Science topic

# Wildlife Conservation - Science topic

For students, professors, researchers, and practicioners in wildlife conservation.
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Hello everyone,
I am facing a problem that I cannot solve at the moment. I want to calculate a population size (small mammals) and my choice fell on the Jolly-Seber model. Everything is clear as far as the calculation is concerned. My problem at the moment is the data. The season is from April to October. During this time, traps are set and nest boxes are checked at undefined intervals (but the nest boxes are always checked monthly). The animals are tagged and released. My data range from 2019 to 2022.
The problem at the moment is the data base. Do I calculate the population size from survey to survey, e.g. April 2019 to May 2019, then from May to June, from June to July and so on, or can I calculate from year to year? Then I could look at how many individuals were captured and tagged in 2019, how many of those individuals were recaptured in 2020, how many were added in 2020 and so on until 2022.
Then I could theoretically calculate the population size from year to year or based on 2019 (which individuals from 2019 were also captured in 2022?).
My question is whether this calculation is possible from year to year or whether I have to calculate from session to session within a season? Between the seasons is winter, during which the animals hibernate. An individual caught in 2019 could be caught again in 2022!
Calculating from year to year seems to make more sense to me and is much more bearable, especially when preparing the data - although this plays a subordinate role.
Cheers
Perhaps calculate population size both ways -- estimates from monthly data, estimates from annual data. Then one can see the variation of the estimates, reflecting either sampling limitations, variations in the animals' behavior, or actual population variations.
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The local human cost of wildlife conservation
No, the poor living around protected areas should not disproportionately bear the burden of wildlife conservation. In many cases, these communities have lived in close proximity to wildlife for generations and have developed traditional practices for coexisting with wildlife. However, conservation efforts can often result in restrictions on land use and access to natural resources, which can negatively impact the livelihoods and well-being of these communities.
It is important to ensure that conservation efforts are implemented in a way that takes into account the needs and rights of local communities, and that they benefit from conservation activities. This can be done through a variety of approaches, including:
1. Community-based conservation: Involve local communities in conservation planning and decision-making, and ensure that they receive benefits from conservation activities, such as income from eco-tourism or improved access to resources.
2. Compensation and livelihood support: Provide financial compensation or alternative livelihood support to communities that are negatively impacted by conservation efforts.
3. Education and awareness-raising: Educate local communities about the importance of conservation and the benefits it can bring, and raise awareness about their rights and the support available to them.
4. Sustainable resource management: Encourage sustainable resource management practices, such as agroforestry, that can provide local communities with income and resources while also promoting conservation goals.
By ensuring that conservation efforts are equitable and benefit local communities, it is possible to build support for conservation and reduce conflicts between wildlife and people. This will not only help protect wildlife and ecosystems, but also promote sustainable development and improve the well-being of local communities.
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The majority of medicinal plants are obtained from wild resources, making them a worldwide valued resource. Destructive harvesting usually leads to resource exhaustion and even extinction of species. As a result, the long-term usage of medicinal herbs should be considered, as should good harvesting procedures. What techniques and methodologies ensure that medicinal plant resources are conserved and used sustainably?
In-situ and ex-situ conservation is the best solution for the conservation and sustainable management of medicinal plants but community awareness is also important. In most cases, the medicinal plants are collected by untrained or unprofessional local shepherds, plant collectors, some local traders, and even schoolchildren. They do not know even the plant part used as medicine and active ingredients and collecting/harvesting the plant's irrational ways like if the medicinal part of the plant is leaves, instead of collecting some leaves they cut the whole plants; if the active ingredients or medicinal part of the plant is root then they uproot the plant before seed setting which is the major reason of poor regeneration and sustainability of the plant resource in a certain area. There is thus a need first to identify the people who are involved in plant collection the to provide them training on the proper time of harvesting and collection techniques sustained without degrading the basic resources. There should be a clear-cut government policy on medicinal plant collection and trade following sustainable harvest and management principles.
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I need the names of the top journals related with wildlife conservation or birds.
I strongly agree with Ht. Decemson. There is no "best" journal for these species/topics. - It depends on whatever you have and need. Do not only rely on the IF.
There are a lot of specific "wildlife" or "conservation" journals
Journal of Wildlife Management
European Journal of Wildlife Research
Human-Wildlife Interactions
Wildlife Research
Mammalian Biology
Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Conservation Biology
Biological Conservation
Wildlife Biology
Journal of Wildlife and Biodiversity
Wildlife Society Bulletin
Wildlife Monographs
...
Same in Birds!
Avian Biology
...
However, it is also possible to publish in journals like "Science of the Total Environment".
You can try to find relevant journals here:
There you can sort for topics!
Best
Oliver
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The world is changing and humans are the main reason for the change. Because of human activity, we are heading into the sixth mass extinction. The human population is growing very fast and now if we take any radical step then the whole system will collapse. Though for Wildlife conservation we need to make bold steps.
So how successful we will be in wildlife conservation?
Everything in the world is relative. In some areas, wildlife has almost disappeared due to overpopulation and the lack of necessary measures to protect the environment.
Others, such as in Russia, have preserved vast wild territories where no human foot has set foot due to the demographic crisis. Grandiose projects are being created for the development and settlement of Siberia, the Far East and the Far North.
I think that with the right scientific approach to environmental problems, nothing terrible will happen and wildlife will be sufficiently preserved. And why else are countless environmentalists and conservationists well funded?
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Relevant work under these branches,
Field equipment,
Qualitative & Quantitative findings
Constructive suggestions or measures. (Thank you).
When you do ethology studies you certainly need to use a similar approach, technique and tools. When working in the daytime you might use a sunshade - but then need to use the same shade also in other localities.
The same goes for night time work, if lights are used for lets say mating frogs or salamanders, the same numbers of lights should be used on subsequence sites. Else the estimate of the size of the population will be squeved, even worse they get attracted to the light and try to create new domains near the light with new territorial fights.
Extreme example: In the crowded conditions if front of the lights. Females getting jumped asking the male to bugger off (release call) other males getting stressed up by the crowded conditions and start to do the multitask call, while you hear a chorus of territorial, aggression, attack and dominance calls - which could end making a wrong assessment of the behaviour of a species which actually live a very orderly social life. But the researcher disturb this, and then send in a report of one unusually aggressive and competitive species.
I actually did get to see this situation just some weeks ago, and was extremely confused as newly arrived at the site - meaning I had not caused it myself.
The reason for the local civil war among these frogs was that the ice and snow had melted on the most attractive part of the small lake - so they had moved over and restarted the process of drawing new borders between their territories.
Where one alpha male insisted on trying to define his territory in the most attractive spot making attacks up to 5 meters in every direction - interestingly his attack call was, 'quack quack' - which might sound very stereotype for a frog.
