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I have a project about IoT and Machine Learning.
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I'm modeling an aspen model for wastewater treatment and in the model it allows me only to specify the component concentrations while I only have the COD for it is there any way to convert the COD into a concentration??
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Converting COD to regular COD concentrations can be seen in the link am sharing and apart from this easy way would be edivining the number by 1000 as to converting COD from m/l to o2/l and this is a very simple technique of conversion of the overall COD from mg/l to go2/l as this involves the oxygen as well
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Tropical river
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muchas gracias por sus respuestas
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Hello all! What equipments are used to identify chemical and biological contaminants and measure their concentrations in a water? Thank you
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Modern coupling techniques are widely used for the determination of chemical contaminants, for example: GC / SM-SM; HPLC / MS; IRTF / MS, UV-VIS
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After getting my cyanobacteria-water samples, filtering them through GF/F filters, and freezing-thawing them, I use the trichromatic method to get Chl-a concentration.
I am wondering how much "free" (not cell-associated) chl-a is passing through the filter? is it possible to measure that portion that stays in the filtrate? If so, how would I do it?
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Dear Kelly,
the quickest and easiest (but still with high sensitivity) would be using a plankton fluorometer. Most of these will also provide an estimate of phycocyanin and phycoerythrin, which might be useful for your cyanobacteria-related question.
Good luck
Marco
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I am researching on Geo-spatial analysis with respect to land use/land coverage and water resources for identification of point and non-point sources of pollution of water bodies using integrated remote sensing
interested to analyze Non-point sources and point sources of water pollution in the study area from the previous 2010 and present 2020.
how can I get water quality parameter data? Are there any water quality monitoring gauges by any organization for the West Godavari delta region in India?
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You can obtain this s data from the Central Groundwater Board, local office at Kakinada Or Rajahmundry.
For this type of data, usually state Groundwater Department (Govt of Andhra Pradesh) is the custodian. To obtain this, data you may have to visit them in person with a letter endorsed by your HoD and wait until they release the data. It takes time usually....you may also try thier websites if by chance the data is loaded to the web.
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I received STM-32 sensor array kit as a participant in IEEE student sensor and measurement competition, but unfortunately the system is too new to me. I am unable to configure it. My goal is to use it with an array of multiple sensors which will measure several parameters regarding water quality monitoring. The STM-32 sensor array will be the common platform between these sensors. It needs to read the data measured by the sensors and to send it to a mobile phone for display. Is this possible to achieve? Looking forward to your help. Thanks in advance.
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Bluetooth allows a cell phone or two to attach to the stm32
using board for nucleo P-NUCLEO-WB55
There is a temp / humidity . 3 axis accel sensor board
When using the STM2IDE project manager (tutorials on line) the user can select the inclusion of the add on board software driver during project initialization. The HAL code will be added to the project for basic interface.
Water quality is tricky, easiest method
turbidity (nephalometer) measures water cloudiness ,you need a 980 nm LED an photo diode pair with filter, maybe and IRDA transceiver can be subbed , connect the LED to a PWM GPIO output for pulse light , and add a transconductance (ti.com) amplifier with integrating cap to the photo diode and then that output to an ADC channel. The idea here is the IRDA sensor immersed in water will illuminate the water and any particles or dirt etc will cause a reflection of the otherwise clear water. The photo diode is integrated over time look uop leaky bucket integrator circuit for detail. The average reflection is an indication of the suspended dirt cloudiness and there fore turbidity. Google turbidometer
This wont detect cryptospiridia or giardia or other pathogens as you will need a particle counter for that, way past normal student project.
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What is the most economical and efficient method of analyzing surface and underground water quality?
Especially nitrate, thermotolerant coliforms, Total Dissolved Solids TDS.
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I think that the EPA National Service Center for Environmental Publications: nepis.epa.gov is a good choice on economic methods
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I'm developing a bio-optical model for water quality monitoring. As much as I would like to follow standard procedure, the availability of laboratory instruments, time and financial constraints have limit my model development to water quality parameters measured using AAQ Rinko and water spectral reflectance data measured using Ocean Optics. In order to develop my optical model, I'm planning to use the chlorophyll a and turbidity (NTU) measurements from the AAQ and statistically relate it to water reflectance from the ocean optics. However, as the two instruments differ in variable type , one being discrete (AAQ measurements) while the other being continuous (spectral measurements), the development of statistical relationship could be difficult or even impossible. With this, I would like to ask possible methodologies to transform the variables to comparable variable types or suggest related studies that have developed a relationship between these measurements (AAQ and ocean optics hyperspectral measurements. Thank you!
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As a solution to this problem, I will only be using spectral signature of water at 675 nm with the AAQ Rinko chl-a measurements.
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We have 40 probes out in rivers and streams collecting conductance, water level, time, and temperature. These will be taking measurements every 5 minutes for 2 years. LOTS OF DATA! Any recommendations for data management programs, would be good. Our data analyst wants to use excel.... I dont think that will cut it.
Thanks
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Meanwhile, water quality monitoring has been evolving to the latest wireless sensor network (WSN) based solutions in recent decades. This paper presents a multi-parameter water quality monitoring system of Bristol Floating Harbour which has successfully demonstrated the feasibility of collecting real-time high-frequency water quality data and displayed the real-time data online. The smart city infrastructure – Bristol Is Open was utilised to provide a plug & play platform for the monitoring system. This new system demonstrates how a future smart city can build the environment monitoring system benefited by the wireless network covering the urban area. The system can be further integrated in the urban water management system to achieve improved efficiency.
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Ground water, surface water and wastewater always contain dissolved solids. Most of researchers used electrical conductivity (EC) meter for measuring dissolved solids. But the results are always different from that measures with gravimetrically. Question arises, how to testify, which one is authentic.
Gravimetric method is time consuming. If we use EC meter, what cares may be taken?
Is ion-balancing is of some use?
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The answer is clear: only the gravimetrically determined method provides reliable results. The EC/TDS method is a calculation using a conversion factor which ranges from 0.25 to 1.34 [µS/cm and mg/L] . If – and only if – you predetermined the conversion factor for a given site THEN you can use the EC/TDS ratio and it will also be reliable. Please see my paper
Hubert, E. & Wolkersdorfer, C. (2015): Establishing a conversion factor between electrical conductivity and total dissolved solids in South African mine waters. – Water SA, 41(4):490-500, 6 fig., 8 tab.; doi:10.4314/wsa.v41i4.08.
for details and more references.
