Science topic

Water Supply - Science topic

Water Supply is a source, means, or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)
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sure it is one of the crucial factor for development and stability grwoth. Sufficient clean water is essential to everyone’s well-being. Yet nearly 20% of the world’s population does not have ready access to drinking water and 40% lack sanitation facilities. The vast majority of these people are in developing countries and the United Nations have identified water use as a priority for international aid. Access to water is now recognised as a key issue in development and therefore will be highly measure factor to address key issues affecting ‘sustainable development. This will need a huge study briefing outlines the technological, social, economic and political issues influencing sustainable water use and examines the G20 role in helping to increase developing countries’ capacity in this area
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How do droughts and floods affect reservoir sedimentation and water supply? What are potential sediment management strategies and when they applicable?
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Both drought, and flood are the two main hydrologic hazards that mainly affects the supply and storage of water resources. Reservoir sedimentation is mainly caused by the deposition, and accumulation of fine sediments to the reservoir due to floods while, Water supply deficit is mainly associated with drought hazards.
The main mitigation measures to alleviate these problem are:-
1, appropriate soil-and water conservation practice/land use land cover practice/.
2,decrease the deforestation effect.
3,efficent reservoir operation, and Ground water recharge.
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USA lose trillions of treated drinking water annually (ASCE, 2017) and similar problems are highly observed in many urban water supply systems as well. In case of water distribution system there are several methodologies to find leakages such as using SONAR, sensors and UV rays. However, what would be the best alternative method in your suggestions to find the leakages quickly and effectively?
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There is no best fit it all method. Depending on local and circumstantial conditions (pressure, diameter, pipe material, intermittent service, availability of access points, ground conditions ...) the best one has to be selected. For this purpose I recommend reading this comparison of 24 methods:
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What is the scope of using an abandoned borewell (previously used for drinking water supply) for recharging groundwater through storm runoff created by rainwater? If yes, does this approach need any upgradation / adaptation?
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Without some treatment, stormwater seldom would meet desired drinking water quality, so injecting storm water could degrade the groundwater quality. If the stormwater could be treated to a suitable level before injecting, that would be preferable. Otherwise, the groundwater may need treatment if it becomes contaminated or less reliable relative to quality. It the groundwater uses are not close to the injection site, some filtration and quality improvement may be expected, but regular testing and/or treatment might still be needed. Understanding the types and amounts of contaminants likely in the land uses in the runoff waters might help determine how much success is likelyL and whether pretreatment and/or post treatment of injection or withdrawal waters are needed.
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I'd be thankful if you could recommend some good publications about determining the optimal number of employees in a water supply system using a system dynamics model.
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  • Journal of The Korean Society of Water and Wastewater 28(6):755-763
  • DOI:10.11001/jksww.2014.28.6.755
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The acceptable industry standards for water pressure is 140 kPa - 560 kPa. Domestic appliances operate under the intermediate pressure magnitudes. Topographic features and the increase of customer density cause deviations in water pressure throughout the supply system. In some cases, some water supply networks provide water in exaggerated high pressure to reach some customers in high altitude. This higher pressure accelerates the volume of water running out through unobserved leakages in supply system which results on microbursts of water pressure that may cause large scale failure and demands higher maintenance cost for water supply providers.
Dear researchers, what is your recommended solution to prevent these unnecessary pressure rise against transient scenarios?
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sometimes having a small pumping station for the high lat customers is beneficial.
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Towards a holistic water vision for national water and food security The discussion focuses on the analysis of comprehensive national water balances: underground and surface water "Blue Water", soil water reserves "Green water", and the net "Virtual Water" flux related to foodstuffs imports/exports; in order to conciliate in a sustainable way water resource supply with the whole demand, including food demand.
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Dear Prof Jamel Chahed
Appreciated you, for Very vital and interesting discussion, as far as the all evidences have showed that climate change would have adverse impact on world water resources and food production!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
Rising global food production has put pressure on freshwater resources, especially in countries with high growth rates of food demand.....
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For example: Iran falls within the Middle East arid zone, with some 13% of the country receiving less than 100 mm mean annual rainfall, an additional 61% receiving less than 250 mm and only 9% receiving more than 500 mm.
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Dear Colleagues,
Kindly guide
Suppose we want to calculate the monetary costs of the sediment retention services provided by natural vegetation for providing the clean drinking water supply to people, how to do that?
Regards
Gowhar Meraj
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Thank you very much for this sharing this essential piece of information.'
Sincerely yours
Gowhar Meraj
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Dear colleagues,
300 accessions of Dolichos lablab have been screened for drought tolerance in the green-house based on Augmented block design.
In this screening project, two consecutive experiments were conducted to involve 10 weeks each. In each experiment, the project involved drought inducing period by withholding water as well as water supplying period to induce plant recovery.
Both quantitative and qualitative data were collected during germination and seedling stage of the plants. The data included chlorophyll content, height of the plants, number of leaves, wilting%, overall wilting scales, recovery%, shifting and folding of leaves etc.
I would like therefore to request for your advice on the best approach on data analysis so that I can determine the best drought tolerant genotypes.