But the attack call for this species is supposed to be 'honk honk' (but still two times), now I also will have to figure out if there's 'dialects' or there's varieties of this species that have different calls. Well that's what make it fun with a frog that no other have studied before. =)
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I’m looking for literature/advice regarding how to implement a bird survey (abundance/density estimation) in areas/habitats with dense vegetation and rough terrain, like tropical rain forest. It seems to me, that point-counts are the method that best fits such conditions. However, what kind of sampling designs should I implement in order to meet the statistical requirements? That is, in very mountainous areas locating the points randomly or systematically (neither there is apperent stratification) seems almost impossible because of the logistical difficulties of accessing and locating the selected sites. The only viable alternative seems to be to follow trails already present in the area and to locate the plots (with a first random point) along the paths, every 250 m or so. Additionally, I think that some points can be located at both sides of the trails (walking 250 m on either side of the trails may be feasible at some points). However, this “design” seems to violate the assumption of randomness in selecting the sample units. Any comments or suggestion of alternative design will be welcomed.
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Hi, I am a Biodeserts PhD student working on socio-economics in deserts. We developed a survey about wildlife conservation and community development in Sahara-Sahel, North Africa. We would be very thankful if you can answer the survey and share it among your family and friends: https://forms.gle/T2FkYpMEfhU9o8gFA.
Hi, you need to be careful about your sampling method as asking people to fill up your survey like this may introduce multiple confounding variables to your study!
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In this case, forest rangers (Respondent 1-Quantitative Data) and local community (Respondent 2-Qualitative Data) in a protected area.
No idea
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Aware that managed breeding is still a controversial issue, I believe that one conservation endeavor should not discard the other or worse, antagonize the other based on personal opinion or theoretical discipline gain. In situ and ex situ have both proven to be necessary to avoid extinction of critically endangered species.
I could cite several examples but one should be representative for all: the Arabian Oryx (Oryx leucoryx). Extinct in the wild but some individuals breeding in Zoological Parks. Today the Arabian Oryx is reintroduced successfully in former range areas and numbers in the wild are increasing. Why leave managed breeding as "the last resource"? And when is the time to put in action "the last resource"?
There are conservationists who cannot tolerate the extinction of a species for anthropogenic causes and believe that intervening on specific species is a responsibility. There are others who consider a species better extinct than detached from its habitat, even partially. Discussion can go on forever…but no one can ascertain the future of our Planet with 100% certainty and state which solution is the best.
There is a problem with this question. Conservation does not need to be binary and by having these terms in-situ and ex-situ can limit ones thinking. A fertile area of conservation is the area at the interface of these terms. Many free-living populations of animals are now managed using techniques that would typically be used to manage captive animals. Hence Kakapo are managed on islands that they have been put on and many species are given additional food or provided with safe nesting sites, such as nest-boxes.
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Hi! I am working on bats. I am eager to mount low cost, light weight, long battery life navigation devices. I will also mount ibutton temperature and humidity sensor along with navigation device. The purpose of attaching navigation and temperature sensor to bat is to 1) measure temperature at the level of bat in the canopy of roost tree. 2). navigation device help recover temperature sensor in case temperature sensor is lost and also help track bats foraging areas. Requirement for temperature sensor and navigation device is 1) light weight (20-40gm) Measure temperature (-20 to+80) Humidity Measurement (95% RH to 100% RH) Extended battery life (>5 Years). I found out these devices Remora 2 (GPS 4G) https://www.digitalmatter.com/Devices/4G-GPS-Tracker-Devices/Remora2 and Ibutton Temperature Senor https://www.embeddeddatasystems.com/DS1923-F5--Hygrochron-Temperature-Humidity-iButton_p_101.html
Please suggest any better option for meeting my research objectives?
Yeah! But they are quite expensive. I am looking for similar GSM/GPS devices with local network coverage.
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Consumption of wild animals is bound with the rural economy in developing countries. Sometime, demand for Wild Animal Foods (WAF) is very high in developed countries too.
However, experts think the Coronavirus transmitted from live animals to human through the food. If this is a truth, impacts of consumption of wild animals on Global Economy is significant, and enforcement of lows at international level is essential to control this.
I would like to discuss about the feasibility of enforcement of lows at national and international level to control WAT.
Most of published recommendation I am reading are related to the ban of wild meat consumption. These proposals neglects the cultural aspects and the well-being outcomes associated to subsistence hunting, and do not take into account the importance of hunting on protein provision in disenfranchised communities for example. This could be understood as a colonialist recommendation with a high probability to be ineffective in tropical developing countries. We need to find some balance between wildlife consumption regulation and the rights of traditional people. We are in a tricky moment, where it is very easy to let the rope break on the weaker side. Conservation amd decision makers should include local leaders and indigenous people in this discussion to increase the legitimacy of any recommendation.
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Hi everyone,
I have an issue and I'm hoping you can give me possible solutions or some advice. I, and two other co-authors, had an accepted paper (since 2019 October) in a great wildlife journal that has an open access condition (== it is necessary to pay a fee). At the time of manuscript submission, I was in another institution that was willing to pay my fee slice (1/3, == U\$ 520). Now, I'm in another institution that doesn't have this kind of support. I now have 2/3 of the fee, I contacted the journal and explained all this, and they don't care (in fact). So, we are now wondering to change the manuscript submission to another journal (without needed payment) and start the process all again. We did not sign any license yet. (1) Could you indicate a wildlife journal with not too long a submission process? (2) Do you think if I wrote that it was an accepted manuscript in the cover letter the process could be shorter?
Thank you all
I think you can withdraw from acceptance, its your right because you have not signed any type of agreement. For withdraw of paper you have valid reason. You should send two reminders and third final reminder
as an information for no corresponding in future.
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A general discussion on the approach to making children aware that wildlife is on the verge of extinction, and what their generation can do to try and slow this process
There is no substitute to taking children on field trips to wildlife conservation projects.
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The Apo Island conservation project is an example of how a scientist was able to work with local fishermen to educate them about the need for a marine sanctuary. Details at:
Here's an excellent article on why indigenous languages must feature more in science communication.
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Looking for info (articles, papers) about sustainable wildlife use. Anyone?
Sustainable ecotourism (wildlife tours) = Sustainable wildlife use
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I want to measure the relative usage of riparian corridors and measure how pressures, like vineyards and vineyard fence types, outside the corridor affect the diversity and density of the wildlife species using the corridors.
The types of vineyard fencing being: high exclusion, no fencing, and whether we can determine how trellises affect diversity, density, and use.
My advisor wants to know how I'd tell who is migrant and who is a resident.
Other than visually, using genetic testing, or tagging, I'm not sure how I'd be able to determine who was a migrant using the corridor and who found it to be a suitable habitat (enough to reside there permanently). A friend of mine said mentioned a statistical analysis one can do that basically assumes who falls into what category, but I can't find an example of the analysis.
Anyone have some ideas? It would be greatly appreciated.
You need seasonal data about the species diversity in the study areas connected by the corridors. Residents tend to remain in the area studied throughout the year while the migrants will move in seasons. This process of thorough observation requires patience. All the best!
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My name is Hairul from Selangor, Malaysia, 36 years old, 175cm, 66kg. I am looking for an opportunity to further study in PhD level. Any body here looking for a PhD student in research field such as wildlife management, conservation biology or life sciences. So far my expertise on breeding assessment, exitu management, terrapins/turtles, ecology and conservation.
apply in wwf
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Recent scientific literature refers to the North American elk (wapiti) as either Cervus elaphus or Cervus canadensis. Has this debate been settled?
