Water Supply - Science topic
Water Supply is a source, means, or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)
Questions related to Water Supply
How do droughts and floods affect reservoir sedimentation and water supply? What are potential sediment management strategies and when they applicable?
USA lose trillions of treated drinking water annually (ASCE, 2017) and similar problems are highly observed in many urban water supply systems as well. In case of water distribution system there are several methodologies to find leakages such as using SONAR, sensors and UV rays. However, what would be the best alternative method in your suggestions to find the leakages quickly and effectively?
What is the scope of using an abandoned borewell (previously used for drinking water supply) for recharging groundwater through storm runoff created by rainwater? If yes, does this approach need any upgradation / adaptation?
I'd be thankful if you could recommend some good publications about determining the optimal number of employees in a water supply system using a system dynamics model.
The acceptable industry standards for water pressure is 140 kPa - 560 kPa. Domestic appliances operate under the intermediate pressure magnitudes. Topographic features and the increase of customer density cause deviations in water pressure throughout the supply system. In some cases, some water supply networks provide water in exaggerated high pressure to reach some customers in high altitude. This higher pressure accelerates the volume of water running out through unobserved leakages in supply system which results on microbursts of water pressure that may cause large scale failure and demands higher maintenance cost for water supply providers.
Dear researchers, what is your recommended solution to prevent these unnecessary pressure rise against transient scenarios?
Towards a holistic water vision for national water and food security
For example: Iran falls within the Middle East arid zone, with some 13% of the country receiving less than 100 mm mean annual rainfall, an additional 61% receiving less than 250 mm and only 9% receiving more than 500 mm.
If anyone has an idea and the sources of published findings, please share your evidence!
Suppose we want to calculate the monetary costs of the sediment retention services provided by natural vegetation for providing the clean drinking water supply to people, how to do that?
300 accessions of Dolichos lablab have been screened for drought tolerance in the green-house based on Augmented block design.
In this screening project, two consecutive experiments were conducted to involve 10 weeks each. In each experiment, the project involved drought inducing period by withholding water as well as water supplying period to induce plant recovery.
Both quantitative and qualitative data were collected during germination and seedling stage of the plants. The data included chlorophyll content, height of the plants, number of leaves, wilting%, overall wilting scales, recovery%, shifting and folding of leaves etc.
I would like therefore to request for your advice on the best approach on data analysis so that I can determine the best drought tolerant genotypes.
the team I am working with and I are having a problem. It is a project in which we have to eliminate the bacteria that exist in a water supply. It is a must to remove them all because we do not want to face following problems like biofilm formation in Reverse Osmsis system. it is impossible to use heat, and filtration is not preferred. ozone was tested and did not work properly. chlorine is been using and it can remove all bacteria, but it needs more than 10 hours time. this bacterium we are facing can tolerate chlorine, ozone, and can pass 0.2 micrometer fliter. can anyone help us to meet this problem?
can we use oxygen produced by the electrolysis of water? Corona patients generally need 3-4 liters of oxygen per minute which can be produced by 1.8 kW so 220V and 8 A. It is possible to get dry oxygen by supplying water to the cathode side only. This is only a rough calculation idea. Need suggestions, will this work?
For example, the length of the collector is up to 10 m, the diameter is 1.5-2 m. It seems that flat collectors are usually used for individual solar heating and / or hot water supply.
I am doing experiment with different soil amendment with different water holding capacity
how do I calculate amount of water requirement for the fertigation system to supply water to the pots.
Ten treatments with different amendments that eat treatment has different field capacity
Do you think the COVID-19 pandemic will significantly impact on water systems? With respect to recreational, surface and groundwater quality and supply?
I'm looking for one or several documents from a trustworthy source that describe the impacts of the 2017 wildfires on the water supply of Chilean municipalities, Santiago in particular. Documents in Spanish, French, or English are fine (I mean, I understand them :-))).