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the team I am working with and I are having a problem. It is a project in which we have to eliminate the bacteria that exist in a water supply. It is a must to remove them all because we do not want to face following problems like biofilm formation in Reverse Osmsis system. it is impossible to use heat, and filtration is not preferred. ozone was tested and did not work properly. chlorine is been using and it can remove all bacteria, but it needs more than 10 hours time. this bacterium we are facing can tolerate chlorine, ozone, and can pass 0.2 micrometer fliter. can anyone help us to meet this problem?
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mohammad hossein Abbaspour interesting question and there are many ways of quick and best ways to treat water and avoid polluted water but again it depends on the economics as well as the size of the plant or amount of water to be treated on a daily basis so one can come to a conclusion with the amount of water to be treated and for what purpose is also to make an economical feasibility option to select the best possible available technology.
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can we use oxygen produced by the electrolysis of water? Corona patients generally need 3-4 liters of oxygen per minute which can be produced by 1.8 kW so 220V and 8 A. It is possible to get dry oxygen by supplying water to the cathode side only. This is only a rough calculation idea. Need suggestions, will this work?
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Subash Gupta, of course, there are different companies producing water electrolysis machines (oxyhydrogen generator). You need ONLY to select the 3-6 L/min models for the purpose of covid-19 treatment.
You can find below some examples:
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I got a mold in sterile milli Q water. It has white in color. I am curious, what it could be and how it can grow in conditions without anything with just a pure water supply.
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Fungi can grow well when they cultured on suitable media such as PDA, CMA, MEA, PCA etc.
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The effect of increasing salt concentrations on the water supply and water duty
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Dear: Ali Hassan Hommadi
Increasing salt concentrations on the water supply and water duty leads to increasing salinity. The suitability of using water for different purpose(drinking , irrigation or other ) depends on water salinity (Electric conductivity of water ) according to FAO and WHO guidlines.
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For example, the length of the collector is up to 10 m, the diameter is 1.5-2 m. It seems that flat collectors are usually used for individual solar heating and / or hot water supply.
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PT and Fresnel collectors can provide heat at higher temperature (180 - 300 °C)
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I am doing experiment with different soil amendment with different water holding capacity
how do I calculate amount of water requirement for the fertigation system to supply water to the pots.
Ten treatments with different amendments that eat treatment has different field capacity
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In order to have effective fertigation, four criterions such as the kind of fertilizer required by crop, climatic conditions, physical and chemical properties of soil and exchange capacity of soil must be considered.
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Do you think the COVID-19 pandemic will significantly impact on water systems? With respect to recreational, surface and groundwater quality and supply?
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There is no denying the fact that all micro organisms including viruses survive in an aquatic environment. COVID-19 is no exception. From there it can can be transmitted to humans by various means!!
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Hi there,
I'm looking for one or several documents from a trustworthy source that describe the impacts of the 2017 wildfires on the water supply of Chilean municipalities, Santiago in particular. Documents in Spanish, French, or English are fine (I mean, I understand them :-))).
Thanks for your help.
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Merci Nico! Je vais checker avec Alex.
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We have seen many equations to determine plant water needs with Penman-Monteith is the most famous one. on the other hand, we have seen recently a strong trend to supply plant water needs by using soil water content sensors.
In your opinion which is more reliable and practical???
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Dear Dr. Youssef Sassine ,
This article talk about evaluating accuracy of soil water sensors for irrigation scheduling to conserve freshwater:
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Need feasibility study report for a Quarantine Center of 500 beds or somewhat similar capacity(land, type of construction, water supply and sanitation and other allied facilities). Assuming that the project is to be executed on fast-track basis.
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if for temporary setups, then it is suggested to look into different countrey examples.
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Should the tanks be configured in series or in parallel?
Good operation of a water supply network requires two or dual water storage tanks. This allows the utility to take one tank offline for maintenance and still being able to maintain supply to customers.
On the other hand increased hydraulic or retention time will lead to loss of disinfectant residual and production of disinfection by-products.
At the same time the utility needs to maintain complete mixed conditions in the tanks.
Which configuration will have the lessor retention time?
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Well,
In the area where water enters the reservoir, flow is usually of laminar type at low speed and maybe in the form of turbulent flow at high speed, creating water currents in the form of swirls due to the movement of rapid water currents within a calm water mass, this rapid current captures additional water and displaces calm water on its path length creates a moving waterway separated from the original stream in the form of water swirls. These pathways are called the preferred pathways for the movement of the water mass and this phenomenon is created by the nature and properties of water molecules and their interconnectedness due to the polarizing property of water molecules and their ability to form and take the shape of the space that enters or leaves it (the water molecule in the form of a Mickey Mouse head - hydrogen bonding to oxygen).
This condition is similar to the mechanical movement of the Gulf Stream in the Atlantic Ocean - see attached figure.
Regards
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Currently, nitrate is a major water pollutant in many areas of world, such as Saudi Arabia, India, the UK, North America, Australia, Algeria, Morocco, in China, and Iran.
In my research work on the groundwater quality, I need to propose a treatment process for the problem of nitrate contamination.
