Science topic

Water Purification - Science topic

Any of several processes in which undesirable impurities in water are removed or neutralized; for example, chlorination, filtration, primary treatment, ion exchange, and distillation. It includes treatment of waste water to provide potable and hygiene water in a controlled or closed environment as well as provision of public drinking water supplies. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
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Is there any microbe that uses and changes salt? (not just tolerate)
Can we use microbes in desalination?
#salt #desalination #Halophile
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Dear Zohre,
I would suggest listening to this TED talk (3 minutes)
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RO purification system is one of the best purification systems to get good source of drinking water. Of course RO will produce pure drinking water which contains much less minerals. (TDS lies between 10 and 30 mg/L.) In such case it is necessary to re-mineralise the water after purification by adding controlled quantity of good salts to bring TDS at least above 80 mg/L. Such water is the best drinking water which can keep us free from contamination of many impurities such as heavy metals, chemical waste, bacteria, radioactivity contamination etc. But traditional RO purifier generates about 75% waste water. How to reduce this by modifying the design of RO purifier?
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A pretreatment before using RO is appropriate to reduce the volume of reject or waste. It is marked under dual treatment options.
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I am looking for collaborations in environmental sciences. Especially in Water technologies (Water quality, Water treatment, Water management....)
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Dear Akuemaho Virgile Onésime Akowanou , I complete My B.Sc (honours) degree in Environmental Science and Disaster Management from Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Science & Technology University, Gopalganj, Bangladesh. I am highly interested to join your labratory.
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Lead oxide is a poisonous one how can we used in water treatment.is there any method used for water purification.
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I am trying to remove phosphate from wastewater sample and also recover them. Is there any material that only absorb phosphate from water? Therefore, which natural material should be appropriate to use as absorbent?
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Tamjid Us Sakib depends on the type of technology selection and project
microlage is preferred in case of biological and if you have space and time with low cost investment however if you go via chemical route there are many like activated carbon, haaluminum sulphate or few other sales can also be used
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There are lots of laboratory studies on nano application in water/wastewater treatment. however not sure if there is any real world treatment plant sample using this kind of technology in its treatment process worldwide.
Can someone let me know if a treatment plant (water/waste) currently is applying this technology in its process?
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There are following drawbacks in using nano technology at WW treatment plants:
1. aggregation of nanoparticles in WW
2. Water contamination by leaching of nano composites
3. Human toxicity due to skin exposure of nano particles
4. Difficulties in disposing nano wastes after WW treatment
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Hello everyone! I'm facing a problem, which is how to quantify the contribution of functional genes or microorganisms to pollutant removal rate. Structural equation model (SEM) seems to be only used to explain the impact of environmental factors? Can stepwise regression analysis or random forest model achieve this goal?
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Many biosorbents, nano composites and other adsorbents including chemically engineered adsorbents have experimented and are being experimented for wastewater treatment. What are the prospects of use of these adsorbents for safe purification of drinking water ?
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I agree with all of the previous answers. However, I want to make a few additions.
One of the perspectives to be taken into account is the adsorption capacity. The adsorbent used must have sufficient adsorption capacity to hold or remove unwanted materials or particles from the raw water in order to be acceptable to drink. In general, the adsorption capacity of the adsorbent is one of the main selection criteria.
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is there any article journal or reliable writing that explain about testing the total suspended solid (TSS) in water using photometric method as most of the article that i found using gravimetric method. can i use photometric method to conduct the water?
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Hi, we are trying to figure out if ultra-purified water can be stored. We have a Thermo Smart2Pure 3 uv/uf.
If it is possible to store the ultra-purified water:
1. Will the type I water change its conductivity, resistance and TOCS (total organic carbon) to a type II or type III?
2. And how long can it be stored for?
3. What type of container would be needed?
If it is not possible to store it:
1. What would you do to decrease the need for filter change, given that our lab will only be using this type of water once a week for a year or more?
Thanks to anyone with information on this!
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You can autoclave it and use it under sterile conditions. This will help when storing it for some time.
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I have the Na2So4 solution. Is it possible to imediately PPT the Na2SO4 by adding other materials. I want to re-use the separated water for other cleaning purpose. The TDS of the solution is around 60,000 ppm. 
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I want to ask about the difference between water purification and air purification in synthesis and materials for TiO2 photocatalysis
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thanks
To make tio2 solution (with pure powder tio2 and distilled water) as a photocatalyst for coating the aluminum films.
Is the photocatalysis process valid under these conditions?
best Regards
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what test that should be done to activated carbon filter of purified water system in order to evaluate the performance of the unit operation. (test such as TVB ,BET, chlorine,TOC,TSS, total hardness and so on)
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It will depend on your influent water and expected effluent water quality. You should check the standard to see which factors your effluent sample should meet. From that, you will know the test that you should conduct
Regards,
K
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Dear Colleagues,
I’m pleased to inform you that open access journal /Catalysts/ (ISSN 2073-4344, Impact Factor: 3.444) is planning to publish a Special Issue on the topic of "Trends in Catalytic Advanced Oxidation Processes". The submission deadline is 30 March 2020.