Thanks for your help.
We have seen many equations to determine plant water needs with Penman-Monteith is the most famous one. on the other hand, we have seen recently a strong trend to supply plant water needs by using soil water content sensors.
In your opinion which is more reliable and practical???
Need feasibility study report for a Quarantine Center of 500 beds or somewhat similar capacity(land, type of construction, water supply and sanitation and other allied facilities). Assuming that the project is to be executed on fast-track basis.
Should the tanks be configured in series or in parallel?
Good operation of a water supply network requires two or dual water storage tanks. This allows the utility to take one tank offline for maintenance and still being able to maintain supply to customers.
On the other hand increased hydraulic or retention time will lead to loss of disinfectant residual and production of disinfection by-products.
At the same time the utility needs to maintain complete mixed conditions in the tanks.
Which configuration will have the lessor retention time?
Currently, nitrate is a major water pollutant in many areas of world, such as Saudi Arabia, India, the UK, North America, Australia, Algeria, Morocco, in China, and Iran.
In my research work on the groundwater quality, I need to propose a treatment process for the problem of nitrate contamination.
According to US Army and Crops of Engineering, The HEC-GridUtil can produce gridded file for using in HEC-HMS. I studied the HEC-GridUtil's manual, but no chapter has explained how users can produce this kind of data. There are good explanations for using the software, but nothing about producing gridded data!!!
Important physical and chemical parameters of water are influenced by temperature, pH, salinity, dissolved oxygen, and redox potential. Others are total suspended and dissolved solids, nutrients, heavy metal contaminants, etc .
Correlation between Conductance and TDS
Conductivity or electrical conductivity (EC) and total dissolved solids (TDS) are frequently used as water quality parameters. The value of EC and TDS are correlated. EC is the measure of liquid capacity to conduct an electric charge. Its ability depends on dissolved ion concentrations, ionic strength, and temperature of measurements. The dissolved ions concentration is usually measured as TDS. EC can be measured easily and inexpensively in situ by a portable water quality checker. On the other hand, the analysis of TDS is more difficult and expensive as it needs more equipment and time. Researchers have done various investigations to find out the precise mathematical correlation between these two parameters, so TDS concentration can be simply calculated from the EC value. The correlation of these parameters can be estimated by the following equation:
TDS ( mg L ) = k x EC ( μS cm) (1)
The value of k will increase along with the increase of ions in water. However, the relationship between conductivity and TDS is not directly linear; it depends on the activity of specific dissolved ions average activity of all ions in the liquid, and ionic strength .
Temperature and TDS
The conductivity of ions in water depends on the water temperature. Ions move faster when the water is warm. Hence, the apparent conductivity is increased when the water has a higher temperature .
It works pretty well but conductivity is temperature-dependent. The conductivity of ions in water depends on the water temperature. Ions move faster when the water is warm. Hence, the apparent conductivity is increased when the water has a higher temperature 
Temperature is also important because of its influence on water chemistry. The rate of chemical reactions generally increases at higher temperatures. Water, particularly groundwater, with higher temperatures can dissolve more minerals from the surrounding rock and will, therefore, have a higher electrical conductivity .
Evaporation and TDS
If it is exactly the same source of water, and no evaporation has occurred, TDS will be the same. If some evaporation has occurred, then the solute is more concentrated, so TDS is higher. As temperature increases, both the water molecules and the dissolved ions become more mobile and the conductivity increases, so even for exactly the same sample at different temperatures, with no evaporation to concentrate the solids, the reading will be different. It is because of the measurement method. As long as the temperature and composition remain the same, the conductivity of the water will not change. So the rate of diffuse is directly proportional to TDS .
Two things are at play when you measured your water’s TDS: first, warm water evaporates faster than cooler water. This leads to the minerals being concentrated. Thus, higher TDS reading. Second, the way the meter operates is by measuring and calculating based on the specific conductance of the water. It is measuring the salt content. Warmer water has higher conductance than cooler water. Again, higher conductance equal higher TDS. Temperature changes will often change the conductivity of various materials, and this may be interpreted by the meter as a higher reading .
