Science topic

Wireless Networks - Science topic

Wireless Networks are a wireless network refers to any type of computer network that is not connected by cables of any kind.
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Wireless network optimization.
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Hi,
Q-learning is suitable for a problem with a limited number of states and actions.
DQN, DDPG and SAC are more suitable for problems with many states and actions.
Kind regards
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We need to cover topics like WiFi, IoT, WSN, VANET, Ad hoc networks, LTE, 5G etc. Our plan is to use NetSim tool for the course. What may be the appropriate labs from a coursework perspective? 
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Prahlad Prabhu There are experiments for both under grad and graduate level. If you see the PDF manual www.tetcos.com/downloads/v13.2/NetSim_Experiment_Manual.pdf, the experiments are categorized as L1, L2 and L3 based on difficulty.
For projects and dissertations, you can see https://tetcos.com/file-exchange.html. This requires NetSim Standard version.
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Research Question
When observing the current scenario of the production plant of the automotive industry 4.0, all the machines and production equipment, the other technological innovations: IoT, AI, Big Data, Cloud, M. Learning etc, all connected by wireless networks and their sensors infrared and clusters operating in series, within the processes designed by the Engineering Center and by Logistica. In this scenario, it is necessary to ask:
a) In your opinion, are the activities performed there meeting the OHS conditions required by OSHA/ILO, not exposing employees to new and different occupational hazards in their tasks?
b) Within these new practices, systems, interpersonal relationships, new tasks and work processes, required of workers by the new technologies installed there, it is possible to identify new risk factors that show a relationship of danger, in this new work environment of Industry 4.0 ?
c) If the answer to item a) is POSITIVE, can you point out examples of safety item or condition at work, of these new tasks?
d) If the answer to item b) is POSITIVE, can you name and describe the new risk factors that you believe exist in the new environment?
e) In your opinion, do you believe that in Industry 4.0, there are better conditions for Occupational Health and Safety than in the old manufacturing industry?
f) What can you suggest to improve the current operational and safety conditions at work, in the industrial process 4.0?
Dears, I will be happy if you answer my questions for I increase my doctoral thesys studies. Thank you very much for all.
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On the basis of what we are currently seeing, poorly managed innovation is likely to cause disorganisation of production, which can lead to a deterioration in working conditions and an increase in occupational accidents and diseases. In this respect, I would tend to say that all occupational risks can be concerned.
However, given the relocation of many industrial activities to countries with low labour costs, productive activity has changed quite a bit in the so-called developed countries. As a result, musculoskeletal disorders and psychosocial risks, which have become largely dominant in terms of claims, are probably the most likely to experience strong increases.
However, one should also not overlook the fact that poorly organised automation also causes an increase in falls from the ground. Or that the increase in home delivery has an influence on the number of traffic accidents. For the time being, the phenomenon is not apparent in a country like France, but this is also because these tasks are now entrusted to independent workers who do not appear in the statistics.
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Hello dear
i have been reading a paper
'A Matching Game Approach for Resource Allocation in Wireless Network Virtualization'
that suggest a scenario which there is BS form infrastructure provider containing 10 subchannel with 180 KHz width, and the BS serve 3 virtual wireless network that contain 5 user and FDMA technology used. So, i wonder about how do subchannel distributed in virtual wireless network?
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Dear Tariq, you mentioned 10 subchannels, shouldn't the number of subchannels be a power of 2? Like 8, 16, 32,.....128,.....etc? I might be wrong so please check it. Regarding your question, do you ask about the subchannels distribution nature? as in terms of Rayleigh or Rician, or you meant allocation?
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Hello, I am looking for a topic for my Master's thesis in 5G, or SDN, or wireless network communications. It will be really great if I can get some suggestions.
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I believe this article can help you find inspiration. This is a Q1 journal about network communication and network architecture. It proposed an internet of things platform with p2p wireless communication, high speed, and security. It integrated with ION DID (based on blockchain) too. Finally, the source code is available on the GitHub link in this article.
BRs.
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Recently, a new term 'goal-oriented communications' has appeared especially, in the research on semantic communication for wireless networks. Is this basically another term for end-to-end communication? Or, there is more to this?
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Hi! This is the first of the topics that we talk about in the following podcast: https://youtu.be/LyIINgdVQ8Y
The short answer is that the communication of data and the use of that data within an application is co-optimized, so that we only communicate what is needed and measure performance of the communications based on the end-user application.
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Hey guys,
Please suggest the list of scopus list of journals for VLSI, Wireless networks and Wireless communications (Unpaid and paid)
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Hello venkataraman,
You can check the following link for free and fast publication of scopus journals.
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I am simulating a wireless network (working at 2GHz), but I found some works in literature that ignore the small-scale fading with respect to large-scale fading,
so in which cases / conditions can I ignore small-scale and multipath fading and concentrate at large-scale only?