This Special Issue is dedicated to novel achievements in the field of catalytic advanced oxidation processes. The contributions should be related to the listed topics:
· Catalytic processes in water and wastewater treatment
· Developments in Fenton-like AOPs
· Activation of Persulfates for AOPs
· Formation of sulfate radicals
· Catalytic cavitation-based AOPs (hydrodynamic cavitation and acoustic cavitation)
· Sonocatalysts
· Catalytic ozonation
· Photocatalysts—including visible light and UV applications
· Catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO)
· Catalytic–electrochemical AOPs
· Carbon catalysts for AOPs
· Nanocatalysts
· Risk of by-product formation during water and wastewater treatment
· Developments in process control of catalytic AOPs (analytical methods, chromatographic, and spectroscopic techniques)
· Methods of catalysts characterization
· Post-process assessment of effluents toxicity
· Application of nanobubbles in AOPs
· Economic analysis of catalytic AOPs application and catalysts life cycle assessment (LCO)
· Industrial catalytic wastewater treatment
· Modelling and optimization of catalytic processes
· Green chemistry aspects in catalytic water and wastewater treatment
Detailed information regarding this issue, please follow the link below to the Special Issue website at: https://www.mdpi.com/journal/catalysts/special_issues/catalytic_aop
By publishing with Catalysts, you will take advantage of the following attributes:
*Fast Publication*:
First decision provided to authors approximately 13.4 days after submission; acceptance to publication is undertaken in 5.5 days (median values for papers published in this journal in the second half of 2018).
The papers will be processed immediately upon receipt. A Special Issue (SI) is not an issue of the journal. It is a collection of articles on a common topic. These articles are published in the regular issues of the journal when they are accepted (no delay) but additionally labelled with the Special Issue name (including a link). A single click on the link will organize all the articles on the Special Issue webpage.
*High Impact*:
According to Web of Science data, the impact factor for Catalysts 2018 was 3.444. The five-year impact factor was 3.808. Catalysts now ranks in Q2 of the "Chemical, Physical" category.
According to Scopus data, the CiteScore for Catalysts 2018 was 3.85, which ranks it in Q1 of the “Chemistry, Physical and Theoretical Chemistry” category, and Q2 of the “Chemical Engineering, Catalysis” category.
*Low Article Processing Fees*:
To enable the journal to make all of its content open access, Catalysts levies an article processing charge (APC) of CHF 1600 for each manuscript accepted after peer review in 2019 which compares well with other journals.
Please note that for papers submitted after 31 December 2019 an APC of 1800 CHF applies.
*Discount*:
A discount may apply if your institute has established an institutional membership with MDPI. For more information, see http://www.mdpi.com/about/memberships.
If you have helped review for MDPI journals and got a discount voucher, you can use it.
In order to plan for the whole paper project, I appreciate you could inform me within three weeks as to whether you would be willing to contribute. I also encourage you to send a short abstract to me (grzegorz.boczkaj@pg.edu.pl) or to Caroline Zhan (caroline.zhan@mdpi.com) in advance.
Sincerely hope this invitation will receive your favorable consideration.
Best regards,
Guest Editor
Prof. Grzegorz Boczkaj, PhD. Sc. Eng. Assoc. Prof.
Department of Process Engineering and Chemical Technology, Faculty of
Chemistry, Gdansk University of Technology, 80-233 Gdansk, Poland
Caroline Zhan
Assistant Editor
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Thanks for your invitation. We can contribute if publication charges are waived.
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Dear researchers, scholars, academicians, inventors, scientists, innovators and all my folks there, after leaving 9 yrs of university studies and i am always intrigue to solve the waste issues and eco-friendly alternative packaging. I have ideas and finding solutions with little knowledge that i learned, collected and following all the updates till now the discovery had done. I want to understand and study more because i think i lack some skills or i need to dig more deeper to deliver my ideas. If anybody could suggests, guide or mentor me where i could learn or study or do scientific research about areas on waste to energy, fuel cells, hydrogen energy, alternative eco-friendly packaging, gasification techniques with zero harm to environment.
Grateful to you all for your valuable time and i appreciate and welcome any of your suggestions.
Regards.
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Hi Hidam,
You cannot do things altogether at once. Start small then expand. You may join this community (https://www.solarcities.eu/blog) to look at their model of networking and working together through an open source. This community is consist of scientist and layman, they call themselves as practitioners. I have joined to learn then apply what I learnt so that at least I contribute to save the environment though in small scale but very meaningful.
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Many techniques have been developed to treat wastewater, including nanoparticle-based, biofilm-based techniques and maybe many others. What is needed for future study? How well do we know about the mechanisms (Science)? What is needed to improve current techniques? what is less expensive and easy available? What is some potential new technology for wastewater treatment?
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Overall the current urgent topic in wastewater treatment is to turn the wastewater to energy and resources, including clean healthy water. I believe that the self-sustaining synergetic microalgal-bacterial granular sludge process is one of the directions. Second,membrane technology is also one of the hot topics to produce healthy clean water in 21st century. Third,Microbial fuel cell based technology might be one topic.
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I have reviewed many articles containing information related to the inactivation of pathogens in water and air. It sounds promising to use Heat and UV for the inactivation of viruses. So can we use solar energy which is a good source of heat and UV in the fight against COVID-19 pandemic?