So, to answer the last part of your question: determine the EC (at 25 °C = κ / TDS ratio for several samples of your site(s) using the gravimetrical method (ensure you calibrate your EC meter) and then use this factor f to calculate TDS as follows:
TDS [mg/L] = f × κ [µS/cm]
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we would like to implement WSN in water quality monitoring in lake.
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Many thanks toyou all:
W.f.hansen
K.M Ashar
A. Zekri
and A.M. carmen ilie
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-Have anyone quantify the sensitivity: contribution of temperature and precipitation in long-term algae biomass variation?
-In other words, how much more algae blooms would we see in the future? 
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Good information but it is unpublished.
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Hi, everyone.
I have a data matrix of 650 cases (sites of groundwater sampling) and 19 physicochemical variables. I'm trying to group the sites on the basis of their similarities and thereby being able to propose a monitoring network containing only the representative sites of each group. For what I've read in some articles, It would be good to perform a Cluster Analysis (CA) and a Principal Components Analysis (PCA), do you think so?
In the other hand, I've done the CA with the software Statistica, but I encounter the problem that I have so many cases (650) to interpret the dendogram and also the amalgamation matrix. So I could not group my data by this way.
Does anyone know how could I deal with the issue of the great number of cases to perform these multivariate analyzes? (articles, tutorials, software) 
Thank you very much.
Kind regards.
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So many things to consider before you even attempt to do that kind of analysis. I'm already making an assumption the data has been quality screened (a serious issue for large programs / data sets). What is the purpose of the monitoring  (are you looking for change or interested in actual quality for some particular use?), what data is most important for this purpose, are all the bores from the same aquifer / geological unit (this would be your first level of grouping - no need for stats), major ion balance (this is generally how hydrogeologists group waters - ie Trilinear / Piper or Stiff diagrams - Piper plots will show clusters again without need for much stats), is quality changing in some bores and thus they may be important to keep - even if they are not representative (a good paper on assessing change has recently been published by colleagues - attached). So just relying in stats to consolidate your bores is unlikely to be helpful. 
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I have experience in laboratory analyzes of water and soil for 15 years and come to the conclusion which can appreciate all the elements to a spectrophotometer depending on the wavelength and standard solutions for each item. Can one of the researchers who have expertise in this area to guide me or agree with me opinion
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Dear Pawan Whig
thanks for  your answer ,with my Greetings.
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It is quite easy and common to have ground based electric field measurements over land under an occurring storm. Instead I would like to have some indications about recent papers addressing the topic over sea and/or over lake.  Thank you in advance. 
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I do not know. Please try asking Colin Price and/or Earle Williams. Kind regards and wishes for Merry Xmas. Christos
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In laboratory test, COD value is obtained with minus value.
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The only way that the value could be negative is if oxygen increased in your incubation. This could result from several errors, but most likely light was allowed to penetrate your bottle allowing photosynthesis to occur, otherwise you have to check the calibration of the instrument.
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I am new to piper plots. After going through reviews for freeware available to plot water quality data, I found Grapher to endorse an easy UI for novices such as me into piper plots. However,  am unable to understand the exact procedure as to how may the percentage of cations and anions be normalized to 100 before plotting the graph. Answers and suggestions for alternate freeware with plotting SOP are most welcome.
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Just divide each ion (in milliequivalents per liter) by the total summation of ions (either cations or anions) and then multiply by 100
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We are looking for an VIS-NIR imaging spectrometer with a high SNR (inland water applications) and low weight. Has anyone experices to share in terms of data quality or handling with sensors from e.g. Headwall, MosaicMill, Cubert, IMEC, SPECIM, or others?
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I want to sterilize water at rate of 1 liter per second.
there is two main question:
1. which process has lower cost (for this rate or higher)
2. which process has highest accuracy. in fact it is very important for me to kill all living organism in water !
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 Dear Saeed Taji,
The market is literally flooded with water treatment options. Reverse osmosis systems, loose granular activated carbon, solid carbon block filters, and distillers all promise sparkling, clean water, but how do you know which one is really best? With a little research, you can find the ideal water treatment system for you.The UV treatment is best and low cost. Scientists have known for nearly a century that ultraviolet light of certain wavelengths is an effective germicidal agent.
All UV units have a maximum flowrate capacity and lower cost and less maintenance but some operation instruction ,e.g.
1.       At high Flow rate water will pass through without enough UV exposure.
2.       If Flow low then heat may build up which can damage the UV lamp
3.       The flow must be at constant Flow.
One application where ultraviolet disinfection is used is in recirculating delivery systems. In a recalculating system, water flows constantly from a storage tank, out to the pressure stations (or through the stations and through the piping in the animal rooms), then flows back to the storage tank. These installations use in-line UV units in the recirculating loop to provide control of bacterial growth.
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Is there any standard colorimetric method to determine Antimony concentration (Sb-III and Sb-V) in water? Also, describe the minimum detection limit.
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(BOD,DO,COD,Turbidity,Conductivity,Salinity,TDS etc..) 
WHO,USEPA,BIS Standards,Please provide the links
River water quality
Surface Water
Domestic Water
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This is a nice dataset that I use for this kind of information. I hope it helps!
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Basically, I am going to start working on analysis of Physio-chemical parameter, Heavy metal and Pesticides detection of a river. So how can I decide that how many numbers of samples are adequate to represent the whole river?
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Hi Vineet,
as Siraj has stated, we need a bit more information before we can give you a definite answer.
Of course it depends on the size and complexity of the river catchment - is it a single river course or are you monitoring a whole river network including tributaries?
But it also depends on the land use, the relief and the geology of your catchment. Is anthropgenic discharge (urban or industrial waste water, water from mining areas, agricultural drainage) the only source of pollutants or will there also be a geogenic component from the mountaineous parts of the catchment? Are there identifyable point sources (waste water treatment plants, drainage water dump sites)? Is there agricultural land use close to the river that could lead to a non-point pollution (nutrients) or to (bank) erosion (input of sediments which could e.g. contain heavy metals or phosphates).
