 kg/m3 = 0.020 m3 = 0.5 kg of carbon
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    Nearly, I determined the elastic modulus of beech by unaxial compressionwith strain gauge, but when I used the parameters in Abaqus to simulate the compression ,I cmpared the load-displacement curve between test and simulation, the diference is so big, the slipe of simulation curve is bigger than test, that is to say the stiffness in simulation is bigger than that in test, and i think the main problem lay in elastic modulus, however, the parameter I measuered is similar to others ‘。could anyone give me some advice about it ,thaks very much. 
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@Martin Baeker ,the slipe of Elastic deformation is also bigger than test, you can see it in picture
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While we are working on agarwood in Bhutan. But we are not sure of chemical contents of the agarwood, if they are similar from rest of the region
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Please go through these PDF attachments also.
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How to calculate maximum span length from wood characteristics? or wood panel?
The data I had are only depth and wide, without any mechanical characteristics such MOE or MOR.
Thank you
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Hi,  you can fiind all the data you need in the text Wood Handbook - Wood as an Engineering Material,
or
particularly in the chapters 4-2 (MOE), 4-3 (MOR), and 10 (different kinds of wood panel). 
Best regards.
Togni
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irrespective of tree species and time of hour the sawmills work  i need a simple method as how to quantify the sawdust and make us of it in the locality.
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After wood processing, sawdust is thrown on the ground?
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Hello everyone,
We are trying to differentiate the heartwood and sapwood in planks of the tree species Pinus sylvestris, but we can't find a UV lamp which provides the right wavelength for seeing the stilbenes. Does anyone know any other simple and effective method for this?
Thanks a lot,
Aitor
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hi,
This paper looks to answer that question mr. Görgün :
Antikainen, J., Hirvonen, T., Kinnunen,J.,and Hauta-Kasari, M. 2012. Heartwood detection for Scotch pine by fluorescence image analysis. Holzforschung 66: 877–881.
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I've did many tests for drying Gmelina sp wood species. They have moisture content between 65-70%.
Much of journal or scientific log start the schedule from 45-50oC with EMC on 20%.
But, when I use that schedule, it makes the wood crack and casehardening (which outside become drier than inside wood). And actually, the outer side MC's 6-26%, and inside still 50-60%.
Is there any possible drying schedule for Gmelina and prevent drying defect from the wood itself? Thank you
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Dear Suresh,
Thank you for your answer.
I'll try to figure it out on those website.
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Wood, Wood science, Wood Technology, Fluroscence
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Hi Suresh,
I frequently use fluorescene in failure Analysis of Wood and Wood based materials (see the file attached). A more scientific approach can be found in this publication: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/275969083
Cheers
Dirk
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Some forest trees for example willow trees with being old their stem heart vanished completely others possesses hard woods that we use.
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Several factors influence the durability of the interior parts of standing stems. The presence of heartwood extractives that are toxic for wood destroying fungi is only one aspect. If this was the only answer we would never find a hollow black locust (Robinia) and for example beech would always be severely attacked by fungi already in the standing tree.  In reality the durable heartwood of black locust is often attacked by fungi  whereas the absolutely non-durable beechwood is attacked less often (I am only talking about the standing tree – after felling the situation is completely different). The ability of the different trees to prevent the ingress of fungi into the interior is as least as important as the durability of the wood. In the case of willow it might even be speculated that being hollow and therefore collapsing rather young might be an advantage. Willow is often distributed by vegetative propagation. Maybe the early collapse increases the chance for a better propagation.
Maybe the article of Shigo (see link below) is helpful:
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Hi everyone,
I am after a rough estimation of percentage of cellulose and lignin in a variety of wood samples. I have carried out TGA analysis for these samples from 30-900 *C, it is possible to say the left mass at 900*C is amount of ash in the sample. I am unable to give any inference regarding percentage of cellulose and lignin in the original sample. While, these properties are not important for my simulation work but it provides a significant amount of information of the sample used for future researchers.
I wish not to carry out any other experiment as my sample set is big. Please let me know can we have any inference from TGA curves for this problem?
Thank you. 
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Hi Edwin,
Thanks for your response. It helped me to deduce an approximate value of cellulose and lignin which lies in the similar region of published values. Though, I am unable to make a distinction in amount of hemi-cellulose present. Could you please provide me a journal paper(s) which has discuss this methodology in detail?
