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Wildlife Management - Science topic

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Dear Peers
I am looking for the literature about wildlife management in different countries. I desire to compare them with Indian system and find out strengths and weaknesses to have comprehensive management plan. Therefore, it is a humble request to you all that please provide me the relevant paper or references, if you can. Thanking you in anticipation.
_jha
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Specific ecosystems with environments will often require different approaches. However their protection is often consistent in this world of poorly planned development, exploitation and pollution.
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Aware that managed breeding is still a controversial issue, I believe that one conservation endeavor should not discard the other or worse, antagonize the other based on personal opinion or theoretical discipline gain. In situ and ex situ have both proven to be necessary to avoid extinction of critically endangered species.
I could cite several examples but one should be representative for all: the Arabian Oryx (Oryx leucoryx). Extinct in the wild but some individuals breeding in Zoological Parks. Today the Arabian Oryx is reintroduced successfully in former range areas and numbers in the wild are increasing. Why leave managed breeding as "the last resource"? And when is the time to put in action "the last resource"?
There are conservationists who cannot tolerate the extinction of a species for anthropogenic causes and believe that intervening on specific species is a responsibility. There are others who consider a species better extinct than detached from its habitat, even partially. Discussion can go on forever…but no one can ascertain the future of our Planet with 100% certainty and state which solution is the best.
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There is a problem with this question. Conservation does not need to be binary and by having these terms in-situ and ex-situ can limit ones thinking. A fertile area of conservation is the area at the interface of these terms. Many free-living populations of animals are now managed using techniques that would typically be used to manage captive animals. Hence Kakapo are managed on islands that they have been put on and many species are given additional food or provided with safe nesting sites, such as nest-boxes.
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Would like to conduct a detailed study into vulture diversity, abundance, population density and movement patterns on the endangered Hooded vulture within Ghana as well as current threats that are leading to its reported population decline within the range. I would very much appreciate papers on similar studies and pointers on properly designing the study as well as possible funding sources. Thanks
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I wrote this same answer on another question. I dont know exactly how this methodology works, but it seams to be quite interesting. "Yula Kapetanakos a scientist at Cornell University uses a different approach to census vulture populations. You can check further information here: https://www.allaboutbirds.org/news/decoding-feathers-for-cambodian-vulture-conservation/ "
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i want to study problems of rehabilitated people because of Tiger reserve in western ghat. is there any literature or research papers related to this issue. plz suggest
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See the attached and first think about the future aspect of this work.
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I am a looking for feedback in terms of reliability, lifespan, drop-off possibilities, user friendly interface of the website and possibility for the stakeholders to check the data of a single animal. 
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I have worked with both lotek iridium and vectronics argos, all worked well in the field, over 85% tranmission rate in steppe mountains. Lotek drop off worked well
When refurbished, did not work well
Mohammad
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I am conducting some seed predation research and want a rough estimation of the local abundance of mammals. I have been suggested that scat counting is a relatively easy way to obtain such an approximation.
I have already identified the paper by Birks et al. (ARE SCAT SURVEYS A RELIABLE METHOD FOR ASSESSING DISTRIBUTION AND POPULATION STATUS OF PINE MARTINS) but I was wondering if anyone knew of any studies that used this method?
What about the use of plots to determine the density of scats?
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It is also my question. How I can determine individual species density from scat survey?
I am conducting research on carnivore biodiversity.
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I assume that, in countries with any kind of compensation system regarding the agricultural wildlife/game damage, there has to be some sort of field assessment conducted by experts.
I would like to collect information on the different systems that operate in the different countries (ie. is there a compensation system, if yes, who estimates the damage, are there any sampling principles that are obligatory to be followed or even specified sampling methods, or it is simply up to the experts, etc.).
I would be grateful for any written, citable resource (primarily in English, if it exists) or even for personal summaries.
In return, I can prepare a description of the Hungarian situation, if anyone finds it interesting or useful.
Thank you in advance!
Imre
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Crop Protection and Its Effectiveness against Wildlife: A Case Study of Two Villages of Shivapuri National Park, Nepal.
Hope this may be helpful
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My name is Hairul from Selangor, Malaysia, 36 years old, 175cm, 66kg. I am looking for an opportunity to further study in PhD level. Any body here looking for a PhD student in research field such as wildlife management, conservation biology or life sciences. So far my expertise on breeding assessment, exitu management, terrapins/turtles, ecology and conservation.
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apply in wwf
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In a recent review we attempted I was amazed to find very few restoration examples in rivers in the southern Balkans (south and southwest of the Danube basin). Could anybody help us in finding such examples? (i.e. riparian restoration, de-daming, fish-passes, eco-flows, re-connectivity works, urban river restoration, wildlife habitat enhancment, rewilding rivers, nature-based solutions, anti-pollution technologies, re-introduction of threatened species, etc).
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For my Master thesis I try to estimate the relative density of chamois with a pellet-counting method. For calculating the number of animals per ha, I need to know the defecation rate (pellet groups per day). I found some information about captive goats (THE USE OF FAECES COUNTS IN STUDIES OF SEVERAL FREE-RANGING MAMMALS IN NEW ZEALAND; T.RINEY (1957)) and also a survey about chamois (DISTRIBUTION AND ABUNDANCE OF BROWSING MAMMALS IN WESTLAND NATIONAL PARK IN 1978, AND SOME OBSERVATIONS ON THEIR IMPACT ON THE VEGETATION; C.J. PEKELHARING ET AL (1983)) but there is no information about the missing value.
Perhaps someone had the same problem before?
Thanks a lot for any advice. :)
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I am very happy to have been a help in some way
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I discovered that many authors include the name of the software they used in their methodology while others do not.
I want to know your thoughts, if it is necessary for one to mention the name of the statistical software (package) in an academic report (thesis, project, journal paper etc) used in running the analysis?
Please, if possible support your answer with a reasons.
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Hi there,
I agree with the message above! In addition to that, especially for R packages and free softwares, it is always nice to mention the authors possibly with a citation, if that's available! This way the author(s) will be acknowledged too. Beside the obvious intent of providing enough info for repeatability, you also acknowledge the work of the people allowing you to do your work,which is fair and ethical..
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I've calculated the odds ratio (2.6, 95% CI 1.03 - 6.58) of breeding hen mortality in a experimental vs. control treatment. Thus, under experimental conditions hens are 2.6 times more likely to die than in control conditions.
I would like to model population growth rate based on my new breeding survival parameters, for the hypothetical scenario of my experimental condition being applied across the landscape. Hoekman et al. (2002) have conducted a well-known sensitivity analysis on mallards and I think I could use their values to model the hypothetical influence of my experimental treatment on lambda.
What is the appropriate method to do this? Should I use the equation lambda = change in vital rate/(elasticity/sensitivity)?
Thanks in advance for anything you can offer.