To the best of my knowledge, it sounds promising to me. I suggest the disinfection of facial masks, PPE kits, health care equipment, public transport, food items, household water, utensils, portable quarantine facilities, hospital wards, etc. using solar energy systems. In my evidence-based study in this review article I have tried to provide a new direction to thermal engineers for research in materials, design, and economic feasibility of solar energy systems to combat COVID-19.
Preprints available at:
Please don't forget to give your valuable comments and suggestions.
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Yes, I agree with all the comments above.
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What are the disadvantages of using nanomaterials in water and
wastewater treatment?
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Dear Sir
Please Check the following citations which may be useful for you
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Hello, so I'm doing some research on clinoptilolite, a naturally made zeolite. I'm testing on its ability to treat hard water (water with high levels of magnesium/calcium), and how temperature can impact its ability to extract cations.
From my results, I can observe that as temperature increases, its ability to adsorb/extract cations decrease, and I would like some understanding as to why this could be.
Along with this, I have read that its selectivity in cations range from charge densities, where it would be Ca2+ > Mg2+, but my results don't reflect that. Could there be a reason why?
Thank you.
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Dear Victoria,
Adsorption process mainly occurs through physisorption (through weak electrostatic forces such as van der Waal forces) or chemisorption (through chemical bonding) between the adsorbate and the surface of the adsorbent. These processes release heat when formed, and therefore are exothermic processes.
When the temperature of these adsorption process (which are exothermic) is increased, the process sees this (temperature increase) as a constraint and therefore shifts towards the backward reaction (of physisorption or chemisorption) to bring the system to equilibrium, leading to a decrease in adsorption. This is according to the Le Chatelier's principle.
Also, the extent of decrease in the adsorption ability will depend on the heat of adsorption; higher the heat of adsorption of an adsorbate-adsorbent system higher the temperature needed to decrease adsorption to a certain value.
Hope this helps!
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I have treated my highly contaminated water to make it soft but although i managed to make it soft water, the TDS is still the same as i used Cations Exchange Method.
So, Is there any method to reduce the TDS of the contaminated water?
Suggestions would be highly appreciable!
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Reverse osmosis is best way to reduce/minimize TDS.
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If i am using the demineralized water with the PH of the 5 to 6 & conductivity of 100-150 μs/cm to clean the aluminum alloy, can it cause a corrosion to aluminum?
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pH of DM water on aluminum finishing lines is usually in range of 5.5-5.7. The water with this pH can't cause corrosion. Most of aluminum alloys, except 7XXX and 2XXX can stay in DM water with this pH range for long time. It is a normal case on big multi-processes aluminum finishing lines to use the bathes with DM water as a buffer. However, it is important to control chlorine concentration in the bath. It should not exceed 100 ppm.
On other side, conductivity of your water is relative high for DM water. Usually, it should not be higher than 100 μs/cm for general industry and 50 for aerospace finishing. DM water with electrical conductivity 100-150 μs/cm might attack 7XXX alloys, for example 7075 or 7175.
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Which among these would be effective water disinfection method?
What are the possible disadvantages of UV water disinfection? Can the technology of Cu-Ag disinfection come up in future? What are the main challenges faced by this technology?
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very true
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Please suggest a high graphical resolution software for Water Quality Modeling of Water Supply Pipe Networks which includes the ability to analyze chemical decay. Thank you.
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There are several good and free software to mention including SWAT, HEC-HMS... but since you mention about Water Quality Modeling of Water Supply Pipe Networks, I would recommend you to use MIKE URBAN by DHI, which is integration with ArcGIS that you can model the water quality in the collection system in MKE URBAN CS with MOUSE and also MIKE URBAN CS with SWMM.
You can refer to this attachment of MIKE URBAN Collection system User Guide:
You can find out more about MIKE Product by DHI in link below:
MIKE URBAN also provide 1-year free license for student , but since this software integrates with ArcGIS, you have to have license from Esri.
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Far-infrared ceramic beads can emit infrared radiation ; but can not all object at nonzero absolute temperature emit blackbody radiation? What is special about these ceramic beads that are used in water filter? if the beads do disrupt hydrogen bonding, then how the disruption persists through water that has no "memory"? and how that can be related to nutritional or pharmaceutical value of water?
I have found no sound mechanism that can explain health benefits of far-infrared ceramic beads for water purification. can you explain?
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I don't think they do. This is a very annoying fraud. Just as the sharks don't have cancer, high dose C vitamin cures cancer and so on.
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Hi every one,
In drinking mineral water treatment we just check the water micro biologically for Ecoli, fecal coliform, Total coliform and TVC, and some times Pseudomonas.
How we detect viruses in water?
how to isolate viruses from water?
How to Characterize them?
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In case of virus detection in drinking water there are several steps to consider. However, this is basically depend on your objective/objectives.
A. Concentration (the number of virus or viral parts is lower in drinking water since it is treated). There are several concentration methods.
a. Filtration method (acid-alkaline method with charged membrane filter). this is a well established method.
b. there are other concentration methods
B. Analysis, usually PCR based methods to detect viral genome. You need to consider DNA virus or RNA virus. Then the processes has some modifications.
