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Water Resources Engineering - Science topic

Water Resources Engineering is a sustainable planning and management of water resources.
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I feel that, in water resource management activities (specially flood management), most of the developed software tools are not widely or continuously used. The reason may be either the decision makers work independently from project to project or fully /partially automate the required processes unique to the project.
I would like to know your experiences as well as comments on the utilization of the software tools to assist flood management decisions.
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I have been very fortunate to be involved with experimental watersheds, gauging streams and interacting at times with Official stream gauges, installing, measuring flow, data analysis, etc. In the US, the US Geological Survey is the preeminent agency for this work, and the US Forest Service and many Universities, and States set up their own experimental catchments, or specific needs for stream gauging, water balance, flood and drought estimates, and often rainfall and other meteorological associated data. The long term network of water based stations has been relied heavily upon. The guidance provided by USGS based on this information is extremely helpful, but as suggested by other commenters, hydrologic analysis may include other factors. My training, experience did not depend on flood models or software for the most part. It was more data based, observational and included site evaluations, such as for culverts, bridges or other crossings, evaluation of floodplain or flood prone areas for example. To the greatest extent, estimates of flooding had a strong relationship to watershed size, with considerations associated with physiographic area, topography and rainfall amount and frequency data. Presence of accumulations of large wood, signs of excess sediment or bedload, potential of landslides would be some of the considerations in assessing conditions. I would recommend if models are used, to try to validate them first with existing data available. If no data, when you drive your roads and highways, as you come by stream crossings, try to find when they were installed, have they failed or been overtopped/damaged, measure their size, use GIS or topographic maps to determine watershed size, aerial photos for land use, geology and soil maps, if you have time bankfull and floodplain cross section, any local information on past flood(s), etc. If you ever have a major flood, when travel is safe, drive the roads, looking for flood water marks, signs of culvert or bridge overtop with deposited debris, sediment, damage. Flood gauging high water can also be done with crest gauges. If culverts and bridges remain in place for many years or the structure lifetime, the local guidance is probably sufficient.
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Dear All,
I am conducting a Faculty Development Programme (FDP) in Environmental Engineering, Remote Sensing and GIS, and Water Resources Engineering titled 'Recent Advancements in Waste Remediation, Geo-Spatial Techniques, and Hydrologic Systems' for one week in online mode.
Attaching the brochure for the same.
The idea behind this FDP is to have creative and out-of-the-box discussions. The speakers identified are from leading academia, research and industry domains.
Anyone interested can register!
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This is an interesting topic of discussion...
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I came across a lot of peer-reviewed journal articles and most of the authors have concluded there is a climate change phenomena happening by applying Mann-Kendall Trend test on Hydro-Metrological variables (rainfall, temperature). It has to noted that Mann-Kendall is a statistical technique which on applied to dataset (including time series) shows whether there is a monotonic increasing or decreasing trend & whether that trend so arrived is statistically significant or not ?
My question is that how we can conclude the trend detected is due to climate change only without citing any physical process/phenomena (like Teleconnections) drives this change ?, that too based on Statistical test (Mann-Kendall) at a particular Level of significance (LOS).
The LOS applied is also statistically subjective and the value can vary from person to person?
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Climate change is a reality, but we must found a reference to be sur about the tendency of change. No one can explain which is the next step for climate change.
The statistical test can not respond to a dynamique change.
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The salinity of groundwater doesn't suffice for simulation purposes. The initial salinity of soil profile is necessary.
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Need a method for reclamation of saline soils? Are there modern methods to prevent salinity? Soil changes?
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Also please name your favorite book of Open Channel Flow/Hydraulics you follow for your research and academic activities.
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I would recommend the following book:
Chaudhry M. H. (2008). Open-channel flow, 2nd Ed., Springer, Berlin, 523.
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Dear Researchers: Given the limitation of drip irrigation towards groundwater recharge, how one can develop approaches to associate it with groundwater recharge techniques via artificial or natural means?
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Remote sensing techniques can be used by creating various types of thematic layers and integrating them into ArcGIS. We can utilise a variety of techniques to artificially recharge that area once we have the potential zones.
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i am a beginner to this software CCHE2D. So if anyone is familiar to the use of this software can help me. 
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This is a good question.
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Is anybody familiar with AquiferWin32 ver 4.0?
I need a jump start on how to run this program, specifically how to add background in the model, add well and then run. Thanks.
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Hello, is there anyone to help me to do groundwater pumping and monitoring wells data analysis using this software? I may pay you little ....Ahsan
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I want to run 5 different models to estimate stream flow. In order to optimize the characteristics of these models I use Taguchi method. So I have to run different models according to the Taguchi orthogonal array. Therefore, I have different models with different inputs and different data lengths. For example the first test is: using rainfall and temperature in ANFIS model with 2 year data length, while the second test is: using rainfall, temperature and discharge for previous day in SVR model with 10 year data length. So, the inputs, Data length and model type is changing in these tests. What is the best performance evaluation criterion for this study? NRMSE can be a good criterion because it normalizes the RMSE and in this way, it removes the effect of data range.
Now, I want to know if there is any better solution for this problem.
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Follow
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Hi everyone
There is a screenshot of variables and I need to know what is the difference between number 1 to 6? and which one I must use in my work?
thanks!
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Dear Mahsa Nemati please select the "precipitation" field as it provides Surface Precipitation Estimate for the area of interest. While, the precipitation_cnt layer provides information about Surface Convective Rain Rate and "randomError" provides the Random Error Estimate of the layer. The IRprecipitation field provides the rain destination in IR wavelength.
Please follow the user guides for TRMM using below links:
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Hi
Would you please let me know if the following is accurate as an answer to the question:
Suppose we have sensors which measure the volumetric soil water content of a soil layer for a long period (more than 6 months) and also high temporal resolution (half-hourly). Could I assign the maximum in this dataset to the saturation point?