Citation:
Hoekman ST, Mills LS, Howerter DW, Devries JH, Ball IJ. 2002. Sensitivity analyses of the life cycle of midcontinent mallards. The Journal of Wildlife Management 66:883–900.
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Yes, you can use that equation if the relationship between lambda and vital rates is linear.
See: Journal of Ecology 2001 89, 995–1005, Integrating vital rate variability into perturbation analysis: an evaluation for matrix population models of six plant species,
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Im doing Forest Resources and wildlife management at NUST.zw. im just interested in the project, its very useful in terms of resource allocation and sustainable use in the future. such qualitative data can be used as a reference
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Hamit provided good information.
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I am planning for a morphological study on Saara hardwickii in the Aravallis in Western India. It has a semi-arid landscape with a fairly good population of the species. But capturing these species became a problem. I need to know some methods by which I can capture these species for morphological study and then release safely in their habitat.
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In West Africa there is a park manager on the W national park trapping Nile monitor (Varanus niloticus) with Havahart trap too. He had a big succes
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Are there papers or studies on conservation vs. conservation conflicts and how to avid and/or manage them? Here in Bulgaria we have at least two such conflicts, where actions to conserve one conservation dependent species are not in favour to other or even worse may further threaten it. For example conservation of the wolf in Bulgaria (especially legislation changes) could lead to illegal actions against wolf (e.g. poison baits use), which do not affect the wolf that much, but are absolutely dangerous to vultures and eagles. This conflict passes through the man-wolf conflict though. The other example is the conservation of the European Suslik (Spermophilus cittelus), which requires well grazed (even may be overgrazed) grasslands to recover and sustain and its conservation, restoration and abundance is fundamental for several other species (e.g. Saker Falcon, Imperial Eagle etc.), but the general nature lovers and botanists are against heavy grazing and keeping grassland in best condition for Susliks. So here is a Conservation-Conservation conflict. To may opinin it should be measured on the base of Conservation value of the species involved, which is not always the case e.g. managers of the Central Balkan National Park in Bulgaria. Any references, notes or discussion will be appreciated.
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The book mentioned above does not give an answer of your question.
Direct conflicts between endangered species present unique challenges to conservation. Solutions to conflicts between endangered species are difficult to apply as recent management plans are typically focused on individual species and recovery actions could directly oppose one another. Unfortunately, the multi-species recovery plans are still not well developed.
I would recommend reading:
" Removing Protected Populations to Save Endangered Species "
" A framework for monitoring multiple-species conservation plans "
doi:10.2193/0022-541X(2005)69[1333:AFFMMC]2.0.CO;2
" Strongly interacting species: conservation policy, management, and ethics "
doi:10.1641/0006-3568(2005)055[0168:SISCPM]2.0.CO;2
"Conservation and conflict between endangered desert fishes"
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I do intend to carry out a pilot test on the efficiency of barn owl Tyto alba to reduce rodent infestation in urban affected tropical zones. I would like to know the most challenging factors faced by anyone who ever had done such project.  Give advice and share the results, please. Many thanks. 
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Hi Pierre. Barn owls frequently prey on several different species of rodents including some species not frequently sampled by traditional trapping methods. In this sense, if you want to publicize your results with the local people living in the area  keep in mind that the perception of the population size of rodents by the general public (based on sightings or captures for instance) could be different from the "real" composition and population size of rodents in the area. 
Please see 
Also, since barn owls hunt in open areas (as Motti Charter nicely tells above) they could be susceptible to be killed by cars in roads. This is unfortunately frequent in my region here in Brazil. Have this is mind when you will think about the placement location of the nest boxes. 
All the best!
Alexander
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We just released a few bison into a grassland restoration unit of about 1,000 acres.  We wanted to assess dung beetle community recovery in response to the animals.  When we set out baited pitfall traps – it’s like we are sampling the inverse of what we expected.  The traps in grasslands with no bison have lots of beetles.  The units with the bison..., our traps are essentially empty.  Our assumption is that there is too much “competition” in the pasture for our traps to attract much attention.
Does anyone have any suggestions about how we may still sample this insect community – perhaps a more passive way of sampling dung beetles?
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Sometimes it is useful to add a second sampling method, and combine the results from both. So if you were to do transects (like in the "distance sampling" method) you would encounter also dung beetles busy working on the dung piles of the bisons.
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I am looking for information about the speed achieving by escaping roe-deer (Capreolus capreolus) and red deer (Cervus elaphus).
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Do you know:
Garland, T. (1983): The relation between maximal running speed and body mass in terrestrial mammals. J. Zool., Lond. 199, 157-170.
Red deer: 72 km/h
Roe deer: 60 km/h
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I am doing research on Alpine Musk Deer  (Moschus chrysogaster) from Nepal to study genetic diversity and individual identification (later is for latrine site use). I tried to find out the microsatellite markers this for a particular species (Moschus chrysaster) but could do so. However, I have found 15 novel microsatellite markers developed for Forest musk deer (Moschus berezovoskii). Now, I would like to know possibilities of Microsatellite Marker of Moschus berezovoskii for Moschus chrysogaster.
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Hi Paras
You should be aware that cross-species SSRs many times have null alleles, and might suffer other amplification problems.
If you insist to use them, be sure to check the efficiency of your RT-PCR before going on.
Hope this helps
Pablo
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I'm trying to compare the amount of biomass (carcasses) available in a national park with the daily biomass requirements of these two predators to see if its enough to sustain the predator populations in the area.
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Can wild life suitability map be co-related with summer temperature data?
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For specific wildlife species, summer temperature may be conducive/predictive.
See attached 
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Every protected area (nature reserve, national park etc.) that I know in tropical Asia has lost at least one species in the last 500 years: typically a rhino, the tiger or another big cat (lion, cheetah, leopard), and/or the elephant, plus a varying number of smaller species. Is there anywhere that still has all the native vertebrate species likely to have been there in the last 500 years? If there is I would guess it is most likely to be in India. Perhaps also on islands where the fauna was always fairly limited. Sulawesi?
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Good point, Harshil, so I will narrow the question down to: Does any protected area in Asia still have all the species KNOWN to have occurred in it over the last 500 years?
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Are there examples from Europe where winter feeding of red deer has been reduced or eliminated? North American elk (Cervus elaphus) have been fed supplemental hay rations during winter months at the National Elk Refuge (NER) in Jackson Hole, Wyoming since 1912. We are exploring options to reduce reliance on supplemental feeding at NER, but there are very few examples in North America where this has been attempted. Any information from Europe where winter feeding of red deer has been reduced or eliminated would be appreciated.
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Supplemental feeding here in Scotland is certainly a hugely divisive issue. It is used not only to improve stock quality, but also as a measure to reduce grazing on key habitats such as native woodlands and blanket bog land. Many however see it as a tool to mantain herd populations well above what is considered to be the maximum ecological grazing capacity of the land. 