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Many current systems use wide bandwidths and multi-antenna techniques that jointly offer enough diversity against small-scale fading that the end performance is roughly what you would get without fading.
My point is that small-scale fading is important when designing channel estimation protocols, precoding/combining schemes, and other things that need to change at the per-channel-realization basis. But if one does those things properly, then the system performance will be roughly the same as without fading.
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Dear researchers;
I am looking for a simulator that gives me the ability to generate a heterogeneous wireless network environment composed of radio access technologies, such as 3G, 4G, 5G, Wifi, etc.
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This reference [1] says that "The maximum EIRP is regulated to be 43 dBm for mobile stations (MSs) by the FCC" which means about 20 watt. But normal simulators are usually using less than 10 watt transmission power for UE, so is there a common range for the EIRP for experimental use?
[1] Huo, Yiming, Xiaodai Dong, and Wei Xu. "5G cellular user equipment: From theory to practical hardware design." IEEE Access 5 (2017): 13992-14010.
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The question was for 5G at the time as I was just beginning to explore this field.
Thanks for your interest.
Best regards
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Hello experts,
you all are doing good I hope?
Please I need a researchable topic in the area of
(1) COGITIVE RADIO TECHNOLOGY
(2) SPECTRUM MANAGEMENT
(3) DATA SECURITY OR THREAT MANAGEMENT IN WIRELESS NETWORK
Thanking you in advance.
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IoT or data storing schemes for sensors
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Network segmentation reduces attack surface by blocking an attacker in a certain portion of the network. How can I measure the reduction of attack surface after applying segmentation either mathematically or through simulation? Much appreciate your suggestions. Thanks
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You can achieve your goal by using Gns 3 simulation and MATLAP
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Hello, i am searching for some new innovation points in 6G about networking slice recently.
I want to know what updates will be made to network slicing in 6G, which cannot do well in 5G.
(Maybe about architectures, methodologies, algorithms, and combination with other 6G new technologies.)
Can you recommend me some good ideas, innovation points or papers( and white papers), thank you.
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Dear Zhenkang Zheng,
the future virtual 6G networks in the form of 6G slices will definitely be set up as "Software-Defined and Open Programmable 6G Slices". The idea of SRv6 Network Programming as the basic principles for the programmability of 6G slices is specified in the Internet Standard RFC 8986.
I have attached a short list of sources of information.
Best regards and good luck
Anatol Badach
European Vision for the 6G Network Ecosystem; DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.5007671
Petar D. Bojović, Teodor Malbasic, Goran Martić, Zivko Bojovic: „Toward 6G networks: Dynamic management for multi-slice QoS“
Wen Wu, Conghao Zhou, Mushu Li, Huaqing Wu, Haibo Zhou, Ning Zhang, Xuemin (Sherman) Shen, Weihua Zhuang: AI-Native Network Slicing for 6G Networks
Amin Shahraki, Mahmoud Abbasi, Md. Jalil Piran, Amir Taherkordi: „A Comprehensive Survey on 6G Networks: Applications, Core Services, Enabling Technologies, and Future Challenges“
European Vision for the 6G Network Ecosystem
Jie Dong: SRv6 based Network Slicing
Gaps, features and enablers for 5G/6G service management and orchestration
RFC 8986: Segment Routing over IPv6 (SRv6) Network Programming
SRv6 – IPv6 Segment Routing Figure 009239: Basic idea of SRv6 Network Programming
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Please, l need help on how to research the topic
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Dear Vicky,
There exist many Research Areas Topics for Wireless Networking, such as:
1- For computer science as well as Communication Engineering researchers:
  • Wireless Networking: Interference Cancellation for Coexistence, and Machine Learning for Adaptation. ...
  • Wireless Security: Automatic Trust Establishment. ...
  • Security and Privacy in Dynamic Spectrum Sharing. ...
  • Security and Privacy Protection of Data Collection and Analysis.
2- For Communication Electronics (Physical layer) researchers:
  • physical layer technologies such as
  • Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) systems (Antenna-oriented)
  • Multiple heterogeneous multi-hop networks
  • Interference cancellation (IC),
  • Novel Digital modulation techniques and Bandwidth efficiency
  • LiFi
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I am submitting my Ph.D. Thesis entitled "Vertical Handoff Mechanisms for Heterogeneous Wireless Network " to one of the universities in India. I need to submit the list of  Adjudicators in the wireless network domain. Kindly let me know if any examiner is available in wirless domain
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Yes foreign adjucators are very usual for thesis examination . But I think that you should approach through your Ph.D asupervisors / guide . If the name they suggest are also present in RG very well !
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Software Defined Wireless Network (SDWN) now days allow central controlling of wireless network, can this technique replaces the working of other networks (e.g. AdHoc, Mesh, ... etc) in only single principle called SDWN?
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welcome!