Thanks.
rw
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alkaline peroxide  pulping (naoh, h2o2)
sulphite pulping (naoh, na2so3)
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As both mentoned methos are based on  alkaline conditions of pulping, I gues the sulphite method will be more effective from viewpoint of raw material delignification.  Tremperature of this process can be higher as compared with that using NaOH/H2O2 and thus time of delignification shorter. Disadvantage of alkaline sulphite pulping is its higher negative environmental impact.
The mechanical properties of  both /peroxide and sulphite/ pulps prepared under identical conditions may be almost the same.
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Wood clour of a speceis vary with locations  to certain extent. I am keen to know what are the responsible factors for imaprting different colours in wood?
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Since cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin have the same color in all woods, wood color is generally related to the content of extractives. In hardwoods, it is closely related to climate.
For this reason, most Genres of trees with strong colors, like ebony (Diospyros), algarrobo (Prosopis), bubinga (Guibourtia), mahogany (Swietenia), wenge (Millettia), among others, come from warm climates.
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The main objective is to evaluate these propriendades and relate to the energy needed to disintegration of this material.
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Hi,
you can use the single fiber tensile test to determine the mechanical properties of fibers using the single filament tensile tests procedure described in ASTM D-3322-01 standard test method.
Regards,
BELOUADAH Zouheyr
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Can anyone advise me a good paper about the identification method of decayed wood? It is often an important question during identification of wood-inhabiting fungi.
Thanks for any help!
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Dear Attila,
I think it will be helpful to define your question a little bit. Do you mean rot types (as white and brown), or classes of decay, or something else? This can help to get a useful answer. For some approaches in the field of wood decay you can see a paper in attachment. And it may be helpful to address Dmitry Schigel https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Dmitry_Schigel for wood-decay study approaches.
Best wishes,
Elena
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How can I calculate specific cutting force for wood(soft) with a feed rate of 0.375 mm/tooth in slot milling?
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be careful with advise by Florian Rebstock - the model proposed in this paper is not so easy to use. I have got some problems with coefficients.
You can take specific cutting resistance for pine wood from the Figure 8c in my paper (open access) - it is for dry wood. Feed speed along wood fiber.
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I am referring specifically to wood as the primary tool and not the handle, base or frame.
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Thank you for providing me with these. They are interesting texts. However, I am specifically looking for the use of wood in preparing animal skins whereby a wooden tool is made to prepare the hide for producing clothing or other items. The reason I am looking for this is because at a site where we suspect intense hide-working to have taken place we are instead finding evidence for wood-working and someone asked whether wood was used in hide preparations
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I am working on a school project about the conversion of wood into celluose but I could not find the laboratory process of it so is there any one who can help?
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There is no absolute method of cellulose isolation, as it is connected to other structural compounds of wood, i.e. lignin and hemicelluloses. If you choose mild conditions, resulting cellulose will contain significant amount of them. On the other hand, strong delignifying agents will dissolve some cellulose as well. The most popular methods of cellulose determination (in the order of increasing strength of reagents and decreasing yield) are following:
  1. Cross-Bevan (chlorine and sodium sulphite)
  2. Kürshner-Hoffer (ethanol and nitric acid)
  3. Seifert (hydrochloric acid and acetylacetone)
In all cases wood should be extracted (with ethanol-benzene mixture, for example) prior to cellulose isolation. For school project the second method will be probably the most suitable. Extracted wood chips have to be refluxed in ethanol-HNO3 mixture for an hour, filtered on porous-glass funnel and the steps repeated total 3-4 times (conifers need more cycles). After delignification the sample should to be carefully washed with water and boiled twice in pure water to completely remove residue nitric acid. If you fail to find a detailed procedure, send me a message, and I'll try to help you.
Regards
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After wood modification, the products are claimed to have longer service life based on the mechanical and termites or fungal test results. I wonder if there is any model available to give this assumption of service life, using these test parameters?
thanks!
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Not a model but a case study.  
Decay and termite resistance, water absorption and swelling of thermally compressed wood panels
This paper gives some ideas that a model would depend on the type of modification to the wood.
