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Questions related to Water Balance
How to calculate IWA water balance
Hi,
I am looking for a spreadsheet-based water balance model for lake operation. Please don't refer me to papers. I am looking for an actual spreadsheet. Thanks
Towards a holistic water vision for national water and food security The discussion focuses on the analysis of comprehensive national water balances: underground and surface water "Blue Water", soil water reserves "Green water", and the net "Virtual Water" flux related to foodstuffs imports/exports; in order to conciliate in a sustainable way water resource supply with the whole demand, including food demand.
Hello, honorable forum members.
I have a question related to ponds, retention tanks, etc. in the SWAT model. What water balance parameters are affected by adding pond parameters in the .pnd file?
I would also like to model an increase in the number of ponds in the catchment area. Is it enough to enter new parameters in the .pnd file for this purpose, or do you also need to draw the joints on the landuse layer?
Best regards
Damian
I am trying to determine the actual evapotranspiration using soil water balance method. But cannot determine deep percolation. Could you please let me know if there's any method, formulas to estimate the DP. Thank you.
Please Help me. I can plot it on graph paper, but I am searching for software to reduce my time.
Water Value: Shadow price of the reservoir water balance equation. Why is it a constant value?
In the book "Managing Energy Risk: An Integrated View on Power and Other Energy Markets" by Markus Burger, it is mentioned is mentioned on page 171 that "Water values stay constant over time unless the reservoir content reaches upper or lower limits".
Why is it that the shadow price of the reservoir water balance equation (water Value) stays constant over time? Why does it change to another constant value only after hitting the upper ot lower reservoir limit?
In comparison, whereas the shadow price of the load balance equation (marginal clear price or locational marginal price) varies from hour to hour, assuming the resolution of the optimization is by hour?
I´m trying to get an optimal reservoir operation rule in a multireservoir system where some reservoirs have carryover storage. I had developed an operation model based on Kritski and Menkel´s method and uses generalized Storage - Reliabiliy-Yield relashionship. This model has been tasted and implemented in single reservoirs but not in a multireservoir system. I want to know if there are other carryover storage methods that have been implemented in a multireservoir system.
Thank you.
I have 5 cm, 8 cm, 10 cm, 18 cm, 20 cm volumetric water content data from TDR sensor that records every 15min. I want to know ΔS at (0-30 cm) to calculate ET by water balance method.
I changed 15min data to 1-hour data by doing average and calculated soil water storage by this method:
theta 1= [{8am (TDR 5cm)- 9am(TDR 5cm)}*0.005cm] (0.005 is depth)
theta2 = [{8am( TDR 8cm)- 9 am(TDR 8cm)}*0.003]
same for 10cm = theta 3
theta 4 for 18 cm
theta 5 for 20 cm
At last, I added (theta 1+theta 2 +theta 3 +theta 4 +theta 5)= soil water storage, but my data is not showing drying trend in mid-summer and also not showing the wetting trend for fall. I couldn't figure out where I am wrong.
Good Morning. I would like to ask a question about finding an interval for Tanaka' model. I will add boundaries and for half-width of the fuzzy numbers cj and center of the fuzzy numbers aj should be in boudaries. An article says that:
After the data related to percentage error in estimating all components of the water balance equation had been obtained, the second step was to define the reasonable criteria for setting
the constraints’ boundaries. Therefore, the interval covering 68% of the data was considered for the center of the correction coefficient fuzzy numbers, and the interval covering 99% of the data
was considered for the minimum half-width of the fuzzy numbers. From a probabilistic point of view, the coverage of 68% and 99% indicate coverage of a mean plus one standard deviation and a mean plus three standard deviations, respectively. Table 3 shows the boundaries considered for the correction coefficient fuzzy numbers used as constraints in the fuzzy linear regression models.
I do not know how to find percentage error and also how to define the reasonable criteria for setting the constraints' boundaries. I 'll appreciate it if I can get an answer.
- _{How can I get the software ?}
- _{do you expect the model better estimate soil moisture and other water balance components in small to large area ?}
The aim of the article is to apply a set of fuzzy coefficients in order to minimize existing error of the water balance equation. Fuzzy regression models based on possisbility theory and fuzzy regression models based on interval analysis were applied. But according to given datas I could not find the coefficients as in the article. I took the precipitation as independent variable (x) and evapotranspiration, surface water outflow and change of groundwater storage as dependent variables as(y) How should apply the variables?