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The elimination of nitrates can be carried out either by biological treatments: heterotrophic or autotrophic denitrification or by Physico-chemical treatments: ion exchanges, membrane processes. To date, the various approved heterotrophic biological denitrification processes use acetic acid or ethanol. Autotrophic processes use sulfur or hydrogen in water. The physico-chemical processes are ion exchange (chloride cycle, bicarbonate cycle, carbon dioxide), reverse osmosis, electrodialysis.
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Dear Researchers
Are there technologies to produce energy through drinking water supply networks ?
Greeting
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Please, refer to the following link.
Regards
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Hello, I'm looking for links to dams databases which contains information such as water supply, temperature, humidity, rainfall ... is there anyone who can help with this?
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According to US Army and Crops of Engineering, The HEC-GridUtil can produce gridded file for using in HEC-HMS. I studied the HEC-GridUtil's manual, but no chapter has explained how users can produce this kind of data. There are good explanations for using the software, but nothing about producing gridded data!!!
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Dear Ramin,
It depends on what type of time-series you need.
There are 2 types:
(a) single station time-series, and
(b) gridded data time-series.
For (a), ------> HEC-DSSVue (v2.01).
For (b), you need few more tools like ArcMap, NOTEPAD++, HEC-SSP, and HEC-GridUtil.
Stepwise procedure for (b):
1) You need to have gridded data time-series in csv format (3 columns: LONG, LAT, RF value). For each time interval prepare a raster file (ArcMAP -> file -> add data -> add XY data -> xxx.csv -> convert to shapefile -> with required cell size (100m, 500m, 1000m, etc) in ArcMap using any interpolation technique). Like this, you will get one raster file (.img, .tiff, etc.) for each time step.
Ex: If you have 7 days of daily precipitation data for a 0.25 deg x 0.25 deg spatial grid, then u will have to generate 7 raster files in any format (.img, .tiff, etc.).
2) Now use "Raster to ASCII" conversion in ArcMAP, and in the output file replace the extension of file as ".asc" with ".TXT". Now you will get the output in ".asc" format. i.e. 7 files.
3) In the below attachments you can see the application "asc2dssGrid.exe ". Use this in CMD (Command prompt) of your computer. How to use this application is explained in the below attached file "Grid Import and Export utilities for HEC-DSS.pdf " and also in HEC-DSS manual. But this "asc2dssGrid.exe " application is used only for conversion of a "single grid." Single grid refers to gridded data for a particular time interval i.e. 1hr, 1day, 1month, etc., which is designated as PER-CUM in HEC-DSS. For an instantaneous value griddedd data i.e. impervious data, LULC data, etc., which doesn't change with time, also comes under this. It is referred to INST-VAL.
4) When you have a time-series gridded data i.e. the 7 .asc files. But you will never have such short time-series data. You may use data of 20 or more years for hydrologic modelling. That is roughly 20x365 files. Hence for converting them into a single DSS file, you need to batch convert it by " ascGrids2dssBatch.bat " batch file. This application is editable in NOTEPAD++. This saves you a lots and lots of time.
5) Now you have the DSS file. You can edit, modify, and do whatever you want in HEC-GridUtil. You can simulate the movement of precipitation in this software. Also, the gridded data can "ONLY" be visualized in HEC-SSP -> Tools -> HEC-DSSVue. This HEC-DSSVue (2.5 version) in HEC-SSP is an advanced version than the individual HEC-DSSVue 2.01 version.
6) GageInterp is an interpretation tool for gridded data. I have not explored it yet. Because proper material was not available.
You can get the required manuals and example files in "HELP" menu of the above mentioned software.
All the Best.
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Important physical and chemical parameters of water are influenced by temperature, pH, salinity, dissolved oxygen, and redox potential. Others are total suspended and dissolved solids, nutrients, heavy metal contaminants, etc [1].
Correlation between Conductance and TDS
Conductivity or electrical conductivity (EC) and total dissolved solids (TDS) are frequently used as water quality parameters. The value of EC and TDS are correlated. EC is the measure of liquid capacity to conduct an electric charge. Its ability depends on dissolved ion concentrations, ionic strength, and temperature of measurements. The dissolved ions concentration is usually measured as TDS. EC can be measured easily and inexpensively in situ by a portable water quality checker. On the other hand, the analysis of TDS is more difficult and expensive as it needs more equipment and time. Researchers have done various investigations to find out the precise mathematical correlation between these two parameters, so TDS concentration can be simply calculated from the EC value. The correlation of these parameters can be estimated by the following equation:
TDS ( mg L ) = k x EC ( μS cm) (1)
The value of k will increase along with the increase of ions in water. However, the relationship between conductivity and TDS is not directly linear; it depends on the activity of specific dissolved ions average activity of all ions in the liquid, and ionic strength [2].
Temperature and TDS
The conductivity of ions in water depends on the water temperature. Ions move faster when the water is warm. Hence, the apparent conductivity is increased when the water has a higher temperature [3].
It works pretty well but conductivity is temperature-dependent. The conductivity of ions in water depends on the water temperature. Ions move faster when the water is warm. Hence, the apparent conductivity is increased when the water has a higher temperature [4]
Temperature is also important because of its influence on water chemistry. The rate of chemical reactions generally increases at higher temperatures. Water, particularly groundwater, with higher temperatures can dissolve more minerals from the surrounding rock and will, therefore, have a higher electrical conductivity [5].