If you want to get confused by wrong answers, then ask questions about taxonomy and/or nomenclature to people who are not taxonomists.
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I am looking for incidents of this behavior in the literature, or from government agency reports. Links and citations would be most helpful.
We received lots of great feedback from reviewers and from others in the marine mammal field and are glad we could provide some insight to other divers.
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I need to calculate phylogenetic diversity (PD) of many different areas. I found some ways to calculate it, but couldn't decide on which way is better. If anybody has any idea about it please let me know.
Tucker et al (2016) wrote a very comprehensive review on the available metrics up to their publication along with all kinds of question that could be answered with what metrics. It is freely available here:
Another update on the concept of using phylogenetic information that I find quite useful to understand what kind of metrics you need:
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I am seeking statistics on the frequency of bat deaths associated with wind turbine operations. I am also seeking information on the type of features associated with high rates of bat mortality, any regulatory setbacks or other measures to reduce mortality and the efficacy of mitigation measures implemented to reduce mortality like reduce cut-in speeds.
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I'd be happy if you could point me towards literature that develops models with macroeconomic variables and an explicit representation of biodiversity, or at least one representative species.
Dear Max,
Please check these useful PDF attachments.
Good luck
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With a focus mainly on marine mammals, but also other fauna
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Are there papers or studies on conservation vs. conservation conflicts and how to avid and/or manage them? Here in Bulgaria we have at least two such conflicts, where actions to conserve one conservation dependent species are not in favour to other or even worse may further threaten it. For example conservation of the wolf in Bulgaria (especially legislation changes) could lead to illegal actions against wolf (e.g. poison baits use), which do not affect the wolf that much, but are absolutely dangerous to vultures and eagles. This conflict passes through the man-wolf conflict though. The other example is the conservation of the European Suslik (Spermophilus cittelus), which requires well grazed (even may be overgrazed) grasslands to recover and sustain and its conservation, restoration and abundance is fundamental for several other species (e.g. Saker Falcon, Imperial Eagle etc.), but the general nature lovers and botanists are against heavy grazing and keeping grassland in best condition for Susliks. So here is a Conservation-Conservation conflict. To may opinin it should be measured on the base of Conservation value of the species involved, which is not always the case e.g. managers of the Central Balkan National Park in Bulgaria. Any references, notes or discussion will be appreciated.
The book mentioned above does not give an answer of your question.
Direct conflicts between endangered species present unique challenges to conservation. Solutions to conflicts between endangered species are difficult to apply as recent management plans are typically focused on individual species and recovery actions could directly oppose one another. Unfortunately, the multi-species recovery plans are still not well developed.
" Removing Protected Populations to Save Endangered Species "
" A framework for monitoring multiple-species conservation plans "
doi:10.2193/0022-541X(2005)69[1333:AFFMMC]2.0.CO;2
" Strongly interacting species: conservation policy, management, and ethics "
doi:10.1641/0006-3568(2005)055[0168:SISCPM]2.0.CO;2
"Conservation and conflict between endangered desert fishes"
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i have a plan to publish my manuscript in field of volunteering in wildlife and conservation education. I need a (some) collaboration. if you run with this issue, feel free to contact me.
thank you.
We do quite a bit on conservation education in Scotland: https://www.snh.scot/professional-advice/education
And on volunteering:
Hope these are of use.
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I am helping the American Forest Foundation look for successful behavior change programs with measured impacts that have involved one or more of these characteristics, preferably with audiences that were  rural and mostly over 65 years old.
We’re looking for programs in the following subject areas, but would consider other areas as well.
·        Climate change mitigation
·        Coastal and marine conservation
·        Landscaping and pesticide use
·        Sustainable agriculture
·        Wildlife conservation and species at risk
Hi Jay
There are many theoretical and practical applications for the behaviour change programs for wildlife conservation and species protection, yet we have to examined practical validity of those application specially in the developing context.   Barrett, C. B., & Arcese, P (1995) have done research about “sustainability of integrated conservation-development projects (ICDPs). On the conservation of large mammals in sub-Saharan Africa”. As they explained “Initiatives to link rural development and species conservation, known as integrated conservation-development projects (ICDPs), have been launched with considerable fanfare and funding around the world. Although ICDPs hold appeal as broader ecological efforts than the conservation and development strategies that preceded them, they also suffer conceptual flaws that may limit their appropriateness and potential sustainability, at least when applied to the protection of large African mammals”. I am sending that research paper for your need, herewith as an attachments
Regards
Dr. Kumara
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Can wild life suitability map be co-related with summer temperature data?
For specific wildlife species, summer temperature may be conducive/predictive.
See attached
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Environmental aspects of mining.
How drilling and blasting in mining area surrounded by forest effects the wild life habitat?
can by blast  noise travels upto ....10 km or 20 km.???....( can any one have idea)
Downstream  of drainage system will be effected due to washing of ores? to what extent it effects of wildlife due to running polluted streams inside forest ?
how the running of trucks ( loading and dipatch) effects wild life?
how mining dust effects the flora and its photosynthesis?
can any one have any idea ( reference) of wild life habitat risk modelling  due to open cast minning
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I'm writing a report for an assignment on the animal welfare issue regarding the rehabilitation of grey squirrels here in the UK. I'm trying to find sources of information from both sides of the argument and one point that I'm struggling to argue for is why we should, one of the points I'm trying to elaborate on is this question.
The short answer is 'no'. A longer answer is as follows: Species naturally change their ranges over time, usually just by small amounts - invading areas contiguous with where they lived before - but sometimes by long-distance dispersal even across ocean gaps. Monkeys reached South America from Africa, presumably by rafting on trees washed out to sea, for example. Over 30 million years [please check that number!] they have radiated into many new species, adapted to their new environment, and their competitors (sloths, marsupials etc.) and predators. Clearly they are now native, and so will the descendants of grey squirrels in Europe be after 30 million years. So 'yes', at some point between 0 and 30 million years. Where you draw the line is pretty arbitrary. Is the dingo native in Australia after 4000 [again check!) year? No, but it is on its way: genetically and behaviorally distinct from the dogs that came with people, but still the same species.
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I am currently investigating how the abundance and diversity of food arthropods of sage-grouse are influenced by various land uses. Ultimately and as land management tools, I would like to generate some predictive models (as simple as possible) which use site characteristics (i.e., plant species, bare ground, sagebrush, etc.) to assess food arthropod abundance and diversity. I am looking forward to hearing any suggestions on how best to approach this research topic.
I like logistic regression, which gives you probabilities of finding an organism given certain ecosystem attributes.  If sagebrush cover is 30% and soil type is x, then the probability of finding these arthopods would be y.  It's often used in epidemiology, but has been used in ecology too.
Alternatively, quantile regression is a good tool to see what is happening at the extremes of the ecosystem.