I understand that we do need to have a lengthy rainfall event, how long the event should be so that the above proposal works?
And if there is any other way that I can get to the saturation point of a soil layer from the volumetric soil water content data/sensors, please let me know.
Mostly focused on the topsoil and preferably only using the dataset.
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There are standard methods for testing soils to consider. Usually soil samples are taken and put into a container of water so the soil is saturated from the bottom, about 24 hours. Unless there is a water table to saturate soils in the field, ability in reaching saturation may vary with the conditions. I remember we had a dry period and wildfire, then a substantial rain, about 3-5 inches. Water was pounded on the surface the next day, but the soil scientist found the soil totally dry about 12-18 inches below the surface. I also learned that an upper clay layer needs to be saturated before the lower sandy layer can effectively gain water and this is related to the tension with which clay holds water as compared to sands. Some soil layers have difficulty becoming saturated, such as well developed forest soils seldom exhibit runoff due to high infiltration and macropores from roots, etc. other soils as hydric soils are saturated frequent enough to exhibit hydric soil indicators due to frequency of high water table. Sampling the soil depth or horizon is probably the most reliable using standard methods to saturate and measure.
I would not use just the high reading in 6 month period, unless at least I reviewed nearby stream gauging stations and the rainfall during the 6 month produced at least a bankfull streamflow event, which occurs generally about every year, and the stream channel is at a level where flooding begins for stable channels that have not aggraded or degraded. I would want to be pretty sure there was a reasonable likelihood of saturation based on evidence like the streams were near or at flooding. The other option might be to set up so the area with the data sensors can be irrigated for long enough so the detectors stabilize after reaching their approximate maximum. Saturating from the surface can apparently leave some air spaces unfilled, but unless the area periodically has a high water table, the air spaces may not be filled easily to saturation by rainfall anyway.
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I'm working on a project that relates flooding to adequate Drainage system.
The project is area based (NSUKKA, Enugu Nigeria). Nusuka could be seen to have the geological features as stated above
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Highland is an area of elevation as against low plains or lowland. They are not necessarily flood plains. Its surface (topsoil) or subsurface soil may have high infiltration tendency that is, low runoff coefficient which may reduce flood risk. It may as well consist impermeable (mountainous) surface with large runoff coefficient which will increase flood risk as well. Basically runoff coefficient factor is essential as it relates the amount of runoff to the amount of precipitation received. However, with topographical variation either with steep or gentle gradient the low plains will be susceptible to flooding if adequate storm water channels are not implemented.
Hence, conduct flood risk assessment as suggested by Bayan Hussien and then classify your study area. Source for contour map or generate a topo survey using GIS software.
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What would be the implications of an unanticipated drastic rise in the water surface elevation in the inlet channel upstream of an inverted siphon with all the rest design parameters (e.g. discharge, downstream water elevation etc) remaining the same as considered in the original design? What kinds of malfunctions would affect the siphon's operation in that case?
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It is could be causes the flooding in the inlet structures of the inverted siphon as well as increasing the inlet velocity of the hydraulic structures.
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Hi
I am friends I am calibrating stream flow using SWAT-CUP. While altering the parameter ranges to get the best simulated result, how to fix ranges for parameters.
Please help me in this
Regards
Dagani
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SWAT input-outp document provides the details of most of the parameters with ranges. Please choose from there
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Currently, the combined effect of all clouds is one of net cooling, meaning that clouds are dampening the rate of climate warming. But scientists are looking into whether clouds will have the same effect on climate as the Earth continues to warm. If the proportion of different cloud types changes, it could affect the rate of climate change because different types of clouds have different impacts on the Earth's climate. While some types of clouds help to warm the Earth, others help to cool it?
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Well,
The answer can be found in the earth's energy budget as shown in the attached figure.
Regards
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I have seen that normally available river flows divided by the population of the country is taken as water availability (cubic meters per person per year) for the country. I feel that available rainfall below the measuring points for river flows should also be included towards water availability calculations.
I want to know the opinion of other colleagues in this regard.
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Hello, guys, I need resources for these types of questions. if anyone can help I would appreciate it.
Q: How much water resource is required for a person/year to keep better river quality?
Please calculate under following assumption; (2 significant figures)
- Water consumption per person per day: 250 L
- BOD value of treated water by biological wastewater treatment process: 20 mg/L
-BOD value for maintenance of biological ecosystem in the aquatic environment: 4 mg/L
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Any model output depends on its parameters. SWAT is a conceptual model, it contains an enormous number of physical and process-based parameters to capture real-world behaviour. The physical parameters which we can measure directly and the process-based parameters which cannot measure directly and it has to go through calibration or optimization. While optimizing the model, we will select the influential parameters. But, during the screening of influential parameters itself contains huge uncertainty like:
1. Which parameters have to select?
2. How much range has to take for selected parameters?
3. If we select more parameters, complexity and optimization will increase
4. Which method has to adopt for deriving the parameter value like Absolute, Relative or Replace?
Are any optimal methods available to select parameters and its range?
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Dear hydropower Experts,
The Joint Research Centre is opening up a consultation in order to identify which are the most innovative technologies in the hydropower sector.
Ideally we are interested in technologies that have the following characteristics:
• Radical new technology/concept, not achievable by incremental research.
• On an early stage of development: Technology Readiness Level (TRL) preferably not more than 3
Thank you very much.
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Dear Ioannis, we are studying the opportunity to use our novel ball gear technology in hydro power generation. It is a gearbox, nothing else, but it uses purely rolling balls as coupling elements - no teeth, chains, belts and alike - and that is what is new in it. Please see our web site at sincroll.com. It has various advantages such as very high efficiency due to practically 'no' friction, only pure rolling. Any shaft angles and offsets. Also, very high gearing ratios. In particular, it could be run under water cooling only, no oil lubrication. Wondering if these advantages could justify the use of our gearbox in hydro power generation. What do you think? Please, let me know - thanks.