(viral genome detection by reverse transcription-PCR)
(this analysis process has several steps, re concentration, purification, extraction etc.).
C. Interpretation of your results.
The characterization is basically the genetic structure of virus (i.e. DNA Vs RNA virus). may be as human pathogen etc. as well.
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Hi everyone
I'm looking for a way to measure ozone concentrations in water.
The best method I have found is accurate and sensitive was the Indigo method, but unfortunately it is very expensive in our country due to the boycott.
Can I use a method that is suitable for low concentrations of ozone?
Can I make Potassium Indigo Trisulfonate Salt from Indigo or Indigo Carmine?
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Check if it makes sense for you:
Spiliotopoulou, A., Martin, R., Pedersen, L.-F., Andersen, H.R., 2017. Use of fluorescence spectroscopy to control ozone dosage in recirculating aquaculture systems. Water Res. 111, 357–365. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2016.12.036
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There is special product in vat dyes which is already chlorine fast. Is there anyway to that I can apply as finishing to improve chlorine fastness of vat dyes. I am looking for solution which is passive to chlorine or that can create protective layer against it.
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I doubt if such a protective agent exists. The problem is the colour loss is due to chemical reactions which actively destroy the colour generating chromophore molecules. Fortunately there are several commercially available ranges of chlorine resistant vat dyes with a good light fastness and range of hues. These are mainly synthesised using Pyranthrone or Isoviolanthrone chromophores.
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Our 13+ year old Milli-Q Synthesis A-10 died and needs to be replaced. A quote for a replacement (including discounts) is over $12K! Can anyone tell me about alternative companies and systems that are more affordable? Thanks!
-Rudy
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Membrane fouling is a process whereby a solution or a particles are deposited on a membrane surface or in membrane pores in a processes such as in a membrane bioreactor, reverse osmosis, forward osmosis, membrane distillation, ultrafiltration, microfiltration, or nanofiltration so that the membrane's performance is degraded. Membrane fouling is thea major obstacle to the widespread use of this technology.
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Dear Ronei de Almeida thanks for your detailed answer and contribution in the discussion.
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Hot springs that are good for health and that people in every parts of the world bathe in these waters and enjoy their mineral and even soothing properties, but after bathing, many pollutants enter the water. Whereas the effluent of these waters is dumped into rivers in some places very easily and strangely.
If these valuable and useful waters can be reused, in many places we will have both clean water and employment.
Does anyone have any guidelines on how to treat these beneficial waters quickly and easily?
Is hot water springs treatment and reuse economical؟ While these waters are constantly dropping out of the ground!
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The water can be recycled back to water devoid of microbial pollutants by heating chlorination. In terms of mechanical pollution, filtration and magnetization of the water can suffice in terms of chemical pollution, depending on the types of chemical species available, treatments can be done to reduce the species.
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I made a glass reactor for pharmaceutical wastewater treatment with silicon glue, Is this reactor able to operate in high-pH situations?
This reactor is prepared for the photocatalytic ozonation process.
When I did this process in pH=10, I got unexpected results, and that test failed, and it was foamy on the water surface during the test!
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Ali,
Silicone is an excellent choice. Cured silicone rubber is very inert even under extreme reaction conditions. When properly cured silicone should have almost no leaching. The rubber is compatible with high pH and temperatures.
Regards
Steve
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What is the most cheapest procedure to soften the hard water, decontaminating it and reducing the high minerals contents
(Removal of magnesium and calcium ions in it)!
Suggestions Required???
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Conventional water softeners are actually ion exchangers which “swap” sodium for calcium and magnesium.
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Is nanotechnology more energy efficient, if so how?
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We are working on Constructed wetlands for water treatment. it is low-cost and efficient
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  1. I have studies 15 water samples for the period of 24 months for 8 Metals and 7 physicochemical parameters.
  2. Similarly I have studied 15 soil samples before monsoon and after monsoon for 8 Metals and 7 physicochemical parameters.
  3. Please suggest me the statistical tests for the water analysis and soil analysis
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Kindly go through the attached file. Here you get your expected answer, here methodology is fulfill your demand.
Regards
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i am a bit confused about the relationship betwern hydrophobicity and oleophicity, Initially I thought if a material is hydrophobic it should also be oleophilic and vice vera but that doesn't seems to always be the case.
my question is how can I increase the oleophilicity of a polymer that has some acetate groups and hydroxyl groups?
Also, why is Flourine group considered toxic?
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As Grzegorz said, since oils are made of long hydrocarbon chains, putting side groups like steric acid and such will make the polymer more oil-friendly.
While fluorocarbons are hydrophobic they are not oil-friendly. Picture when you put olive oil on a teflon pan, it still will bead up into a droplet rather than spread out. Think of the fluorocarbons as a third type of system, in addition to the oil and water systems we are more familiar with.
Since flurocarbons are so chemical inert and stable, they can persist in the environment for long periods of time, and accumulate up to toxic levels over time if they are continuously leaked into the environment or absorbed by workers. The current thinking is that it is OK if the fluorocarbon chain has 4 or less carbons but it is especially bad when their are 8 carbons. Dupont now has to pay hundreds of millions of dollars to the workers and neighbors of their old West Virginia teflon plant for birth defects, liver disease, etc. caused by 8-carbon fluorocarbon surfactant molecules.