The college Anatol Badach brought a figure demonstrating the definition of the software defined networks.
Software defined network is a technology of implementing the network.
It is so that the hardware physical layer devices are substituted by programmable devices such as field programmable gate arrays and digital signal processing in addition to special processors as well as general purpose processor.
The technology started with the socalled software defined radio SDR and then extended to SDWN.
This technology adopts very well to the rapid advancements in the communication networks. While the satdards can be changed and modified, the signal processing platform remains the same.
It is a change in the building methodology of the communication devices and Networks.
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Physical layer security has emerged to secured the IOT and future wireless networks. Recently, the idea of using an intelligent reflective surface(IRS) located between transmitting and receiving devices to create a “tunable” propagation environment. Can IRS be used to enhance the PLS?
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As pointed out by Alexandros-Apostolos A. Boulogeorgos and Emil Björnson , IRS can enhance PLS. I attended a conference recently where we discussed the same concept.
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Example:
First situation: The first protocol is more efficient than the second protocol. Then the user uses the first protocol.
Second situation: The second protocol is more efficient than the first one. Then the user uses the second protocol.
Is that possible?
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Yes, that might be possible. For example, a system might support grant-based (conventional random access followed by scheduling) and grant-free access (opportunistic data transmission without formal scheduling).
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I am try to build a system model where intelligent reflecting surface is used to enhance the receiver's SNR depending on the position of the receiver.
Based on what I read, a signal is scattered at the atom level and constructive/ destructive superposition is used to direct the signal to a certain user. My question is: Can the signal be directed to a user behind the IRS?
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Sure, if two users are located in the same angular direction but at different distances, the reflected beam can be partially directed to both of them. You can find an example of this on Figure 10 of https://arxiv.org/pdf/2002.04960.pdf
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Noma is the best technic used the performance 5G and beyond what are the fumes problem and what is the methods can I use to get results
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welcome!
The multiple accessing techniques can be classified into orthogonal and nonorthogonal ones. The orthogonal techniques has theoretically zero interference if they perfectly orthogonal. In case of NOMA the signals are assigned different powers with the weak channel having the larger power.
The channel must be strictly known. Successive interference cancellation is use to determine the signal with highest power with all other signals considered as noise. So, it may be that the interference level is greater than the orthogonal methods. According to the Shannon when the noise increases keeping the signal level the same the spectral density will be smaller.
Fortunately, the matter is not the nonorthogonal versus the orthogonal but the nonorthogonal add one degree of freedom to the multiple accessing technique. Then by exploiting the NOMA one can add additional resources to the available resources. However these resources are limited by method of the detection and the accurate determination of the channel characteristics. Practically the number of power levels are limited because of such detection method. May be the practical number of levels is not greater than 2.
The most convinced platform is the matlab/simulink. You can start by a recent publication on the application of NOMA with MIMO systems as hinted by Emil Björnson
Best wishes
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Hi, How can we calculate the entropy of  chaotic signals? Is there a simple method or formula for doing this?
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Can someone help me to realize the basic concept of user power allocation for a wireless heterogenous OFDM network where there is a macro cell and inside it some femto cells. What is the basic procedure involved here for choosing base stations and power allocation of a mobile user to ensure maximum Spectral Efficiency(SE)?
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It depends on the power allocation algorithm.
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I am looking for a wireless network simulator to test a query classification algorithm.
I have already tested NS-2 (https://ns2simulator.com/ns2-download/), It's very complicated
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TOSSIM is simple and efficient simulator which is based on nesC (Network Embedded Systems
GLomoSIM
UWSIM
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Geometry Based Stochastic Channel Modelling or Spatial Channel Modeling (SCM) methods such as:
- 3GPP-SCM, SCM-E
- Winner (I and II)
- QuaDRiGa
produce channel coefficients as a matrix H (may on path or at time) between transmitter and receiver antennas.
Then H associated with CSI matrix. But CSI of real channel assume several components (CQI - SNR, PMI, RI). Also, it is referred sometimes as a matrix of complex numbers (gain and phase)...
How generated channel coefficients are related with CSI?
How Channel State Information (CSI) could be obtained from matrix generated by Spatial Channel Modeling?
Where can I read about it?
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H matrix always includes only the complex channel coefficients between transmitter and receiver antennas. Channel models (spatial, stochastic, or deterministic) try to estimate that matrix.
CSI, on the other hand, is the set of information that the receiver calculates using that real H matrix coefficients. It measures SNR, determines the correct precoder matrix, rank, layer, etc. based on the network's algorithm, and reports to the transmitter with their corresponding indicators in a CSI reporting.
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A wireless network consisting of two UEs (A & B) and an eNB. The eNB transmits control information to UE A through PDCCH. Can UE B also decode this information? Or is it permissible for UE B to decode the information?