Evaporation and TDS
If it is exactly the same source of water, and no evaporation has occurred, TDS will be the same. If some evaporation has occurred, then the solute is more concentrated, so TDS is higher. As temperature increases, both the water molecules and the dissolved ions become more mobile and the conductivity increases, so even for exactly the same sample at different temperatures, with no evaporation to concentrate the solids, the reading will be different. It is because of the measurement method. As long as the temperature and composition remain the same, the conductivity of the water will not change. So the rate of diffuse is directly proportional to TDS [6].
Two things are at play when you measured your water’s TDS: first, warm water evaporates faster than cooler water. This leads to the minerals being concentrated. Thus, higher TDS reading. Second, the way the meter operates is by measuring and calculating based on the specific conductance of the water. It is measuring the salt content. Warmer water has higher conductance than cooler water. Again, higher conductance equal higher TDS. Temperature changes will often change the conductivity of various materials, and this may be interpreted by the meter as a higher reading [7].
Velocity (turbulence) and TDS
Stirring a solute into a solvent speeds up the rate of dissolving because it helps distribute the solute particles throughout the solvent. For example, when you add sugar to iced tea and then stir the tea, the sugar will dissolve faster
The rate of dissolving of a solute in a solvent is faster when the solute and solvent are stirred, the solvent is warmer, or the solute consists of smaller particles with more surface area. If there is turbulence or there is the velocity in water then there is an increase in the rate of solubility and TDS will be increased [8].
Surface water (velocity containing water) supplies such as lakes and rivers that are exposed to the sun are richer in organics may or may not have biological oxygen demand. Surface waters also contain more fine silt and more dissolved minerals because they have had more water movement and been exposed to more minerals. Water from deep wells is almost always colder than surface waters. It has been filtered naturally through layers of stone and thus has fewer minerals. The definition of the deepwater well is one that does not contain organics. Shallow wells often contain organics [9].
The solubility of solutes and TDS
Increasing the temperature increases the solubility of solids and liquids.
The solubility of solutes is dependent on temperature. When a solid dissolves in a liquid, a change in the physical state of the solid analogous to melting takes place. Heat is required to break the bonds holding the molecules in the solid together. At the same time, heat is given off during the formation of new solute-solvent bonds.
CASE I: Decrease in solubility with temperature: If the heat given off in the dissolving process is greater than the heat required to break apart the solid, the net dissolving reaction is exothermic (energy is given off). The addition of more heat (increases temperature) inhibits the dissolving reaction since excess heat is already being produced by the reaction. This situation is not very common where an increase in temperature produces decrease insolubility.
CASE II: Increase in solubility with temperature: If the heat given off in the dissolving reaction is less than the heat required to break apart the solid, the net dissolving reaction is endothermic (energy required). The addition of more heat facilitates the dissolving reaction by providing energy to break bonds in the solid. This is the most common situation where an increase in temperature produces an increase in solubility for solids.
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Well,
From a geo-hydrological point of view;
Absolutely in such a case the value of the recharge water added to the water of the lagoon is greater than its value as outflow from the water system. The subject needs information about the amount of recharge water coming from the groundwater and/or the amount of rainfall, meaning there is a need to study the water balance in this region.
Regards
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Dear Researchers
According to your practical experience, which formula, out of the following three, is more reliable for calculating head loss in water supply pipes and provides better results when compared to the actual values?
Hagen–Poiseuille
Darcy–Weisbach
Hazen–Williams
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Dear Roland,
What you wrote is incorrect. This is not the right relationship for pressure drop.
Considering the Darcy-Weisbach formula, we can write that the head loss is :
dh= (fL/D)x(V^2)/2g
The pressure drop is then : dp = rhoxgxdh
That is : dp = rhoxfx L x('V^2)/(2D)
You can see that the constant g is simplified and does not intervene in the pressure drop according to the Darcy-Weisbach relation.
Regards
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It is essential to improve the technology used for water supply, which allows efficient use of this resource and, at the same time, is environmentally friendly. So, what alternatives are being implemented in the world to improve these conditions, what could be the alternatives that exist or can be implemented?
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The current distribution system requires energy for lifting water to a higher elevation and then use gravity flow if the gradient is smooth. Solar energy may be an option for pumping.
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Opportunities exist to use pretreated effluent, or other source waters, to restore degraded wetland systems. In general, you should only locate constructed treatment wetlands in existing wetlands, or other waters of the U.S.
(1) the source water meets all applicable water quality standards and criteria,
(2) its use would result in a net environmental benefit to the aquatic system's natural functions and values, and
(3) it would help restore the aquatic system to its historic, natural condition.
Prime candidates for restoration may include wetlands that were degraded or destroyed through the diversion of water supplies, a common occurrence in the arid western U.S., and in heavily farmed or developed regions.
You should avoid sitting in degraded wetlands if the functions and values of the existing wetland will be adversely affected or water quality standards will be violated.
The appropriate Regional/District or State authorities will make these determinations on a case-by-case basis. (Note: Many degraded wetlands are still considered waters of the U.S.)