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I have added some PAC to 20% alum solution and a white sediment was formed. any idea what is that sediment?
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Good question....
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Bottle drinking water contained many floc. What is the reason? This water produced from fully automated systems.
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Normal flocs which form during coagulation-flocculation in alum treatment can be removed by sand filtration. But some flocs form in bottled water, reason is not clear how it can be removed. Please find out it.
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Hello everybody, I have been overwhelmed by the responses I have had to the Process Stress in Wastewater Treatment Survey. This is the last time I will be posting the survey before it closes. So please, if you can spare 10 min to fill in the survey it would be greatly appreciated. Thank you again for your support!
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Through the Advanced Oxidation Processing
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It is easy for me to have demineralizsed water than distilled water; can I use this for antifungal growth test?
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Deionized water is highly purified water that has gone through reverse osmosis. Why the nucleases (proteins) stay while the reverse osmosis removes ions ?
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Good discussion
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Recent announcement no 458 from Tamilnadu public service commission TNPSC has avoided chemistry post graduates in the recruitment notice and instead they recruit geology graduates for the post of assistant geochemist. They by-passed the old G.O and got secret G.O. in 2016 to disqualify the chemistry graduates in the selection process. G.O. no 141 says that
As per G.O. No MS. 141 dated 24-08-16
The Cheif Engineer, Water Resources Department, State Ground and surface water resources data centre has that due to non-availability of suitable candidates by method of transfer or by recruitment by transfer, he has proposed to retain direct  recruitment and to omit other methods of appointment. He has also reported that without the knowledge of geology, assistant Geophysicist and Assistant Geochemist can't interpret the findings. After considering field difficulties experienced in the past in having recruited candidates with Physics and Chemist qualifications did not practically give good results. He has, therefore, proposed to prescribe Master of Science in Geology as compulsory qualification in the adhoc rules.
Is this the way to solve this issue and abolishing the chemistry qualified candidates in the recruitment either by transfer or by direct recruitment. Will the geology qualified candidates do chemical analysis better than chemistry graduates? Did geology students under gone any chemical practical work like chemistry graduates from school, UG and PG level? If chemistry graduates require geology knowledge teach them with Geology specialist in PWD and train them. In my personal issue with Drug control department also the same issue was there to avoid chemistry graduates in the recruitment of Junior analyst. In this way they completely remove chemistry qualified candidates in the recruitment of government servants for technical posts.
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I mailed to take this as suo Moto case in this issue to the chairman NHRC national human rights commission.
Sir/madam,
I will do it online complaint also. Please make enquiry on all these departments about the Recruitment of Chemistry qualified candidates in the last 10 years. If not why don't they do it in transparent manner?
The various positions offered by Tamilnadu goverment for chemistry qualifications in different departments. They are Geology and Mining department, ground water wing-PWD, commerce and industries department, Institute of leather technology, Industrial safety and health, Tamilnadu khadi and village industries board-Soap industry and palmgur industry, Physiotherapy wing- king institute, Dairy development department, Tamilnadu prison department, Social defence, Drug control department, Pollution board, Forensic science laboratory, Department of archeology and finally Forest department.
Out of all these departments only six departments I watched the Recruitment in this 10 years by TNPSC. They are forensic, Geology and Mining, pwd, commerce and industries, archeology and prison. All other departments chemistry positions filled or not? Any vacancies? Recruitment body?
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What is the best and most economical water purification method that can be used in Africa to purify the water for drinking purpose for people?
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Membrane methods are the most effective and fouling can be mitigated. The most robust systems are Reverse Osmosis since they are the most used in the world. Water treatment from seawater is best achieved by Reverse Osmosis.
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I have started working on the above mentioned model, I would like if someone can guide me on this, how to pursue this type of modelling as it can be used/setup in rural areas where there are lack of resources or lack of funds which ultimately results in people drinking unhygienic water which is not good for their health and hence can get disease like Diarrhoea which causes 4% of all deaths and 5% of health loss to disability (As Per WHO report).
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You have to use rice husk as a precursor for the preparation of activated carbon as adsorbent material for the treatment of waste water.
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Hello, as part of my research I will be looking at stresses in wastewater treatment processes. I would welcome any contributions to the survey I have produced (Below). This will give me a valuable insight into the perception of process stress for wastewater treatment processes. https://www.surveymonkey.co.uk/r/NRPTB8G.
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Interesting
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Electrospun membranes appear to be increasingly popular for water treatment applications. I under how they are fabricated, etc but Im not quite how they are used, I would be grateful if someone could answer the below questions:
1) Electrospun mats as spun appear like white flexible sheets. Are these used as is? or do they need to be place on a supporting surface?
2) In some papers I've seen the electrospun membrane being placed on nonwoven polyester substrates, im not quite sure why this is done?
Thanks,
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1) Electrospun mats must attach with some kind of support otherwise it affects the capability.
2)Polyester is reliable because it have stretch capability.