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Dear Researchers
According to your practical experience, which formula, out of the following three, is more reliable for calculating head loss in water supply pipes and provides better results when compared to the actual values?
Hagen–Poiseuille
Darcy–Weisbach
Hazen–Williams
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Dear Roland,
What you wrote is incorrect. This is not the right relationship for pressure drop.
Considering the Darcy-Weisbach formula, we can write that the head loss is :
dh= (fL/D)x(V^2)/2g
The pressure drop is then : dp = rhoxgxdh
That is : dp = rhoxfx L x('V^2)/(2D)
You can see that the constant g is simplified and does not intervene in the pressure drop according to the Darcy-Weisbach relation.
Regards
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I had finished daily evapotranspiration calculation,but it is necessary to do the temporal upscaling. Can anyone give me some advises? 
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This is also a proper recommendation. Using all empirical equations and evaluating the accuracy of them.
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We have started a mini research on why water treatment system present in our college failed so early? It was built in 2011.
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Hi could you describe what happened? try to orientate te us in the following way.: 1) the water quality out ot the treatment is still polluted......(what contaminants?); 2) the water amunt (flux) has diminished. In any of both cases I should make a deep cleaning because the sand filter or the aereation tank may bee dirty. Give us more details please.
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6th Vienna young Scientists Symposium, TU Wien (Vienna University of Technology), Austria
June 25-26, 2020
Consisting of four mini-symposia, the symposium has an overall theme of "Technology, Science, and Design for a Sustainable World". The themes of the mini-symposia are:
• Innovative Materials and Green Chemistry
• Energy and Resource Engineering
• Sustainable Buildings, Cities and Infrastructures
• Environmental Analysis and Modeling
Abstract submission deadline: March 15, 2020
"The purpose of the innovative platform Vienna young Scientists Symposium (VSS) is to enhance the interdisciplinary professional exchange between members of the TU Wien." "All scientific staff and students of TU Vienna are cordially invited to participate in this event as speakers."
More information at: https://vss.tuwien.ac.at/home/EN/
#VSS2020 #TUWien #scientists #symposium #technology #science #design #sustainableworld #sustainability #innovation #materialsscience #greenchemistry #energy #resourceefficiency #sustainablearchitecture #sustainablebuilding #sustainablecities #sustainableinfrastructure #architecture #urbanplanning #urbandesign #civilengineering #climatechange #research #environmentalanalysis #environmentalmodeling
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I would like to participate but the call for abstract page clearly stated 'All scientific staff and students of TU Vienna are cordially invited to participate in this event'. There is no sign for inviting external participants, could you clarify?
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I want to use 71 climate stations in my research. The variable that I'm dealing with is Monthly precipitation and temperature. Each station has <=15% missed data were scattered throughout 30 years of monthly data. I want to fill missing values in these stations. How to use the regression method when other nearby stations have missed data too?
Is there any simple and proofed approach for filling missed monthly precipitation and temperature data in one station using itself data?
Any advice is so appreciated.
Best Regards,
Behzad
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You might be able to estimate if there were sufficient records of streamflow, well levels, and possibly reservoir levels from which to estimate storage changes. These records directly respond to rainfall. It probably would be up to you and others to develop regressions or models to make estimates. If you have heard of flow estimates using the unit hydrograph approach, one might reverse this process to use the gauging station stream hydrographs to estimate rainfall. I have not attempted this, and there can be substantial geospatial variance with individual storms, but perhaps the ability of watersheds to yield a landscape average, maybe this would be good enough to estimate monthly values.
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Dear fellows. I wish you a good day.
I am planning to perform RVF analysis for open channel flows. Before I move forward, I want to make sure I have a suitable apparatus within my reach. Please share your experience on the question above. Your guidance in this regard shall be highly appreciated.
Thank you very much.
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In Hydraulic Laboratory of WARSAW UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES – SGGW (WULS-SGGW) we have and work on flume 20 m long, 0.6 m wide, 1.0 m high and smaller others.
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Dear respondent,
Procedure for finding Shields curve for pure sand sediments are available like  Van Rijn formula. but for the case of cohesive sand/cemented sand this procedure can not be applied. suggest the applicable procedure for finding critical shields parameter in order to establish the curve.
Thank you for your interest.
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If you don't have detailed hydrodynamic data, you can use an expression based on Hjulström–Sundborg–Miedema diagram to find incipient motion criteria for cohesive sediment. Only the flow depth and average velocity/surface velocity is required and detailed hydrodynamic data is not needed. Have a look at this paper.
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I am trying to assess how water resources evolved after increasing drought due to climate change.
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In my opinion, the key issue is equipping the research laboratory with precise devices for measuring rainfall, air humidity and soil moisture at specific measurement depths. In addition, an important issue is the appropriately long period of measurements to make the results of research independent from seasonal changes of the seasons, cyclically changing periods of drought and rainy season, etc. Increasing drought has a direct impact on the reduction of surface, subcutaneous and groundwater resources. However, the impact of drought on deep water resources depends on the passage of time, depth and type of deep water resources and the type of rocks between which these water resources are located. Deeper deep water resources, such as the Oligocene ones, can be fully independent of changes in weather and climate on the Earth's surface. Therefore, another issue is to determine what kind of water the local community uses, and therefore it is important to determine to what depth the water resources will be tested.
Best wishes
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I am in search of latest topics in the field of Open Channel Flow and Hydraulics for my research work. Your suggestions in this regard shall be highly appreciated.
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sediments transport modeling is a good start for open channel and hydraulic study.
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Which are related to technical knowledge as well as to knowledge about the environment
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Water Mnagemmet techniques either applied to crops or settlment is the need of the hour. The water scarcity on both sides drinking as well as the agricultural use is getting worsed day by day which draw attention of researchers to develop innovative technologies for judicious use of available water. It may include growing of less water requiring crops, application of drip irritation systems and using lazer leveling in the fields to ensure the evenly distributed water. Secondly wastage of water should be stopped. Water supply needs to meterd if necessary to curb water wastage. The water saved can be provided to the areas where it required or may be stored for future use through the water shed management..... Ctc....