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DCI's CRC will be scrambled with C-RNTI. So it is not possible for UE B to decode other UE's DCI. DCI's scrambled by all UE's reside in Common Search Space. UE Specific Search space contains DCI's belong to particular UE.
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Dear researchers,
Let's share our opinion about recent attractive topics on communication systems and the potential future directions.
Thanks.
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FANET
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IoT/LPWAN User Survey Link: https://lnkd.in/dVdK-ea
-----------------
Dear Sir/Madam, We are surveying the use of Low-Power Wide-Area Network (LPWAN) technologies (e.g., LoRa, SigFox, NB-IoT) for the Internet of Things (IoT) solutions for Smart Cities and Transportation Systems. If you or your organization has relevant experience/practices in deploying LPWAN technology, we appreciate you can help take this survey on LPWAN applications. The survey is part of a research project sponsored by VDOT. We greatly appreciate if you can complete the survey by August 14, 2020. Thank you very much. ----------------- Thank you for your help in completing the survey!
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I do not know anything about LPWAN
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I am doing a research in wireless networks trying to use SDN to provide network resiliency I have simulated the network in mininet-wifi I want to be able to use controller to control AP 802.11 parameters like TX power Tx range now I want to know which SDN controller fits for this scenario
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See my paper: Article Controller selection in software defined networks using best...
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I need to know the new the network techniques that provide fast video or image transmission
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Video transmission over wireless networks is considered the most interesting application in our daily life nowadays. This kind of application needs large bandwidth, efficient routing protocols, and content delivery methods to provide smooth video playback to the receivers. I hope you will benefit from this research paper
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In rural or urban areas where home density is very low, the prohibitive cost of trenching cables across the countryside often leaves remote areas with poor or nonexistent broadband Internet connections. Now we are thinking about how to overcome this problem using a significant solution.
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I think hybrid system RF/FSO consider a good option.
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Can anyone provide change in code for ETT as a metric when we simulate RPL PROTOCOL in CONTIKI OS
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Nice Dear C K Gomathy
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What is the difference between path planning and trajectory optimization for UAVs or UAV-enabled wireless networks? Is that similar to the difference between the route planning and the routing design for a wireless ad hoc networks? I need someone to help me to answer this question. Many thanks.
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Nice Contribution C K Gomathy
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Suppose there is a mobile device at the edge of a cell of a 5G wireless network which has a weak channel with the base station. The edge user can utilize relay assisted D2D communications proposed for 5G. Assume the edge user broadcast a call and expect it to reach at least one neighboring relay. How can the reliability of the broadcast call reaching at least one neighboring relay be mathematically modeled for 5G by taking 3GPP standards into consideration?
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Could you check my papers, reply to your question Vishaka Basnayake
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How can we mathematically model the reliability of a multicast or broadcast data reaching a neighboring relay?
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Hello Vishaka Basnayake , thanks. On researchgate we tend to click "recommend" on the answer of use, it helps people see what helps and what helps less.
Keep me posted on your investigation... You have an interesting question indeed
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Dear all. I want to synchronize 2 or more clocks in wide range wireless network (>1km) with sub-nanosecond accuracy. In my case, GPS synchronization is not sufficient to get sub-ns accuracy. I look for techniques or ideas with easy implementation. Thank you in advance.
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Dear Ait,
welcome!
The proposal which i hinted in my second post will enable you to measure the delay time between the master node and slave nodes. The basic idea is to use signal like the GPS one to estimate the transmission delay.
You have a specific problem and it needs investigation to concept the system and implement it within the scope of the existing systems.
Best wishes
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Does any one know if there is any work has been done on Self organizing 5G wireless Networks ?
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How to find the distance distribution of a random point in a cluster from the origin? I have uniformly distributed cluster heads following the Poisson point process and users are deployed around the cluster head, uniformly, following the Poisson process. I want to compute the distance distribution between a random point in the cluster and the origin. I have attached the image as well, where 'd1', 'd2', and 'theta' are Random Variables. I want to find the distribution of 'r'.
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It gets a bit messy algebraically, but I recommend that you transform your three random variables (d_1, d_2, theta) into three new variables (r, r_c, phi_1). the variable "r" is computed using the Law of Cosines, r_c is just d_2 and phi_1 is the angle formed between r and d_2. Using the Law of Sines, we have
d_1 / sin(phi_1) = d_2 / sin(phi_2).
phi_2 is the angle between r and d_1.
Realizing that phi_2 = pi - theta - phi_1, we can eliminate phi_2 from the Law of Sines and after some messy manipulation, find phi_1 as a function of d_1, d_2 and theta.
You then construct the Jacobian matrix d(r, rc, phi_1)/d(d_1, d_2, theta). The transformed PDF is given by
p(r, rc, phi_1) = p(d_1, d_2, theta) * det(J)^{-1}
where det(J) is the determinant of the Jacobian J.