Regards,
Touqeer
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What are the old and traditional methods for water purification in your country? Have you ever been able to control the authenticity of traditional methods and methods?
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If I focus bit more on indigenous techniques, I can list;
a. Charcoal filters for Iron removal (use in Sri Lanka and India etc.), some time charcoal put into the well.
b. Moringa as a coagulant aid (Use mainly in African countries and Asian countries).
c. Immersion of bruised coral or pounded barley to taste and odor control (ancient Italy)
d. Addition of macerated laurel to rainwater (Ancient Greece).
e. Storage and settling cisterns (ancient)
f. Hippocrates’ sleeve
g. Silver containers (disinfection)
......
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I am building a NFT system for Aquaponics lettuce . I have tried to do research into proper channels to use for a DIY project. I am debating between considering round pvc pipe 4", or 4" square vinyl fence posts. I have seen some people stress the importance of flat channels for a proper nutrient film, but nothing conclusive. People seem to use both with varying success. The square channels are much more expensive, so is it needed? Any help or good resources on the topic are highly appreciated. Thanks!
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Flat NFT Channels are better than Round PVC ,
For the size it depends , for lettuce the recommended dimension is 100*50
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There is lot of methods mention in literature to clean water but I want to know in bulk. How we can treat water from tube-wel/ turbine etc?
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Soluble calcium can be added to soil that will reduced water SAR and increasing water EC and will prevent formation of sodium bicarbonate.
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I'm currently working with a water purification system that is connected to an online TOC/Conductivity meter and we're seeing a sharp spike in TOC every Tuesday and Friday between 12:30AM-1:30AM and I'm not sure why. Typically it reads at around 3ppb, but these spikes see it go as high as 82ppb and they're at consistent times during the week.
We do a heat sanitisation of the system every Monday and Thursday nights, but I've just got no clue what could be causing it. Does anyone have any ideas as to why this could be happening?
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Dear Liam Martin ,
You should have a look upon the discussion following the link below.
Thank You.
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Hi
I'm student aquaculture in MSC And I'm going dissertation topic work on the algae.please guide me
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I don't do the algae research. May be later. Thanks you.
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The material (besides clay) needs to be non-reactive/stable, and preferably synthetic. Thank you very much in advance! Your suggestion is very much appreciated!
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Zeolite ?
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I need learn about impacts on water quality from peat extraction. I got some advanced documents from this group, but I wish to find something about the state of the art.
I have the aim to apply methods in civil engineering in Sweden.
Thanks!
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Please share me the best answer might you get...
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I need low cost water purification technique with readily available material for designing solar water heater cum purifier for rural households.
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According to my knowledge, heterogeneous photocatalysis can be considered as an economical and efficient method for wastewater purification.
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Nano and Micro size particles of P25 TiO2and ZnO semiconductors have nearly same bandwidth and often used for their comparative studies for water purification application for hazardous heavy metals for health, such as As, Cr, dyes, and even E-Coli bacteria. Could someone kindly throw more light on this subject to clearly  understand and conclude which one of these two photo catalysts is more suitable from the points of views as follows: over all performance, health, safety, system cost, sludge management, environment friendly, material reuse life, etc. Best regards.
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agree with @Zhaohui Wang
regards
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My research involves the coating of a rough polymer mesh with a zwitterionic superhydrophilic polymer. The mesh is then subjected to a flow (tap water) with nutrient dosage for accelerated bacterial growth. The hydrophilicity is expected to retain a water layer thus prevent/delay the attachment of bacteria. On the contrary, with or without the flow, the coating does not provide any noticeable resistance to bacterial adhesion though it is visibly hydrophilic. What am I missing here?
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Try multi-layer coating or change coating material. Be careful, bacterial surface properties depending on many factors (cell wall properties, formation of external protective structures etc.). So different bacteria may exhibit different adhesion properties regarding coating material.
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please give me any link of filter bed with rice husk ,neem husk,corn cobs,moringa oliefera and cocunut coir.
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I think the best way is first to convert rice husk and corn cob to their respective biochar or char. Secondly activation of these char with any of chemical or physical process. This will provide you activated carbon derived from rice husk and corn cob respectively. As these have very porous structures you can directly use them as filter bed.
Hope it will help you.
Good luck
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Water purifiers can remove water hardness but are not handy.
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The answer really depends on how much water do you want to treat and to what level. The BRITA water filters (and many others) are handy and remove much of the calcium and magnesium ions ( using a small ion exchange column) but they only treat small volumes at slow speed. There are larger columns but obviously much less handy
Yoram
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sea water desalination
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i think the only benefit when i use 6 PV , i will use less st.st fittings 
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Fluoride is major contaminant in groundwater.
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You need to synthesize selective binders such as calixpyrroles or other pyrrole derivatives for fluoride ion binding and load them on to solid nanomaterials for example magnetic nanoparticles etc. If you search on google you may get many such articles. 