Based on the characteristics of your research area you need to set-up your sampling network. Have one sampling point upstream of each point source and one sampling point immediately downstream of each point source. The same goes for the tributaries - have sampling points up- and downstream of each (major) tributary and a third one within the tributary (a kilometer or so upstream of the inflow point). In areas without point sources, have the sampling points spread out along the river and - if applicable - try to include different land use and relief types (if the river crosses a forest, have a point upstream and downstream of that forest and one or more points within).
Ideally you will end up with a dense network of sampling points that willk allow you to monitor the changes of the water chemistry, detect sources of pollution and e.g. evaluate the self-purification effects.
BUT, depending on the size/length of your catchment/river, this might not be feasible for you, as you might not have the logistical and financial capabilities to operate 20+ sampling points. Maybe you even only want to measure the summarized water quality at the outlet of a river catchment, so you only have a single sampling point?
Both is possible, as this is only the first part of the answer to your question - the spatial quantity. There is also, and at least as important, the temporal quantity of the samples:
How many samples do you need to take at each sampling point? Well, again, it depends. Do you have clearly defined point sources with a steady inflow of waste water (industrial or urban sewage)? Then maybe a couple of samples will be sufficient. But as soon as you have non point sources (agriculture) or highly variable climatic conditions (e.g. dry and wet season), you need a more systematic approach, as a single sample is just a snapshot of the water chemistry and you might just miss that crucial pollution peak by a day or two. How long do you plan the measure the water quality? For a year? Than I would go for at least 24 samples per point (two per month). Or just for a couple of weeks? Then go for daily samples (and make sure that the short duration you pick for your sampling is representative for the whole year).
The Bottom line is - the more samples the better, as more samples will help you catching those peaks without making them too prominent. Statistically speaking you need at least 11 samples before you can even start thinking about averages and such, but try to take as many samples as possible.
If necessary, find a balance between having more points and having more samples so that you do not get spread out too thinly in either of the two.
And keep in mind: Whenever you take samples from differnet points and want to compare them, collect some samples in as small a timeframe as possible in order to have comparable conditions (discharge, pollution, water temperature). This will lead to you driving around from point to point, quickly taking the samples, so that you have them all together within an hour or two. If you do not do that but rather take your samples for , e.g. May 2016 spread out from the 3rd of May (sample 1) to the 16th of May (sample 30) you will end up comparing apples and oranges as in between the 3rd and the 16th all kinds of things could have and will have happened (a heavy rainfall, some farmers applying fertilizers, a dramatic increase of the temperature etc.)
I hope that helps you getting started.
All the best,
Michael
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In water quality determination, we found that the existence of Cl- seems causing a increase in the TOC determination data. Is anybody know the reason?
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I agree with the comment by Dr. Contreras. Additionally it can be interesting to know if the TOC analyser is using heat+oxygen or UV+persulphate to convert the organic matter to CO2.
I have experienced some problems with chloride in samples with the  UV+persulphate method, but it wasn't increased values.
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What is the formats used to store all data on the titles and classification codes of rivers, reservoirs, lakes, water users etc., and their reference data, data monitoring of the quality and quantity of water etc.? GIS-format? DB format? XML format? CSV format? Where can I download the examples of such official data for the entire country or its regions (open government data?)? Examples such as this: http://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps?
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Hi Vitalii,
Just a bit of additional material to complement what Tad added above; the National Hydrology Dataset (NHD) and the Watershed Boundary Dataset (WBD), are both vector datasets that will show you the rivers/streams, lakes, and glaciers (NHD) and the basins for those rivers/streams down to a hydrologic unit code (HUC) of 12, which is pretty small. Some areas, if I'm not mistaken, are even working on HUC16s, which is getting really small for basin delineation, but in some areas, it may be practical to make them that small (urban areas?). Neither of these datasets provides water quantity nor quality, but you can try StreamStats instead, if you don't want only data from USGS gage sites as delivered through NWIS. While not fully implemented for the entire USA, it is showing how the coupling of the NHD, WBD, and NWIS can begin to show how multiple datasets can be integrated and a potential wealth of calculated results using these three datasets for a gage, as well as modeled data for ungaged basins of one's choosing, based off of the regional regression equations for estimating flood flows. I'm sure the future will bring with it greater maturity and openness everywhere, but for now, you can even get data for ungaged basins (caveats included, of course) in certain areas. For example, I randomly picked a USGS gaging station, number 01548005, on Bald Eagle Creek near Beech Creek Station, Pa., and I am not from Pennsylvania, just to maintain a sense of fairness, ( http://streamstatsags.cr.usgs.gov/v3_beta/viewer.htm?stabbr=PA ), and received http://streamstatsags.cr.usgs.gov/gagepages/html/01548005.htm , a StreamStats Data-Collection Station Report, that contains a wealth of information about this gage and the upstream basin. Back on the map page, you can continue zooming in until you see the raster cells that make up the modeled stream network, basically a function of the DEM, and then click the new icon (you'll have to play with the map service...it's too much to explain in type), which is a circle with a "+" sign, at which point it will generate the basin for the gage, as well as a "Q" state that will compute flow statistics. The further you zoom in, the more options you will have. When you see gages (triangles), that's the place to start
Things are moving along. Some areas have more resources and better data than others. Most of this data, modeled and real, is downloadable. Sometimes it works better in some area than in others, but as you will see on the StreamStats home page, http://water.usgs.gov/osw/streamstats/ssonline.html , there are some holes where states have not begun the process, to states that are highly developed that have completed the process through one method or another. It is a constantly evolving organism at the moment, always looking for the best way to present both the gaged data and the modeled data. If you have any questions, please feel free to contact me and I'll be happy to answer questions as possible or pass you on to someone further up the proverbial food chain. Time to get back to work...Cheers, Bob 
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I'm using an optical dissolved oxygen sensor, in which oxygen concentration is measured using the fluorescence of a dye in the sensor (see page 9 of https://www.fondriest.com/pdf/ysi_do_handbook.pdf). The lifespan of the sensor is determined by "degradation of the dye over time" - but I want to know if this is time per se or depends on the number of measurements. Does each measurement degrade the dye? Will the dye last for n days or n readings, or some combination of the two?