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Are there examples from Europe where winter feeding of red deer has been reduced or eliminated? North American elk (Cervus elaphus) have been fed supplemental hay rations during winter months at the National Elk Refuge (NER) in Jackson Hole, Wyoming since 1912. We are exploring options to reduce reliance on supplemental feeding at NER, but there are very few examples in North America where this has been attempted. Any information from Europe where winter feeding of red deer has been reduced or eliminated would be appreciated.
Supplemental feeding here in Scotland is certainly a hugely divisive issue. It is used not only to improve stock quality, but also as a measure to reduce grazing on key habitats such as native woodlands and blanket bog land. Many however see it as a tool to mantain herd populations well above what is considered to be the maximum ecological grazing capacity of the land.
Here in Scotland the grazing guidance is that populations do not exceed the 50% of maximum threshold for grazing across a specified area. Unfortunately given the way hinds and stags heft across the landscape, seasonal weather conditions and competition from domestic animals such  as sheep and cattle, very often this threshold is overtaken by circumstance.
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In my research activity I am increasingly including the analysis of Ecosystem Services and their perception. Indeed, despite having studied dozens of papers and grey literature during my student career, I have found few textbooks. I am looking for a text that summarizes the state-of-the-art about ES and the techniques for their monetary and non-monetary evaluation. Is there any?
Some aspects of ecosystem services by insects such as ants has been dealt with in my publication:
RASTOGI, N. (2011) Provisioning services from ants: food and pharmaceuticals. Asian Myrmecology 3, 103–120
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I am aware that some sort of mats are used but what kind and where would i find them?
Corrugated iron mats are preferable over roofing when catching snakes, the latter being used predominately for lizards. The attached document highlights some useful information in regards to the best time to look for reptiles, although conditions are likely to vary to those in the UK.
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These samples are meat balls with some structures. The idea is someone that work with taxonomy of caterpillars. I have photographies of these samples and if someone have interest, I could send these images.
Thanks.
Thanks Dear Latifan, I ´ll check yours articles and I hope that be useful!
Dear Pires, thank you so much too.
Best regards.
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I am interested in how to classify activity measurements from GPS collars for kangaroos.
Thanks Wendy
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I'm trying to ascertain the actual rate of morbidity/mortality resulting directly or indirectly from the use of instrumentation on free-ranging animals.  Most 'negative' results are not published.  I'd like to assess the scale of this gap in our knowledge to improve procedures.  If anyone has anecdotal information or can suggest sources I'd be very grateful.  Thanks.
Oups, my apologies for missing the s! I am sorry to hear that conservation efforts came to a halt. Sadly, it won't be the first ones doomed by lack of political will and law enforcement...
As for the communication of your results, pre-prints can be an option if you want to discuss your methods and findings in more details with the community.
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So far I have some estimates from Lotek, Holohil Systems, and ATS. I would love to hear personal experiences about these and any other company's products.
I'm also curious if anyone has some insight into tracking a species that is known to burrow in mud and how the signal might work...
Thanks :)
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I found these two vertebra in the collections of the Cuban Museum of Natural History, whithout information.
Independent of the scale that probably is in inches??. The upper one seems to be part of the dorsal vertebrae of a beaked whale. The lower one seems to be a vertebra of a mysticete, probably of the genus Balaenoptera.
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I am designing a study on how to establish a carrying capacity of an isolated habitat for the African elephants. The habitat support also the existence of giraffes, bushbucks, sitatunga, suni antelopes, chimpanzees, ververt monkeys, and black and white colobus monkeys. I need to know what are parameters required to be known and associated models. Welcome  for improving my study. Thanks.
Simon,
You asked a very understandable question - but unfortunately one to which there is no simple  answer - in fact there may not be any answer to it. The idea of "carrying capacity" is almost impossible to define as it has to be related to a set of desired goals. If your management goal is hands-off and aims to "let nature take its course" then there is no such thing as a human determined carrying capacity - populations should be allowed to rise and fall as they do. If you have very specific conservation goals to maintain certain species at certain densities or certain habitats in certain states then you will firstly need to define those goals (based on whatever subjective criteria the management authorities chose). From here you will probably either need a lot of site specific studies to understand processes so you can predict desired population levels (I guess of elephants in your case) or else adopt an adaptive management approach where you monitor the state of the environment (i.e. through some indicators) and the size of your elephant population and if a certain elephant population begins to have an undesired impact then you need to react using whatever management tools you have (if you have any in the case of elephants).
Hope this helps.
John
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I'm looking for published and unpublished informations on the effects on wildlife of the existence or creation / expansion of airports (apart from the bird strike problem). I'm especially interested in the consequences produced by the noise, air pollution and the existence of a network of roads connecting the airports on the density and reproductive success of animals in the surrounding areas. Is there anyone who can give me any suggestions?
HI again.
In the last years, from 2004 to 2015, there were monitoring works on the bird communities of the airports of the Canary Islands, but for the moment I don't know any publication about this subject, only "grey literature" (e.g. unpublished reports for AENA, the official agency for airports in the whole Spain).
Apart from this, it's interesting to say that in the spring 2015 there was a massive arrival of Red-footed Falcons (Falco vespertinus) here, on Tenerife, and from about 40 birds detected in the northern airport of the island (Los Rodeos) close to the half of them died due to aircraft collision, despite the efforts of the airport personnel to avoid the problem. Incredibly, the falcons used the airport because at the time there were many grasshoppers (Acrididae) and they perched in the floor to catch them, even when the aeroplanes were very close to them. Please, see this link about it:
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I would like calculate the percentage that it represent (extinction by hunting as unique or fundamental cause)from the total worldwide biodiversity
Rafael -
Nice question.  This is not an area of expertise for me, but as a retired statistician, I am wary of the way statistics are kept and interpreted, and like to be certain that this is considered. The attachments which Arvind supplied were very interesting with regard to your project, but we cannot take numbers at 'face value' without knowing how they were collected and understanding what they mean.  The second of his two attachments, at a glance, noted "background rates" of extinction, which apparently help you interpret the other numbers, so that seems like something important to understand.  I would also like to emphasize the importance of studying bias and variance for these estimates, and their exact meaning and data collection methodologies.  If such metadata were not discussed, they should be.

What occurred to me when I read your question is that when you look at a percent, such as extinctions from one cause as a part of all extinctions, you do have to have a good estimate, not only for extinctions due to that cause (hunting here), the numerator in your fraction, but also a good estimate of all extinctions, the denominator in your fraction of interest.
It is my understanding, or at least I've heard, that many species of plants, or maybe just bacteria or fungi, likely come into existence and later become extinct, without our ever even knowing about it.  But you may just be talking about animal species, which I would guess would be less likely to have such a problem on a large scale, though I would not know.  My point, however, is that if you mean you are looking at extinctions from one cause as opposed to all others for animals, or say, for animals in Cuba, you should say so.  It is important to define exactly what you are trying to count, and to discuss the factors which may impact the meaning and the accuracy and precision of your results.
Cheers - Jim
PS -  Among your obstacles is to know what species were present within your area of interest (scope) 500 years ago, and what actually did cause extinction.  There could be multiple factors to which extinction may be attributed. How will you count them?  Might you strive for an estimated percent where hunting was likely the major cause, and another estimated percent of cases where hunting was likely a contributing cause, for example?