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May be the attached file will help
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I'm interested to know if this is a component of your study being a professional environmental planner. Thanks
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Hi Sir Edgardo,
Yes this is a part of my research as both a Civil Engineer and Environmental Planner in the field of Water Resources. We initially did this to add scientific inputs in the LGUs DRRM planning and in updating their CLUP. It would also help that the LGU prepare a Riverbasin Development plan or equivalent which could enhance their CDP.
Best,
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Let's say how much dollars could it cost to reduce Non-Revenue Water by 1%?
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Dear all, thank you for your contributions. I agree that one needs to analyse all the 7 factors contributing to NRW. This makes it a bit complicated to come up with a rule of thumb figure. However, I don't agree fully with Ncube on the ratios he puts forward. Actually, under the East Africa Community/Lake Victoria Basin Commission East Africa USAID Planning for Resilience through Policy Adaptation, Research and Economic Development (EAC/LVBC EA USAID PREPARED Project), we managed to work together with Uganda National Water and Sewerage Corporation (NWSC) to reduce NRW in Jinja and Iganga towns in Uganda from 45% to 25% in less than 1 year with very minimal investment. We looked at 3 strategic areas: (1) Build NWSC service delivery improvement program ( NWSC Performance Improvement Programs Enhanced; and Quality Service Improvement Program (QSIP) Introduced and Tested); (2) Develop Interactive customer support and outreach framework and approach (Baseline Customer Satisfaction survey Determined and Understood; and Customer Engagement Framework and Strategy Developed); and (3) Implement Engineering and ICT solutions (Pilot District Metering Areas Determined & Selected; ICT Apps and Platforms (e.g. iFormBuilder, Maji Voice, ISSD codes etc.) Introduced and Tested; Metering Policies and Practices Improved; and Proposed NRW solutions Implemented). By doing this we succeeded very well. https://www.climatelinks.org/resources/case-study-non-revenue-water-jinja-and-iganga
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Filling process of intermittent water supply cannot be simulated with EPANET due to unsteady flow conditions. I am looking for the most suitable software to simulate the behavior of intermittent water supply
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Try FUZZYLOGIC
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Mango farm experts needed.
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Mango Producer Assoc in México
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Could you please enlist the different types of methods which are used for energy efficiency in water supply system?
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Hello,
My opinion is irrigation based on gravity system can save more energy than pumping system. Further, flow rate of water can be used to make energy (Hydro-power) and also use water wheel to get water for higher elevations (persian water wheel) without using pumping stations. Storage of water like tanks and reservoirs also useful to make efficient water supply to make gravity system and other benefits.
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Dear colleagues
Based on your experiences, can MCDMs or ANN be used to analyze and evaluate the impacts of climate change on the management of water supply and sanitation services?
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The technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution
(TOPSIS) as method for decision-making can be used for drought analysis and monitoring.
See this paper: Testing a new application for TOPSIS: monitoring drought
and wet periods in Iran.
Best regards
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I want to know whether we can use HCl, H2SO4, HNO3, acetic acid ane if so, whatt should be the concentration? In our supply water, iron content is very high. so iron is clogged. Please give me proper suggestion.
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This is according to scaling/deposition condition if hard than concentration to be increased. For very hard 20% solution may be used. Organic (Citric, Oxalic) acid is mostly used.
The Citric acid solution is the best solution for descaling. 1or 2 tablespoon per liter for light scaling. But weaker solutions work, but more slowly. If you are disassembling the machine, and putting the parts in an acid bath; you can remove heavy scale, and you can use a stronger acid. For this app, hydrochloric acid, aka muriatic, is normally used, at a full pH lower. If you are using citric acid in this way, you can use around 10 tablespoons per liter. You should wear the standard high school lab gear -- gloves, goggles and breathing mask -- since at this strength, it will burn skin.
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Dear colleagues
What are the impacts of climate change on the financial situation of water supply and sanitation services?
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"Climate change becomes obsolete in its sanitation infrastructure projects." The planning in the industry has used historical data to determine how much and how resources for sanitation should be invested. With climate change, this historical data loses value, since what happened in recent years does not serve as a parameter for what is to come. "The maximum and minimum flows [of water] will be overcome - or will not be reached - as a consequence of extreme weather events," the document said. In other words, droughts and floods will be the proof of sanitation systems.
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The main reasons of sampling and analyze a household water supply
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Basically to evaluate the treatment efficiency and to assure the safety of consumers.
there are basically three parameters (physical, chemical and biological). it is associated with safety and treatment performance evaluation as I mentioned above.
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We know quite well that from one hand, there is the need to build dams(indeed by many considerations, estimations, evaluations, calculations, etc. to make more water-supply, energy, etc.) and from the other, there are many after-effects, complications, butterfly-effects, etc on the environment of our planet consequently; Therefore now the query could be that what would be the advantages and disadvantages of constructing more dams(all sorts of them); in other words how far we may go?
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Dear Prof. Sajda Taha Mahmood , Eng. Annabel Marian Horn and Eng. Gareth Johnston for your outstanding comments, insights and contributions for the query. I do revere and simultaneously agree to all the mentioned very important and meanwhile various aspects and perspectives.