The PDF for r requires you to integrate out the rc, phi_1 variables:
p(r) = int(p(r, rc, phi_1)*det(J)^{-1} d.rc d.phi_1)
Hope this helps,
Cheers!
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The algorithms for different offloading schemes in wireless networks 
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Thank you sir
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I would like to know the standard procedure of initiating a call from a mobile device to another device (D2D ) directly without the support of a cellular network operator link. I need the details of the establishing the D2D communication initially, what are the factors that should be fulfilled to establish the D2D communication.
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hello, dear Vishaka Basnayake,
I studied your question.
I think your problem with direct call flow between D2D initiate in a mobile cellular wireless network.
please see an attached link, maybe it will be useful for this mean.
thanks
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Dear Experts,
I am researching on the performance of a simultaneous wireless information and power transfer technique (SWIFT) on a cellular Network and would appreciate latest researches and simulation tools on the topic.
Thanks.
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Hello dear please see below-attached link: please click on Recommend on my reply. Thanks
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I need help plz, anybody can help me to find a good master thesis topic in the field of computer science/IT.
The topic related to improving wireless network performance/security using one of Artificial intelligence techniques.
any help would be appreciated
thank you in advance
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Read the documents produced by ITU-T-FG-NET2030 (Networks by 2030). Several use cases refer to AI for the management of advanced network features.
Another source is ETSI-ISG-NFV (network function virtualisation) where AI might help manage complexity beyond human (control layer).
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Where can I find a post disaster dataset containing:
- wireless network infomation regarding citizens (network services used, size of each data package transmited, delay, timestamp and location)
- first responders location and communication information (timesatamp, size of each data package transmited, delay, type of communications, etc... )
- location of damaged network insfrastrutures/cells
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The emergency services and first respondents definitely archive their data. They are the ones to contact, in every country/location.
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I am doing a simple channel estimation using Least squares algorithm in a SISO system using QAM modulation.
I am new to this and I do not know what kind of results I have to plot.
I wrote a Matlab code which estimates channel using Least squares algorithm and plots the average mean square error between original channel and estimated coefficients Versus the SNR.
I am attaching the Matlab code and the plot for your reference. Kindly let me know what kind of results that I have to plot.
Ready to give more details if you want.
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Dear Balaji,
As the colleagues hinted this is the performance characteristics which you have to obtain to judge the effectiveness of the channel estimation algorithm.
It would be also useful if you use other estimation algorithms for sake of comparison and getting confidence in your results.
May be an other important performance parameters is to determine the bit error rate versus the S/N ratio as this will be the ultimate goal of the estimation accuracy.
Best wishes
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I have a problem with the modem (D-link). When you set up the modem, I connect normally, but after a few time, the Wi-Fi network is disconnected and when I try to re-enter in the network, it does not want to enter even, though the password is correct. Note: The net is affected on the cable normally
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Enter the settings option to set again the previois data of the router or reboot the router again.
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I am trying to insert new block in the given example but I am getting error, don't know how to rectify those errors, need help regarding the same.
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In 0.1 - 10 THz regime, how to reduce the path loss?, what are issues associated with path loss?
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As said by Zahed Hossain you should not select THz frequencies for wireless communication that have high water vapor absorption. In addition to wise selection of THz frequencies and high gain antennas you can overcome high pathloss penality by beamforming with ultra-massive MIMO antennas.
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What features can be extracted and used to perform an eavesdropping detection in a wireless network ?
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If the eavesdropper is passive, it will be hard if not impossible to detect it.
When a signal is transmitted, it will arrive to many wireless receivers (e.g., mobile phones) in the surroundings. These will typically disregard the signals, but if they decide to actually decode the signal, we can't detect it.
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Hi I am looking for an answer about the coordination and cooperation.
When I read article on Cooperation, its means sharing the same data among the multiple nodes to enhance reliability.
And when I read about coordination, that is bring all nodes together to do the same task.
Can you please tell me the difference?
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Let me take example from my work. In cooperative sensing, all nodes sense the channel to know that it is busy or idle and then these nodes send their own results to the base station. Then base station applies the N OUT of K rule and disseminate the results. In this case nodes are cooperating to base station for sensing but do not require coordination among themselves to do so because they are sensing independently.
I hope it is clear now.
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during my day to day I could appreciate how the intensity of the wifi networks are altered because of the existence of other networks, here is my question because I want to know if. Is there any kind of interference between wireless networks?
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Interference occurs whenever two rf signal with the same frequency exist at the same time in the same space. In fact the interference is an important issue in wireless communications. The major cause is that the electromagnetic waves are spreading to fill the space in which they propagate. Therefore there are strict frequency allocation and division among the different services. There are licensed bands and unlicensed bands such as the ISM bands. If your system is working in ISM band it will be more subjected to interference.
There is also activities which may produce electromagnetic switching such as power switching stations for the underground trains.