1. Overall view on catchment during construction of Tunnel.
2. Quantity of water unbalance, recharge process blockage, water table effect on that location and their implication.
I need transfer function for the mathematical model of solute and fluid transport in human kidney for the simulation purpose.
Hi all, i'm trying to implement the SM2RAIN algorithm in python for estimating precipitation in USA based on soil moisture observations, i started by gathering data on county level.
I used " NASA_USDA/HSL/soil_moisture" for the SM observations, basically the SURFACE SOIL MOISTURE (ranges from 0 to 25mm), the temporal resolution is 3 days (the lowest available one)
For the precipitation, i used "IDAHO_EPSCOR/GRIDMET" for daily observation, i resamplead the data to 3 day accumulated values.
I implement the algorithm using this code freely available on github " https://github.com/IRPIhydrology/sm2rain/blob/master/sm2rain/algorithm.py ".
I normalized the surface soil moisture values and got started with on county (320 observation)
I used the pearson's correlation R and RMSE as metrics for evaluating the output of the model.
The calibration process was processed on the whole dataset
PROBLEM:
The issue is that i'm getting a low R value (below 50%), and the simulated precipitation always has the same pattern as the soil moisture.
the simulated precipitation cannot catch the hight values of observed precipitation as you see in the attached file (orange color: observed precipitation/ blue color simulated precipitation [only 30 points in the graph]
Questions:
Did i choose the correct soil moisture variable ?
it is normal that simulated precipitation has the same pattern as the soil moisture ?
Any tips or suggestions are appreciated.
Thanks in advance.
Groundwater recharge, groundwater pumping and regional groundwater flow are the main components of groundwater water balance calculations of an area under study.
Although, there can be much variation in recharge, discharge and regional groundwater flows from place to place. Suppose, we are talking about an area having a square shape, so that lateral flow and vertical recharge/discharge areas are in proportion, i.e. in square shape, the size of the area will not affect the relative proportion of regional flow to vertical recharge/discharge from the aquifer.
My question is: what can be the relative (%) quantum of regional groundwater flow in overall water balance of the area under study, having a square shape.
I have a multipurpose dam with hydropower, irrigation and water supply. I need to optimize water balance budget for the various component. Can anyone help me with a software or excel based program to perform the optimisation analysis?
Hi
Would you please let me know if the following is accurate as an answer to the question:
Suppose we have sensors which measure the volumetric soil water content of a soil layer for a long period (more than 6 months) and also high temporal resolution (half-hourly). Could I assign the maximum in this dataset to the saturation point?
I understand that we do need to have a lengthy rainfall event, how long the event should be so that the above proposal works?
And if there is any other way that I can get to the saturation point of a soil layer from the volumetric soil water content data/sensors, please let me know.
Mostly focused on the topsoil and preferably only using the dataset.
Dear colleagues,
I am looking for observed water balance data for Roseires and Merowe dams during the period 2008 to 2012. I will appreciate for any help.
Thanks in advance
I have seen that normally available river flows divided by the population of the country is taken as water availability (cubic meters per person per year) for the country. I feel that available rainfall below the measuring points for river flows should also be included towards water availability calculations.
I want to know the opinion of other colleagues in this regard.
I am doing a research studying impact of climate on lake and want to make scenario i read alot of researches ,but don't know how to start , i will be grateful if someone help me
Our assumption:
We assume that data-driven models are superior to physically-based and conceptual models.
Our question:
Are data-driven approaches “a good/the best guess” to benchmark our model and the used input data, respectively?
Here is an example to illustrate the problem:
We have a physically based hydrological model which simulates the components of the water balance and whose parameters are physically meaningful and therefore are based on observations.
Our model simulates for an observed catchment the discharge. We are getting an NSE of 0.1 in validation. Normally this performance would be judged as very critical. Alternatively running a data-driven approach, with the same meteorological input results only in a slightly better NSE of 0.13.
Under our assumption of data-driven models superiority we than can concluded:
1. Our physical based model represents the processes quite well
2. The model parameters are carefully chosen/observed
3. The meteorological input data is not sufficient to achieve a proper discharge and vice versa
The USGS has developed reference and potential evapotranspiration databases covering large land areas. This information would be helpful in developing water balances where direct measurements are sparse. However, accessing the data for use in simulations is not user friendly. Does anyone have a script or methodolgy that I can use or adapt for my research?