CHEMICAL MODIFICATION:
A NON-TOXIC APPROACH TO WOOD PRESERVATION
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Hello everyone,
My question is simple. I have some data of some little seedlings (3 months old) and I was checking the volume (it's not part of the experiment), but the measures I have are the stem length and the diameter in the base. I estimated the volume of the stem as if they were cylinders because I considered that the variation can't be so big in so small seedlings. But I wonder if it would be better to estimate it as a cone, for example. What would you recommend me?
Thank you very much,
Aitor
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  To calculate stem volume knowing basal diameter and length, you have to make an assumption about taper. In trees, the clear trunk excluding the root flare often tapers as a parabaloid (to calculate which you'd need either top diameter as well as basal diameter, or diameter at the mid-point), while the top part of the tree, within the crown, often tapers as a cone..
  If you have only one diameter measurement you also have to assume that the cross-section of your seedling stems is circular, which may not be strictly correct, and you may also be most interested in stem volume in relation to some other variable (leaf area, growth rate etc).
  It might be best to accept that you can calculate an index of stem volume, rather than actual stem volume. In that case the index would probably be equally informative whatever you assume about taper and cross-sectional shape.
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Someone know a procedure to quantification of SO3 groups in lignin after sulfonation?
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Thank you for your help Maria Cristina and Cyrill Heitner. 
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I am looking for some kind of standarisation for determining ring curvature radius for archaeological deciduous Quercus (cf cerris). I have used the the "trigonometry in an isosceles triangle" after Paradis (2007) and Paradis et al. (2011) to calculate the radius of curvature but this results in literally thousands of unique measurements. I was wondering if there is a standard for grouping radius curvature dimensions together (into bins) for statistical comparison. For example: fragments with a radius of 0-50 mm are considered strongly curved and those with a radius between 50.1-100 mm are moderately curved etc. Given that Quercus cerris grows to a diameter of up to 2 m what is considered weakly curved? This may well be available in the French literature but as I cannot translate from French to English any assistance would be appreciated. 
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Nathan,
I am not too familiar with coppicing and pollarding. What I see is farming, where fast growth species such as popular (Populus sp.) or maple (Acer sp.) are grown to ~25 cm and then harvested for firewood. With staggered planting, the supply is constant. I suppose with coppicing and pollarding you would not necessarily have to worry about distinguishing between young growth trees and limbs, since young trees would be uncommon?
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Hello,
Could anybody recommend me some papers, reports, handbooks or standards in which I can find fracture toughness of wood? Specifically, I need values for the spruce.
Regards,
Janka 
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See papers of Stanzl-Tschegg S., Frühmann K., Tan et al., Burgert, etc. in the years 1986 - ca. 2005. If you do not find them let me know. My mail-address: stefanie.tschegg@boku.ac.at.
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why people nee to study wood consumption pattern In omusati and oshana region.
what method may they use
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Are you looking for current wood consumption patterns or historic wood consumption patterns. 
As to people study this, well there are a number of reasons not least being the maintenance or management of a resource.
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I am doing a research on the activation of carbon whereby I read this  journal, "Preparation of Pinewood- and Wheat straw-based Activation carbon via a microwave-assisted Potassium Hydroxide Treatment and Treatment and an Analysis of Effects of the microwave activation conditions
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Briefly, it is used to measure the active surface area. The more iodine that is adsorbed on the surface, the higher the iodine number and - in theory - the better the activated carbon will be as an adsorbent material.
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Hello everyone,
I would like to know which size /diameter (or age, if you prefer) is the minimum that we should have in a seedling or tree to be able to check the wood quality. All the measurements I have seen until now have been with grown trees, so I have this doubt now.
Thank you very much,
Aitor
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Please see the paper of non-destructive techniques measuring stiffness on pinus radiata seedlings. This might be useful for your research. 
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 I Want to simulate the wood DBC with CZM , but  i do not know how to determine the inatial damage energy ,Please give me some advice or reference,Thanks.
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@Mehdi Yasaee , Thanks very much.
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Forester, Wood Scientist, Tree breeding
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Please go through the following research article and the attachments for the answer:
Hegazy, S. (2014). Effect of thinning regime on wood quality of Acacia salicina trees growing in Saudi Arabia. Wood Research 59(1): 109-122.