Here in Scotland the grazing guidance is that populations do not exceed the 50% of maximum threshold for grazing across a specified area. Unfortunately given the way hinds and stags heft across the landscape, seasonal weather conditions and competition from domestic animals such  as sheep and cattle, very often this threshold is overtaken by circumstance. 
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I would like to collect observational video off-line from eight cameras for later analysis with EthoVision (multiple arenas module).  The laboratory environment is such that I would prefer to use a multiplexing DVR rather than a PC.  Most security-system DVRs use proprietary file encoding that is typically not easy to convert to compatible video formats like MPEG-4; but someone must have identified the correct equipment for this application!
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See: The use of digital video recorders (DVRs) for capturing digital video files for use in both The Observer and Ethovision, Behavior Research Methods 38(3):434-8 · September 2006, on this site. It is by John Scott Church.
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In my research activity I am increasingly including the analysis of Ecosystem Services and their perception. Indeed, despite having studied dozens of papers and grey literature during my student career, I have found few textbooks. I am looking for a text that summarizes the state-of-the-art about ES and the techniques for their monetary and non-monetary evaluation. Is there any?
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Some aspects of ecosystem services by insects such as ants has been dealt with in my publication:
 RASTOGI, N. (2011) Provisioning services from ants: food and pharmaceuticals. Asian Myrmecology 3, 103–120
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Due to weight limitation I cannot use electro-mechanical drop-offs on my collars (wild dogs) and was considering using a piece of decomposable material instead. Several companies offer this option (I am working with Vectronics).
Time to decomposition depends most likely on temperature, humidity, and animal habits. If somebody has used decomposable drop-offs and has info on time to decomposition I would appreciate also knowing on which species the collar was used and in which region and also the collar brand (company name).
Any inputs are highly appreciated
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For those interested, this is the state of a decomposable drop-off (by Vectronics, Berlin) after 6 months of deployment on an African wild dog in Botswana's Okavango Delta between December and June. The fabric shows some first signs of wear but I anticipate this could have lasted at least another year. For comparison a new drop-off. 
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In this case, I was wondering about how an endangered species of deer endemic to the Philippines, Rusa alfredi, acquired a novel papillomavirus despite being in conservation areas due to its low populations. Is it possibly due to a mutation? 
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Dear Viviane, I am no specialist but the papillomavirus is transmited by sexual relation or by secretion  from genitals. The other mucosa areas of the body like eyes could support the virus too. The papillomavirus has many different type of virus in humans.
Some time the virus are in animal blood  but not express until some determined conditions like inmune depressed are present.
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We are interested in relating the annual/seasonal/monthly/weekly number of animal drownings on the Mara River in the Serengeti ecosystem with the hydrology of the river. Does anyone have any records of the number of animals drowning over time? We are happy to offer   coauthorship if you can provide data that we can use.
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I am interested in this work if we can collaborate...I can get this data from the current migration and I know some people who might have it in Mara, I will ask and get back to you. My email is mbengelensis@gmail.com
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Hi,
I would like to know if any of you have a good experience with the pop-up tags from Desert Star, particularly GEO 3D. I intend to use them with dolphinfish. Thanks
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Thank you! I have contacts from there, just wanted opinions from researchers, particularly on reliability of data recovery.
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I`m currently gathering information about reports of Tapirus pinchaque in Cundinamarca, Colombia, I need data of this species in Cundinamarca, so I can map potential distribution and report locations, because I must go to this specific points to validate the information, so I can design a Conservation plan for paramo´s tapir.
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Required information: reputation of the company, VHF-transmitter / GPS-logger reliability, speed of order execution, relatively low price of the production.
Animal species: Mustela eversmanni, Vormela peregusna, Mustela nivalis.
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I would strongly recommend Vectronic Gmbh. from Germany. They have very good reliable products, reasonably priced and very efficient customer support.
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I am trying to gather information on what someone would expect to pay per month for Iridium-based satellite services for collars? 
That is very generalized, and I know it is dependent on: 
a) the company providing the Iridium services
and
b) The amount of data transmitted
Therefore, if someone could provide me with examples of what they transmitted and subsequently paid that would be ideal.
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We use North Star for satellite tracking collars on swans and I know they do several other tracking devices for other wildlife species.  I don't know what there pricing is but you could certainly get a quote from them.
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In Arabian desert, certain areas favorable for spring camping are totally destroyed. I am looking for appropriate restoration projects and case studies in similar habitats.
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Thank you Young for your interest and the important materials and restoration methods.
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We have some records of striped hyenas getting killed due to retaliation by humans. There is some information on human-spotted hyena conflict but virtually nothing human-striped hyena conflict in the web. I hope friends here could help me.
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Hi Yadav, maybe you should contact Dr. Arumugam (see http://www.indiawilds.com/diary/wild-india-ecology-of-striped-hyaena/) or Priya Singh (you can find her on my fb friends list).
Cheers!
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I will be doing a video analysis of crabs swarming behavior in the field, via aerial drones. However, I have no previous experience buying drones and the video cameras that go on these drones. What models of both drones and Camera would be acceptable for this type of work? Could I just use a system with a GoPro? Is anything relatively good quality, cheap, and durable? Thanks!
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Hi Andrew (Jorge?),
I got confused by Margarita's post about the high altitude since it seems to me there was no reference of it on your post. I am from Chile BTW.
If you have no previous experience flying drones, then you need something "easy" to fly and better if it has the capability to fly a preset path and come back by itself. Anything bigger than 4 rotors you are increasing A LOT the needed budget as well as limiting its portability. For field work I would recommend to stay with the quadcopter models. Considering the need of a cheap and easy to fly quadcopter but reliable at the same time, your choices are reduced to just a couple of models.
The camera depends on the distance to your target and details you need to see. If a gopro4 is enough for you, then the DJI Phantom4 or the Inspire 1 (with their firmware updated) are a good start. Both are portable, easy to deploy and fly, and can do flight missions following a preset path. You can see in real time what the camera is recording and you can adjust on the fight some settings. A a higher value, the Inspire allows you to control the in-built camera by a second operator, with total freedom to rotate (roll/pitch/yaw) without landing skids on the frame.
DJI has even an IR camera for the Inspire. Both models are quite simple to fly, portable and reliable.
I have used my Phantom at the level of the sea (hand take-off / landing from a boat) as well as in the high Andes, and no problem at all. As Margarita stated, there are some differences but not something preventing you to fly. The quadcopter performs just as well, excepting for the shorter flying time. I got 3-blade props for high altitude (and extra batteries), as well as other props for different missions.
A must for your crabs swarming studies is to include a CPL filter (polarizer) to the lens of he camera (there are for gopro4, as well as for the inbuilt cameras of the Phantom4 and Inspire. This is to erase the reflections of the surface of the water, allowing you to see the crabs better. I would suggest also, when working in a salty environment, a bottle of CorrosionX to "paint" with a small brush all the electronics inside the drone, as well as the motors and stay far form landing or taking off from sand that could stop a motor.