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I have a question about your work (Fuzzy Logic).
In forecasting something using FIS toolbox (in matlab) how to use previous output (T-1) as one of inputs?
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What model you are using with Fuzzy Logic and what are the inputs and outputs of model.
Your question is not clear. If you clarify then I will be able to understand and attempt to suggest if it is possible.
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Hello all,
Would you please explain a little about the difference between Prediction and Forecasting, in Hydrology. Because I see them used differently in Hydrology books and they try to give definitions about them, but in the end, I can't grasp it fully.
Are they totally separated? Or they overlap in some fields or variables?
Thank you
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Dear Alireza,
In predictive ecology, prediction summarizes 3 things:
- prediction to the future (aka forecasting),
- prediction to the reference period (i.e. ~present),
- prediction to the past (aka hindcasting).
HTH,
Ákos
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For many years, the consumption of clean water and minerals of energy resources and strategic industrial raw materials, such as metal ores necessary for various branches of the manufacturing industry, have been growing at a faster rate. On the other hand, the pollution of the natural environment grows, the degradation of the natural environment through mines extracting energy minerals. The amount of waste on dumps of unsorted municipal waste is growing, as well as litter that pollutes the natural environment. More and more plastic waste floats in the seas and oceans. The scale of degradation of the natural environment through the development of human civilizations is increasing.
The goal of counteracting these unfavorable processes of human civilizational activity is to carry out pro-ecological reforms in the energy sector consisting in the transformation of the classical energy based on the burning of minerals for the construction of new power plants producing renewable energy. Reforming the energy sector is necessary to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and the increasingly rapid global warming process. It is necessary to develop eco-innovations thanks to which plastic in packaging will be replaced with quickly biodegradable and / or consumable materials. Waste segregation systems and electromobility should be improved. More funds from public funds of the state should be allocated for the implementation of pro-ecological reforms of reclamation of a degraded civilization environment and the implementation of nature conservation programs, natural ecosystems and biodiversity.
However, all those ecological ones necessary to carry out the reform will not ensure achieving in a global perspective fully sustainable pro-ecological development if in subsequent years the consumption of natural resources, especially water and earth's energy and other minerals indispensable for various branches of the production industry. Therefore, in order for the implementation of fully sustainable ecological development to be possible in the future, the increase in the exploitation of natural resources, especially non-renewable natural resources, should be significantly reduced.
Do you agree with my opinion on this matter?
Therefore, I am asking you the following questions:
- How should the use of unrecognized natural resources be reduced so that sustainable ecological development is possible?
- Is it necessary to pursue a model of zero economic growth?
- Should the implementation of the zero-growth model be mainly based on reducing the consumption of natural resources?
- How should the use of non-renewable natural resources be reduced so that sustainable ecological development is possible?
- Will the protection of nature, natural ecosystems and biodiversity significantly increase by reducing the use of non-renewable natural resources?
Please reply
I invite you to the discussion
Thank you very much
Best wishes
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We discuss aspects of the behavioural change needed in this chapter https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007/978-94-017-8959-2_2.pdf as part of the Millennium Alliance for Humanity and the Biosphere https://mahb.stanford.edu
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Hello Everyone!!
i'm working on Hydraulics particularly on Scouring,
i have Scour depth data and Parameters affecting to scour. now i would like to carryout sensitivity analysis on the parameters to predict the scour.
Currently i don't have the scour model, based on data i would like to carry out Sensitivity analysis ,
please suggest some suitable method for the sensitivity analysis.
Thank you.
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Hi Praveen,
You might have a look at the correlations between the scour depth data and the parameters. If there is a high correlation between the scour depth and a particular parameter in the data, you would expect that this high correlation is also present in a (good) model and hence the model output (scour depth) is sensitive to variations in this parameter.
Good luck,
Martijn
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We observed a huge difference between simulated and observed outflows from a catchment during a hydrological modelling exercise in HEC-HMS. The catchment contains numerous ponds and smaller lakes (of varying areal extent), lacking operational data. How can we account for the effect of these storage structures in the hydrological modelling?
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I am not totally familiar with HEC-HMS. I believe that it runs by reaches, with a stage, storage, outflow for each reach, is that correct? If so, then you need to make each reservoir along the river to to have its own stage storage outflow information. This is challenging modeling, so it will take some time to fully describe each of the reservoirs.
If you are modeling the upland runoff to HEC-HMS using the Curve Number methodology, there is a way in the method to account for the effect of reservoir storage in the sub basins. Let me know if you need some suggestions on how to do that.
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What data do we need?
I got 35 years of daily data of rainfall and river discharge.
I am working on this project for my final year research project in civil engineering.
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I think most kinds of ANNs could well simulate the river discharge with the previous observed streamflow and current rainfall data. But those works highlight the predicted discharge only. Hence, if for something new, your point should focus on if the LSTM can reasonably reflect the mechanistic processes. Specifically, the soil moisture has the memory of previous wetness in a watershed, which may be suitable for the function of short-term memory in LSTM. It means soil moisture productions made from remote sensing or land surface modeling may be useful for your research project. Moreover,some of my work published in 2013 and 2014 could be helpful, as well.
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What is the main challenges in water sector based on main events? (like drought, flood, agriculture, industry, etc)
I'm looking for a framework or divide of challenges in this manner.
like we can say in agriculture main challenge could be the low efficiency of irrgation.
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Protecting water as a vulnerable resource - water saving awareness- responding to climate change impact on water – increasing water use efficiency – using the right price for water services.
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The sand body on the river bed is 9 meters thick. It consists of medium and coarse sand. The stream course on the river changes course and hence direst pumping stations for irrigation are adversely affected. The base flow is the only alternative left for exploitation.