Velocity (turbulence) and TDS
Stirring a solute into a solvent speeds up the rate of dissolving because it helps distribute the solute particles throughout the solvent. For example, when you add sugar to iced tea and then stir the tea, the sugar will dissolve faster
The rate of dissolving of a solute in a solvent is faster when the solute and solvent are stirred, the solvent is warmer, or the solute consists of smaller particles with more surface area. If there is turbulence or there is the velocity in water then there is an increase in the rate of solubility and TDS will be increased .
Surface water (velocity containing water) supplies such as lakes and rivers that are exposed to the sun are richer in organics may or may not have biological oxygen demand. Surface waters also contain more fine silt and more dissolved minerals because they have had more water movement and been exposed to more minerals. Water from deep wells is almost always colder than surface waters. It has been filtered naturally through layers of stone and thus has fewer minerals. The definition of the deepwater well is one that does not contain organics. Shallow wells often contain organics .
The solubility of solutes and TDS
Increasing the temperature increases the solubility of solids and liquids.
The solubility of solutes is dependent on temperature. When a solid dissolves in a liquid, a change in the physical state of the solid analogous to melting takes place. Heat is required to break the bonds holding the molecules in the solid together. At the same time, heat is given off during the formation of new solute-solvent bonds.
CASE I: Decrease in solubility with temperature: If the heat given off in the dissolving process is greater than the heat required to break apart the solid, the net dissolving reaction is exothermic (energy is given off). The addition of more heat (increases temperature) inhibits the dissolving reaction since excess heat is already being produced by the reaction. This situation is not very common where an increase in temperature produces decrease insolubility.
CASE II: Increase in solubility with temperature: If the heat given off in the dissolving reaction is less than the heat required to break apart the solid, the net dissolving reaction is endothermic (energy required). The addition of more heat facilitates the dissolving reaction by providing energy to break bonds in the solid. This is the most common situation where an increase in temperature produces an increase in solubility for solids.
According to your practical experience, which formula, out of the following three, is more reliable for calculating head loss in water supply pipes and provides better results when compared to the actual values?
It is essential to improve the technology used for water supply, which allows efficient use of this resource and, at the same time, is environmentally friendly. So, what alternatives are being implemented in the world to improve these conditions, what could be the alternatives that exist or can be implemented?
Opportunities exist to use pretreated effluent, or other source waters, to restore degraded wetland systems. In general, you should only locate constructed treatment wetlands in existing wetlands, or other waters of the U.S.
(1) the source water meets all applicable water quality standards and criteria,
(2) its use would result in a net environmental benefit to the aquatic system's natural functions and values, and
(3) it would help restore the aquatic system to its historic, natural condition.
Prime candidates for restoration may include wetlands that were degraded or destroyed through the diversion of water supplies, a common occurrence in the arid western U.S., and in heavily farmed or developed regions.
You should avoid sitting in degraded wetlands if the functions and values of the existing wetland will be adversely affected or water quality standards will be violated.
The appropriate Regional/District or State authorities will make these determinations on a case-by-case basis. (Note: Many degraded wetlands are still considered waters of the U.S.)
I'm interested to know if this is a component of your study being a professional environmental planner. Thanks
I want to know whether we can use HCl, H2SO4, HNO3, acetic acid ane if so, whatt should be the concentration? In our supply water, iron content is very high. so iron is clogged. Please give me proper suggestion.