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I am investigating on methodology of bamboo charcoal quality and calorific value
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Dear Antoine, your question is not particularly specified. What do you understand by quality? But the linked FAO dokument "Chapter 8. Quality control of charcoal and by-products" gives some information concerning quality control of charcoal.There are several ASTM standards cited, I thinks this will give you some hints.
Best regards
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I'm looking into occasional Pine logs breaking during handling. Older logs (not kept under water) seem to break more frequently, although fresh logs also break on occasion. 
Also small as well as larger diameter logs.
Logs are from fast grown Pine plantations.
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YES.
THIS IS A PROBLEM FACED DURING HARVESTING AND STORAGE OF LOGS SPECIFICALLY FOR THE PINE SPECIES OR OTHER SOFT WOOD SPECIES.
IT MAY HAPPEN BECAUSE OF EXCESSIVE LOSS OF MOISTURE FROM THE CROSS SECTIONAL AREA AND THUS DEVELOPMENT OF INTERNAL STRESSES.
ONE SOLUTION IS APPLICATION OF BITUMINOUS PAINT IMMEDIATELY AFTER HARVESTING ON THE CUT SURFACES.  
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Piles from the harbor of Hamburg show complete water saturation in the bacterial degraded sapwood but only 50% water saturation in the sound heartwood (mc 90% to 110% - heartwood does not sink in water!). Samples were extracted from 4 to 8 m below the water level. The upper parts of the piles were in contact with air. But why aren’t the parts always under water and far from the parts with air contact fully saturated with water?  I know, it is somehow the same situation like in standing trees and heartwood is rather impermeable – but if you put smaller pieces of P.sylvestris heartwood under water, they will sink after several weeks to month. Why doesn’t the air in the piles dissolve in water? The water pressure and the cold water temperature should favor this.
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This is related to the properties of the heartwood. The conductive properties of cell are shot down by filling the lumens by varies chemicals. As long as it is not rotten this makes wood almost impossible to penetrate by water. The decay process is slower down by lack of oxygen since the wood is submerge.
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wood conservation 
Wood anatomy
sample embeding
PEG 
What is the best method for PEG 1500 removal from sectioning wood sample ~ 30µm Thickness (PEG 1500 used for sample embeding )
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Hi Nguyen, we remove the PEG 2000 by a few min storage in ethanol followed by a few minutes in  water. Dirk
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I have studied zero liquid discharge from paper and pulp industry and for that I need some literature.
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I don't know in India but in France there is one which produces board with recycled paper as raw material.
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How can one develop mixed effect models due to several factors such as geographic source, stand, trees and within trees. The final objective is to develop basic information towards developing a grading rule for international teak.
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You can use the suggestion of Downes et al. (1997). In this book, Downes suggest assess the variation radial and longitudinal in level of annual ring of trees growth. This book inform about the variation pattern of wood properties in special for paper and cellulose production.
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How are strength value(s) of a wood adhesive computed?
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thanks alot @Rafik
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Ambient and cryogenic temperatures are of interest. Known density is important.
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I have one value perpendicular to the grain from "A Heat Transfer Textbook," by Lienhard and Lienhard.
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Waht happen in wood   when Exposure of moisture .
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As I said before, shrinkage takes place with diminishing moisture content, as a consequence of the increase of cellulose internal bonds. When submitted to moisture, it can not regain the same degree of humidity, since water do not have sufficient energy to broke cellulose-cellulose bonds. The other components of wood do not suffer significant changes.
That is the answer to your question. May be you have to put it in another way if it is not what you want to know...
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If the wood shrinkage takes place below the fiber saturation point, why wood disks cut from freshly felled trees, still saturated, develop cracks?
Some colleagues think it is due to growth stress.
As the split occurs in transverse direction and growth stress takes place in longitudinal direction, I do not see how growth stress acts on this phenomenon.
The enclosed picture shows the kind of crack I am talking about. The disc shown in the Figure is dried, but I observed some green discs from young Eucalyptus trees presenting this type of crack after cutting.
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Its a very good question. Let me see if i can help you.
The shrinkage is not homogeneous. While the disk surface, due the contact with the external environmental, reach faster to below of the saturation point, the inner part still is near of the maximum moisture content. Due this delta, the surface shrinks while the middle not, starting the split in the weaker point of the tissue: rays parenchyma cells (if you have boundaries parenchyma type like jatobá, mahogany, etc. the split could be in that way).