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I would like to start to capture Myocastor coypus on its natural distribution, but I found few detailed references on how to deal with the animal in the field. Some information regarding traps size will be useful too.
Coypus is an agressive animal. In order to handle I suggest to used a plastic bag  with a cotton with anesthesia.
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I need to code the hairy-footedness of a large number of rodents for a statistical analysis. In most cases it is simple enough to code hairy-footed species as 1 and naked footed ones as 0; however, the following five species are described as intermediate in hairy footedness in different references. Furthermore, they are intermediate in different ways and to different degrees (see the description below), so each has to be considered separately. If I had to do a binary coding for this character, what is the more reasonable value (0 or 1) to be assigned to each of the species?
Gerbillus nancillus: “Soles of hind feet partly naked behind, with short hairs at level of the metacarpal bones” (Mammals of Africa, Kingdon et al, 2013) — "It is a relatively small gerbil with partially furred soles (posterior portion naked)", "an almost naked hindfoot sole (it is only partially haired in G.nancillus" (Mammals of Sub-Saharan Africa, Monadjem et al, 2015) — "Intermediate" (Lay, 1983)
Gerbillus nigerae: “[S]oles of hindfoot covered with hairs of variable length” (Mammals of Africa, Kingdon et al, 2013) — "These last three-mentioned species [G. henleyi, G. nancillus, G. nanus] also have naked or semi-naked soles of the hindfeet, which are completely haired over along their length in G.nigeriae" (Mammals of Sub-Saharan Africa, Monadjem et al, 2015) — "Intermediate"(Lay, 1983)
Meriones shawi: "Soles of hindfeet partly hairy" (Mammals of Africa, Kingdon et al, 2013) — “The sole of the hind feet is half covered with very fine fur” (Darvish, 2011)
Meriones tristrami: “Soles Partially covered with hair” (Mammals of Jordan, Amr, 2012) —“The sole of the hind feet is mainly hairy; the heel is bare with an irregular black line of demarcation” (Darvish, 2011)
Gerbillurus vallinus*: "Hairy footed gerbils" "soles partially furred" (Mammals of Africa, Kingdon et al, 2013) — "the anterior soles of the hindfeet are furred" (The Complete Book of the Southern African Mammals, Mills and Hes, 1997) —“Soles of hind feet of G. vallinus are naked from heel to the middle of the sole” (Dempster et al, 1999)
*I know it is called the brush-tailed hairy-footed gerbil, but unlike the other congeners that I have looked at the back half of the foot is described as naked).
Hi, I think you can do discriminant analysis using three groups of spécimen, FULLY, NAKED and MEDIUM.
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I am interested to undertake a study on determination of level of inbreeding in elephant population in an isolated habitat. The nature of study area is thick forest, hence collection of fecal samples  is the relevant approach to study Genetics of elephants. Anybody who is familiar and experienced in designing protocol of collection and analysis of DNA Fecal Samples. The population is not well known, population number is approximated 102 elephants. Thanks
You have to collect the fresh dung samples for better result. Fresh samples (less than 24 hours freshness) has higher DNA quality than older samples. But you can consider collecting 2/3 days old samples too. You have to collect the dung's outer layer and store in 95% ethanol.
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Does anyone know which season (months) is the most appropiate to study amphibians or its abundance in the temperate zones and the tropics? thanks!
Hi Liz,
It really depends on the species and life stages that you are interested in studying.
Adult anurans are generally very conspicuous during their breeding season while they call and migrate to wetlands.
Adult caudates are generally easier to sample during their breeding season with drift fences around a wetland.
Larvae of both anurans and caudates are readily sampled by dip-netting in late spring and early summer (and some species in winter!). But again, the species you catch at any time will change depending on what has bred earlier in the season and what has already hatched, metamorphosed and left the pond before you sample.
Even species that stay in the water year-round (some anurans, many stream salamanders, paedomorphic salamanders, neotentic salamanders) have seasonal patterns in detectability.  Siren lacertina activity in my study population are most active from January through September but are hard to catch in Oct/Nov/Dec. Amphiuma means in the same wetland are rarely captured outside of the spring/summer months (March-September).
If I was looking for a generality, I would say that terrestrial species are easiest to sample during rainy periods (as Mauricio Ocampo said for Bolivia) in the tropics as well as the temperate regions.  However, if there are multiple wet times across the season (often in temperate regions) I would expect to find different species across the year.
Hope that helps!
Cheers,
Tom
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I think that this completely depends on the photographer and the species.
In herpetological photography, many photographers move the subject into a place where it is more easily photographed. This not only disturbs the individual intentionally, but also causes unnecessary stress. More specialised photographers tend to aim for in-situ photographs, so possibly many of the issues are due to amateur photographers or tourists. There have been a lot of incidents over  the past few years of tourists striving for the "ultimate selfie" and hence injuring and (in some cases) killing the individual (such as the incident with the dolphin calf, shark, and python that were shared across social media).
The flash can also damage the eyes of noctural and marine animals. It is actually illegal in the UK to photograph a seahorse or interact with a seahorse due to the harm it can cause to the individual.
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Considering C-hat adjustment when looking at occupancy modelling analysis.
Briefly, my understanding of the c-hat parameter is that it is used to adjust for overdispersion, most commonly in count data. Because overdispersed data often violates the assumption of independence required in most modelling approaches, the variances can be biased low (i.e. precision is too high) if this lack of independence is not accounted for. C-hat functions as a “variance inflation factor” to adjust the precision of the parameter estimates and when used along with QAIC can be useful for model selection. This might be useful for occupancy modelling if you suspect spatial correlation of some kind.
I’d recommend checking out the 2002 book by Ken Burnham and David Anderson on Model selection and multi-model inference.
Cheers,
Paul
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Every day a vernacular landscape dies. Every day, the abusive exploitation of land is literally erasing the landscape so its occupants can no longer live from the land. This situation has provoked, among other things, the massive migration of refugees, the crisis in the quality of air and water, the downgrading of nourishment and wellbeing in general. Can we, as scientists, come to the rescue? How? What would you suggest to do on the small scale of your immediate community, or on behalf of humanity at large? Let's dream and then create together a plan of action, or many plans, according to the knowledge, discipline and training of each of us.
Below is a brief anthology of sharp and diverse definitions of landscape/nature to focus our reflection from diverse points of view.
Hey! I'm an optimist! Let's get to work together!
The protection of nature and landscape of today do not. It is the policy of the problem, the administrator and the administered. The need for action in symbiosis of all stakeholders allows the preservation of the environment and landscape. It must pass through mechanisms both at the political, legal and educational (environmental education). This topic requires multitudes and various literatures. See links.
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I am interested in reviewing the topic of small mammal mortality within discarded bottles, and information available is severily biased towards the northern hemisphere and in developed countries (USA and Western Europe). Does anyone has information from tropical areas? or from other continents?. This is surpising to me, because I know that discarded bottles is a aproblem worldwide (result of human development). There is information of discarded bottles as a potential source for some diseases like dengue or malaria (the rain water contained in bottles allow mosquitoes to lay their eggs). But nothing about small mammals dead inside bottles.