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I agree with both Mikhail and Thomas.  They will last quite a bit longer than the year specified by most manufacturers.  As long as they are well cared for, they will last several years.  Our current sondes (YSI EXO1) have 3 year old caps and the calibrations and DO gains are all still good. 
I'm assuming that there is a black paint covering the exposed end of your cap?  As long as that paint is still substantially intact and your calibrations are good, then your cap should still be good.  If you are deploying for long periods of time and there is a wiper sweeping debris off the cap then you may get some degradation of the light protectant black paint over time.  From what I understand, light exposure will degrade the dye pretty rapidly so you want to make sure that paint is intact.
Also, if you are storing your sensor/sonde between uses (rather than constant long term deployments in water), make sure that it's properly stored in a moist environment to keep the dye gel from dehydrating.  A dehydrated cap can be rehydrated and still be good but it's an iffy proposition and I don't like running that risk so I make sure my gear is properly stored.
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I'm looking for a suitable database to house our water quality data (grab samples from 1000s of sites), macroinvertebrate data and field observations as well as data on contaminants in flesh (i.e. fish, mussels etc). I'm interested in hearing if anyone uses (or knows of) a database which can query these different data types, not just focus on chemical data but incorporate the biological component too. I would like a database that allows me to query our data, for example, (1) present all caddisfly abundances for sites with the catchment of ?? creek or (2) present all sites where species A was found and present the salinity of those sites and percentage of silt recorded a those sites. Does a database exist that can do this or do researchers simply use Excel or Access to query their data?
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I have been using a fairly simple database design that I think may work for your applications.  It's just a Microsoft Access database with an Event and Result table as well as two other reference tables.  The design is based on the data reporting format for the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ).  The Event table lists information about where and when the samples were collected.  The Result table lists all the parameter results collected for that event.  These two tables are related by a "Tag Number" that is unique for each event. The two reference tables are a station ID list and a "storet code" list.
For example, tag number TR00001 was used for a water sample collected at station 12345 on 3/15/2016 at 10:00 at a depth of 0.3 meters (Event info). A point to remember here is that each matrix and/or depth is a unique event.  So if I were collecting water, sediment, and benthic macroinvertebrates at site 12345 on the same date and time, each of these three sample types would have a different tag number.  Sediment would be TR00002, benthics would be TR00003 and so on.  A profile sample taken at 1 meter could be TR00004.
For that "event" TR00001, DO, pH, temperature, specific conductivity, chlorophyll-a, TP, NO2, and NO3 were collected.  So there will be eight Results with the tag number TR00001 and the reported value for each parameter.  The parameter codes (what we call storet codes-a 5 digit code) provide all the information about the sample matrix and unit and in some cases the analytical method.  The storet code for chlorophyll-a is 32211 and indicates that it is a water sample reported in ug/L by the spectrophotometric method.  Storet code 70953 is also chlorophyll-a in water reported in ug/L but it's by the fluorometric method.  Total Phosphorus in water reported in mg/L as P is 00665 while TP in sediments reported in mg/kg dry weight is 00668.  There's a code for pretty much everything. 
The beauty of using a storet code is that you don't have to look for all possible spelling combinations of a parameter.  For example, if I wanted to look up dissolved oxygen in water (mg/L), I look up 00300.  I don't have to find all records for "DO", "D.O.", "Dissolved Oxygen", "Dissolved O2", etc. 
As far as querying, I can pull all data ever collected for any sample matrix for site 12345 or I can drill down and ask for only water samples, only sediment samples, only specific parameters, or whatever else I want.
Here is the link to the TCEQ webpage where the Data Management Reference Guide lives.  This explains in more detail a lot of what I have described above.  https://www.tceq.texas.gov/waterquality/monitoring/data-management/dmrg_index.html
http://www.tceq.state.tx.us/waterquality/monitoring/txwaterdata.html   This is the link to the webpage where the "Sampling Station" and "Monitoring Parameter Descriptions" can be seen.  I save these lists in ASCII text and import them into my database.  Obviously, the station list is unique to Texas and each basin within the state.  The Monitoring Parameter Descriptions table may be a good place to start for you unless you already have a list.  This list was adapted from the federal Environmental Protection Agency STOrage-RETreival (STORET) code list. 
I hope this helps.  Feel free to message me if you have any questions about this.
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How can i develop a simple benthic macro invertebrate based index for a slow flowing water body ,in Diyawannawa water body ,Sri lanka?
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Each genus/species needs to be rated as to pollution tolerance.  Then you can use presence, absence, relative abundance of the species present.  So you need a numbering scheme for tolerance to pollution to intolerant.  Then a relative abundance numeral rating from 0 (not present) to high numbers.  Your ratings can go to 5 or 10, depending on categories you set.  So if intolerant is 1, tolerant is 5.  If not found, it gets 0, if infrequent 1, ... , abundant, 5.  Then take the tolerance times abundance value for each species present.  Add the total of all, divide by (number of species evaluated times 5).  Lower numbers good water quality, higher numbers bad.  You develop categories.
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If water is collected from a river in the UK for cooling/industrial process purposes, what thermal lift limitations are placed on the return flow to the river? Is there a maximum allowable value or a thermal lift limit?
I have not been able to find a final verdict and get a lot of contradictory figures from different sources.
Thanks
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According to "Standards for Effluent Discharge Regulations General Notice No.44.of 2003 THE ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION ACT 2002 Regulations made by the Minister under sections 39 and 96 of the Environment Protection Act 2002", it states that the maximum permissible temperature for discharges into the aquatic environment is 40oC.
Also according to an environmental agency (United Utilities water/wastewater emergency) " Temperature  is limited by statute to a maximum of 43.3°C" (http://www.unitedutilities.com/documents/Trade_Effluent_Information_PACK.pdf)
I know these are not specific for UK, but I hope it helps your judgement
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People living in Jaffna are facing a grave threat in accessing clean drinking water due to groundwater pollution caused by oil leakage. In recent days, oil waste is clearly observed in drinking-water sources (wells etc) in Chunnagam and Valigamam areas. Wells are the prime and mostly the sole source of water in Jaffna and this contamination is severely affecting the livelihood in those areas.