The wood tissue have an great resistance to compression, flexion, and another others... but we can not say the same to split. In this way, the open newly surface by the split start to shrink in a different compass of the middle, generating an deeper split, occurring that again and again until we have an big crack.
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I'm looking for publication or researches of pinus sibirica wood. I interested of mechanical and physical properties.
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Thanks  you. 
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I am trying to coat wood using SF6/Argon cold-plasma with low-pressure (0.3 torr). My aim is to increase wood hydrophobicity. However, I always obtaining a hydrophilic surface. I used higher SF6 flow rates (50 sccm) and lower argon flow rates (5 sccm); different discharge times (5-10 min) and power levels (50-100W) but surface samples became fully wetted. 
Anyone have expertise in this topic?
Kind regards,
Pedro
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I think that use some numerical model to get some optimal parameters before performing an experiment if possible.
Comsol might help you to save time and resources.
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I am estimating total lignin in eucalyptus wood for that extraction of wood is recommended in TAPPI method. I started extraction of wood in soxhlet's apparatus using benzene ethanol mixture at temperature 50C and went upto 95C but after some of the liquid evaporates remaining liquid does not evaporates from the flask and I have also tried even higher temperature but ended up with same failure. 
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Dear Edwin, I recommend you use NREL procedures.
Best regards
Frantisek
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i need to the method for calculate acidity of wood particle and adhesive mixtures.
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I think you need to run titration for control sample (wood without adhesive) and then compare the results to your wood/adhesive mixture to see what happens.Having adhesive around (I think you will also have catalyst already with the adhesive) will be a challenge since for example the catalyst in adhesive can also produce acid (for example HCl in case of having NH4Cl as catalyst) which will be a strong acid and will  have effect on your titration graph and also the adhesive itself may have effect. 
This is the name of the pub that I mentioned above hope you can find it this time:
"Determination of dissociable groups in natural and regenerated cellulose fibers by different titration methods"
Thanks
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How can I recover lignin degradation products from wheat straw undergone solid state fermentation by fungi?
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CuO Oxidation in NaOH and liquid liquid extraction with ethyl acetate.  Derivatize with BSTFA before GC/MS analysis. 
The attached 1982 paper is the original method.  The 1992 paper highlights a number of additional lignin products that can be obtained with this method, which may help you to identify products of lignin degradation.  I also put up a link to my website which has a lot of distilled information about the method, equipment, compounds, data analysis etc.
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How to measure lignin or color from pulp wastewater ? Or if i used fenton reaction for removal lignin or color,how to measure lignin or color ?  Normally i use UV spectophotometer at 280 and 475 nm but i think it s not quite good and when time gone absorbance will more than starting value
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Lignin a complex polymer can be estimated as as Klason's acid insoluble lignin as described by Effland, 1977. The brief procedure is:
The wood or straw sample is dried at 80 degree Celsius in an oven. The dried straw containing the any biomass was thoroughly crushed in a pestle and mortar. This straw was again dried at 80oC and 200mg of it was taken in a wide mouth test tube (2cm diameter). To this sample, 3ml of 72% H2SO4 (v/v) was added to each tube and the tubes containing the sample were placed in a water bath preset at 30 Celsius for primary digestion of straw. The contents were continuously stirred with glass rod and after 1 hour, transferred to a flask. The volume was made upto 84ml with distilled water and the flasks containing residual samples were autoclaved at 10psi for one hour. The warm digest was then filtered via preweighed sintered glass crucible (or whatmann filter paper no 1). The crucible containing the acid insoluble lignin was washed with distilled water to remove acid from it. The same procedure was adopted for undegraded wheat straw controls. Capability of selective lignin degradation was ascertained by comparing the extent of loss in TOM with that of lignin loss. Percent lignin loss is based on the difference in amount of lignin in the uninoculated blank and the inoculated substrate.
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Thanks in advance for your replies.
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You can follow the NREL standard protocol to determine the biomass composition (lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose)
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and also, it's possible to made cross laminated timber from wood with 370-465 kg/m3 density.