Thanks
Related my field experience setting traps, the rodent communities in Southeast Asia are mainly dominated by big rodents (i.e.: genus Rattus, Bandicota), so probably bottles cannot act as trap for adult individuals.
I have not seen areas with discarded bottles, probably as they are collected to sell (glass and plastic), probably not happening this in the Northern hemisphere.
Probably this two factors can contribute in some way to this bias of information.
And L. Mike Conner comment can also be right.
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I work on the 100% renewable power Global Grid subjects. I am interested in the locations of very large and large renewable power plants.
During my research, I define and describe the importance of the soil conservation regions, water conservation regions and forest conservations regions. These regions have to be untouchable (no settlement, no concrete, no metal, etc.; soil conservation only for agriculture, water conservation only for clean fresh water, forest conservation only for forests). These regions should be large and very large sites.
I thought and assumed that the international governing bodies (e.g. the United Nations) had already worked on these topics, defined, decided, and published a Global Soil Conservation Map (worldwide protected sites)‏, a Global Water Conservation Map‏ (protected lakes, rivers, underground water, etc.)  and a Global Forest Conservation Map (protected forests) for large protected areas agreed upon and published by international consensus (like by the United Nations).
All authorities (regional, national, international) have to obey the borders of these defined and published large protected areas.
I could not find any official map (a map for soil, a map for water, a map for forest) yet.
Can you please send me a Global Soil Conservation Map‏, a Global Water Conservation Map‏ and a Global Forest Conservation Map, if there is one for Global Soil Conservation‏, one for Global Water Conservation and one for Global Forest Conservation.
If there are GIS files for these maps in some formats such as for Google Earth, ESRI ArcGIS, they will be very useful for my research.
I would like to thank all of you who contribute to this question in advance.
Best Regards
Burak Omer Saracoglu
Hi Burak,
you might find activities of ISRIC - World Soil Information of your interest. Especially their data can be useful for your research (global 1km soil grid, etc.)
Regards
Lukas
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GPS collar
Animal ecology
home range
wildlife
I agree with most of what have been said. As much as I find spatial analysis in R convenient, it is challenging and tricky as a newcomer to get started with R on spatial data. I think that you should know what (and how) you would want to do process your data manually, e.g. in any GIS software, and then you should start thinking about doing batch data processing in R. As such, you will be able to understand what R is doing (in the best case), why the output is not as expected, and you should anyway check the data prior and after the processing in a GIS (or similar such as ZoaTrack) tool.
Unfortunately, often enough I found bugs in the algorithms, even in established software like ArcGIS and R packages, that I prefer to check results very thoroughly based on a randomized sampling principle. Of course, the amount of data coming from GPS collars is often so vast, that you'll not be able to check all of it, however it's better to run tests with a selection of data and check the results instead of "blindly" trusting the processing software. Believe me, you'll sometimes be surprised by the flaws of certain established processes.
As movement ecologists, we find it a pity that most of the data collected through (still quite expensive) GPS collared animals is still simply "analysed" by calculating home ranges and drawing some lines on a map. Movements of animals and the degree of quality and quantity of data collected bears so much more potential for research and ecological insight in animal behavior and ecosystem processes...
I hope that you'll enjoy your work with animal movement data. It's an amazing topic!
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Poachers and wildlife traffickers are targeting newly discovered species of value by reviewing reported findings made to scientific journals. In response, many journals are removing location details from papers.
This is a same problem that most conservation, taxonomic, photographers are encountering in Facebook groups platforms. In Facebook groups or page, it is easier to regulate since there is an Admin/s per group or page therefore the entry of guests and members is known and identified by administrator. in the Case of RG, I agree with Jean that it is very difficult to regulate admission of the poachers. However, RG provides every account the data (Stats) who interacted, read, download, or request your paper. Perhaps, the regulation will depend on every authors who uploaded their paper.
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If a tagged fish is predated by another fish, for how long time is the tag retained in the stomach of the predator? Are there any published studies? Anything on salmon smolts and in-river predation?
Without having gone through all of the suggested studies above: For some fish species in aquaculture evacuation speed has been examined since it is closely related to appetite. It is though slightly different for fish in culture since their feed is more "efficient" than wild prey. The evacuation rate is dependent on temperature and fish size (and type of fish) and In a report I have the author (Alanärä 2002, pelletologi - läran om fiskens foder) combined data from two earlier studies (Ruhonen 1994 (Gastrointestinal responses of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to dry pellet and low-fat herring diets: consequences for growth, feed utilisation and nutrient load into the water. PhD-thesis) and Grove et al 1978 (Satiation amount, frequency of feeding and gastric emptying rate in Salmo gairdneri. J. Fish Biol.,5: 507-516.) and constructed an equation to calculate evacuation rate for Rainbow trout that has not been published in any reviewed paper unfortunately. The model is based on rather few data points but might give a hint on what you are after. If you are interested I can send you the report. Good luck!
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The shift in production of Crocodilian skins from all wild harvests in the early 1980s to captive breeding and ranching in the late 1990's is often hailed as a massive conservation success.
However recent data shows that since 2004, wild harvests have massively increased to around 400,000 in 2012, whilst ranching has fallen to around 50,000 and captive breeding remained around 900,000.
Does anyone know why this is as I have struggled to find an answer in the literature? Focus seems to be on the trade pre 1999 before wild harvests began to increase again.
Thanks
Interesting question. Perhaps there were multitude factors influencing supply and demand. You refer to precise timing for "the global recession" but perhaps there were earlier economic changes in various countries where wild harvests increased. And/or the methods for detecting wild harvests might have been enhanced? Likely accuracy of estimates might not be comparable for the three categories Presumably a huge challenge to quantify trade (often illegal) of wild harvested skins and not necessarily easy for captive and ranching categories. Good luck with teasing out the details.
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Hi,
I have been using the IUCN website (http://www.iucnredlist.org/) recently and they claim to be the largest conservation organisation in the world. Does anyone have any idea as to their effectiveness?
Aside, does anyone have any ideas as to the appropriateness of the Red List Categories (EX, CR, VU, etc.) and their respective criteria? If anyone has any ideas for any additional criteria or any alterations they feel appropriate, I would be very interested to know.
Thank you for the help in advance!
Matthew
The IUCN critera and categories are well established and useful to enable us to compare within and between all groups of living beings, but for plants the criteria have proved to be of limited application as more often than not the information available regarding populations, generation time etc. are lacking, so we use herbarium specimens by proxy. Taylor, working in Brazilian Cacti (in Taylor & Zappi 2004) looked into Farjon & Page (1999), working in Gymnosperms, and attempted to give weights to different characteristics, such as Phylogenetic distinction (PD), Ecological Importance (EI), Genetic Diversity (GD). The formula used IUCN categories of threat x (PD scores + EI scores + GD scores). It was quite an interesting exercise, trying to refine further the IUCN categories, looking to prioritize species conservation. However, it is only as good as the data we have in hand!