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Thanks for your valuable comments. Further work being on going, I will post the findings later on.
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What is its impact on aquatic animals?
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Linking two freshwater rivers is likely to to place the downstream channel in a state of disequilibrium, causing channel adjustments, erosion, sediment delivery to estuarine and marine systems. Some anadromous species have strict limits on their native waters, combining streams can alter their migration pattern, introduce species to areas not natural, alter habitats so no longer useful to some native species. But it is hard to predict or give exact effects.
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Dear fellows
I am teaching undergraduate 3rd and 4th year students the course "sustainable management of water resources"
I really appreciate if anyone can help me with teaching materials or text books for this subject.
Lets stay sustainable and ensure our tomorrow,
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The following are just a few materials I found, yet not necessarily the best material available:
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Range of Variability Approach, is introduced in the D. RICHTER 1997 article , "How much water does a river need?" for designing "management targets" for the eco-friendly river management.
My question, is how one can or what are the considerations to design hourly targets based on that approach and those 32 indices he introduced in his seminal 1996 article.
( Should we obtain daily or hourly streamflow records ? but the indices Richter designs targets from are monthly )
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Dear Alireza:
Are you referring to hydropeaking? In this case you will need sub-daily data. The hydrologic statistics proposed by Richter are oriented to define environmental flows. For hydropeaking, I suggest you to read the following paper where indexes are proposed to operate reservoirs on sub-daily flow regimes.
Regards, Alvaro
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Has anyone a complete data of a coastal aquifer to simulate saltwater intrusion using GMS software?
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IN GMS there are tutorials which you can download from their official website. from there you can get a complete data set for simulation of saltwater intrusion.
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Dear respondent,
for given configuration of five sphere sand particles in two rows.
mathematically modelling of sand particle(dia =0.5mm) movement in sand bed under hydro dynamic drag force, which resisted by friction between the particles and self weight of the particles. How to find the distance moved?
want to find the energy required to move the particle in rough bed and smooth bed condition.
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In climate change impact studies, drought assessments need longer series of data to evaluate.
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LARS-WG and SDSM is very good.
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I need an output discharge of various flow rates varying from 0.5 to 15 liters/minute at a constant pressure of around 0.7 bar; could you please suggest to me which type of pump can be used to achieve these conditions?
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No, we are now altering overhead pressure to vary the flow rate.
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We are trying to estimate the Raindrop Size Distribution of our Artificial Rainfall Simulator (Perforated Tray Method with mechanical pump machine) and looking for the best but affordable method (both technologically and financially) for estimating Raindrop Size Distribution specially in the tropical weather of Bangladesh.
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We used the flour method while working on a hypodermic based rainfall simulator. We found it quite reliable provided the flour had been pre-dried in a 100C oven and sifted evenly into a tray and used immediately. (flour water content and cohesiveness, varies with humidity ) he flour method not only preserved the drop size , but also the drop shape. If we did not allow enough depth in the flour tray, then the crown shaped splash pattern - as the drop hit the bottom- was also preserved. The size of the oven dried flour pellet is smaller than the drop - the method needs to be calibrated.
The only surprise we had with our simulator is that after a few minutes operation we needed more pressure on the syringes to get the same rate - the drops were setting up an electrostatic potential which caused them to cling to the needle.
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Dear respondents,
I request you to list some major factors or phenomenal difference between Stream bed erosion and soil erosion. 
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It seems to me that the question is not correct. It should be more specific. In my turn, I would ask: What is the environment? What are the conditions?
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River flow causes soil erosion. The finer soil particle eroded as suspended particles and the eroded coarser particles settles down after some time and again the cycle of erosion and deposition continues. In this process water and soil two major things. in such a situation how does water availability in the river related to the sand mining related.
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Sand mining lowers the riverbed in the water storage love, thereby, effecting physical and biological environments of the river system..
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name the parameters like depth, quantity of sand eroded,flow , etc...
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Dear Velusamy Gobinath, 
As it was explained by Mr Jeroen ;I think the slope, the flow and the depth of the water are the most important parameters.
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give the method or formula to find the depth -averaged water flow velocity in a rectangular open channel.
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As a quick approximation, time a piece of floating material in the middle of the river for a distance of about 30 m or so.  Calculate velocity and multiply by 0.86.  This result was shown decades ago to be a good approximation to the log law and gives you a good estimate of the depth-averaged velocity.  
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I want to model the sand erosion. specifically particle movement in the sand bed under the influence of flowing water. suggest some model if already present.  
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Hi Velusamy,
You can use the Telemac hydrodynamic model coupled whit his sediment transport model (Sisyphe)
Regards,
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I.e. the method that will produce results in determination of aquifer free from such type of contaminants.
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the only concept that can be applied is to follow the standard techniques of carry out geophysical surveyor, this will enable you to determine the aquifer thickness, after the drilling  using the report , before the construction of the water bore hole, you must do your down hole logging, this will enable you to determine the contaminant zone, and you applied cement droughting  techniques to prevent the contaminant intrusion into the phreatic aquifers.
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In one aspect , water resources engineering(WRE) , has a general and macroscopic way of thinking and studying about the environment and water in any form . 
Computational fluid mechanics and numerical methods to solve related equation sound a little off-topic or if better stated , prevent a student from WRE to concentrate and address a comprehensive enough study and career about water management . 
Can a WRE student work and tackle numerical problems solely for a research and feel comfortable that he is not going too much stray ! ? 
What I mean is , will a WRE student be criticized or underrated  in any way in future  why he worked on too much detail of governing equations of a water resources subject rather than a more general or managemental view ?
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Computation Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is highly technical and specialized. It is much more than general modeling using models prepared by others. While most in the field are mechanical engineers, there are water engineers who work their entire career in CFD. However, there are not as many jobs as the broader water quality, supply, and management areas. If you really enjoy CFD, and are prepared to wait for a job, do it. However, if you want to have more opportunities once you graduate, avoid it.