Nowadays there is the connective radio which has the capability to sense the existing active frequencies and choose a vacancy to transmit its signals.
Radio sensing is becoming an important task in wireless communication to detect the radio activities in a specific location.
Best wishes
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Deadline JUNE 30 2019
REFER ATTACHMENT or visit url http://www.tencon2019.org/SS10.pdf
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Deadline extended to July 15...Hurry!!Papers invited for IEEE tencon 2019.Special session-Artificial Intelligence for wireless Networks.
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MATLAB 5G TOOLBOX
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Most of the software packages published so far covers special scenarios which make the work for research is strict. From my experience I found it is easier to propose the scenario and write the mat lab code which enables you to make the necessary changes. You can track my work through the papers attached.
Prof. S. EL-Rabaie
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See above
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May be a late answer but the attached file has some code and documentation is available in the pdf file at https://tetcos.com/pdf/v11.1/Primary-User-Emulation-PUE-Attack-Cognitive-Radio-v11.1.pdf
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Wireless network will reduce production cost of mother boards and will be faster in response
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hi Narula
Wireless Network vs Wired Network: Advantages and Disadvantages
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I clarified the speed and transmission range of my nodes in TCL code and I need to include their values in my C++ code too. Is there any body who can help with this issue?
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Hello All friends , I have qustion please i have 10 nodes in my TCL script , I want to make node neighbor for ever node 3 how made that please ,
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Recently , Deep-learning and AI techniques have received more attention as a key enabler for future 5G and beyond wireless networks.
Do you have any ideas about what 5G problems this technology can be used to solve them.
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At present strong-AI is not yet invented, in fact it may be 10-more-years before the theory is fully developed so that practical applications in technology are possible. Consequently I don't see any possible applications to improve 5G, currently, and will likely be at least 10-years in future. By that time, 5G will be obsolete, and we will have moved to more advanced systems.
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for single relay , theoretical BER is = 0.5*(1- (g/(1+g))^H/2).
g= SNR ( say same for each hop) . g= (mod(h))^2 *E/N ; H= no of hops
as per the published paper- ' End-to-End Average BER in Multihop Wireless Networks over Fading Channels ' in that paper, simulatin result is same (100% same result)as this mathematical expression.
but when I am trying to implementing it in MatLab , result is not nearly same.( difference in BER= 0.01 max) but not exactly same.. why?
can anyone send me Matlab Code for Decode and Forward simulation of cooperative scheme??
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Both the formulas are correct. Note that
  • received signal = transmitted signal * fading coefficient + noise
  • SNR = (transmitted signal power * channel gain)/noise power
So when you write
y = sqrt(P) * h * X + sqrt(N0/2).* (randn(1,1) + 1i * randn(1,1 )),
this means that
  • "sqrt(P)" is the energy of the transmitted signal, "h" is the channel coefficient, "X" is the transmitted symbol with "E(|X|^2) = 1", i.e., mean power of the transmitted symbol is unity.
  • randn(1,1) gives you a zero-mean Gaussian random variable with unit variance (power). Now for non-binary modulations, since your transmitted symbol may be a complex number, both your channel coefficient and noise should be samples from a complex process. Therefore "(randn(1,1) + 1i * randn(1,1 ))" returns a sample from complex white-Gaussian process. Note that the mean of each "randn(1,1)" is zero and the variance is 1. Therefore the overall variance of "(randn(1,1) + 1i * randn(1,1 ))" is 2 and in order to normalize it, we multiply this with "sqrt(1/2)". In this manner the power of "sqrt(1/2) * (randn(1,1) + 1i * randn(1,1 ))" becomes 1. Now in order to scale it properly according to the required SNR, you further multiply this with "sqrt(N0)".
Hence if you calculate the SNR for
y = sqrt(P) * h * X + sqrt(N0/2).* (randn(1,1) + 1i * randn(1,1 ))
you have
SNR = signal power / noise power
= power of (sqrt(P) * h * X) / power of (sqrt(N0/2).* (randn(1,1) + 1i * randn(1,1 )))
= P / N0,
because "h" is simulated in such a manner that E(|h|^2) = 1, and E(|X|^2) = 1. Note that this is the average SNR (the instantaneous SNR will be different because |h|^2 is not equal to 1).
Now in your equation
y1=sqrt(p1).*h_sr.*s1+sqrt(noise_p1).*n_sr,
I presume that "n_sr" is a zero-mean, unit-variance complex Gaussian process. So
noise_p1=p./SNR_lin = p./(p./N0) = N0
is the same as the other equation.
Hope this answers your query.
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we come to generation that subcarriers are no longer orthogonal to each other. here the different parameters such as amplitude, frequency and phase will change for each subcarrier. by using cognitive radio the spread spectrum is reduced. GFDM plays a major role here. im looking for an MATLAB code or LABVIEW code to analyze this. 
anyone related to this work, kindly reply 
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you can search the Matlab Community (File Exchange) or request from 5gnow project
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To get ouput graphs I need to generate vector and scalar graphs but can't find any way to do it. Only an event log file is generated.