Hi,
I have a question for all the soil scientists and geo-hydrologists around.
We want to model the runoff behaviour of a couple of watersheds where some soil and water conservation measures will be implemented (something like small trenches to retain runoff).
Our model is something simple and we are building it for an area with little data available (thus the need to stay simple). We want to roughly estimate how much additional water (runoff and direct rainfall) can be captured by the soil and water conservation structures. The model is a simple water balance for which we need infiltration values (measured with mini disk infiltrometer), which in turns is influenced by soil texture.
We have collected quite a number of samples at surface (0 to 20 cm) and subsurface (20-50 cm) for this. Here is my question for you:
When on a budget constrain, which depth would you prioritize to characterize texture - surface or sub-surface?
Our gut feeling is to prioritize the surface samples, but i would love the opinion of some scientists with hands on experience (possibly with some references to prove the point).
Any thought on this would be much appreciated!
Thanks a lot everyone,
Francesco
Does anyone know how to calibrate a PR2/6 SOIL MOISTURE PROBE in the field?
If we are consuming salty food?
Can we consume low TDS water to balance the salts of body at equilibrium?
Because most of the expert says Low TDS water is dangerous for consumption.
Good Afternoon Everyone! I am working on the optimization of Irrigation supply. For that I need to develop water Balance. The area I am working on is water scarce so, the irrigation is dependent on Surface water as well as on Groundwater Abstraction. My question is how can I add the groundwater Portion in the water balance? As, I don't have any information regarding the volume being extracted. I am having the climatic data, and the Channel flows at head and tail. In addition to that there are also some data points available regarding Groundwater table pre. and post monsoon. Is there anyway to estimate the amount of Groundwater with the available data without using model i.e Swat?
I found softwere (http://greenleaf.unl.edu/), but potential evapotranspiration is done by Thornthwaite method.
Also i can do it in excel but is very time consuming process.
Terrestrial water storage (TWS) changes are calculated using GRACE data given as TWS = Surface water + Soil water + Snow.
How to calculate TWS from CMIP data ? what parameters can i use from GCMs?
Is there any possibility to calculate TWS from water balance equation?
WR=ETc
Soil water balance method
Of the total amount of precipitation, some runs-off, some evaporates, some infiltrates. Run-off depends on multiple factors like
- Amount and intensity of precipitation
- Slope
- Permeability of underlying soil and rock
- Wetness of soil
- Temperature
- Vegetation cover
- Surface storage
What is the most accurate method to estimate run-off coefficient local to a village, which takes into account these factors? Are there any tables which tabulate run-off coefficients for different field situations?
I would like to explain the context of my question here.
We train villagers to manage water resources in the village. In the process, villagers prepare the water budget for their village. We are fortunate to be engaged with 4000 villages. Thus we need run-off and evapo-transpiration coefficients for 4000 villages. These coefficients should be accurate enough to represent their localities. But, the process has to be simple enough so that villagers are not discouraged. What should be the process to estimate run-off and evapo-transpiration coefficients?
The Budyko Framework (Budyko,1974) constitutes the strong globally observed empirical relationship between the ratio of atmospheric water supply and demand (potential evaporation/precipitation) and evaporative ratio (evaporation/precipitation ~=1-runoff/precipitation) for multi-annual data at the catchment scale. The framework has a long history as it finds its origins in empirical findings of Schreiber (1904) and Ol'dekop (1911) and over the years many Equations have been developped that describe the empirical relationship E/P =F(Ep/P) (e.g. Turc, 1954, Fuh 1981, Zhang et al, 2001, Wang & Tang, 2014).
Over the past years it seems the framework is experiencing a Renaissance where the framework is used to understand and to predict water balance behavior, both for stationary and changing climate and landscape conditions.
This Renaissance mainly started with the work of Milly (1993, 1994a,b) who was the first to attempt to understand the role of several climate and landscape conditions that control long-term water balance. Milly's work lead to many studies applying the framework to understand the role of different climate and landscape properties on the water balance.