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For my thesis I am currently working on a set of hydrological models. All models were calibrated with a multi objective calibration (logNSE, pbias and RSR). Now I want to compare the results, but I am not quite sure how to do it. The most easy way would be to just use a table with all values, but this is hard to comprehend for a reader. Therefore, I would like to make a visual comparison. But this is quite difficult as the objective functions all have a different scale and optimal value. Any ideas?
I already tried it using a three-dimensional scatterplot, but this resulted in a not very overseeable figure.
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Flow duration curves can be a valuable comparison among stations.  I used that to compare various stations in N Georgia, USA on one of my posters in researchgate, and it showed similarities among streams within physiographic areas, differences mostly due to rainfall across the landscape.  I added a trial Stiff Plot in Excel so you can hopefully follow my commands in Excel, appears same as a Spider diagram.  It can be useful, but getting the units of the axis can be a challenge, and the idea of normalizing or rating High, Medium and Low is also sometimes useful.  
Your plot with so much time dependent detail is informative as is, I like it, but if space, consider expanding laterally to cover a full page width or turn page 90 degrees to use length, and more detail will be evident.  I noted that the rainfall showed few instances of low values, so you may need to use narrower lines with a symbol or something to show more of the detail, and not hide the periods of no rain.  I know, its a challenge with daily or more frequent data.  If necessary, with 6 years data, you can stack 3 plots of two years each on a page, and use the same dimensions of each plot (ie, exact replica plots of two years each for your 6 years) so they will be all comparable.  This may better present or highlight the hydrograph response and recession curves by season (growing vs dormant, wet and dry).  You are also using calendar years, and in USA, we often use water years based on Oct 1 is end of summer and generally a low flow period to start each water year.  I would not use that with your data, but something that may apply to help separate water response years.  I think you will find there are many ways to present data and help tell your story to others.
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Both bridge abutment and spur dike acts as obstruction to flow and allow water to move downward and generate horseshoe vortices so that scouring occurs around each of them. Since, both are generating horseshoe vortices and plunging water downwards to enhance scouring, will the scouring pattern be same around each of the aforementioned structure?
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Spur dike and abutment can applay the same formula to calcalat the scour depth..you can read the papers for Laursen who intrested of this subject.
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I am trying to measure evapotranspiration using SEBAL method. I am using landsat 8 data. In the process I have converted DN to radiance, then radiance into corrected reflectance. I am using corrected reflectance bands 4 and 5 of landsat 8 for calculating NDVI. The NDVI image is displaying a range much beyond the limits ( above 10000 and below -3000). What could be the problem?
Any help is highly appreciated. Thanks in advance.
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Srinivas,
If you read the Landsat 8 Surface Reflectance (SR) product guide, they mention that the valid range is from 0 to 10000 even if there are negative and 10k+ values. Further it is a a matter of rescaling (multiply with 0.0001) to get the ideal -1 to +1 NDVI range. It might be a good idea to compare the reflectance that you manually calculated and the ones provided by USGS ESPA. They also provide NDVI images derived from atmospherically corrected (SR) Band 4 and Band 5 of Landsat 8. I have attached a similar discussion which I think should be helpful.  
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Hi All,
Does anyone can share paper/knowledge about the methodology for analysis of water balance in tropical peat area?
Thank you
Gigit
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You can use the water balance equation to assess this. Try to list and quantify all the inputs into the systems. Similarly, list and quantify all outflows in the systems. This should equal to change in storage within the area. Each of the flows and stock could be assessed either through experiments or from past statistics. You need to define the time you are interested in. For annual budget, use accumulated values for the year. An example, rainfall, surface flow into the area, groundwater inflows, water added (irrigation) are some inflows. Outflows are evapotranspiration, discharge out of the area, groundwater outflow, withdrawal of water from the area. Storage could be surface storage, subsurface and groundwater storages.  
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I am looking for a reference (book, paper...) where to find a clear explanation of the different techniques that can be used to implement boundary conditions  for 2D shallow water equations with a finite volume implementation. Can anybody help ? Thanks a lot in advance. Marco
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Hello,
No math...
First absolute rule :
  • Upstream (inflow) : subcritical : 1 condition; supercritical : 2 conditions
  • Downstream (outflow) : subcritical : 1 condition; supercritical : 0 condition
A "condition" is the value of a state variable (h, q).
The external state variable of a boundary border must be initialised whith the internal values, that is no condition.
Then, two possible implementations:
  • Hard : the flux of the border is directly computed from the external values
  • Soft : the flux of the border is computed with your favorite Riemann solver, considering the external values, eventually changed with your boundary conditions
Recommendations:
  • A boundary condition can be upstream, downstream, subcritical and supercritical during a single simulation !
  • The best thing to do with that, as a programmer, is to let the full responsability of the definition of the boundary conditions to the user. No check during simulation. No hypothesis in the code.
  • Think of a numerical model as a physical one! We need bassins, upstream and downstream, to impose physically boundary conditions! Create also bassins in your numerical models : your boundary conditions will becomme evident and stable.
  • Implements hard boundary condition : you wil retrive your imposed values in the result. Soft implentation is also correct, but more complicated to communicate to the client...
Best regards,
Dr Jerome Dubois
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water management
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I do a research about christianity & it's impacts on iranian art, but I have not seen a book or article about this in Iranian documents (in persian language). If some one knows references about this, pls. help me! 
thanks a lot!
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Dear Mr.
Mehrdad Momeni (mir momeni)
Università Ca' Foscari Venezia
I think you can find what you need in this book: The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture. http://www.oxfordreference.com/view/10.1093/acref/9780195309911.001.0001/acref-9780195309911
and this books (pdf file):
Hope that it is useful for you.
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I am looking for the value of the HDI, that it would be possible to separate USGS gauges to non-urbanized, semi-urbanized and urbanized watersheds based on that. As I am working in the ArcGIS, I need quantitative values for this index.