We know quite well that from one hand, there is the need to build dams(indeed by many considerations, estimations, evaluations, calculations, etc. to make more water-supply, energy, etc.) and from the other, there are many after-effects, complications, butterfly-effects, etc on the environment of our planet consequently; Therefore now the query could be that what would be the advantages and disadvantages of constructing more dams(all sorts of them); in other words how far we may go?
hi i was thinking about Collective action theory & Functionalist Theory. as i want to see the sustainability of Rural water supply schemes from the perspective of stakeholders. how different actors/stakeholders are contributing towards the sustainability of water supply schemes ? Institutional actors , community actors, community based organization can collectively through a system make water supply functional ! kindly Guide me in this regard ! i will be grateful for all of your responses !
I am looking for a book which elaborates on detailed design of plumbing, water supply, wastewater drainage and treatment and fire-fighting for a hospital building. If there is one specially for India then it would be great. Please recommend.
Am doing my research on three water supply reservoirs concerning impact of urbanization on water quality of these reservoirs. I want to use modeling.would you please suggest me what kind of modeling shall use?
what methods should be adopted to assess the hydropower potential of large water supply transmision mains in order to determine head(H) and flow rate(Q)
I need to calculate the actual chlorine requirements and the wastage in the water supply system, I have planned to calculate the decay in each and every steps – treatment, transmission, storage and distribution
How do you evaluate the accuracy of your forecasts in ARIMA? MAPE and errors such this,can be illustrated the accuracy alone?
Young rose plants have chlorosis on leaves and slow growth comparing to healthy ones. What is the reason? Greenhouse plants are grown under controlled (optimal) temperature, humidity, light, and balanced nutrition and water supply. Is it iron deficiency or virus? Actually we have met already virus-caused iron|/magnesium deficiency on other crops.
There is no doubt that the access to surface freshwater is an ecosystem service. However, I feel that the many publications on ecosystem services and disservices with respect to the water supply (and water security as a whole) published those past 15 years have created fuzziness when it comes to qualify the 'origin' of this service.
Although mostly seen as a forest-related ecosystem service, the development of the concepts of hydrologic services and watershed services makes me wonder how those three connect together.
For instance, are all hydrologic services dependent on upstream forest health? If so, they logically are all forest services, even of the forest provides other ones, meaning that the diversity of hydrologic services (see Brauman et al. or Martin-Ortega et al.) is basically nested into the diversity of forest services.
However, when it comes to managing forested areas for the provision of surface freshwater, it is likely that options will be scrutinized at the watershed level (i.e., source water protection). Therefore, even if the watershed scale might be used for the management of other services, it means that forest services are nested into watershed services, right? Or are watershed services only relevant for water-related questions?
This classification is really important to establish because it will guide the management of forest disturbances that can impact water and therefore the mitigation of post-disturbance water risks. Forest disturbances create disservices because they can negatively impact the quality, the quantity, and the timing of the supply, but are those disturbances and their consequences forest disservices, hydrologic disservices, or watershed disservices? It would depend on the classification retained.
What are your thoughts on this topic? Do you have references that would help me connect the dots?
As we know that the source of HCV transmission remains unidentified in 40% of HCV infected population. I think that HCV can be transmitted through water. I have this idea in my mind for a year. I decided to convey this idea after I came across a paper, which studied that HCV can survive in water for up to 3 weeks. I also analyzed some data and found that HCV infected population is higher in areas(especially underdeveloped countries) where water supply is not good.Although, I have published a hypothetical paper in which I talked about ways through which HCV can be transmitted through water. I would like to know feedback on this, so that if water is the source of HCV transmission than people should study this and save 40% of people which get infected with HCV due to an unknown cause.My paper is attached.
As i know IWRM is a new concept that has identified economic value of water. However IWRM focuses of equity rather than equality. The concern is " was there any equity during fragmented approach? If yes what and how "
We are designing water supply and distribution system as design project. We weren't able to find the intake tower design in any of the standard books. If we get the design of an intake tower ( Wet intake ) it will be helpful.