This issue has resulted in scarcity for clean drinking water for the people living in the areas. No satisfactory action has been taken yet by authorities. Hence, there is an imminent need to create awareness of the issue to a wider audience in order to accelerate the phase at which actions are taken to solve the issue.
Can any body give a sustainable solution fore this burning issue in Northern Sri Lanka?
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 Dear Dr. Saravanamuttu Subramaniam Sivakumar,
Yes, it is possible by installing costly treatment units consisting of special filters or air strippers. At low cost level through use of carbon filter or a reverse osmosis filter.
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Hi all
I have two tasks:
1) Using historical water quality monitoring data to identify high and low flow periods for specific sites and, 
2) Determining what influence the dilution effect might have on nutrient concentrations.
Is there a statistical way to calculate the above? And how can this be accurately illustrated?
Regards
Gerhard
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As I understand, all you have is historical water quality data.  No streamflow date for nearby streams, no rainfall data.  It may depend on the types of water quality data.  Some high high direct or indirect associations with flow as per with karst springs in Missouri.  But if you don't have flow data along with water quality data, accuracy is problematic.  Some parameters are directly, some inversely related to flow.  A lot depends on geology, soils, land use, etc.  Some are going to leave a strong signature with varying flow, others not.  Not a great answer, but I am out of time and maybe this will be of some help. I would plot flow on x axis and the various combinations of potential indicators on the Y axis.  Those with high correlations based on linear, log and exponential relationships, I would bring forward as possible indicators, singly or several. Present the table with the r squared for each water quality component related to flow.  
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I'm looking at studying variation over time in large water quality monitoring datasets. How can I determine the validity (error bands, outliers) of the datasets and "groom/correct" it before statistical analyses?
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Hi!
This is a very complicated issue, You should try to find out whether you deal with a set with "continuous" change or a step change, caused by a new or closed outlet to the stream (I guess you work with running water). As somebody pointed out; any statistical method to find/exclude outliers should only be applied for real extremes; and with care.
Don't expect a linear change with time, frequently there is a more or less periodical variation, which you may be able to follow if you have flow data. Lacking flow, perhaps water level is recorded somwhere. And, of course rainfall can be used as an indicator.
I would suggest that you try to find a correlation between your studied parameter and other related. E.g. nitrogen and phosphorus compounds may be correlated. Conductivity and major constituents certainly are correlated.
Also try to check monthly data for the observation period. I am convinced that you will find large variation during some months and less during other.
Good luck
Anders Wilander
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Hello to all members,
We are working in a wetland which is surrounded by rice fields. Rice straw burning is a management technique that is apply occasionaly. Some weeks ago (3-4 weeks, approximatelly) some nearby fields were burned, and now we´ve observed some peaks in total phosphorus concentrations.
Do you think that could be any link between this two observations?
I would appreciate any advises, helps, recommendations.
Thank you in advance.
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I agree with my predecessors remarks, burning plant litter is a well-recognised means to release nutrients held in organic matrix to succeeding crop use a sort of man-induced mineralisation. Volatile nutrients are however lost permanently. The ashes produce also alleviate soil acidification, ashes having a basic pH.
Burning has also a curative effect on soil borne diseases and insects even though this is not the issue  being discussed.
Therefore as a means to address this pollution, a free buffer zone is recommended that can trap particulate matter in the fly ashes from reaching water bodies as well as those in the soluble form transported in water during surface and base-flow runoff.   
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Water quality monitoring in the lagoon level shows fluctuation of salinity from 2 ppt to 33 ppt. Opening of barmouth during rainy season allows salt water intrusion in the later part of rainy season. That might be the direct cause for the salinity level in the lagoon.  So what are the options and remedies for salinity problem to include during the preparation of water quality management plan?  
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dear researchers, thanks for your valuable comments and if you  have any more ideas when you are reading literature please suggest... thanks
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To measure water turbidity we have to compare nephelometric 900 scattered intensity with that of Formazine standard solution but we don't know about the particle distribution suspended in water, natural water may contain particles of different sizes and shapes. Does measuring scattering at 900 makes the reading independent of particle size and shape? Is there any relation which relates water turbidity with the scattered intensity and wavelength used?
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Laser intensity in nephelometry play an important rôle in particle detection. At low intensity you increase the background, so very small particles are included in this background but you can measure a very concentrate suspension. Each different particles have a specific impact in nephelometry because of form. Nephelometric unit is RNU for relative nephelometric unity  
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The Saraswati kup water in Allahabad has EC- 2230 with K , NO3, PO4,Ganga & Yamuna EC- 470 -720 only. Is it a Saraswati Palaeochannel?
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ON THE BASIS of only above data it is impossible to know the answer. 
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I need a continuous radon monitor to conduct an in-situ radon measurement in water in Ekiti State, Nigeria. Possibly anyone might know of a colleague or institute that may wish to dispose theirs at a much reduced price.
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Dear Hansman. I appreciate your answer. My University wishes to purchase the equipment possibly if it can get a used version at a much reduced price. I'll also appreciate if you also have any information regarding that. However, I will send a mail to the company to inquire if there's any special package for University. Many thanks. 
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I conduct a study on a urban type river by using benthic macroinvertebrate as an indicator, along with that I also conduct water quality analysis for determining the river health base on physical-chemical parameter. So, what would be my negative control?
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Are there available data sets for streams in your area?  This could give you a picture for what is typical in your region.  From there you could do something as easy as a 1-sample t test asking if your stream differs from the population of streams in your area.  If there's a good data source you could ask if your stream falls in with the typical urban streams or is closer to the more protected streams. 
It is not always necessary for you to provide the control if somebody else has generated data you can access.
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I have obtained unusually high phosphorus levels of the water samples collected from the outlet of the soil columns. They were much higher than the phosphorus levels from the column inlet (approx 2 - 3 times higher). I noticed that the outlet water samples became yellowish and I used phosphorus solution (KH2PO4 + DI H2O) which is basically colourless. Thanks! 
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I agree with Penny. Silicate is the most likely interference.
Check pH-value, which is crusial and the development time (which should be relatively short to reduce development of the molybdosilicate.