Although the framework was originally developed for multi annual mean values, Dooge (1992) introduced how the framework can be used to asses the impact of climate change and variability on the water balance, which has subsequently been extended to also quantify the impact of humans (eg. via water use and land over change (Roderick & Farquhar, 2011; Wang & Hejazi, 2011). The past couple of years this approach is now very frequently applied.
The strong empirical relationship between Ep,P and runoff ratio also brings up the interesting question how landscape properties evolve under climate conditions such that this strong empirical relationship is found. Some initial studies have been performed (e.g., Gentine et al., 2012; Troch et al., 2013) but it seems that such approaches are still in their infancy.
The question I now have is: what do you consider the future of the Budyko framework?
Will you consider this framework a valuable tool to guide hydrologic studies in the future? What questions regarding the framework are still unaddressed, but would provide valuable insight? How can we use new data sources to improve our understanding? What novel approaches (eg for more multidisciplinary research efforts) do you envision? How can we test some of the underlying assumptions of the framework when it's applied to changing climate and landscape conditions?
I have an estuary having 5 rivers as its inlet and 3 outlet connected to sea. I wanted to water balance of estuary and how it is changing with drastic change in surrounding landuse/land cover change. Is there any model that computes water balance of estuary?
Dear Researchers,
I would like to request that if anybody have Budyko Frame work in excel (Macro), or MATLAB code or any other userfriendly tool for water balance study induced by climate change. Please share.
OR
Any idea how to use Budyko Framework also appriciated.
Regards
Naveed.
I’m working on impact of rainfall and temperature on crop productivity, so I want to assess the correlation between weekly water deficit in growth stages of crops and productivity of crop using ArcGIS 10. Can anyone suggest me how compute weekly water balance by Thornthwaite method using ArcGIS 10? Is there any tool for spatial analysis of water balance in ArcGIS?
If anyone workout on this topic, please, send me references.
Thanks
I want to calculate water deficit period for understanding impact of rainfall on crop productivity. Can I use 'Raster Calculator' for calculation of water balance of District using ArcGIS 10?
If anyone know the, please guide me.
Thank You
Hi RGmate,
I have initiated an experiment focusing on crop evapotranspiration. I need to measure the crop evapotranspiration by water balance equation.
ETc = I + P + U – D – R – ΔS
In above equation, important thing is to find ΔS (change in soil moisture) and for ΔS I have two different values. Firstly, moisture contents were measured by gravimetric method (unit is gram/gram). After that I recorded moisture contents by EM50 logger and it gives values in volumetric water content (unit is m3/m3). I have three questions.
1: How can I convert the gravimetric method value into volumetric value?
2: What is exact formula to measure change in soil moisture? Either Current soil moisture – Previous soil moisture or Previous soil moisture – Current soil moisture?
3: Although irrigation, precipitation and others in above water balance equation are in mm. What is the unit of Change in soil moisture (gram/gram, m3/m3 or mm)? If the unit will be mm then How do I convert gram/gram or m3/m3 into mm?
Regards
I am interested in simulating the effect of future climate change on groundwater resources in Nigeria using a spatially distributed monthly water balance model. Which of the global circulation models is the best suited for Nigeria? Secondly, I wish to know if there is a way to get already downscaled GCM that can be used for monthly water balance model in Nigeria?
I want to simulate potential future climate change scenario on groundwater resources in Nigeria, using a monthly spatially distributed water balance model. I wish to know which of the global circulation models is the best suited for Nigeria and can be used with monthly water balance model? Secondly, is there is anybody with information on already downscaled GCM I can use for such study in Nigeria. Thank you
Hi RGmate,
I have initiated an experiment focusing on crop evapotranspiration. I need to measure the crop evapotranspiration by water balance equation.
ETc = I + P + U – D – R – ΔS
In above equation, important thing is to find ΔS (change in soil moisture) and for ΔS I have two different values. Firstly, moisture contents were measured by gravimetric method (unit is gram/gram). After that I recorded moisture contents by EM50 logger and it gives values in volumetric water content (unit is m3/m3). I have three questions.
1: How can I convert the gravimetric method value into volumetric value?
2: What is exact formula to measure change in soil moisture? Either Current soil moisture – Previous soil moisture or Previous soil moisture – Current soil moisture?