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I’m hoping that some of may you have experiences on fallbacks and if there are any mitigating actions to be done, that you would like to share. We have done a study on early vs late migrators and seen that the fallback rates are much higher among the salmon in the early run. Now, the fish are released, after being caught in a fish trap at the first powerplant and then trucked passed them, about 20km above the dam , and the fish I call fallbacks then turn downstream and pass or dies at the powerplant. Is there anything to do? Would it help to release them further up? Or keeping them in a bag for a while before releasing them? Or would a fence or diverter work?
Dear Anna;
My experience is that the closer to spawning time, the more willing Atlantic salmon are to migrate. You may remember (Jonsson et al. 2007) showing how time of upstream migration to the spawning grounds was related to water flow in the river. The more water in summer and early autumn, the earlier the fish ascended the river. But (1) migration stopped at very high discharges and (2) large fish needed more water to ascend upstream than smaller ones (see also Jonsson et al. 1990). Furthermore, Tetzlaff et al. (2008) reported that number of Atlantic salmon entering the Girnok Burn, Scotland on a given day was related to patterns of discharge over the preceding part of the arrival period. In wetter years, fish entry to the stream usually starts relatively early and continues throughout the pre-spawning period. In contrast, dry years may result in fish entry being delayed. Thus, Atlantic salmon appears more motivated to migrate towards the spawning grounds late than early in the season. I have similar experience from upstream migration of anadromous brown trout (Jonsson & Jonsson 2002). Thus, my hypothesis is that fallbacks can be reduced by delaying the upstream migration of the fish. This assumes, however, that the the fish migrated downstream as smolts from the area of the river where you would like them to return. Also, I would expect that fallbacks would be more common at extremely low and extremely high river discharges than at intermediate flows. It would be interesting if you have material to test this hypothesis.
References
Jonsson, B., Jonsson, N. Hansen, L.P. (2007) Factors affecting river entry of adult Atlantic salmon in a small river. -  Journal of Fish Biology 71: 943-956.
Jonson, N. Jonsson, B. (2002) Migration of anadromous brown trout in a Norwegian river. - Freshwater Biology 47: 1391-1401.
Jonsson, N,, Jonsosn, B. Hansen, L.P. (1990) Partial segregation in the timing of migration of Atlantic salmon of different ages. - Animal Behaviour 40: 313-321.
Tetzlaff, D., Gibbins, C., Bacon, P.J., Youngson, A.F., Soulsby, C. (2008) Influence of hydrological regimes on the pre-spawning entry of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) into an upland river. - River Research and Applications 24: 528-542.
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Example of a case study : When the "Grey wolf" was reintroduced into the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem in 1995, there was only one beaver colony in the park, said Doug Smith, a wildlife biologist in charge of the Yellowstone Wolf Project. Today, the park is home to nine beaver colonies, with the promise of more to come, as the reintroduction of wolves continues to astonish biologists with a ripple of direct and indirect consequences throughout the ecosystem. Cases of how the re-introduction of wolves , changed the river patterns significantly, is also a remarkable study!
Just a word of caution on terminology:
Reintroductions and Introductions are two very different issues: the former indicates the release of a taxon to an area where it was present in earlier - historical - times and later got extinct, whereas the latter indicates the release of an alien (allochthonous) taxon to a new area. The release of wolves to Yellowstone has been a reintroduction, but the release of South American coypus and North American grey squirrels to Europe or that of red foxes to Australia have been introductions. The former are positive operations - if properly conducted - and tend to restore pristine zoocoenoses, whereas the latter are quite negative operations as they tend to upset ecosystems.
In both cases you should expect consequences on the ecosystems, usually favourable in the first case, nearly always negative in the second case. The effects of weather and climate integrate with these consequences (or rather the other way round!).
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Shuklaphanta Wildlife Reserve (SWR) (305 sqkm) of Western Nepal, as a part of Terai Arc Landscape, the global priority tiger conservation landscape, has a significant role in tiger conservation. But the reserve also gets immense pressure of cattle grazing (nearly 20,000 livestock enter SWR daily) from nearby village which is affecting the potential of reserve as tiger habitat. Most of the cattle are unproductive. In many cases local also don't want to keep these unproductive cattle but nobody would buy it. In Nepal cow is regarded as holy animal and killing is not allowed. With no option, they free their animals which ultimately goes into Wildlife Reserve. The cattle population is increasing as unwanted breeding continues during free grazing. In this scenario how could we reduce cattle grazing pressure in SWR? Is there any successful examples from others protected areas?
I'm not sure if this is feasible but supplemental feeding (hay or other) of domestic ungulates is an option that is sometimes used in the US where there are wolves (similarly, water is sometimes provided to allow livestock to temporarily persist in an area where they otherwise could not in order to get them farther away from, for example, a denning wolf pack).  These can both very labor intensive and very costly but can help to solve immediate problems.   Long term solutions sometimes require changing land use patterns and that is very difficult if there is not social / community support.
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ID key for rodents and insectivores in europe
best source in Germany:
Jenrich, J., P-W. Löhr & F. Müller (2010): Kleinsäuger, Körper- und Schädelmerkmale, Ökologie. Verein für Naturkunde in Osthessen e. V. Fulda. 340 pages. ISBN 978-3-86568-147-8
(with excellent graphs ans photos)
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How to differentiate between scats of Red fox and palm civet?
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Hi Everyone. I would like to use occupancy to estimate density of a Pheasant species by using grid cell sampling. Do you have any experiences of doing this research? If you have, please help me to learn this method. Thanks.
MacKenzie and Royle have some great foundational works. An older but reliable source will also be Studies in Avian Biology No. 6.
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Google Grants provides 10000\$ per month for NGOs and charities to use on its adwords advertising program.
I've work with Google Grants for other areas like (animal shelters, etc), but I'm interested in knowing any real experience with wildlife conservation programs and its results.
Dear Miguel,
How to get this grant for NGO? It was interesting.
Thanks
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I am doing some work into conservation methods and how this can help with the population genetics of stocks of pacific salmon but the main conservation method i can find is hatcheries, i was wondering if anyone knew of other conservation methods ? and any great papers i should no be missing out of my work.
Thanks Tia
Hi Tia, there is a large body of work going back several decades, emanating from centres such as University of British Columbia, Vancouver (including mathematical models from Carl F Walters), and University of Washington, Seattle, also from Juneau, Alaska (SM Gende), and associated Fisheries research centers. Burnett et al (2007) comment on the need for habitat conservation, and Laetz et al. (2009, attached) on the implication of toxic chemicals in salmon declines. See also Prof Scott Hinch at UBC. I hope this will give you a start.  Best wishes, Julian
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Please help me with my University degree survey. It will only take a few minutes to fill this in. Everything is anonymous. Thank you!
Simple dichotomous variables severely limit the types of analyses you can perform. Is there any way you could change the Yes/No responses to a Likert scale? This would be a more robust method.
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The government of Mauritius has decided to have a culling of our endemic fruit bat Pteropus niger based on the ground that the population is exploding and that they are acting as a pest, devastating fruit trees. This decision goes against all scientific studies carried out in Mauritius. The culling has already started and they have killed thousands of bats so far. Despite online petitions sent to the government, the decision was not re-considered.