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I'm interested in any research that might be using hyperspectral techniques from aircraft to routinely measure water quality eg nitrate levels,  in lakes, rivers and waterways.
regards Gerald Rys
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Gerald, you may be interested in research which is durrently being conducted at the Dept. of Remote Sensing and Photogrammetry of the Military University of Technology in Poland. We are using hyperspectral imaging techniques to detect and identify physical, biological and chemical water pollutants. Spectral reflectance curves can be obtained from such images and then compared with spectral characteristics obtained in laboratory conditions of a wide range of pollutants. We have a few publications from the first stages of this project (A review on remote sensing methods of detecting physical water pollutants (Walczykowski et al.)  and Using XEVA video sensors in acquiring spectral reflectance coefficients(Orych et al.)) with more publications to come later on this year on the further developments we made over the past few months.
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Do you have examples about publications discussing stormwater biofiltration during construction works? I think I have heard that if biofiltration or any other vegetated stormwater management practices have been planned for a new residential area, those systems should not be built ready before the contruction works have ended, i.e. the sediments from the construction sites may destroy the structures. For this reason, these stormwater management structures may have some kind of temporary function during the construction period of the resdiential area (e.g. detention pond with some temporary vegetation) and they will be finalized after the construction projects end. But now I am finding it difficult to actually find a publication that really says it is so! Hope you can help me.
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They are needed for testing primers for detection of this species in North American water bodies.
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Thanks all for your input.  I now have found a source of preserved spiny water fleas.
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Dear scholars,
I am doing literature reviews on applications of new developed techniques in monitoring water resources. I am paying my attention on remote sensing, modern ground-installed facilities and citizen science (implementation of the general public). Since they are new techniques, it is not easy for me to get information about them in the Internet. So, if you have any researches or documents related to this issue, please share them to me.
Thank you in advance!
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Hi
Maybe could you have a look on Christian Perret's or Alain Poirel's publications. They are on Research Gate. For Christian: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/C_Perret/publications. Some papers are in French, but you can also ask them, they are good specialists of the water resources monitoring in France.
Best regards
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I'm particularly interested in heavy metals, and discussions and examples of how water quality monitoring during peak flows can capture information about 1) pollutants that are not present in peak flows, and /or found at lower concentrations in low flows and base flows, (and hence not measured during weekly / monthly grab samples); 2) measure peak flows with regard to seasonal effects, esp. spring and fall 'first flush' from road, urban and agricultural runoff. I have a number of papers on first flush, but am specifically looking for references about effective water quality sampling.
Thanks!!
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I note the need for work on metals, and the following maybe useful on this:
Neal, Colin; Reynolds, Brian; Kirchner, James W.; Rowland, Phil; Norris, Dave; Sleep, Darren; Lawlor, Alan; Woods, Clive; Thacker, Sarah; Guyatt, Hayley; Vincent, Colin; Lehto, Kathryn; Grant, Simon; Williams, Jeremy; Neal, Margaret; Wickham, Heather; Harman, Sarah; Armstrong, Linda. 2013 High-frequency precipitation and stream water quality time series from Plynlimon, Wales: an openly accessible data resource spanning the periodic table. Hydrological Processes, 27 (17). 2531-2539. 10.1002/hyp.9814
Neal, Colin; Reynolds, Brian; Rowland, Philip; Norris, David; Kirchner, James W.; Neal, Margaret; Sleep, Darren; Lawlor, Alan; Woods, Clive; Thacker, Sarah; Guyatt, Hayley; Vincent, Colin; Hockenhull, Kathryn; Wickham, Heather; Harman, Sarah; Armstrong, Linda. 2012 High-frequency water quality time series in precipitation and streamflow: from fragmentary signals to scientific challenge. Science of the Total Environment, 434. 3-12. 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2011.10.072
Kirchner JW and Neal C. 2013. Universal fractal scaling in stream chemistry and its implications for solute transport and water quality trend detection
PNAS 2013 110: 12213-12218.
Halliday SJ, Wade AJ, Skeffington RA, Neal C, Reynolds B, Rowland P, Neal M, Norris D. 2012. New inferences from long term trends, seasonality and shifts in phase and amplitude observed in upland hydrochemistry: Plynlimon, Wales. Science of the Total Environment. 434: 186-200. doi 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2011.10.052. (includes Al and Fe)
Other work on continuous, sub-daily sampling includes:
Wade AJ, Palmer-Felgate EJ, Halliday SJ, Skeffington RA, Loewenthal M, Jarvie HP, Bowes MJ, Greenway GM, Haswell SJ, Bell IM, Joly E, Fallatah A, Neal C, Williams RJ, Gozzard E, Newman JR, 2012, Hydrochemical processes in lowland rivers: insights from in situ, high-resolution monitoring, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 16, 4323-4342, doi:10.5194/hess-16-4323-2012.
Jordan, P., Arnscheidt, J., McGrogan, H., and McCormick, S.: High-resolution phosphorus transfers at the catchment scale: the hidden importance of non-storm transfers, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sc., 9, 685-691, doi:10.5194/hess-9-685-2005, 2005.
Jordan, P., Arnscheidt, A., McGrogan, H., and McCormick, S.: Characterising phosphorus transfers in rural catchments using a continuous bank-side analyser, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sc., 11, 372-381, doi:10.5194/hess-11-372-2007, 2007.
Jordan, P., and Cassidy, R.: Technical note: Assessing a 24/7 solution for monitoring water quality loads in small river catchments, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sc., 15, 3093-3100, doi:10.5194/hess-15-3093-2011, 2011.
Rozemeijer, J. C., Van der Velde, Y., Van Geer, F., De Rooij G. H., Torfs P. J. J. F. and Broers, H. P. Improving load estimates for NO3 and P in surface waters by characterising the concentration response to rainfall events. Environ.. Sci. Technol., 44, 6305-6312.
Halliday SJ, Skeffington RA, Bowes MJ, Gozzard E, Newman JR, Loewenthal M, Palmer-Felgate EJ, Jarvie HP, Wade AJ. 2014. The Water Quality of the River Enborne, UK: Observations from High-Frequency Monitoring in a Rural, Lowland River System. Water 6, 150-180
Halliday SJ, Skeffington RA, Wade AJ, Neal C, Reynolds B, Norris D and Kirchner JW. 2013. Upland streamwater nitrate dynamics across decadal to sub-daily timescales: a case study of Plynlimon, Wales. Biogeosciences 10: 8013-8038
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Most of the time watershed development programs are being executed in participatory mode with farmers. Winning of there trust is very important for success of any such project.What important steps one should take for maintaining transparency in executing watershed development programs.