3: Although irrigation, precipitation and others in above water balance equation are in mm. What is the unit of Change in soil moisture (gram/gram, m3/m3 or mm)? If the unit will be mm then How do I convert gram/gram or m3/m3 into mm?
Regards
In the T&M monthly water balance we can compute surplus as the difference between precipitation and potential evapotranspiration, once the soil water reserve has been filled. Is there a way to separate water surplus into infiltration and direct ruonff on a monthly time-scale?
I am trying to create a (very approximative) model of a territory, focusing on the water balance.
I have some different vegetation areas, taken from the Map of Natural Vegetation of Europe (by the Bundesamt für Naturschutz).
The data look like for example like this:
"Formation F.1 : Species-poor oak and mixed oak forests (Quercus robur, Q. petraea, Q. pyrenaica, Pinus sylvestris, Betula pendula, B. pubescens, B. pubescens subsp. celtiberica, Castanea sativa)".
Does anyone know where to find data about the root depth of particular species or of the kind of forest in average?
Thank you in advance for your help!
We are planning riyadh city as water sensitive urban city. We have developed urban water balance model. How we can get help in applying your model?
We are in a head watershed with a sandstone fractured lithology covered with a shallow sandy loam soil, at some places there is no soil and the fresh fractured rock outctops, no deep-rooted trees. The climate is semi-arid. I need to estimate the evaporation (I expect no transpiration takes place at the groundwater table) only and to make use of it in a catchment water balance. Thank you.
I just run the Hydrus model successfully, but now I want to extract or to know how much was infiltration, evaporation, recharge throughout the simulation. I am not sure which output file I must open in excel
The correction of evapotranspirative fluxes of eddy covariance by means of two different approaches (Oncely and Bowen ratio), showed that the difference between the two methods increases in wet area more than the dry ones. Does anyone have an explanation for this observation?
I am working on surface water balance of marginal grabens in northern Ethiopia. Here marginal grabens (about 2,500 km2) are transitional zone between the lowland (arid area) and northern highland (semi-arid area). The major lithological units of the escarpments are basaltic rocks. The escarpments have the same aspect, all looking towards the east direction. They recharge the graben bottoms, agricultural potential area.
Part of the water budget components, the representative rivers have been monitored since the last three years. However, there are ungauged streams contributing to the graben bottoms. In fact, there are a number of approaches available for prediction of ungauged catchments based on the spatial proximity, catchment area ratio and catchment characteristics.
I want you guys to share me your best experience (read or worked) on how to estimate the discharge of the ungauged rivers under the data-scarce geographical region.
With bets regards,
Hailemariam Meaza
I've only seen it for routing single-event hydrographs. I'm trying to model reservoir water levels and spillway flows using a 10-year inflow time-series, bathymetry (already calculated the stage-storage and stage-area relationships), ogee spillway rating equation, and prescribed minimum conservation flows through separate outlets. Using a basic spreadsheet water-balance for daily or hourly time-step, the head and flows over the spillway are unrealistically large. 15-minutes helped but is straining my computing resources. Can level-pool (storage indication) be applied here? Any special considerations/assumptions needed?
1. how to calculate the different components of energy budget using satellite data
2. Which satellite products may help in this regards
3. what are the different models that can be employed
I have installed different length of perforated pipe in both the plots (DSR and Transplanted Rice) and after decline all water from pipe I will irrigate.
The SPEI is a multiscalar drought index based on climatic data. It can be used for determining the onset, duration and magnitude of drought conditions with respect to normal conditions in a variety of natural and managed systems such as crops, ecosystems, rivers, water resources, etc. However, the calculation of the SPEI gives high frequency of 0 values for precipitation and water balances when performing sensitivity analysis. It make its calculation of sensitivity coefficient a problem. The non-dimensional relative sensitivity coefficients for T can be expressed as : S= (∂SPEI/∂T)T/SPEI
Dear Expert
I have monitored streamflow, rainfall with another meteorological variable. While trying to do water balance of the catchment (Himalayan) following the equation P-Q=ET, it is not fulfilling the above equation. ET is being calculated using the PM method.
I am not able to find out the reason behind it. Can you please let me know the things that can be done.
Is there any problem to use ET or else I have to use actual evaporation. Please suggest me the conversion factor if any from PET to actual evaporation.