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I wish to investigate the effectiveness of the above mentioned composite in the treatment of water, thereby trying to improve water treatment membranes
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Dear Prithviraj
Thank you for the useful information and referred material
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Is there any pathogenic organism or smelling effect formed in fresh water yield while using wick or sponge material in solar still desalination
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Chances of getting a pathogenic infection inside the solar still desalination is very low ,almost zero. the thermo+ uv enhanced photo rays combination itself acts as a disinfectant, which does not provide a room for the ambient condition inside the setup for any pathogens (mesophilic and thermophilic) to grow. so the condition inside the setup can be guaranteed as a infection free ambience.
similarly, these heat are enough to make the setup and also the water inside it foul smell proof,as the main source for these smell is because of the presence of moisture trapped inside the sponge during operation.prolonged heating maintains almost dried condition inside the sponge which has thin chances of producing foul smell.
yet,the chances of getting a pathogenic infection or foul smell or pathogenic infection ad foul smell is very high,if the setup is kept in shade for long time,eventually building an ambience for anaerobic pathogens to grow and fouls smell to rise up inside it
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 Hello fellow researchers, I see a lot of articles in using adsorbents for water treatment processes, I wanna ask which method is more applicable in research and industry?! Adsorbents, membrane, photo catalyst or biological approaches?
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Biological treatment concerns wastewater and it is the cheapest treatment.Other mentioned treatments may be for water or wastewater.The appropriate treatment depends on the Effluent Standards after disposal to the river or other water resources.
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I found out that species of Cladophora, a green algae, has a great ability to remove arsenic in water. What are the advantages and disadvantages of using phycoremediators like this instead of other chemical and physical techniques like ion exchange, filtration, reverse osmosis, etc. in terms of ecological and economic impacts?
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Dear Christine,
Phycoremediation is much cost-effective as it does not require procurement of huge equipments. Plants can be easily grown without much effort and can be monitored easily. But it is a slower process.  
With my best regards
Prof. Bachir ACHOUR
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A huge problem is reported at water filtration plant as sand filters are clogging/choking every 4-6 hours. Backwashing the filters multiple times per day is harming water treatment efficiency. Can anyone suggest a solution?
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I think you need to check suspended solids and turbidity in your raw water.  If turbidity is more than 5 NTU and you are using direct filtration than coagulant dose must be revisited otherwise you may need to add tubesettler or any form of settling before filtration.  Good luck!
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How to calculate the cross sectional area required of Forward Osmosis membrane for treating any wastewater?
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Refer to manufacturer for the FO module
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Would putting a layer of activated carbon (granular or powdered) upstream from sand filter layer enhance the arsenic removal efficiency. Notes that, none of the material is impregnated with any other contents (e.g. iron). However, say that the groundwater also contain Fe(II) which can be oxidized and help to remove arsenic.
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 Dear Gibran
please follow the articles:
1- Vithanage, M., Chandrajith, R., Bandara, A., Weerasooriya, R., 2006. Mechanism modeling of 
arsenic retention on natural red earth in simulated environmental systems. J. Colloid.
Interface. Sci. 294, 265-272.
2- Dixit, S., Hering, J.G., 2003. Comparison of arsenic (V) and arsenic (III) sorption onto iron
oxide minerals: Implications for arsenic mobility. Environ. Sci Technol. 37, 4182-4189. 
3-  Sarkar, S. Investigations of well-head arsenic removal units in
West Bengal, India. Ph.D. Dissertation, 2006, BESU, Howrah,
India.
4-Manful GA, Verloo M, Spiegeleer FG (1989) Arsenate sorption by
soils in relation to pH and selected anions. Pedologie 39:55–68.
Regards
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There are several methods proposed claiming to have maximum efficiency in water purification, These methods include sensor method and filtration techniques. Do you have any idea which the best?
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Dear Jestin,
Today , Reverse osmosis and Plasma water Sanitation system  frequently used for the purification of water. 
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I am using metal loaded silica for water purification. I want to dopcast the silica onto a glassy carbon electrode but am unable to disperse it. So how and in what solvent do we disperse the silica so that we get an uniform dispersion which can be drop casted on to the electrode.
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Take a look at:
 Nov 11th, 2008. Dispersion and nanotechnology  http://tinyurl.com/hpywsge
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As part of my Advanced Oxidation Process in water purification using UV- hydrogen peroxide, I would want to filter out the nitrate ions and permit the humic acids to enter with the rest of the feed water into the UV reactor.
Is there any suitable pre-filtration method like ion-exchange or membrane seperation that would allow me to do so.
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One possibility could be to use electrodialysis and separate the nitrate ions (smaller) from the humic acids. It also depends on the feed you have and if you only want to separate nitrates, because in this case other anions could be separated too (like chlorides, for example).
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I want to sterilize water at rate of 1 liter per second.
there is two main question:
1. which process has lower cost (for this rate or higher)
2. which process has highest accuracy. in fact it is very important for me to kill all living organism in water !
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 Dear Saeed Taji,
The market is literally flooded with water treatment options. Reverse osmosis systems, loose granular activated carbon, solid carbon block filters, and distillers all promise sparkling, clean water, but how do you know which one is really best? With a little research, you can find the ideal water treatment system for you.The UV treatment is best and low cost. Scientists have known for nearly a century that ultraviolet light of certain wavelengths is an effective germicidal agent.
All UV units have a maximum flowrate capacity and lower cost and less maintenance but some operation instruction ,e.g.