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hi i was thinking about Collective action theory & Functionalist Theory. as i want to see the sustainability of Rural water supply schemes from the perspective of stakeholders. how different actors/stakeholders are contributing towards the sustainability of water supply schemes ? Institutional actors , community actors, community based organization can collectively through a system make water supply functional ! kindly Guide me in this regard ! i will be grateful for all of your responses !
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Good question...
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I am looking for a book which elaborates on detailed design of plumbing, water supply, wastewater drainage and treatment and fire-fighting for a hospital building. If there is one specially for India then it would be great. Please recommend.
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Hello Amit,
Please see the following link. Good luck!
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Am doing my research on three water supply reservoirs concerning impact of urbanization on water quality of these reservoirs. I want to use modeling.would you please suggest me what kind of modeling shall use?
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You can use QUAL2K, it is the revised version of the QUAL2E model developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency.
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What the best codes and standards for the design of a water supply system (plumbing design) in US, UK and EU?
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IPC....iNTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE
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what methods should be adopted to assess the hydropower potential of large water supply transmision mains in order to determine head(H) and flow rate(Q)
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I would like to suggest the reading of the paper entitled "Systematic high-resolution assessment of global hydropower ...
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I need to calculate the actual chlorine requirements and the wastage in the water supply system, I have planned to calculate the decay in each and every steps – treatment, transmission, storage and distribution
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Basically, Chlorine decay depends on, water quality (if more pollutants in treated water, chlorine decays quickly), temperature, residual chlorine concentration, pH, hydraulics, etc.
Once you decided the desired residual chlorine at the end of pipeline, then you can do a back calculation to find out the required amount at the beginning.
There are free available software for chlorine calculation.
following my be useful
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How do you evaluate the accuracy of your forecasts in ARIMA? MAPE and errors such this,can be illustrated the accuracy alone?
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ARIMA return a number for each period I evaluate it by borrowing sklearn. regression metric look at them in https://scikit-learn.org/stable/modules/classes.html#module-sklearn.metrics
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Young rose plants have chlorosis on leaves and slow growth comparing to healthy ones. What is the reason? Greenhouse plants are grown under controlled (optimal) temperature, humidity, light, and balanced nutrition and water supply. Is it iron deficiency or virus? Actually we have met already virus-caused iron|/magnesium deficiency on other crops.
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Dear alex
According to my opinion. diagnosis for these symptoms it depends on different things and skills, and its not easy to diagnose the disease depends on pictures only :
First of all u have a look for the whole plants in the greenhouse and to observe the infection pattern or distribution in the whole field.
Then you have to determine if the infection appeared on the whole plants that could be an indicator for a biotic infection ((malnutrition or environmental condition)) inside the greenhouse . if no, then go to the second point
If the infection appeared within plants they are in the same line that means this is like biotic infection and the pathogen might be transmitted by irrigation water or touch of plants leaves to each others. if no
If the infection distributed randomly in the fled that is means the infection caused by some insects, vectors, or might be air borne pathogens. if no
Then u need to have a look for the symptom-ed plants as individuals by visual diagnosis after that there r two probabilities:
1- virus infection
2- malnutrition specially iron deficiency .
good luck
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Metals expand on heating. Do the metallic water supply pipes leak at their joint during summer?
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This is a special case like I mentioned above:
not only pipeline expansion contractions, but also soil and rest of the environmental expansions contractions could effect the water loss.
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There is no doubt that the access to surface freshwater is an ecosystem service. However, I feel that the many publications on ecosystem services and disservices with respect to the water supply (and water security as a whole) published those past 15 years have created fuzziness when it comes to qualify the 'origin' of this service.
Although mostly seen as a forest-related ecosystem service, the development of the concepts of hydrologic services and watershed services makes me wonder how those three connect together.
For instance, are all hydrologic services dependent on upstream forest health? If so, they logically are all forest services, even of the forest provides other ones, meaning that the diversity of hydrologic services (see Brauman et al. or Martin-Ortega et al.) is basically nested into the diversity of forest services.
However, when it comes to managing forested areas for the provision of surface freshwater, it is likely that options will be scrutinized at the watershed level (i.e., source water protection). Therefore, even if the watershed scale might be used for the management of other services, it means that forest services are nested into watershed services, right? Or are watershed services only relevant for water-related questions?
This classification is really important to establish because it will guide the management of forest disturbances that can impact water and therefore the mitigation of post-disturbance water risks. Forest disturbances create disservices because they can negatively impact the quality, the quantity, and the timing of the supply, but are those disturbances and their consequences forest disservices, hydrologic disservices, or watershed disservices? It would depend on the classification retained.
What are your thoughts on this topic? Do you have references that would help me connect the dots?
Thank you.
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Hi,
In my opinion, if your are studying on a watershed scale, it should be the watershed services since there is a certain border for watersheds, enabling us to measure the service of surface water supply. Also, watershed services can be varied depending on vegetation cover (forests, grassland, etc.) and/or climate, but with a known area (border), a watershed -with or without forest- can be studied better in respect to its provided services.
Good luck..
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is it possible to make use of the cloud seeding to treat deficiency in water supply in Iraq?
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Yes. It is possible and it can increase the precipitation rate upto 10-15%. But it's not considered as a fundamental way since at the first step suitable cloud is needed.