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I agree with the very good answers that were already given. I will add that Glulam can be prepared so that it can bend and have architectural aesthetics as well as structural performance. 
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I am interested in doing CLT as my research. What kind of lab specification can be used?
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Our work found that the species of wood mattered most in relation to adhesive properties.  Ensuring that your bonding methods are solid, everything else should work.  I think this is an area that has yet to be explored.  Good luck.
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how can one pulp bamboo stem economically and eco friendly?
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If you do not have any protocol for bamboo, I suppose the you can use the same parameters as we use for polping wood. For 1 kg of dry wood (or bamboo), apply 100 g of Soda, 40 g of Sodium sulfide and complete with water the 4 liters of cooking liquor. Soda and Sodium sulfide and high temperature (160-170°C max) during 2,5 to 4 hours should works well. 
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The breakdown of cellulose and the formation of active cellulose with decomposition into char and gases has been known. However, the complex reactions into the formation of CO2 and water vapor with possible De-polymerization into 'volatiles' need to be applied to characterize the purity and efficiency of the application of the intermediates (obtained from pyrolysis) for other useful products. In our laboratory the intermediates obtained from pyrolysis of bamboo to produce activated carbon serve as waste. The knowledge of the reaction mechanisms of the process will help us to utilize the waste for useful products.
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Please find the attached file here. Hope it may help you.
Regard
Sandeep Kumar
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See above
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Hallo!
Dear Uthappa,
Other possibility is to apply micro-drilling technique, according the force during the drill it will be possible to estimate the density......Just check the micro-drilling....
Best regards
Vladi
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alkaline pre-treatment by using bases,such as NaOH, Ca(OH)2, KOH, and NH3.H2O, to remove lignin, hemicellulose, and/or cellulose, rendering
lignocellulosic biomass more degradable to microbes and enzymes. Alkaline treatment with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) has been extensively used in the pulp and paper industry, it is believed that the role of this pre-treatment consists in the saponification and cleavage of lignin-carbohydrate linkages by removal of crosslinks.
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Dear Doctor Shaban and Sunil
thank you for your oncern and valuable papers.
all my best regards
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I'm not sure if the process of tension wood formation will stop once teinsion wood has been formed or it's like as long as the tree is bending this process keeps running all the time. Your opinoins are very welcome.
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My results showed that the production of  tension wood starts immediately (within a few days) after bending stress.Trees  produce only sufficient amount of TW, till their straightness is recovered.
If bending  was continued thus the new straight growth would be in normal direction and TW production due to bending would stop.
This is not to forget the internal stresses of trees which lead to produce reaction wood even in straight trees. Some Genus are more susceptible like: Poplars and Eucalypts.
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It is a draft prEN standard so far I know, but I wonder when and if it will be harmonized and approved.
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Dear Pierre,
The status of prEN16351 "Timber structures - Cross laminated timber - Regulations" is still "under approval" (Committee CEN/TC 124). However, I know, that the approval process is being finalized. Maybe one of member of COST Action FP1402 could tell you more details (http://www.cost.eu/COST_Actions/fps/Actions/FP1402?management).
Best regards
Paweł
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I have found a high SO42- concentration in the soil where black locust trees are planted, and I think that is due to the S concentration of leaf litter, but I have not performed the analyzes on leaves.
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Some findings are in:
Kraszkiewicz A. 2009. Analysis of selected chemical properties of black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) wood and bark. Inzynieria Rolnicza. Nr 8 (117). s. 69-75
The content of sulfur in wood and the bark of trunks ( author 's own results)
The sulfur content in the wood trunks ranged from 0.02 to 0.11 g⋅kg -1 dm On average , the content
sulfur in the wood trunks was 0.06 g⋅kg - 1 S. M. The sulfur content in the bark of trunks was
1,10-1,80 g⋅kg - 1 S.M. (approximately 1.48 g⋅kg - 1 S.M. ) . It should be noted that the sulfur content
in the cortex was on average 37 times higher than in the wood.
All stands were considered equal age (35 - years) and were grown in similar
habitat conditions on the same piece of soil - sand and at
insufficient abundance of land in nutrients. differentiating factor
So it was an exhibition of the slope (N , SE and S) and the position stand on its slope
(top or bottom ) .
Tested black locust wood trunks in the dry state contained an average coal -