1.       At high Flow rate water will pass through without enough UV exposure.
2.       If Flow low then heat may build up which can damage the UV lamp
3.       The flow must be at constant Flow.
One application where ultraviolet disinfection is used is in recirculating delivery systems. In a recalculating system, water flows constantly from a storage tank, out to the pressure stations (or through the stations and through the piping in the animal rooms), then flows back to the storage tank. These installations use in-line UV units in the recirculating loop to provide control of bacterial growth.
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I am modeling my protocol after the methodology described in Asaoka et al., 2015, A membrane extraction method for trace level phosphate analysis. I'm wondering if anyone else has tried this method. 
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High sink strength Fe oxide and anion exchange strips are used in soil research used in research  on soil P
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Some of RO water purification system used stage of minerals filter which is consists of coarse ball particles called "MT-T33-GAC-1020" there's no information about this medium. Any body has information of that kind of medium ?
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Dear Mustafa,
They are used in post In-line filters contain coco nut shell which are design to reduce unwanted odor, taste, and chlorine, improved taste. Choice of polypropylene media used for sediment removal. In-line filters are an ideal choice of final polishing filter in home reverse osmosis drinking water systems, ice maker, and food service application. Martin GAC post In-line filter comply with NSF Standard.
  
Feature
Efficient removal of chlorine and organic chemicals
Improve the taste of water
Installation eliminates the need for additional filter housing
Competitively priced carbon filters
 Ideal for f\residential and commercial applications
 All in-line filters include a pre- and post-filter
Application
Pre and post RO
Refrigerator
 Ice maker
l  Drinking water purify
For more on this, please use the following link:
Hoping this will be helpful,
Rafik
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In water desalination by using solar still , saline water is heated and gets evaporated and then the vapour condenses on the glass cover.
In this type of treatment we get rid of contamination such as salts, minerals, solid material which remain in the basin , however, can we get rid of the bacteria or microscopic organisms that might cause diseases or further special treatment is needed? 
Providing related references (names of articles or books) is appreciated 
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 Dear Azharul,
Thank you very much for providing this valuable and informative document.
Regards
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What is the best method to estimate water resistivity knowing the salinity/chlorinity and formation temperature?
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Dear Matteo,
The simplest method is the measurement of the resistivity by reading a resistivity device. In the absence of such a device, you can take the measure
of the resistivity by the "method of the pipe", the results are relatively
imprecise, especially for conductive water and whose implementation
work requires certain precautions.
With my best regards
Prof. Bachir ACHOUR
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I am working on a proyect to apply electrolysis to water with neonicotinoids in order to break these compounds and decontaminate the water. So far I've tried dilute HCl and an ethanol+alcohol+couple drops of acid electrolytes but I keep only getting the water electrolysis and my compound is not changed. Suggestions on what electrolyte I can use? I've thought about salts like NaCl, Na2SO4, etc. but haven't tried these. I'm using two Pt electrodes.
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Thanks Rafik! I was not aware of the method of sonication and appreciate the hint. I'm working specifically with Imidacloprid and have been performing electrolysis on dilute HCl with some Imidacloprid dissolved in it, so nothing as complex as sonication. Will continue to work on this decontamination and take your suggestion into account.
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We are working on effects of Moringa oleifera and charcoal filters in water purification.....both drinking and sewage waters and studying the presence of certain groups of bacteria e.g coliforms. We want to broaden the research and include the presence and absence of biofilms in the study but do not know how to go about this....your help will be appreciated...even links to materials that can assist us in this study
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I will strat with a simple hypothesis and methode. You could use a filtered bacterial suspension throught a charcoal filter then put it on a 0.22µm mitrocellulose filter and place the two filters onto a solide agar plate (nitrocellulose in touch with the agar). After incubation, remove the charcoal filter and stain the bacteria using live/dead fluorescent dye  and observe using epifluorescence or CLM.
It's one technics to obtain biofilm on a fiberglass filter which is placed onto a 0.22µm filter before incubation. Here, you will use the charcoal filter instead of the fiberglass. 
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My research work is on Removal of Iron from drinking water using ion exchange resins. For that, initially I am using resins to remove iron from standard iron solution to find out the optimum time for highest % removal but after maintaining the pH to 6-7 and then treating the standard solution with resins and adding hydroxylamine, 1,10-phenanthroline, sodium acetate I want to know what is the maximum time that one can leave the solution for color development before going for spectrometer testing.
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Dear Sir,
But the addition of NaOH and HCl to maintain the pH dilutes the color and so the observed absorbance is generally lower than the actual absorbance of the solution. So, should the absorbance be multiplied with a dilution factor? 
Also, the color developed darkens when left for a day when Base and acids are added to maintain pH. 
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At what pH that I can work the technique of adsorption by sand with a solution of cadmium or chromium at pH below 2.
for avoiding precipitation of these metals and the formation of Cd (OH)2 and Cr (OH)3.
consederant is that sand is rich (Fe2O3 = 73.1%, TiO2 = 11.4%; SiO2 = 4.99%; ZrO2 = 2.83%; ..)
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Sand has a very low specific surface, i.e. you can bind only small amounts and you will end up with large volume of contaminated sand. Is there any practical use of your study?
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