On 8 March 2018, the Chief Executive Officer of the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council sent an "open letter" to selected local government Councillors who are being pressured to add Fluoride industrial waste to the water supplies of their ratepayers. In the letter it was stated:
"Some people ask if there is a cumulative effect of consuming fluoride over a lifetime. The toxicologists on our expert committee advised that fluoride is excreted regularly by the kidneys to achieve a ‘steady state’ that is safe for humans. This is different to lead which accumulates in the body."
That statement is demonstrably completely false as Fluoride accumulates in many human tissues, including bone, throughout life and never reaches a "steady state".
Are there any scientists who think action is required to correct this act of misinformation?
Recently, we have experienced a heavy mortality in our fish tanks. More specifically, we observed 6-7 dead fish in a single tank per day. It's reduced now to 1-2 fish a tank per day but we still get 7-8 dead fish in total per day otherwise in normal situation we used to get 3 dead fish per week. The fish look absolutely fine. We have carried out certain tests for water quality but everything seems to be fine so far. We have experienced this suddenly. I was wondering if any of you working on zebrafish and having a fish facility not older that 4 years or so observed such mortality and what precautions have you taken to reduce it? Another important point is we have two rooms and both the rooms have the same water supply. Fish in one room died while in the other things are absolutely under control.
I am working on finding the overall network reliability of a municipal water supply pipe networks. So, i would like to know all the methods available in the literature.
What are the parameters be it capacity or dimensions of the major components involved like hose pipe, water storage tank, pump, PV module, warm water collecting trough at the bottom edge and the nozzle system to evenly distribute water from the top edge of the PV panel, water filter that can be used to build the water based cooling system at an outdoor desert site in North Africa?
In recently my research on the design of a Water Supply Network, I see whether installation of more than a valve in a pipe is possible? and how I can do that in Epanet2?
Thank you very much for your guidance.
Do you have data on the profitability of shares in the stock market of India companies providing water supply and water management services?
Can you suggest methods and procedures for estimating the reliability for different sources (river, borewell, open well, lake) while planning a water supply project for a town/region. How to estimate the safe withdrawal limit and allocate withdrawal share for different sources?
Dear Water Friend,
I am interested to work on an adsorbant / coagulant which can be used in removing ammonia in water along with suspended impurities. Do you have any idea of such polymer/ chemical. Kindly advise me for a research proposal.
Chartered Chemist, Municipal Water Supply, India
The Slovak Research and Development Agency aims to support common research and development projects and collaboration between organizations in the Slovak Republic and (1) the People´s Republic of China / (2) the Republic of China (Taiwan).
Is anyone interested in a collaborative research in the field of LANDSCAPE? (Landscape Architecture / Landscape Planning / Green Infrastructure / Ecosystem Services / Nature Based Solutions / ...).
In case of interest, please contact me in a private message or in a comment below to specify the cooperation possibilities.
Dr. Attila Tóth, Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra
like various optimization techniques, Can system dynamics be used in facility location and waste allocation?
I want to model the effects of climate change on availability and quality water for supply systems, in my PHD research.
I have thought in WEAP, but I don't know if it is the better option.
What another software do you recommend to me?
My partner and I are studying about the effects of GDP, population density, and water potability to the growth of tuberculosis. In our methodology, we have not decided whether we should add the isolation of M. tuberculosis from our water samples. Answers would greatly help!
I am working in a water project for El Wahad El Baharia, Egypt. It's a project concerning water supply intended for agricultural purpose. It has been recently found out, that the groundwater contains elevated iron level, up to averagely 50 mg/l. I had a data before which I shared in my project which contain both major cations and anions. And recently my supervisor had given me a data that contains cations only, what should I do with this if I want to make a new electrical balance, or does it even possible to modified the old data with the new added one?
How can I gate full WEAP tutorial vedios that can shows all steps of scenarios to evaluate the water supply service management of a town?
I am totally confused regarding maximum and minimum velocity of the pipeline of water supply distribution network which is running under the pressure head because different agencies have taken different velocities.