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Hi everyone,
As we know that the source of HCV transmission remains unidentified in 40% of HCV infected population. I think that HCV can be transmitted through water. I have this idea in my mind for a year. I decided to convey this idea after I came across a paper, which studied that HCV can survive in water for up to 3 weeks. I also analyzed some data and found that HCV infected population is higher in areas(especially underdeveloped countries) where water supply is not good.Although, I have published a hypothetical paper in which I talked about ways through which HCV can be transmitted through water. I would like to know feedback on this, so that if water is the source of HCV transmission than people should study this and save 40% of people which get infected with HCV due to an unknown cause.My paper is attached.
Thank you!
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Thank you very much for contributing to the answer.
I think the same that's why I wrote this hypothetical paper so that I can convey this because I cannot work on it.
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As i know IWRM is a new concept that has identified economic value of water. However IWRM focuses of equity rather than equality. The concern is " was there any equity during fragmented approach? If yes what and how "
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There was no equity maintained in the fragmented approach. There was no priority fixed. If you consider the irrigation scenario, the tail end farmers were not getting enough water, as most of the water released from the reservoirs was utilised by the upland farmers.
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We are designing water supply and distribution system as design project. We weren't able to find the intake tower design in any of the standard books. If we get the design of an intake tower ( Wet intake ) it will be helpful.
Thank you.
With Regards,
Shobana P
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Please have a look at these useful PDF attachments.
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On 8 March 2018, the Chief Executive Officer of the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council sent an "open letter" to selected local government Councillors who are being pressured to add Fluoride industrial waste to the water supplies of their ratepayers. In the letter it was stated:
"Some people ask if there is a cumulative effect of consuming fluoride over a lifetime. The toxicologists on our expert committee advised that fluoride is excreted regularly by the kidneys to achieve a ‘steady state’ that is safe for humans. This is different to lead which accumulates in the body."
That statement is demonstrably completely false as Fluoride accumulates in many human tissues, including bone, throughout life and never reaches a "steady state".
Are there any scientists who think action is required to correct this act of misinformation?
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It is a settled issue that every system in human body is vulnerable to the toxic effects of fluoride. There are both short term and long term effects when the fluoride is in excess of recommended levels. So the ‘disposal of industrial waste via Fluoridation of the public drinking water supply’ is wrong and not to be undertaken. Such disposal may bring about the combined toxic effects of both industrial wastes and fluoride(through fluoridation).
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Hi all,
Recently, we have experienced a heavy mortality in our fish tanks. More specifically, we observed 6-7 dead fish in a single tank per day. It's reduced now to 1-2 fish a tank per day but we still get 7-8 dead fish in total per day otherwise in normal situation we used to get 3 dead fish per week. The fish look absolutely fine. We have carried out certain tests for water quality but everything seems to be fine so far. We have experienced this suddenly. I was wondering if any of you working on zebrafish and having a fish facility not older that 4 years or so observed such mortality and what precautions have you taken to reduce it? Another important point is we have two rooms and both the rooms have the same water supply. Fish in one room died while in the other things are absolutely under control.
Thank you.
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Please check the tanks also, I have experienced such mortality in my FRP tanks. The few FRP tanks was leaked and water were continuously leached, so I putted plastic polyethylene on the FRP tanks to stop leaching, soon I observed fishes were dying everyday. Initially I did not get but finally I got the point.
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I am working on finding the overall network reliability of a municipal water supply pipe networks. So, i would like to know all the methods available in the literature.
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I would answer that it depends on how complicated the water supply network is.
1.Cut and Tie sets are suitable to assess the network reliability
2.Decomposition is OK
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What are the parameters be it capacity or dimensions of the major components involved like hose pipe, water storage tank, pump, PV module, warm water collecting trough at the bottom edge and the nozzle system to evenly distribute water from the top edge of the PV panel, water filter that can be used to build the water based cooling system at an outdoor desert site in North Africa?
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A research topic
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I can not get your point without providing extra information. Doing a questionnaire survey or turning to the local government for help may provide some useful material.
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Hi,
In recently my research on the design of a Water Supply Network, I see whether installation of more than a valve in a pipe is possible? and how I can do that in Epanet2?
Thank you very much for your guidance.
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Can you explain the need of having two valves in your case?
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I trying to understand and use the SMA model in HEC-HMS and would know if there is anyone can provide a example for pratice.
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Hi
I attached a file for you that describes how can you provide the required data for SMA model in GIS environ...
I hope that works
the best
Azizian
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Good afternoon!
Do you have data on the profitability of shares in the stock market of India companies providing water supply and water management services?
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Good afternoon!
I came across data on the water supply sector from Aswath Damodaran.
You are talking about the sellers of water and beverages, I mean public companies that contain water supply and sewerage networks
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i want an idea about the question
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Good day
see the attach reference
Sincerely
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Can you suggest methods and procedures for estimating the reliability for different sources (river, borewell, open well, lake) while planning a water supply project for a town/region. How to estimate the safe withdrawal limit and allocate withdrawal share for different sources?
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Very good and meaningful question. My appreciations for posing such a question. I have also many times wondered whether any such studies are being carried out before finalizing and implementing water supply schemes, as many of the public water supply schemes are a failure or non-functional or non-sustainable. Reasons may be many, but one of the important factors is the absence of studies on the source availability and its sustainability. Many times the schemes are implemented because of the compulsions (public or political), without giving any importance on other factors, including the water availability.