I currently have monthly precipitation and potential evapotranspiration for each month in my 17-year study. I calculated the water balance for each month by subtracting PET from precipitation. I then summed the water balance in three month chunks since I want the 3-month SPEI.
From here, I'm confused about calculating the probability-weighted moments (PWM) of the water balance series, which is necessary to determine SPEI.
My question is: How do I calculate the 3-month SPEI across my entire 17-year time scale? I understand how to calculate the alpha, beta, and gamma coefficients, etc. I attached a picture of the PWM formula (from Wagan 2015 "Drought Trends and Temperature Influence in Zhanghe River Basin, China".) From what I understand, the Ws is computed at different orders of s, and these results are inputs to the formulas for alpha, beta, gamma coefficients, which are themselves inputs into the SPEI formula.
In terms of Di, how do I combine my time series into this formula? For instance, I have 17 files for the 3-month June water balance, which is the sum of the April, May and June water balance in a given year. In this PWM equation, I imagine I would include all 17 years for June (and then would run the equation again for all 17 data points for July, etc.) If I did that though, then how would I determine SPEI for a particular year? Do I use this equation twice, once for the whole time series, and then again for the particular 3 month span I'm interested in?
I know there is SPEI R code, but this code cannot handle NaNs and I have a lot of NaNs. These cannot be removed since the location of the data values is very important. Thanks for any feedback.
I would like to calculate SPEI using the R package developed by the authors. There seems to me to be two major reasons why I can't use the R package (I'm currently trying to figure out SPEI in Matlab). I'm computing SPEI for a city over 17 years at 30-meter resolution. Currently, I have all of my precipitation, potential evapotranspiration, and water balance data for the time series. Since I want the 3-month SPEI I also summed the water balances in three month chunks (April+May+June, May+June+July, etc.)
First, my data has a lot of NaNs, and the R package doesn't accept any NaNs. I can't delete my NaNs because the location of each data point in the matrix represents its location in space (lat/long). Is there any way around this? I need to know specifically which lat/long pixel an SPEI value corresponds to.
Second, my data is relatively high resolution. I have lots of pixels for each month in my 17-year study, however, it looks to me like the R package only accepts one data point per month, since each new row represents the following month. I was thinking of putting all my data points for each month into a vector along each row, particularly since the R package computes SPEI for each column individually, and I would like SPEI on a pixel-per-pixel basis. However, each row would be over 3 million points long, and I think I read somewhere that this is far beyond what the R package is able to handle.
Is there any way around these two issues so that I can use the R package? I'm having a lot of difficulty figuring out how to calculate SPEI in Matlab (trying to figure out probability-weighted moments). Thanks for any feedback.
I need information on how I can estimate water use efficiency and water productivity (methodology). What equipment could be suitable for this kind of work. If possible suggest any articles on the same. Many thanks
what is the best GIS and remote sensing method of estimating water balance model for a basin?
I am trying to model velocity through a wetland and have flow, water level, depth, etc. (enough for a water balance) but would like to model velocity or residence times. Is there a difference between residence and detention times? Both have the same units (time).
I want to model the downstream sub cachment of a large river basin, I wonder if there is a way to input the upstream discharge in the model while I am only dealing with the downstream basin ( I have to assess the water balance at the outlet). I will be using SWAT for my work.
I am interested in the model like GISAREG application. GISAREG is not available since the language used to develop it (ArcView 3.2) is out of date and does not work in the current versions of windows.
So, can anybody suggest open source and freeware GIS application wich can take irrigation data (net irrigation requirements for different fields and crops, irrigation scheduling scenarios) from irrigation program such as: CROPWAT, AquaCrop or WINISAREG and turn them to spatial data and maps.
Thank you.
Hi All,
Does anyone can share paper/knowledge about the methodology for analysis of water balance in tropical peat area?
Thank you
Gigit
Hi everyone,
For all the SWAT user, could you help me with the SWAT water balance equation for soil storage and shallow aquifer storage? I have checked my SWAT model output at the HRU level (output.hru), but it always out of balance. It seems there is a 'mysterious' storage in between soil storage and shallow aquifer storage that also stores water. Any help will be appreciated.