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how can i generate PDR vs distance graph in mixim omnet++ i have scalar and vector files also Atta ur Rehman Khan Pankhuri Singh
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Hello Friends,
I am looking for a open source software, which can allow me to monitor the parameters of a wireless network.
1. Serving Cell RSRP, RSRQ & SINR.
2. Neighbor Cells RSRP.
3. CQI reported from the device.
4. Allocated MCS.
Best Regards,
Maulik Oza
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Hi, I am using MiXim and I need to calculate the throughput for 802.15.04 narrow network. Can anyone tell me how can I calculate this metric?
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I want also to calculate throughput and delay for 802.15.4 please any one here provide me the suggestions how to do this.
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I am interested in calculating transmission power in case of underwater sensor networks. I am calculating the transmit power as follows. Kindly suggest if my calculation is right. Moreover also suggest whether the values i am using i.e values for bandwidth, spreading etc are correct.
Absorption and transmission loss models for underwater sensor networks are given as follows.
absorption=10^((0.11*f^2/(1+f^2))+44*f^2/(4100+f^2))+2.75*10^(-4)*f^2+0.003))/10);
TL=(d^spreading)*(absorption^d); % d denotes distance btween transmitter and receiver
Where the Power in dB and power in watts is calculated as follows
AcousticPower=NoisePDF*TL*Bandwidth*TargetSNR;
TX_Power_in_watts=(AcousticPower*10^(-17.2))/circuitefficiency;
The following values are being used.
f=25; %Khz
Bandwidth=1;
spreading=1.5;
TargetSNR=15.4120;
NoisePDF=10;
PWreception=1; (kindly suggest if the value for reception power level(PWreception) is correct or not)
Best Regard
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There are some errors in your formulations:
1. While calculating the TL, in the (absorption^d) expression, d should be km instead of meters.
2. Noise PDF can be approximated as 50-18*log10(f) where f in kHz.
3. Acoustic Power calculation is wrong due to the misleading usage of dB and ordinary scale.
4.PWreception depends on the modem platform that you are using. For WHOI Micromodem, PWreception is 1-3 Watts.
I suggest you to check the following two papers.
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Exact framework for designing a medium access control (MAC) protocol in Cognitive Radio Networks(CRN)
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Dear Avinash Avuthu ,
I think following link will give you an idea to develop your own MAC design and implementation using NS-3. I hope surely this link will provide you an answer
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The MIMO employed extensively in the current wireless network which illustrates the high throughput and bandwidth effectiveness. In the OFDMA and MIMO techniques, the significant function is
scheduling and resource allocation among the numerous users.
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Area throughput is one of the best metric describing the efficiency of overall deployment.
As such, it depends upon what you are looking for, I mean, whether you are looking for energy efficiency or spectral efficiency or in terms of implementation complexity as these are the typical trade-offs involved in designing practical wireless systems.
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Any differences between spectrum access protocols and medium access protocols
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I think spectrum access protocol is a special case of medium access protocol. Medium access protocol can be accomplished also by time division multiple accessing, code division multiple accessing, space division multiple accessing and frequency division multiple accessing which is spectrum access protocol.
Best wishes
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As Time moves us towards the 5G Wireless Network...Needs Solution for Low Cost Technology for its Implementation.
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Existing 4G infrastructure means macrocells and channel frequencies in the 700 MHz to 2 GHz region, more or less (technically, UHF), and LTE in the radio layer. There's probably nothing to absolutely prevent someone to deploy something they call "5G" with these constraints, but there's also not much improvement you can expect, compared with 4G.
5G is supposed to offer a big increase in the aggregate bandwidth per cell. And while not all of the innovative techniques need to be present in every implemenation, 5G is looking into such new techniques as FBMC instead of OFDM, mm waves instead of the UHF band, massive MIMO instead of MIMO, very large channel bandwidths instead of 20 MHz, and as a consequence of these innovations, very short range in the RF layer, and at least a 10X improvement in the aggregate capacity of each cell. Also, short latencies, although that has more to do with the max distance to servers than anything else. Still, for 5G to be different, you should expect very small cells, compared with typical 4G macrocells.
My contention is simple. Marketing types can claim that their new scheme is "5G," even if none of the above innovations are present, but then again, they might as well stay with 4G labeling. After all, 4G can also support small cells, typically for indoor use, and carrier aggregation to 80 MHz, 160 MHz, and so on. What 4G doesn't do that makes 5G truly different is to move way up in the RF frequencies. If you have to stay with the 4G infrastructure, I'm not sure what significant improvements you can expect, compared with 4G.
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So far I've simulate only wired networks on Opnet modeler (Academic Version 17.5) and that too 10BaseT Duplex Link. Now I want to simulate wireless network (zigbee or wi-fi), is it possible to do this on the above mentioned version ?