For post-productions there are many applications that can reduce or eliminate the fish eye distortion and stabilize even more the image (e.g. Mercalli). It is not just about flying with a camera, but also to be able to analyze the images. So, producing a flight log, would hep to estimate sizes, distances etc.
good luck
gps
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For a local council, I am compiling a literature review on effects of festivals and other large events (people, music, food, cars, fireworks in different combinations and numbers) on nature (mainly birds, bats and mammals on/in the ground). These festivals are often organized in or near areas with natural values (city parks, nature or green areas close to cities). Regular papers can of course be found, but I hope there is ‘grey literature’ on this in different countries: case studies where not only assessments from literature have been made but where effects have been assessed and measured in the field. Suggestions, references, pdf’s are welcome!
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There have been some highly publicised cases here in Scotland which might be quite relevant to your situation. In both cases the species are rare and protected here but are much more common elsewhere in northern Europe. I have attached a link to the Environmental Statement for one event which was prepared for the organisers: this event was given permission to go ahead. There is a second example from a newspaper article on an event from earlier this year. There are more media articles on both events, some balanced and some less so, but I hope you will find something useful.
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I was wondering if anyone has experience with the color band tags. I would ideally like to use long term bands and these appear to be. The model I'm looking into have a 2.3mm diameter and are a centimeter long. The weight should be ok for my birds and they look great, but the concern is that moisture, dirt, etc will get caught in the band and irritate the leg or worse. Does anyone have insight or experience with this? I considered trying to make my own bands but will not have enough time.
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Which species are you working with?  I use color aluminum bands for psittacine birds (A. vittata and A. Ventralis) I have being using them for over 20 years and never had problems with skin irritations. Know we are using plastic tags as well. About the PIT tags we have tried them as well. But once again depends on the size of the bird. In our case we did a trial using them Sub-Q but they migrated to much under the skin of the bird. Them we did test using them intramuscular but do to the size of A.vittata and A.ventralis the biggest muscle for the smallest size of the PIT available were the pectoral muscles. So we decided not to use them because we do not want to tear their flying muscles specially for the release candidates.
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I need to produce a map of a particular region to point out several localities for a paper on distribution records of birds. What program is the most apropriate?
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In case of limited budget, QGIS will be the appropriate GIS, easy to use and access free!!
Best,
Guy
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I have to revue briefly systems to evaluate forest damages caused by ungulates and to estimate the financial costs of that damages.
My context is Walloon Region (temperate deciduous forest). Damages concern especially natural regenerations of broadleafs and bark peeling of coniferous stands 
I'm interested in methods with a sclale going from  forest stand to  managment zones for wild ungulates.
Any information about existing systems is welcome.
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 The problem with the method of estimation of Tarmo., 2009 (said by the author) is the focus on damages and not on heathy trees. The sylvicultural objectives can be reached but the damages estimations high.  
The prices of the compensations are also quite simplists. It is interesting if they are accepted in a contract of hunting territory leasing whith low revenues from hunting but high damage compensation (Schaller, M.J., 2000. Evaluation of wildlife damage to forests in Germany. Human Conflicts with Wildlife: Economic Considerations 14).
It is a pitty they don't describe more pecisely the inventory methodology and the time it takes, It is however important if we want to applie that on the field. Nothing is said about the accuracy of the estimations. 
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Comparing between a fenced and non-fenced region seems to be a good way to do this for deer. But other species, e.g. monkey or pig, can easily bypass the fences. Any suggestions ?
For smaller species, I believe I can probably use mesh exclusion bags ?
Thanks :)
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François's suggestion (exclusion cages) has actually been used extensively in prairie and alpine meadow ecosystems for grazing evaluation by (relatively) large hebivores (e.g. Mangado et al., Pastagens e Forragens 21: 579-583 (2000); Biondini et al., Ecological Applications 8(2): 469-479 (1998); Bedia & Busqué, Grass and Forage Science 68(2): 297–312 (2013). However I understand that your problem is not really that, as you mention only alien (large) species. If properly set, exclosures would, by default, exclude anything above a certain size. But if you want to differentiate natural from alien fauna, unless that difference is also by size it's gonna be difficult. And, of course, you still have the problem of small grazers that get in. In Pyrenean pastures, for example, grazing by grasshoppers has been found to be on a pair with cattle at certain times of the year. Comparison of data from exclosures with large (no cattle but allowing insects) and small ("no nothing" that walks or flies) mesh size can show this, albeit not without trouble (e.g. shadow effects and others).
And, if the vegetation you want to evaluate is larger (e.g. taller trees), exclosures can be a problem to set up and maintain.
I might suggest a different approach: a posteriori selection. You might perhaps select a (large) number of plots, set up full exclosures for reference and control, but also set automatic camera surveillance. In this way you could evaluate the pressure of the species of interest by recording how long they would be in the plots, and later on correlate the measured density of epìphytes to the number/frequency/length of visits by target grazers on each plot.
HTH. Regards
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Hi,
I would like some suggestions of good drop off mechanism for collar (e.g. designed for larger Cervidae)? Carrying a load of about 500 gram. 
Regards,
Ronny
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If a passive drop-off system would meet your needs, you might look at the attached publication.
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Is Visual encounter surveys the only method?
Animals can't be trapped or captured in the area.
measurement of morphological details of the varanus species is not allowed.
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Monitors are variable in body pattern, you can recognize individuals by colouration details. Why not to use camera traps or primary photofixation (photographing all individuals in the area) and monitor them electronically after (I mean install traps and use "face recognition" software to compare individuals you will see on the photos)
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for human wildlife conflict survey, species which i am targeting are Common Leopard, Rhesus Macaque and Wild Pig.
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I'm doing a case study on Singapore as a wildlife trafficking hub in Southeast Asia. Any information about Singaporean political drivers of the wildlife trade or political drivers of the trade in general would be greatly appreciated!
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I'm not sure that I would define them as "political drivers", it is more a case of political apathy, i.e. overlooking the issue or, worse, passively allowing trafficking to take place in deference to the vested interests of wealthy individuals that support the politicians.  For me, wildlife trafficking is market-driven - remove the market and trafficking disappears, but remove the politics and trafficking will still occur.
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Owing to vertical transmission risks for some diseases I would be interested if anyone has successfully set up a standard monitoring program for pigeon carcasses? Solid literature suggestion also welcome.
I'm interested in
  1. Diseases (or agents) you check for.
  2. Sampling strategies you use.
Thanks a lot in advance.
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Thanks to all for your kind responses. As it seems a fixed protocol hasn't been developed so far.