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One crucial condition to watershed development programs is the inclusion of the watershed users since the beginning of the planning process. This will ensure that the effort is not only a governmental program. When the watershed users participate in the planning process, they will feel confidence in that their opinion it was considered to arrive to a consensual decision. Next, within the follow up of the program technicians should meet with the users to discuss the ongoing activities as well as the results. If the program considers conservation of natural resources the “before and after” results are very important; that is, to have exclusions areas that may show what will happen when certain practices are undergone within the watershed. Users should be clear that watershed management considers the splitting of benefits but also the split of risks. The activities should be driven by conviction more than by law. There is the challenge of the planners.
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Tooth pastes are rich in fluorides, which end in water sinks and then into waste water pipes, and if a leakage took place, it can flow into groundwater layers.
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Hi Mohammad Al Farajat; Yes it can be but only tooth pastes are not only sources for polluting sewage waters. In Asian countries fluoride in tooth paste is not very common yet. As in many parts of our country India fluoride i drinking ground waters are already high and creating fluorosis. But of course it can be.  Regards
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Hi to all,
We are currently doing research on water quality monitoring in mangrove waters. We are planing to purchase an automated nutrient analyzer for nitrates, nitrites, silicates and phosphates.
I kindly request the advice of any researchers involved in this area. Which products are good? Which products are the most effective, and I can I obtain them?
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We've had very good luck with Astoria Pacific rapid flow analyzers (see http://www.astoria-pacific.com/industrial/product-applications/water/) having used them for more than 25 years. Here's the link to our lab SOPs (which include methods for various forms of N, P and Cl - sorry no silicate) http://www.uri.edu/ce/wq/ww/Publications/LabSOPs.pdf.     Good luck
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TRS is a cost-effective method for determining waste load allocations.
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Hi Amin Mahdipour Varnousfaderani; Following links may be useful to you Dear
Thanks
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I am looking for someone who is interested in water pollution, environmental problems, water quality, impact of human activities on water, importance of water for the people. I have made an article about the influence of human activities on water quality in Romania and now I am searching for some interested people which want to colaborate on the paper.
If you're interested, please contact me and we can see if we can make a great job !
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Dear Ana,
Hi
I am interested for cooperation. Please explain more about this issue. Is your work an experimental or you use from numerical method analyze? I can help you in numerical method. I have some experience in simulation of transition of flow with pollution through porous media. It is a great pleasure to collaborate with scientists from Romania.You can reach me through  Mohamadi.zadeh.m@gmail.com
Regards,
Mehdi
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I am working on removal of dissolved gases (CO2, H2S, O2) from produced water systems and I needed simple, quick and efficient test method for follow up the removal rate of these dissolved gases in batch treatment system.
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Dear Sherif
you can measure Dissolved Oxygen (DO) by DO meter probe or by winkler method.
Dissolved CO2 Could be measured by Gas Sensing Electrode or Coulometric Titration method according ASTM D513.
dissolved H2S could be measured by Hach's hydrogen sulfide test kits.
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Is it necessary to prepare samples and standard solutions in HNO3 matrix (instead of diluting it with distilled/deionised water) for the analysis with ICP AES? Its also important to mention that standard solutions are in 1M HNO3 matrix. Does it mean that a normal water sample is analysed and should it be diluted with HNO3?
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Hey, Tharanga,
Mariane makes a good point about matrix matching of standards and samples. This allows for comparable behavior of your standards and samples in the plasma and ensures acceptable analytical results.
With regards to addition of acid beyond the acid that comes from your stock standards, we pretty much always add acid beyond the amount that's in the stocks. This provides greater stability of your standards and samples by ensuring that the analytes remain in solution for longer periods of time. This is particularly important with the transition metal analytes, which are prone to hydrolysis and precipitation at lower acid concentrations. The less acid you have in solution, the more likely it is that you will lose some of your analyte to adsorption onto container walls or precipitation. If you rely only on the acid that is in the stock solutions, there may not be enough to ensure long-term (or even short-term, depending on the analyte) stability of your standards and samples. We pretty much always add enough acid to make it at least 2% acid, either nitric or hydrochloric depending on the analyte.
Hope this answer helps!
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I am studying the correlation analysis of water parameters.
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In most surface waters there will be a correlation between iron and colour and DOC. In these waters the iron is "complexed" with NOM (natural organic matter). In clasic reports this iron is suggested to be in the ferrous state!
Egil Gjessing
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In northern Sri Lanka the lagoon called Vadamarachchi lagoon is having various species of mangroves grown within around 100 square kilometre lagoon area. There is a proposal to make this lagoon to be converted into fresh water. But the environmentalist and fishing community are opposing this proposal. Can anybody put more on this issue please?
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My answer is related to mangroves
Perhaps you need to highlight to authorities about the goods and services provide by mangroves. I know there are programmes being implemented (e.g. Vietnam, Bangladesh) to restore mangroves for the following reasons: (a) as livelihood option of many coastal poor; (b) climate change mitigation (carbon sinks); (c) barrier (shield) against disasters (cyclones, tsunami, and storm surges). Mangroves are nursery ground of fish and shrimps, which support fishers and local communities. Most importantly, mangrove forests store up to four times more carbon than most other tropical forests around the world (climate change mitigation). Mangroves reduce the force of wave energy and protect coastal areas from erosion. There are reports that during 2004 tsunami (that also affected Sri Lanka) had cause less impacts where mangroves were intact but suffered most where mangroves have been converted to shrimp farms or where mangroves were lost or cleared or absent.
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Water is the most precious resource on earth. It is vital for all living organisms, human consumption, food production (agriculture, livestock, fisheries and aquaculture) and economic development, industries, in hydroelectric power generation, firefighting, transportation, and healthy functioning of nature. Water is also required for many recreational activities including fishing and swimming. The agriculture sector is by far the biggest user of freshwater (more than 70% of water usages). I am writing a review paper; therefore your cooperation is sought.
Question: Will climate change (rise of temperature, carbon dioxide, floods, droughts, and sea-level) increase threats to global water quality?If so, will it (climate change) cause disproportionate impacts between developing and developed countries, between freshwater and marine environments, and between the poor and the rich?