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To the best of my knowledge, the cost associated with a wireless link following the ZigBee standard is calculated using the below formula.
C(l)= min(7, round(1/p(l)4) )
where p(l) is probability of successful packet delivery over the wireless link l.
The paper "Wireless Sensor Network With Perpetual Motes for Terrestrial Snail Activity Monitoring (http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/abstract/document/7954581/)" calculates it using the below formula.
p(l) = 1 - ((0.8/radio range) * distance between two nodes + rand (-0.1, 0.1))
Is it a correct way to obtain p(l) ?
Otherwise, how to obtain the probability of successful packet delivery (p(l) ) in the simulations?
Any help is highly appreciated. Thank you in advance.
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It depends on the probability distribution or randomness of signal strength of the packets which is caused by medium of propagation. It also depends on the Signal to noise ratio (SNR). For high SNR, the minimum signal strength should be high.
I think you may try the normrnd(mu,sigma) function to generate a random variable with normal probability distribution and add this to your generated signal strength of packets. Then you may consider a minimum SNR below which the packet will not be considered as delivered. Thanks
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The frequency of data sampling differs in commonly used mechanism such as uniform, nonuniform, random, event-triggered etc. Less frequent sampling saves energy. How do we compare energy consumption of different sampling mechanism for a particular topology in a multi-agent system?
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Dear Samira Eshghi,
I suggest you to see links and attached files in topic.
- Agent and Multi-Agent Systems: Technologies and Applications: 4th ...
- Accurate Household Occupant Behavior Modeling Based on Data ...
- Innovations in Computing Sciences and Software Engineering
- A Multi-Agent-Based Intelligent Sensor and Actuator Network ... - MDPI
Best regards
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It has been recently claimed that D2D communication in LTE-A (Rel 12+) will establish direct communication with the device in its proximity (UE) and can have many potential advantages e.g., increased network spectral efficiency, energy efficiency, reduced transmission delay, offloaded traffic for BS and less congestion in cellular core network. In contrast, there are various anticipated challenges, for example Device discovery. D2D session setup, D2D resource allocation, D2D MIMO transmission and D2D-aided BS deployment in HetNets (Heterogeneous Networks).
Keeping this in view, can somebody shed light on possible differences between D2D communication and existing wireless transmission techniques such as WiFi Direct, Bluetooth, UWB? How is it different than these existing ones?
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I think the main issue here for D2D communication is the interference management. It is correct that the devices in D2D can directly communicating in similar way as other Ad hoc wireless networks. But there is one major difference here, that in D2D the communication can be performed under the control of the network. The signalling of D2D communication is still controlled by the network, therefore, it is possible to select for example the subbands or time of transmission in order to manage the interference levels with the Up/Down links of the network. The network also observe the quality of communication and the packets could be redirected over the the network if needed. This could enhance the reliability of the system.
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Hello Everyone,
could anyone specially Lecturer/Lab Engineer tell me
Which OS is best for NS3 that suits best for students to hand on NS3.
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I will suggest ubuntu 14.04 or later version....and great text editor like sublime text
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I request to add some journal titles that are giving first decision in 1-2 months positively. Thanks in advance.
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This Journal is fast and listed on scopus database
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in Mobile wireless networks, is there an equation that connects the path loss for specific modulation and coding scheme (MCS) and specific distance between Tx and Rx with the packet delivery ratio or the probability of packet delivery?
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As for the link budget you can formulate it in an equation as:
Pr= Prad At Lp Ar , where Pr in watts is the received power at the output of the receive antenna, Prad in watts is the radiated power from the transmit antenna, At the transmit antenna power gain factor , Ar is the receive antenna power gain factor and Lp is the path loss as a power loss factor.
The receiver equivalent input noise N= kTB , where kT is the thermal energy and B is the bandwidth of the receiver.
So, one can get the signal to noise ratio S/N of the link as Pr/ N,
So in order to get the link capacity C which is required by you, then one can use the Shanon expression as proposed by the respected colleagues Albert as
C = B log2 (1+ Pr/N) = Blog2(1+ Prad At Lp Ar/N)
Which is the requested relation in an explicit form.
Best wishes
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To detect anomalies in wireless network we created a wireless network in ns3. Now we want to create attack for that network.
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Which simulator is better to simulate D2D communication in LTE networks ?
Thanks.
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Trust me,
You can not rely on the answers here.
Every one is talking about his/her favorite simulator based on his experience and background.
You can see always a conflicting answers in this regard.
You need to quickly test both first.
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  • I want to know what is precoding exactly and why it is required. What is the relation between PMI and RI for next generation wireless networks?
  • What is codebook?
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How can I use cooperative spectrum sensing to eliminate primary user emulation attacks in cognitive radio networks using energy detection?
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