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wildlife trafficking some published work kindly share 
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Dear Cyrus
besides looking at scientific articles, I'd recommend searching the TRAFFIC website which offers a lot of freely downloadable resources:
Please scroll down the page, there is a "CARNIVORA (Bears, cats etc)" section with plenty of links to good docs
I hope this helps, all best
Danilo
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In order to minimize livestock depredation and agricultural field compensation  process and thus ultimately reducing human wildlife conflict.
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Dear Abhinaya,
As others have already mentioned, there are many livestock insurance schemes in action around the world already. Please see these links to papers show-casing carnivore-related examples from the field. Some are conceptional, others evaluate experiences made.
Comprehensive reviews of the topic have been published by Philip Nyhus and Adrian Treves who have extensive experience with carnivore damage compensation schemes. For example, try access:
Nyhus, P.J., Fischer, H., Osofsky, S. and Madden, F. (2003) ‘Taking the bite out of wildlife damage: The challenges of wildlife compensation schemes.’ Conservation in Practice, 4(2) pp. 37-40.
Nyhus, P.J., Osofsky, S.A., Ferraro, P., Madden, F. and Fischer, H. (2005) ‘Bearing the costs of human-wildlife conflict: The challenges of compensation schemes.’ In Woodroffe, R., Thirgood, S. and Rabinowitz, A. (eds.) People and Wildlife: Conflict or Coexistence? Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 107-121.
Treves, A., Jurewicz, R.L., Naughton-Treves, L. and Wilcove, D.S. (2009) ‘The price of tolerance: wolf damage payments after recovery.’ Biodiversity and Conservation, 18(14) pp. 4003-4021.
Regards,
Florian
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Nepal is facing increasing incidences of human wildlife conflicts. Among those incidents, largest share is from Wild Elephant, So we are seeking best successful cases how the damages were reduced in terms of crop damages as well as human killings in the vicinity of forests.
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We recently published a research paper on a field experiment which was conducted by Awely and the SLCS in Zambia. We could show that cultivating alternative crops (ginger, garlic, lemon grass) reduces crop losses due to African elephants in South Luangwa, Zambia. Please look at our publication.
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I am not really sure about and how to used the index and determine the wildlife or insects in natural forests or plantation areas.
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Of great importance is a taxonomic group you assess diversity. If it's low fertility and low mobility - it is better to use a Shannon index. If you study the organisms that fast (poultry, fish) make better use of the Simpson index. It is more sensitive to vibrations with low quantitative difference in species composition. Then used when there are different ecosystems but many common species. Other codes should be avoided - it will be difficult to search the literature for comparison.
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I'm working on a small project exploring the potential for coordinating the management and research of wolves in the Southern Caucasus (Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan) and Central Asia (Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan) and want, first to get an idea of the current situation. I'm looking for paper/articles/chapters on the subject spanning the past 30 years or so (both Soviet and post-Soviet eras). Also, if you are currently working on wolf management in any of these countries, I'd like to hear from you.
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Dear Gareth,
As far as I know, there are not many things published on that topic in Central Asia, and of course only in Russian. 
you have that book chapter in English, a bit more recent than the 1970 one: Bibikov, D.I. (1982) ‘‘Wolf Ecology and Management in the USSR’’, in F.H. Harrington and P.C. Paquet (eds) Wolves of the World. Perspectives of Behavior, Ecology and Conservation, pp. 120–33. Park Ridge, NJ: Noyes.
I got a copy of Vyrypaev & Vorobjev book on wolves in Kyrgyzstan:
Vyrypajev VA, Vorobjev GG. 1983. Volk v Kirgizii. Frunze: Ilim. 94 p.
However I would be cautious in using it since I detected some mistakes in the tables they give inside.
I published two papers about human-wolves relationships in Kyrgyzstan (they are available on RG, and you may find something in the references...), as well as a PhD in French. If you have any question about that specific topic, you are welcome to contact me!
Nicolas
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I work in the Rio de Janeiro State Environment Institute and we need to know what types of fauna crossings are working well to prevent road kill of wild animals and how is the monitoring made to assess their efficiency.
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Hi,
Do you know of a study or review that examined different approaches or rules of thumbs for putting a collar around an animal's neck? Preferably for different groups - ungulates, predators, etc.
The main issue, off course, is the safety and welfare of the animal, but there is also the possibility of changing the animal's behavior.
We are hearing different opinions. For example, some say it's better to have a tight collar than a loose one because branches or limbs can get stuck between the collar and the neck. Others say the contrary.
There are many parameters to take into account - e.g., weight, tightness, position and width, and I did find a few studies looking at specific aspects or species. I was wondering whether someone has collected data into some kind of a "manual".
Thanks,
Amir
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Here is an article I wrote for the Wild Felid Monitor 6(2) 2013.  Hope it helps 
A TOPIC EVERY RESEARCHER USING RADIOCOLLARS SHOULD CONSIDER
Rich Beausoleil, Bear & Cougar Specialist, Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, richard.beausoleil@dfw.wa.gov
In my career as a wildlife professional, I’ve been lucky enough to conduct field research with bear and cougar. I’ve been using breakaway cotton spacers (leather is also available) on radiocollars since graduate school. It has always been my standard operating procedure when conducting research. I remember my major advisor, Dr Michael Pelton, telling all the new graduate students to make sure they used cotton spacers and to read the manuscript written by Hellgren et al. (1988) titled
Use of Breakaway Cotton Spacers on Radiocollars (Wildlife Society Bulletin 16:216-218). They noted that the cotton spacers serve a dual function: 1) they are the weak-link in the collar belt that allow some stretch should a bear gain a significant amount of weight and, 2) the spacer will eventually rot and tear, allowing the collar to drop off the animal in 2-3 years. Use of a breakaway spacer provides an ethical insurance policy that the animal will not have to wear the radiocollar should it not be recaptured or the electronics in the radiocollar fail. Historically, radiocollar belts were 2 pieces of leather sewn together with a cotton thread; if a spacer wasn’t used the collar could potentially remain on an animal 6-8 years. Today, many collar manufacturers are using synthetic belts. I like the new collar materials because they allow the belt to be molded for a more comfortable fit for the animal, however, these belts can last on an animal well over a decade.
Over the years I’ve presented much of my research at conferences, and by talking to other researchers I have made 2 informal observations. First, the use of cotton spacers seems more common in bear than felid research. Second, it doesn’t seem as if graduate students are as aware of spacers as they should be. I may be incorrect in this assessment, but in my mind, the topics of animal welfare and ethics cannot be over-discussed. I think it’s worth broaching the subject and getting folks communicating, especially WFA members.
Recently, while attending the 10
th Mountain Lion Workshop in Montana in May of 2011, I was concerned to learn that very few researchers are using cotton spacers (or electronic break-away functions, more on that in a minute). While it’s true that mountain lions and other felids have a much more predictable and limited weight-gain compared to bears and therefore the ability of the collar to "stretch" is not as crucial, there remains the issue of electronic failure and recapture for collar-removal. It troubles me to think of any animal having to tote a collar around for the rest of its life without generating information for researchers. This is the reason for this short communication. It’s not to poke, criticize, or offend anyone: it’s strictly about ethics and animal welfare.