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Using watershed metrics like Effective Impervious Area has been successfully used to evaluate stream impairment. This might work well to classify urban, and suburban areas rather than general land cover metrics. Given your background in GIS, I recommend using EIA or similar classifications of the watershed land to develop thresholds. This literature is well developed in past decade. One threshold you could use is 10% EIA that has shown to have a shift in nature of impacts from rural to suburban conditions. Indices like HDI could help but using it to classify the type of land use impact on hydrograph is not straightforward. 
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I am working with arcmap10.1.  It gives me error for not executing the function of exporting values to points. Although just a day before it was working very good.
What is the cause for the error and how can i avoid it?!!
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Error code 99999 is a generic code from Arc. You may be out of available memory. Try writing the file to a different location.
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Hi,
I am trying to create a framework to understand urban water services (drinking water, waste water and surface water) from an institutional point of view. I see that there is profound disagreement about what governance actually is. After some reading my conclusion is that governance is a process that brings actors to create/modify/reinforce institutions (the social structure: the rules of the game, formal and informal, i.e. rules, norms and cultural-cognitive elements), so this institutions shape the behavior of all stakeholders. Do you agree with this interpretation?.
How can "management of services" fit in this framework?. Is management also a process limited and enabled by the institutions created/modified/reinforced by governance?
I appreciate you comments
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Dear Manuel,
I suggest you the following interesting paper.
With my best regards
Prof. Bachir ACHOUR
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Dear all,
we want to calibrate our Arcswat model for the case study, our objective is to use the resulted runoff and crop yield in the area. so I have some questions:
1-which kind of observed data are suitable and should be used in the calibration?
2-we have lack of observed data: so can we use soil data for calibration?
Thanks for the responses.
Best
Shima
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Dear Shima,
You need to have observed streamflow for calibration. If you don't have sufficient number of streamflow data (say not on a continuous time series), you can relate the discontinuous streamflow with even pressure observations and find a relation. That can be used to calibrate the streamflow.
I hope it helps. All the best !
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What is the best way to :
1. Model subsurface drainage (and irrigation) using perforated pipe.
2. Model water table under
3. Model soil moisture distribution
simultaneously. Is there any model that can accommodate the development of 1+2+3 model to evaluate effectiveness of farmland sub-drain system
.
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Dear Satyanto,
DRAINMOD is a computer simulation model developed by Dr.Wayne Skaggs at the Department of Biological & Agricultural Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC in 1980. The model simulates the hydrology of poorly drained, high water table soils on an hour-by-hour, day-by-day basis for long periods of climatological record (e.g. 50 years). The model predicts the effects of drainage and associated water management practices on water table depths, the soil water regime and crop yields.  It has been used to analyze the hydrology of certain types of wetlands and to determine whether the wetland hydrologic criterion is satisfied for drained or partially drained sites. The model is also used to determine the hydraulic capacity of systems for land treatment of wastewater. The model has been successfully tested and applied in wide variety of geographical and soils conditions. In the last 20 years, the model's capability has been extended to predict the effects of drainage and water management practices on the hydrology and water quality of agricultural and forested lands both on field and watershed scale.
The latest version, DRAINMOD 6.0 , combines the original DRAINMOD hydrology model with DRAINMOD-N (nitrogen sub-model) and DRAINMOD-S (salinity sub-model) into a Windows based program. The new version includes a graphical user interface that allows easy preparation of input data sets, running simulations as well as displaying model outputs. In addition to organizing the hydrology, nitrogen, and salinity components of DRAINMOD, the interface facilitates analyses of the effect of drainage system design on subsurface drainage, surface runoff, SEW30, crop yield, and nitrogen loss in surface and subsurface drainage by automatically editing drainage design parameters (e.g. drain spacing & drain depth) over a specified range, simulating the different designs and graphically displaying the results. The interface also calculates the runoff volume from surrounding areas that drain to a site and adds that runoff volume to a DRAINMOD water balance of the site. Version 6.0 also includes routines for soil temperature modeling and considers freezing and thawing effects on drainage processes.
For modelling soil moisture, SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) is highly recommended
With my best regards
Prof Bachir ACHOUR
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Dear Researcher, 
Rainfall of a basin can be calculated by thiessen polygon method and contribution of every rain-gauge can be determined using Arcmap. Kindly guide me how to figure out rainfall for every sub basin of a basin? how to calculate rainfall contribution of rain-gauges for sub basin 1, 2 and 3 in the attached figure. Is there any other toll except arcmap where we can apply thiessen polygon? If any one have tutorial kindly share.
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Hi Muhammad, .. When you are using the Thiessen polygon method the weighting factor for each polygon is  wi=Ai/A  , where Ai is area of the  polygon and A is the total area of interest. ArcMAP has already a builtin function for Thiessen polygon .. Once you have shp file for that you can get it from the attribute table as well.
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I am preparing a field work on irrigation managment in citrus trees. I am thinking of using wireless AquaCheck capacitive probes. And It would be helpfull to learn from other scientists experiences (reliability, repeatability of measurements, quality of signal transmission, suitability to soil types). 
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Well, we applied capacitive probe years ago, but not togethrt with irrigation control. Only point measurements is the major flaw of all such sensiórs. For this issue is much more powerfull modified measurements of sap flow (particulary sap flow index), look at Nadezhdina et al. 1997. Ann.Inst.Sup.Agron, 46., 1998.Conf.Foresta and Water in Cracow, 1999 Tree Physiology 19, 2000 Acta Horticulturae 537. This szstem considers the tree water status a day before irrigation and the actual state. Corresponding algorithm directly controls the doses of applied water in different parts of the day. Its application helps to save water and increase the yield at the same time. You can contact the author (nadezhdan@mendelu.cz). Regards Jan Cermak
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Which one of this level of processing for Satellite data ( COSMO SkyMed ) will be good for my study.And I am ordering STRIPMAP HIMAGE. Mostly, I will be using for DEM extraction, river cross section extraction, Landuse/landcover etc.