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More details can be found in the following report:
Potential impacts of climate change on river water quality, Science Report – SC070043/SR1, © Environment Agency – May 2008
Some highlights in the mentioned report:
There is considerable uncertainty associated with a cascade of issues. For example, there is uncertainty over the quantification of the driving global climate processes, over the procedures for downscaling from global to local riverine situations, over the processes controlling behavior in freshwater systems and over the complex interactions between hydrology, chemistry and biology.
- Water quality will be affected by changes in flow regime.
- Lower minimum flows imply less volume for dilution and hence higher concentrations downstream of point discharges.
- Enhanced growth of algal blooms in rivers and reservoirs could affect levels of dissolved oxygen and the costs of treating water for potable supply.
- Increased storm events, especially in summer, could cause more frequent incidence of combined sewer overflows, discharging highly polluted waters into receiving water bodies. The potential impacts on urban water quality will be largely driven by these changes in short duration rainfall intensity overwhelming drainage systems, as well as rising sea levels affecting combined sewerage outfalls.
- The most immediate reaction to climate change is expected to be an increase in river and lake water temperatures.
- More intense rainfall and flooding could result in increased suspended solids, sediment yields and associated contaminant metal fluxes.
- Nutrient loads are expected to increase.
- In shallow lakes, oxygen levels may decline and cyanobacteria blooms may become more extensive.
- In the UK, there has been relatively little research on toxins in streams, lakes and sediments, as the problems are thought to be limited. However, climate change may alter this perception.
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The level of pollution in water sources today is dangerous for raw consumption. What are types of pollution detectors that are necessary for quality control of public water supplies?
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I also want to get educated on this big social isssue as in Patna at the bank of river Ganga we are used to of unsafe drinking water as well as high arsenic content containing water. I would be grateful, if easily implementable solutions and training programs to the drinking water suppliers is/are suggested.
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I found above mentioned relationship in river water. However, some studies report that the coefficient of correlation between ammonium-N and phosphate-P is higher in pre-monsoon and monsoon than post-monsoon.
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If this is due to fertilizer run-off from fields upstream, you may need to look at land uses above the sampling site, dominant patterns of fertilizer use for the crops grown there, and the relevant hydrological drivers. If this is due to urban sources of N and P, rather than agricultural, then you need to look at these patterns (I don't know what they could be).
I would guess that the answer to your question lies with the specific rivers that people have studied. There are bound to be differences from one place to another. To take two extreme cases, I would guess that temporal patterns of N and P in monsoon-influenced rivers in India will be different from monsoon-influenced rivers in Australia; and a river running from densely forested headwaters in Indonesia will be different from a river running out of the plains in India. This answer is "off the top of my head" because I have never made these measurements, but I am not very surprised that there's a difference. I would be surprised if there are large inter-annual differences for any particular site on a specific river, and if it was so, I would look for a point source, rather than the expected non-point sources.
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I perform biological monitoring of urban rivers in a tropical climate. The seasons range from wet to dry. I would like to know if there is any researcher that might have similar research on urban rivers in tropical climate conditions. I need to find another reference on the benthic macroorganism assemblage in such a case.
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Wow that a very nice paper! Thank you. Just like i needed, the anthropogenic and seasonal on benthic macroinvertebrate
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I need to know if the bacteria found in fish guts and shed in faeces/decomposition would grow in the media used to assess recreational water quality, and therefore be counted along with bacteria from sewage, dogs, birds and other sources.
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Thanks to both of you for the suggestions. Difficult for me to try David's personally as our labs are affectively a separate organisation. These human gut bacteria do not flourish in the sea or rivers because of the temp and salinity issues, though I.E. can propagate if sheltered in clumps of beach stranded seaweed. I'm guess the gut of a fish would be a bit higher than ambient temp due to metabolic processes (muscle activity, liver etc) but perhaps not enough for human-specific I.E. or E.coli to thrive. I originally asked the question as I read a paper showing that river water flowing into a fish farm can suffer an increase in faecal indicator organisms by the time it flows out the othe side.
Also, another studies also found human & bird specific FIOs in the gut of fish: http://www.seagrant.umn.edu/newsletter/2008/08/scientists_find_bird_and_human_e_coli_in_wild_fish.html
None of these studies found fish to be a huge source of FIOs. I think I'm safer focusing on misconnected sewerage and road drain overflows!
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What parametric or non parametric methods are the best for assessment of water quality data to describe hydrological processes?
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I agree that there are limitations with PCA in environments with temporal variation, but most sampling is limited to seasonal anyway. It that case the combination of HCA and PCA can be very useful. I offer the attachment as an example of identifying the sources of temporal variation in an active watershed. In this case we had samples from the streams and nearby wells in spring and fall.
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For i.e water quality index
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QUAL2K (or Q2K) is a river and stream water quality model that is intended to represent a modernized version of the QUAL2E (or Q2E) model (Brown and Barnwell 1987). Q2K is similar to Q2E in the following respects:
One dimensional. The channel is well-mixed vertically and laterally.
it focuses on biogeochemistry and other water dynamics unlike RIVPACS which places an emphasis on spatio-temporal distribution of invertebrates across pollution gradients.
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Inlet COD 3000 - 3500mg/l
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Continous aeration with some oxidising agents like KMnO4, may help you...
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l have water quality data from 5 sampling stations in a reservoir. Data has been collected collected from these fixed points for yaers
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What type of spatial data distribution index do you want to create. If you want to know the spatial pattern of quality of data and its change over time, i would like to say that your sample over space is very very small to generate a pattern using any method. If you want to know change in quality of data over time from these five sampling stations, then it is possible either take the average of each parameter of quality of water measured from the five station, then subject it to factor or principal component analysis. Alternatively, you standardize all parameters from five stations using one of several standardization procedure and add each property from each of five stations year-wise. In this way you will have as many variables as there are parameters of quality of water for the number of years you have taken sample. Either, driving objectively weights for each parameter sum them up over years or again subject theses parameters to FA/PCA to obtain weight prom the first factor or principal components in the form of loadings and construct an index showing change over the years. However, it is important that number of years for which observation is made are samples are analyzed should be larger than the number of the parameters f the quality of water.