The more common reasons I’ve heard for not using cotton spacers include: (1) electronic reliably within the radiocollars has improved; (2) the animal will be recaptured; (3) I’m using an electronic breakaway; and (4) I don’t want to risk the collar being dropped prematurely and losing data. Responses #1-3 can be easily addressed: electronics will always fail and sometimes animals leave your study area. As researchers we need to insure that once we release a captured and collared animal we can be certain that the animal will not be wearing that collar forever.
My response to #4 is also straightforward;
we don’t always have to win. If we use cotton spacers, and the cotton rots off quicker than expected, that’s ok, move on to a 3 or 4-ply rather than a 2-ply spacer. But take solace in the fact that you put the animal’s welfare above informational needs. As wildlife professionals, we should strive to carry out our work with the highest ethical standards. Believe me, I know how immensely important research is and that information from every animal matters, especially when your study animal is a solitary, low-density carnivore of significant ecological and conservation importance, but we should live by the simple rule that as researchers we must always consider the long-term ramifications of our actions and place the animal above ourselves. We should also follow this same principle when attaching collars to the animals. By all means, securely attach the collar and make it fit appropriately, but leave room for growth and comfort. If we leave a bit too much room, and it gets pulled off, that’s ok; we don’t always have to win.
In closing, the use of electronic breakaways brings up a similar issue that I want to mention just briefly, collar weight. Electronic breakaways add weight to the collar, in some cases significantly, and collar weight should also be a concern. With more and more collar options being developed by manufacturers (e.g., larger batteries and cameras), the issue of weight will only increasingly need attention by researchers to strive and keep collar weight as low as possible. Please follow the simple rule that we don’t always have to win and always make ethics and animal welfare the most important study consideration.
As far as fit....i have heard researchers use terms like "2 fingers" or "3 fingers" when it comes to fitting a collar and deciding on how tight it should be.  That way too subjective.  I suggest putting the collar on and attaching the hardware (finger tight)where you think it'll work.  Then, working gently, place 1 ear underneath the collar and then the 2nd ear.  Then, try to remove the collar over the mandible/zygomatic arch .  If you cannot, undo the hardware and make the collar fit a bit looser by attaching it at the next notch.  If you can, then go a bit tighter.  Then, repeat the process. I suggest getting the collar fit to the point of being able to get the collar off but it would require some work to do so.  I have been using that method for over a decade and it has been extrememly succcessful.  As researchers we should always err on the side of the animal having the advantage. Also, we should always assume the collar will fail and insure the animal's well being will not be compomised.   
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Hi, I need an effective method for capturing mink (live or dead), and avoiding capturing non-target species in southern South America.
Thanks!
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Thanks to everybody!
Henry, I'm interested in Invasive species control as part of my MS thesis proposal
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I'm in need of R code to conduct a k-fold cross validation of a nested glmer model. My data is nested in that locational information (GPS locations) is nested within individual animals. Thanks for the help! 
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It is pretty easy to program yourself...
You can do a loop, removing one or k observation at a time. Then, create a model with the remaining observation, make your model predict the new data, the one removed from your dataset, until all observation have been predicted with a model created independently.
The loop could look at something like that:
PTOT=NULL
for (i in 1:880)
###Change 880 by the number of observation you have###
{
##Data that will be predicted
DataC1=Data[Data==i,]
###To train the model
DataCV=Data[DataC!=i,]
M1 <- glmer(YOUR MODEL, data = DataCV)
P1=predict(M1, DataC1)
names(P1)=NULL
P1
PTOT= c(PTOT, P1)
}
R2cv=1-(sum((YOUR RESPONSE-PTOT)^2)/(length(PTOT))/(var(YOUR RESPONSE)))
In PTOT you will have the values predicted by your model.
At the end, you can calculated a R2CV, which will quantify the variance predicted by you model. See this paper for a description of the statistic:
Guénard G, Legendre P, Peres-Neto PR (2013) Phylogenetic eigenvector maps: a framework to model and predict species traits. Methods in Ecology and Evolution 4:1120-1131
Hope it helps!!
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I am interested to find historical data about the introduction in South America of the Feral Pigeon (Columba livia), House Sparrow (Passer domesticus) and species of the genus Eucalyptus.
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Thank you very much Marcelo!
Regards
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It is possible that in some areas livestock breeders may decrease or stop livetsock breeding due to permanent/frequent predation by wolves Any opinions from direct observations and published papers are welcome.
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Hi Emilian
In the USA they learned valuable lessons with wolf conservation. The wolf range has increased and it is possible to hunt wolves in several states. A person like Ed Bangs may be a great help to set up a conservation strategy.
My perception is that it usually is the carnivores that give way to the farmers, not the other way round. We did a review of lessons learned to conserve large carnivores and mitigate conflict (PDF attached). Due to the volume of articles we limited it to African large carnivores, but from the literature it seems that these basic principles apply wider than Africa.
We are busy with two articles, wild dog and cheetah in Botswana, showing that enough wild prey resulted in lower conflict levels. For cheetahs the critical level of wild prey was 20% of the available biomass.
Obtaining financial benefits from hunting (at sustainable levels) do help to make farmers more tolerant, even if the financial losses are more than the gains from the hunting.
Regards
Christiaan
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I am interested in finding information or examples of best management practices for marine keystone species (not including forage fish).
Thanks.
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Thank you for the example Andres. Very helpful.
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I'm studying the attitude of common people towards wildlife management. Some topics, as poaching, invasive species or pest control, are seen in a controversial way and I would like to find a measure that summarizes the magnitude of their "noise" on the media.  
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You could try using the Google hits metric as a starting point. There is a measure called 'newspaper inches' which was a common metric used to measure the press coverage a story or topic got - literally by measuring the number of inches of newsprint. You could update this and maybe formulate a metric called 'web-metres', or at least some kind of web-area density metric - a little more in keeping with today's digital media. Another option is to look at the number of tweets in Twitter feeds on a topic. Hope this helps!
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The Eurasian wolf is returning to Middle Europe - so far, the observed pack structure encloses a parental pair and it's offspring (new pups and subadult siblings). On the other hand, we know about very big pack sizes (of unknown genetic relationships) in northern America (D.Mech at Isle Royale) - surely reflecting some special biogeographic conditions. Do we know about the factors which form the social organization in wolves?
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You might want to broaden out to other pack carnivores with variable composition. I suggest looking at the work of McNutt, McCreery, and others on African Painted Dogs.
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The natality rate of Baboons(Bapio Anopus) in the Dinder National Park (Sudan) is high and there is growing demand to correct the situation for the present population by using biological methods, like re-introduction of leopards in the park.  