Because of the above reasons, for the first time a systematic study was conducted in Kerala State, India, to assess the sub-surface water availability in the riverbed material for a regional water supply scheme. It gave rise to the conclusion that only certain months in a given year the water supply scheme can give the proposed amount of water and during summer months it can give only 50% of the proposed yield.
Reference:
Rajagopalan.S.P and Narasimha Prasad.N.B, 1989, Subsurface Water in River Beds as Source for Rural Water Supply Schemes, Journal of Water Resources Planning And Management, American Society of Civil Engineers, New York, Vol.115, No.2.
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Dear Water Friend,
Hello
I am interested to work on an adsorbant / coagulant which can be used in removing ammonia in water along with suspended impurities. Do you have any idea of such polymer/ chemical. Kindly advise me for a research proposal.
Regards
Lokesh Kumar
Chartered Chemist, Municipal Water Supply, India
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Good
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We've seen fire debris in our major metropolitan water supply reservoirs around Sydney after the 1994 fires.
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Hi Natalie.
There are a few studies out there that talk about this issue. The work by Cristina Santin "Quantity, composition and water contamination potential of ash produced under different wildfire severities" focuses on Australia and gives an example of post-fire reservoir contamination.
The work by Moody and martin 2004 "WILDFIRE IMPACTS ON RESERVOIR SEDIMENTATION IN THE WESTERN UNITED STATES" could also be helpful for your purpose.
Finally, the report "SCIENCE-BACKED TOOLS ENHANCE WATER CATCHMENT MANAGEMENT" by the AFAC also focuses on the Australian case and give a few examples of reservoir contamination.
It would be useful to contact the Bushfire CRC to get further insights.
Cheers
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The Slovak Research and Development Agency aims to support common research and development projects and collaboration between organizations in the Slovak Republic and (1) the People´s Republic of China / (2) the Republic of China (Taiwan).
Is anyone interested in a collaborative research in the field of LANDSCAPE? (Landscape Architecture / Landscape Planning / Green Infrastructure / Ecosystem Services / Nature Based Solutions / ...).
In case of interest, please contact me in a private message or in a comment below to specify the cooperation possibilities.
Dr. Attila Tóth, Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra
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Dear Attila
I am interested in a collaborative research work  in the field of LANDSCAPE.
How it will be possible?
Sincerely
Ishwor Thapa
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like various optimization techniques, Can system dynamics be used in facility location and waste allocation?
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Thank you, for your kind suggestions. 
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Please answer the question.
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 Thank you very much Prof. Yehia F. Khalil
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Hello,
I want to model the effects of climate change on availability and quality water for supply systems, in my PHD research.
I have thought in WEAP, but I don't know if it is the better option.
What another software do you recommend to me?
Thanks.
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María, Pl have a look at these papers. If you have confidence, pl develop your own empirical model. Best, 
More papers on my RG site.
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My partner and I are studying about the effects of GDP, population density, and water potability to the growth of tuberculosis. In our methodology, we have not decided whether we should add the isolation of M. tuberculosis from our water samples. Answers would greatly help!
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MTB is very well survive in environment especially can be isolated from nearby area with person infected with TB.Check on following links 
Detection%20of%20environmental%20%20Mycobacterium%20tuberculosis%20using%20rapid%20and%20sensitive%20conventional%20and%20re.pdf
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My student is planning to model coliform dynamics in a storm water drainage system.
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I am working in a water project for El Wahad El Baharia, Egypt. It's a project concerning water supply intended for agricultural purpose. It has been recently found out, that the groundwater contains elevated iron level, up to averagely 50 mg/l. I had a data before which I shared in my project which contain both major cations and anions. And recently my supervisor had given me a data that contains cations only, what should I do with this if I want to make a new electrical balance, or does it even possible to modified the old data with the new added one?
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Measured EC and Ion Sums
Both the anion and cation sums should be 1/100 of the measured EC value. If either of the two sums does not meet this criterion, that sum is suspect; reanalyze the sample. The acceptable criteria are as follows:
100 × anion (or cation) sum, meq/L = (0.9–1.1) EC
Reference
 American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association, Water Environment Federation(1999)Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater.
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How can I gate full WEAP tutorial vedios that can shows all steps of scenarios to evaluate the water supply service management of a town?
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Dear Sina N.
Thanks for you understanding me.
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I am totally confused regarding maximum and minimum velocity of the pipeline of water supply distribution network which is running under the pressure head because different agencies have taken different velocities.   
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I think that you should study hydrodynamics of water motion in supply system. If water moves in open channel, no additional energy is used but only the slope of relief.
I think that water pipelines are planned in such a way that: a) flow capacity corresponds to water demand, b) energy cost to pump water is minimized.
If there is no slope (as it is usual for water pipelines), for given pressure the flow is higher in a pipe of larger diameter. The basic hydrodynamics is based on friction of viscous origin; see 9-7 in the attached file. This is general physics.
And here you can find some technical numbers abut pressure loss: http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/pressure-loss-copper-pipes-d_930.html
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