Kind regards,
Hero
In my case, I have a very shallow salty groundwater table (less than 2 m), a sandy gypsyferous soil, rather monthly irrigation events, a perennial crop with deep root system. Can you please recommand some properly documentations and/or tools for my study case. Thanks in advance
Since decades we are working on this aspect with plethora of models, modelers and projects at global scale. Still unit hydrograph, SCS CN and other synthetic means are appearing good enough or atleast base tools/methods. Reason is lack of real field data & commitment at micro scale. Every researcher prefer to work on a table placed in AC room and conducting experimental or other efforts in numerical form with end target of a publication in high impact journal. This weakness of micro level real data and real exposures to ground conditions, and a fear of loosing time & diluted research publication , keep away most researcher away from this challenging difficult task. This is the probable reason in my way of thinking , why even the best rainfall-runoff models are giving equally bad answers/simulations what we get from simpler model, but here it is at higher costs. Researchers are shifting their attention towards high tech water balance water budgeting kind of phenomenon excluding runoff overland component and getting more concentrated on remotely estimated other hydro logical constituents like transpiration evapotranspiration moisture that too via setelite remote or sensors. Some time calling rainfall runoff modeling as ' gone era of hydrological research' I personally feel disappointed with such kind of views. As on day, I am confident enough that even we are not in a position to accurately define or parametrise the loss function in a rainfall runoff modeling and choose its value in very arbitrary manner, what to say about runoff prediction capabilities. Jumping towards a comfort zone just to be concentrated on publication and leaving aside understanding real ground schenerios is what I consider very much worrying situation what I guess/realize.
The FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper No.54 gives the Dual Crop Coefficient equation. This method requires a lot of climatic parameters to be input for each day of the study period. It is a very extensive process and some parameters may have to be interpolated. I am curious of other ways to estimate actual Et. The ultimate goal is to plug Et into a mass water balance to get drainage data, paired with tension-lysimeter nutrient concentration data to measure nutrient loads leaching past the root zone.
I want to calculate soil water balance of a bare soil. How can I determine the depth of the soil which effectively contributes to bare soil evaporation? This depth is required to determine the water-holding capacity of the soil.
Dear SWAT Users,
I am supposed to carry out water balance study using a different LU cover scenarios in ArcSWAT.
I have a well calibrated and validated model,
I have the following percentages of LU cover in the watershed.
FRST 30%
FRSE 15%
RNGB 40%
AGRL 10%
RNGE 2%
URML 3%
Future land use projections show the following LU change percentages
FRST -20%
FRSE -10%
RNGB +2%
AGRL +37%
RNGE -20%
URML +10%
SWAT manual shows that we can use "SWAT’s land use update routines (lup.dat)" to update the land uses. It seems that in this update routine we edit only one LU at a moment. Anyone who can show me how i can update all land uses based on the projected land use change?
May be a video or a detailed manual will be appreciated. Thanks
Canute
Hi
can I apply WFA method to city level WF assessment, when I am assessing WF of all sectors not only agriculture. If not, Why?
please give me your suggestions & references
Thanks
I am planning use water balance approach for which I need to calculate soil water storage.
I am trying to use vegetation index (NDVI and SDVI) to predict evaporation and transpiration and co-relate it with recharge and water table in a medium watershed?
Asides Stream flow, river guage data and climatic data
what is the best method to compute the water balance model of drainage basin using remote sensing and GIS method?
Many regions in developing countries have few rainfall/river discharge measurements. In addition, water table level measurements and meteorological data (for evapotranspiration) is often lacking. Yet, many water management authorities do collect some basic rainfall and river level data. Are there any simple tools to compute a basic water balance for such regions? GIS/hydrological modeling software can do this, but can be expensive, require trained personnel, and be overkill as the underlying data would be spatially patchy.
Hi all, I am writing a water balance equation for a basin for year 1995 and 2010. The balance equation is simple (P-E=Δs) and soil moisture storage is a part of Δs . I first try to use GLDAS root zone soil moisture product to determine monthly soil moisture storage but among the monthly values were big numbers that were more than field capacity, that can't be correct.
I also try to use satellite soil moisture data like SMOS, AMSR-E or ASCAT for year 2010 but it seems that there aren’t any root zone product for these satellite at least for the years 1995 and 2010.
Is there any satellite product for the root zone soil moisture (before 2010)?
extra information: the basin is located in Iran and there is lake inside the basin, the basin area is almost 52000 km2