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Culling? yes but baboons can hide from the hunters. Personal experiences in Shai Hills in Ghana, is that the day one baboon falls they will never be seen for a long time.  I therefore suggest the predator prey relationship as a long term solution. The culling will change the behavior of the baboons.
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I need to trap alive dozens of wild Norway rats for my research. What kinds of places and what ways of live trapping would you recommend? I have used many kinds of traps and baits and I have tried out many kinds of places (barns, cowsheds, sewers, basements, landfills etc.). It always takes days or weeks and the success is usually limited to a few individuals. The remaining rats develop trapshyness and the 'hunting' is over - usually for weeks. Any hints or tips appreciated.
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Give access by pre-baiting the traps for at least 3 consecutive nights to overcome neophibia and trap-shyness and then set the trap-on on the 4th night. Give 3-4 weeks gap to repeat trapping at any particular habitat.
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Could anyone direct me towards papers or statistical methods used for analysing the visitation sequence by a large mammal? I am studying Arabian tahr at numerous pits (natural and made by myself) using video camera traps. The tahr frequently scrape and dust in the pits, and I am looking to test hypotheses relating to why Arabian tahr scrape and use the pits. I need to understand if the pattern of visitation to pits is non-random, and if the visitation sequence follows a particular pattern, e.g. Male-fem-male-fem, patterns indicating over-marking. I have not conducted analyses such as this before. Thanks... 
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Hello Steven,
My experience on the topic you've raised is very limited and only related with the use of scent stations for carnivores. I am sure that advances in patch use & visitation analysis techniches, such as those pointed out above by Jonathan would be very useful to you. I just would like to point out to a useful reference, that although a bit outdated, it has some still very usefull points to start exploring your data (paper adjunt). I hope it helps.
All the best,
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I'm currently working on a project examining the interactions between badgers and cattle and how this might impact on transmission of tuberculosis. In light of the controversy surrounding the culling programme in the UK (and the less publicised version in Ireland), what do people think about the efficacy or ethics of such 'wildlife management' initiatives (on this species or others). The debate is quite polarised, with politicians/farmers on one side and conservationists on the other. I am interested in seeking the viewpoints of scientists from diverse but relevant fields.
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En la Argentina hay una tesis de doctorado del Dr. Abdala (INTA), que capturaba comadrejas (animales silvestres) y  aislo en algumos casos el mismo patron genómico que el Mbovis del ganado de la misma region. Sin embargo en vista que en la Argentina la tuberculosis es enzootica en varias regiones, no se ha tomado ningún tipo de accion con los silvestres. En breve saldra en la revista Argentina de Microbiología un paper del Dr. Abdala con los resultados de su tesis
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I'm going to be monitoring cortisol levels in a troop of Sulawesi crested macaques (>20 individuals) and am looking for potential tracers to feed them to pin point which feces belong to who. We have previously used beetroot and blue dye on food however, the presence of these are only obvious at the supernatant stage. I'm ideally looking for something that we can see immediately, doesn't mess with their nutrition and something we could dye in order to collect samples from as many as possible. Thanks! 
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Perhaps this paper will be helpful?
The effectiveness of indigestible markers for identifying individual animal feces and their prevalence of use in North American zoos
Zoo Biology
Volume 30, Issue 4, July/August 2011, Pages: 379–398, Grace Fuller, Susan W. Margulis and Rachel Santymire
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Hello,
I'm looking at elasticity values from a range of amphibian PVA's. There are lots of elasticities values within models that turn out to be the same, not similar, but exactly the same to 10 decimal places. I've re-ran some of the models and no matter how I structure them transitions turn out to be identical and stasis are all different. I've also recalculated them by hand and get the same results. I'm using a deterministic model, if that makes any difference. I'm new to this kind of modelling so I could totally be messing something up. Does anyone have any insight as to what might be going on here?
Please let me know if there is some specific additional information that would be helpful here.
Thanks in advance,
Paul
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As Jeffrey pointed out, the off-diagonal elements of a 2x2 matrix will have identical elasticities; this is because in the formula for the eigenvalues (found by solving det(A - I*lambda) = 0), those two elements are multiplied together. Thus the same proportional change in either of them will have the same proportional effect on lambda.
More generally, if you do a "loop analysis" (identify any path that begins and ends in the same stage; in Jeffrey's 2x2 example there are 3 loops [j -> j, a -> a, and j-> a -> j), and find that, within a given loop, there are two or more matrix transitions that contribute only to that loop, then those transitions will have the same elasticities. See section 9.2.4.3 in Caswell's book, or papers by van Groenendael et al. (1994; Ecology 75:2410) or Wardle (1998; Ecology 79:2539).
This is really a mathematical property of matrices; but if you think of a loop as representing a "contribution to lambda," then it's (somewhat) intuitive that the individual transitions on that loop should have identical elasticities (since the transitions are multiplied in the process of going around the loop, a proportional change of any of them will have the same effect on the loop's contribution to lambda).
I am not, in general, a big fan of loop analysis; but it is conceptually helpful in this case.
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I am working on understanding population dynamics of a sucessful reintroduced tiger population at central India. Initially 3 tigers were reintroduced at Panna Tiger Reserve. Later another 3 individuals were reintroduced. They successfully bred and produced  more than 30 cubs during last four years. Among them 11 tigers were radio collared (including founder) and monitored. To understand population projection for PVA, I need to understand few demographic parameters like, survival, maternity, fecundity and growth rate. Is their any tutorial which explain step by step process of calculating those parameters? Or is their any software programme or R package which explain such parameters?
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I agree, I would definitely use MARK. It can implement a wide range of models for CMR data and it can estimate all the parameters you need (although software alternative exists... maybe someone else may provide other insights into these other programs) but you should be aware that MARK is quite complex to use... Anyway, the software guide (Program MARK - A gentle introduction, http://www.phidot.org/software/mark/docs/book/) will guide you through all steps, you just need to take all the time needed to study it in depth... It is really a step by step guide both from a theoretical and practical point of view.
In R, the RMark package provides a collection of R functions that can be used as an interface to MARK for analysis of capture-recapture data. I also know about the 'marked' package by J. Laake, but I have not had a chance to try it out, yet.
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The term has been used a lot but I've never found it referenced.
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Dear Amelie
You can find mentioned phrase in the following book
" Wildlife-Habitat Relationships, Concepts  and applications" by Micael L. Morrison, Bruce G. Marcot, and R. William Mannan"
This is a valuable reference book, enjoy.
Happy reading
Mehran
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Samples or issues from Afghan Pika for a genetic analysis
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Good morning,
I write from Argentina, I am a dendrochronologist working on semiarid environments. I do not have the samples that you are asking for but do not hesitate to contact me for any other question that you have.
Best wishes.
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If so, could you give a brief description of your research - purpose, question or hypothesis, and location?