Does anyone know a strategy that might help protect this important species?
Unfortunately, this sounds more like a political rather than a scientific question. Politicians oblivious to science (something we in the US are coming to know all too much about) can do a great deal of harm, and there are limits to what can be done if there's no local political backlash against the policy. Appeals from international conservation organizations may have some effect, but their pleas are likely to be ignored if there's a strong local constituency in favor of culling.
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The SADs package in R enables fitting species abundance distributions through maximum likelihood models, which is intuitively attractive. However, it seems like the fortran program RAD written by Werner Ulrich enables testing of a greater number of models. Should I use RAD simply because it allows fitting a greater number of models?
Hi Harikrishnan,
I always recommend to use maximum likelihood estimation rather than simpler least square methods. The reason is that, as Dan has noted, least squares is only a form of maximum likelihood estimation with a very particular assumption about how the errors in your predictions (in our case, for instance, relative abundances)  are distributed. Most of the time this assumption is not made explicit. For instance, if you are fitting a rank-abundance plot through least squares, you are assuming that the error in your predicted abundances is normally and distributed with the same variance along all ranks, from the first ranked species to the last one... and this is too much to assume, in general!!! In addition, since  abundance data can be represented using different abundance plots (Preston like histograms, cummulative empirical distribution, probability densities, and rank-abundance plots), the afore-mentioned assumption is not independent from the type of representation you are using.
On the contrary, if you are using maximum likelihood, the assumptions of your model should be made fully explicit. According to maximum likelihood, all you have is the best probability of obtaining your abundance data under model assumptions, which is fully independent from the way you are representing your SAD. In addition, this allows you to reliably compare different models by using Akaike Information Criteria. And this is very good!
You can get some inspiration from our paper:
Ecology Letters, (2007) 11: xxx–xxx doi: 10.1111/j.1461-0248.2007.01127.x
The implicit assumption of symmetry and the species abundance distribution by David Alonso, Annette Ostling and Rampal Etienne.
Warm regards,
David.
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In order to minimize livestock depredation and agricultural field compensation  process and thus ultimately reducing human wildlife conflict.
Dear Abhinaya,
As others have already mentioned, there are many livestock insurance schemes in action around the world already. Please see these links to papers show-casing carnivore-related examples from the field. Some are conceptional, others evaluate experiences made.
Comprehensive reviews of the topic have been published by Philip Nyhus and Adrian Treves who have extensive experience with carnivore damage compensation schemes. For example, try access:
Nyhus, P.J., Fischer, H., Osofsky, S. and Madden, F. (2003) ‘Taking the bite out of wildlife damage: The challenges of wildlife compensation schemes.’ Conservation in Practice, 4(2) pp. 37-40.
Nyhus, P.J., Osofsky, S.A., Ferraro, P., Madden, F. and Fischer, H. (2005) ‘Bearing the costs of human-wildlife conflict: The challenges of compensation schemes.’ In Woodroffe, R., Thirgood, S. and Rabinowitz, A. (eds.) People and Wildlife: Conﬂict or Coexistence? Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 107-121.
Treves, A., Jurewicz, R.L., Naughton-Treves, L. and Wilcove, D.S. (2009) ‘The price of tolerance: wolf damage payments after recovery.’ Biodiversity and Conservation, 18(14) pp. 4003-4021.
Regards,
Florian
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Into the stomach Pleuroncodes sp. where found.
Great! Please keep me posted with your developments. I am interested to see what you find.
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I have two groups of species and four principal components of ecological niche space. I want to find (a single) the pairwise Mahalanobis distance in 4D space between the groups.
One simple solution for common data files (e.g. copy + paste from xls or txt):
Input: Four Variables as columns and observations as rows (sorted according to your predefined groups which are designated per Edit:Row colour/Symbol).
Menu:Statistics:MANOVA function gives out a table of pairwise comparisons with Mahalanobis distances as one option.
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Tiger conservation efforts in the last decade only. Which are some of the more reliable sites on the web to get the required info from about Tiger conservation efforts in India?
Dear Bodas,
Here are some thoughts on the subject.
In 1969, the Delhi Zoo director says that "The tiger is about to disappear! ". Tiger hunting is prohibited in 1970, but in 1973 the Project Tiger was launched by Indira Gandhi in India's national parks are transformed into reserves, which it is forbidden to access the heart, to reserve center breeding tiger. Buffer zones, where the authorities to regulate the passage, are arranged. The program works in the 1980s, the Indian authorities announce that tiger populations have more than doubled. However, the project ran out of steam after Gandhi's death in 1984 the popular pressures to exploit forests on local politicians reduce buffer zones, pressures especially heard that power is decentralized to New Delhi as populations grow Always demanding more space. The results of Project Tiger also criticized: counting tigers was done by the fingerprint identification legs, no precise method, and administrators tend to inflate their results to justify the money paid by the state.
References:
Panda magazine, op. cit., p. 15
Michael Nichols et Geoffrey C. Ward, op. cit., p. 25
John Seidensticker, Peter Jackson et Sarah Christie, Riding the tiger: tiger conservation in human-dominated landscapes, Cambridge University Press,‎ 1999, 383 p.(ISBN 9780521648356
In three years the tiger populations in the country have increased by 30%: it would be increased from 1,706 specimens 2010-2226 in 2014, according to a recent report.
Among the reasons for the improvement, the Minister has cited improved management of tiger reserves, intended to offer a habitat under protection and reduce contact between humans and animals, whose consequences are sometimes tragic. Today, 47 nature reserves, managed by the Project Tiger, covering some 50,000 square kilometers of Indian territory.
In this effort, are added those undertaken in the fight against poaching and smuggling of skins and body parts of tigers prized by the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. Between China, Thailand, Laos and Vietnam, there are nearly 6,500 specimens in captivity, and many are unfortunately high for their bodies and entertainment rather than conservation,
With my best regards
Prof. Bachir ACHOUR
• asked a question related to Wildlife Conservation
Question
I plan on using fecal samples to identify individuals within the study area. Within each grid cell I was planning on rather opportunistically hiking in good habitat, along animal paths, etc. As long as the effort is even across grid cells I am hoping that capture/recapture models will be effective? Concerning grid size, I know that probability of recapture is important, so is basing the cell size on the species' typical home range size appropriate? Thanks.
I am planning on conducting this research on giant pandas on a pretty small scale (focusing on the borders of Wolong Nature Reserve, perhaps with a 3km buffer on either side). Other research (telemetry studies) has resulted in an average home range size of about 7 square km in this area, using minimum convex polygon (MCP) methods. There is also pretty high spatial overlap in this species. So far I have been considering grid cells of 2.25 square km to ensure effective coverage (the terrain is extremely difficult), which would also result in a grid 2 cells deep on each side of the reserve, keeping with the 3km buffer.
On the other hand, perhaps this increases the chances of unneeded recaptures and the cell size could be increased to around 7 square km? This would also save greatly on time, which is a consideration. I am not sure which is more effective and what the trade-offs are when considering modelling/statistical analysis of the data later.