1. Level 0( RAW)
2. Level 1A( SCS) - Single Look Complex Slant
3. Level 1B( MDG) - Detected Ground Multi Look
4. Level 1C( GEC) - Geocoded Ellipsoid Corrected
5. Level 1D(GTC)- Geocoded Terrain Corrected
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I am researching on runoff processes in multiple watershed and trying to develop a story using the outcome from different watersheds. I was wondering what should be considered as good questions that I need to ask myself to develop a clear and complete story of runoff process in my research areas?
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Basically you need to determine your inputs (e.g. precipitation depths and intensities; land use & land cover, subsurface flow, groundwater inflow, antecedent soil moisture conditions etc) and outputs (e.g. groundwater outflow, evapotranspiration etc). Consideration should be made to determine runoff coefficeints for the different watersheds which are a function of geology/soils, antecedent soil moisture, topography vegetation cover, slope etc. For detailed balances you might need to carry out mass balance calculations/hydrograph separations using tracers for samples collected from the subsurface, groundwater boreholes, from the stream as well as rainfall samples.
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I am delineating a basin in the river Nile using Arcmap (spatial analyst tool), during delineating the sub-basins and defining different outlets, the result is one watershed consisted of all the sub basins! why is this happening ? in the past i delineated the sub basins and they appeared separated right.
Attached  picture with the merged sub basins in green and the blue circles is on the place where sub-watersheds are merged.
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Hello Mr. Samy,
I agree with Mr. El Mehdi Saidi, I have already used this tool, the steps are described on my master's thesis: "Etude de la relation eaux de surface-eaux souterraines au contact de l'Oued Rheraya avec la Plaine du Haouz; bilan et quantification des apports".
First install ArcHydroTools in ArcGIS, then follow the steps:
1. DEM Reconditioning ou reconditionnement du Modèle digital d’élévation
2. Fill Sinks ou comblement des ‘puits’
3. Flow Direction ou direction d’écoulement
4. Flow Accumulation ou accumulation des flux
5. Stream Definition ou définition du cours d’eau
7. Catchment Grid Delineation ou délinéation du maillage du bassin
8. Catchment Polygon Processing ou traitement polygonal du bassin
9. Drainage Line Processing ou traitement des lignes de drainage
10. Adjoint Catchment Processing ou traitement des bassins adjoints
For more details please see:
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Do you know any dredger manufacturing company in the Netherlands or EU countries? Or can you give me any contact of such a company? Please find me a dredger manufacturing company from the Netherlands or other EU countries to work with my husband's company to participate a Tender. The company has to have 20 years dredger manufacturing experience. We will form joint Venture (JV) and all works will be done in Bangladesh in our shipyard. All technical and Machinery supports for 20” and 18” Cutter Suction Dredger will be provided by the dredger manufacturing Company.
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In ANN we get output in workspace that we can copy paste in Excel sheet. But in ANFIS it is not possible to get testing output as a single file, I am doing modelling in evapotranspiration. I have 4 inputs (temp,humidity,solar radiation,wind) and one output (evapotranspiration).
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In ANFIS, you can use the command of "evalfis" as kind of below:
Output=evalfis(Input matrix, fis)
Here input matrix is the matrix supposed to be in workspace in Matlab. You can copy from your excel data file excluding output coloumn. Fis is the ANFIS > export > export as workspace file. And output matrix is the matrix the outputs are calculated as per input data using FIS.
Regards,
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Textual sources may include rule-making comments, recorded or transcribed public comments, transcribed public hearings, blog comments, letters to the editor, emails, etc.
I am especially interested in sources which might reveal concerns over threats to the sustainability of local groundwater sources or instances where there might have been conflict over groundwater.
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Dear Joni,
I am currently in my final stage of qualitative study on groundwater abstraction sustainability. What I did was a focus group discussion among stakeholders. 
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Let's try to make an updated challenges list for arid regions hydrology
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Hello Eyad, the main problems of  arid regions hydrology are: The general characteristics of such regions, the nature of the hydrological processes that govern runoff, and the differences in these processes.
Lack of observed data provides the major problem for runoff modelling in arid regions.
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I am looking in to existing Water Management Practice in India and how they can be replicated in South Sudan to address the existing water management challenges.
The work will base on case studies, both primary and secondary data collections.
After going through various practices commonly used in highland and lowland, then the best practices will be recommended after rating is done with water experts in Africa through some interviews.
I am seeking some materials support on this case studies and other vitals research works on Water Management Practice in India in lowland and highland..
Any kinds of supports will be greatly appreciated.
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Dear Walgak
Indian Institute of Water  Management at Bhuvneshwar, India (ICAR Institute) has published various bulletins on thesesubjects, you can visit their website and download few of the concerned bulletins for your reference
regards
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Can seepage meters be used to estimate groundwater discharge at seepage faces above the waterline?
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Thank you very much...I hope your answer will help me to define my problem. Again thanks a lot
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Have Regime Equations in designing canals usefulness?
BUT Take into account that canals have routine maintenance program or growing of vegetation
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Regime equations such as proposed by Lacey, Blench and others are of course empirical in their development and one needs to be careful whenever they are applied  outside of the range of conditions for which they were derived, a detail that is all too often neglected in practice in this and other hydraulic applications.  Nevertheless, there are many such relations that have also been derived from observations in natural rivers, provided that an effective or channel forming discharge is estimated.  Since many of these relations are in a power law form, it is instructive to compare exponents in such relations and they tend to be fairly similar for most of the equations although sometimes it is hard to make a direct comparison because of the choice of variables in the generated equation.  This would lead one to conclude that there is some general value in such relations provide that the discharge is fairlyty constant or that the channel forming discharge is estimated.
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Data about water use in m3/s in Vientiane province in Lao PDR?
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