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Hello Louis, Yes you contact me if you need any extra information about this subject. 
About your question; The kills are not confirmed to be Wolf or Bear kills by experts, these are just numbers of killed livestock which livestock owners claim to be killed by Wolf or Bear. 
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I'm curious if there's any quantitative measure of which terrestrial mammals have the largest (or narrowest) climatic tolerance/niche.
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Dear  William, 
I found this article relating to your question. It has some good sources which I am sure will be helpful if the below is not. 
Best wishes, 
Carlos A. Zambrano M. 
Herpatologist
Bishop's University, Sherbrooke, QC
Climatic niche conservatism and the
evolutionary dynamics in species range
boundaries: global congruence across
mammals and amphibians
Guilhaumon, François; Krasnov, Boris R.; Poulin, Robert; Shenbrot, Georgy I.; Mouillot, David. Global Ecology & Biogeography. Jul2012, Vol. 21 Issue 7, p725-731. 7p. DOI: 10.1111/j.1466-8238.2011.00714.x. 
ABSTRACT
Aim Comparative evidence for phylogenetic niche conservatism – the tendency
for lineages to retain their ancestral niches over long time scales – has so far been
mixed, depending on spatial and taxonomic scale. We quantify and compare
conservatism in the climatic factors defining range boundaries in extant
continental mammals and amphibians in order to identify those factors that
are most evolutionarily conserved, and thus hypothesized to have played a major
role in determining the geographic distributions of many species. We also test
whether amphibians show stronger signals of climatic niche conservatism, as
expected from their greater physiological sensitivity and lower dispersal abilities
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Since the invasive exotic species prey on organisms native to a region, would it be a possible solution to starve off the exotic species by temporary relocation of its food source or is this not a viable solution?
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”to starve off the exotic species by temporary relocation of its food source...”
it could be a solution in case that the respective exotic (animal) species invaded... for example, 1 square meter
in case it invaded 1 million hectares... well the ”starve off” method will not really work :)
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Please recommend me 1. Any recent paper on impact of drought on wildlife population dynamics and 2. How to tackle the problem of statistical bias in estimation of wildlife mortality resulting from things like biased sightings of carcass because of habitat differences (for example carcasses in grassland are easier to see as opposed to carcasses in woodland and this results to biased estimates if the results are compared)
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Hello Yassuf, please, see the following papers:
Pereira, J.A. & A.J. Novaro. 2014. Habitat-specific demography and conservation of Geoffroy´s cats in a human dominated landscape. Journal of Mammalogy 95(5) - currently in press but available from the ASM site
Uhart, M., M. V. Rago, C. Marull, H. V. Ferreyra y J. A. Pereira. 2012. Exposure to selected pathogens in Geoffroy´s cats and domestic carnivores from central Argentina. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 48(4): 899-909
Pereira, J. A., N. G. Fracassi, V. Rago, H. Ferreyra, C. A. Marull, D. McAloose y M. M. Uhart. 2010. Causes of mortality in a Geoffroy´s cat population – A long–term survey using diverse recording methods. European Journal of Wildlife Research 56(6):939-942
Pereira, J. A. 2010. Activity pattern of Geoffroy’s cats (Leopardus geoffroyi) during a period of food shortage. Journal of Arid Environments 74:1106-1109
Pereira, J. A., N. G. Fracassi y M. M. Uhart. 2006. Numerical and spatial responses of Geoffroy’s cat (Oncifelis geoffroyi) to prey decline in Argentina. Journal of Mammalogy 87(6):1132-1139
Good luck with your work!!
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For density calculations with fototraps (Rowcliffe et al. 2008) the daily distances moved (km/24h) are needed. The best would be data from the same study area. For wild boar we have a lot of different movements. However, for many species these are not available or hard to find.
Does anybody have data for the species mentioned below? These data are quite easy to calculate from GPS (or consecutive VHF-tracking) data. Or does anybody know literature where these results can be found (I do not have an overview on all these species)
We would need data for (best Germany/central Europe ; km/24h):
roe deer Capreolus capreolus
red deer Cervus elaphus
fallow deer Dama dama
brown hare Lepus europaeus (best in forest)
pine marten Martes martes
red fox Vulpes vulpes
racoon dog Nyctereutes procyonides
badger Meles meles
The best would be data from northern Germany, but there are vew available (as we did produce most of them on our own). Thus, any data will help.
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Well, the wolves I can get are from SW Alberta, maybe Håkan Sand is a better contact as the Swedish data, especially from collared individuals ending up in southern sweden is more closely related to German conditions. Just send me a mail otherwise and Ill se what I can do
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I'm trying to determine the most likely set of dingo prey, from stable isotope data from dingoes and their prey, using Bayesian Mixing Models. I need to perform a k nearest-neighbor randomization test (sensu Rosing et al. 1998. Analysis of stable isotope data: A K nearest-neighbors randomization test. The Journal of Wildlife Management:380-388) on my prey data to determine if they're statistically different. Can someone please suggest an appropriate software/R Package?
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In a data set I worked with, we had data on the mercury content of fish from lakes and a lot of info about the lake mineral content. We were able to "standardize" the Hg content of the fish based upon their age. Older and heavier fish have more mercury the younger and smaller fish have less. Once we made those calcs, we got some good cluster analysis. Similar lakes were near each other and down wind of power plants. I was wondering if you would have the same kind of luck we did. 
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Theoretically buffer zone of protected area is great way of providing extended habitats for wildlife (Ecological buffer) and meet the natural resource need of people (Socioeconomic buffer) while reducing the pressure on core areas. But in practice how well have these buffering effects been realized? How do these buffer zone function in different countries? What makes them sustainable?  
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Dear Babu,
in Turkey, regarding our coastal and marine protected areas, we have made some zonation and spatial plans. Unfortunately, almost all of these remain as recommendations. There has been no legal declaration of core and buffer zones, and related activity planning, which avoids people to realize buffering effects.
In the last few years, some no-take fisheries zones were declared in Turkey, which increased the catch quality around these zones (which can be considered as buffer zones). This was a way to realize the fishermen how a protected zone enhances ecological and economical sustainability.
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We are currently developing the project Road-kills (PTDC/BIA-BIC/4296/2012) funded by the Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (http://www.fct.pt) of Portugal about technology implementation for amphibian road-killed detection using robotic computer-vision techniques.
 
We contact you for your possible experience in identifying amphibians and kindly request your help in making a small online test. This test does not take long time. Time is a scarce resource for all of us.
 
As you know, roads have multiple effects on wildlife like animal mortality, habitat and population fragmentation, and modification of animal reproductive behaviour. Amphibians in particular, due to their activity patterns, population structure, and preferred habitats, are strongly affected by traffic intensity and road density and die massively on country roads.
 
Monitoring road-kills is expensive and time consuming, and depend mainly on volunteers. Therefore, cheap, easy to implement, and aut