Questions related to Water Analysis
In some cases, the pH<4 has been observed in water wells. Water analysis indicates high levels of chlorine, Total dissolved Solids and Total Suspended Solids in samples. The used anodes are MMO and HSCI.
In this cases, what can we do?
One of the system dont have algal removal facility and the main treatment unit is slow sand filter . within a week we were observed floating slime and afterwards surface of the water fully covered by the slime and greenish algae, treated water also showing diurnal variation. how to control the algae without any alteration in the system ? system capacity is around 2000m3/day.
Many open source programs exist in the field of geology with all its specializa (Water resources , hydrology , Hydrogeology, Geostatistics ,Quality water .......etc) that many people are unaware of.
What software do you want to suggest to us ?
Water quality analysis is a costly affair where a large number of parameters are involved and each parameter requires a significant number of samples to be analyzed.
How we can quality check the data values when only one sample is analyzed for each parameter?
Would someone share some posters used for scientific communication in the following discipline:
reuse of water
Water environmental etc.
I'm using three different performance criteria for evaluating my model:
2.Percent bias (PBIAS)
3.Root mean square error (RMSE)
You can suppose that I used a regression model to estimate a time series data such as river mean daily discharge or something like that.
But for a single model and a single dataset, we saw difference performances for each criteria.
Is this possible? I expected that all of these three criteria have same results.
You can see the variation's diagram of these criteria in appendix pic.
I'm interning at a non-science conventional organization, where I'm conducting studies on a wetland that's inhabited by an endangered species of snake and a threatened species of frog. I'm trying to better understand how the flow of nutrients from the surrounding groundwater/run off sources effect the soil and surface water, which ultimately affects the development of amphibian development and habitat.
So, because it's an unconventional place to be doing these studies, their facilities aren't comprehensive. I am able to do water nitrate and phosphate tests using TNT kits, but I was wondering if there was any low cost/practical soil phosphate and nitrate testing methods? Whether it would give me a general/semi-accurate result. I had the idea of mixing DI water and the soil, then letting the particles settle and using the surface water to do a regular water analysis. Does anyone have any experience doing that?
Appreciate any help
Surface water level in wetlands varies in different seasons and will there be merits? Will it help in creating awareness on climate change? Please share your comments and suggestions. Thank you
Several publications say that water age is "the time elapsed for dissolved substances to be transported from one point to another", which could be easily understood when there is only one single inflow or tributary of a lake. Because the "one point" in the concepet mentioned above is actually the inflow/tributary and the "another point" could be any location in the lake. The water age maybe reflects the time spent of water particles moving from the inflow to the specific position. However, what is the meaning of water age of a lake if there are multiple inflows? What does the "one point" mean?
Here are some references that I collected and drafted from an internet search. "Plastic bottles are hugely popular these days for their convenience and perceived purity, as portrayed by effective marketing strategies. But according to the Natural Resources Defense Council, consumers should not assume that bottled water is any more pure or safe than tap water. Reusing plastic drink bottles is not recommended, as it increases the likelihood of impurities due to the introduction of bacteria and the potential leaching of plastic compounds into the water. olyethylene terephthalate or PET plastics (No. 1) are most commonly used for disposable plastic water bottles. High-density polyethylene, or HDPE (No. 2); low-density polyethylene, or LDPE (No. 4); and polypropylene (No. 5) are also used for drinking containers, though less frequently. PVC (No. 3) and styrene (No. 6) are sometimes used for food and beverage containers but are generally considered unsafe for this purpose. No. 7 plastics are a mix of different plastics and generally contain bisphenol A (BPA), which is under much scrutiny for its potential health risks."
But what is the final conclusion? In some countries all people are not aware about that, so how can we guide them?
during chemical analysis of groundwater of an industrial area, we found the concentration of fluoride in the range 0.15-0.32 mg/L, the pH of the water was found to be in the range 7.5-8.2 and bicarbonate alkalinity were found in the range 1000-5000mg/L.
please help me in this regard
I am collecting samples of farm derived waste water for my PhD project. Many of them are contaminated with cow dung. I need to filter them to 0.45um for a number of procedures, however, after centrifuging they still take a long long time to filter. I get a lot of samples to filter after each sampling trip and thus time is a commodity that I can't waste.
At present I centrifuge them and then run each sample through a 0.45 filter, however I usually have to change the filters a number of times just to filter one sample. I am happy to use more than one sample but surely there is a better mix of sizes that would work instead of wasting all the o.45um filters.
Anyone got any ideas or tips?
Thanks very very very much.
I am monitoring groundwater in my region, I require AqQa software for making piper diagrams, Durov diagram etc. Can any one suggests any another software to perform the above mentioned diagrams/analysis ? Please share if you have full version.
I need to determine SO4 and Chlorides in synthetically prepared water from Magnesium Sulfate and Calcium Chloride/Sodium Chloride. would any one suggest of the equipment for determination of anions. So that i would be able to get best results?
I would like to analyse the copper concentration in industrial waste water before and after batch adsorption using AAS. What is the exact procedure for doing this?I know that I have to digest the water water for analysing the original copper concentration in waste water. But should I perform the acid digestion before or after batch adsorption? If I perform acid digestion before adsorption, won't it change the solution pH which affects the adsorption efficiency? I listed down the procedures based on my opinion. Please correct me if I am wrong.
1) Do calibration curve
2) Perform acid digestion using HNO3 solution in one beaker and then analyse the original copper concentration in the collected waste water using AAS.
3) In another beaker, add untreated industrial waste water and adsorbent for doing batch adsorption.
4) Centrifuge the sample after batch adsorption and collect the supernatant liquid.
5) Peform acid digestion on the supernatant liquid to analyse the copper concentration after adsorption.
6) Analyse the copper concentration after adsorption using AAS.
Analyses for many physical, chemical and microbiological contaminants can be carried out in the field or in a temporary laboratory using specifically designed products that are portable and relatively easy to use. A significant advantage of field analysis is that tests are carried out on fresh samples whose characteristics have not been contaminated or otherwise changed as a result of being stored and transported over long distances.
I've purified natural melanin nanoparticles and after centrifugation processes we've dispersed the nanoparticles, suspended in 0,1M NaOH at pH= 7.5 (corrected with 0,1M HCl), using an ultrasonic bath or ultrasonic processor. After liofilization, the nanoparticles are suspended in water and then analysed with zetasizer (DLS). The particles always show aggregates with PDI of 0,5.
Does anyone have an idea how to dimish these aggregates?
Hello everybody, I have been overwhelmed by the responses I have had to the Process Stress in Wastewater Treatment Survey. This is the last time I will be posting the survey before it closes. So please, if you can spare 10 min to fill in the survey it would be greatly appreciated. Thank you again for your support!
In environmental chemistry, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) test is commonly used to indirectly measure the amount of organic compounds in water. Most applications of COD determine the amount of organic pollutants found in surface water (e.g. lakes and rivers) or wastewater, making COD a useful measure of water quality. It is expressed in milligrams per litre(mg/L), which indicates the mass of oxygen consumed per litre of solution. But how could we estimate the amount of Organics by the COD of waste water? I wanna set up a calculation relationship between the organics content and wastewater COD.
I am using COD kits (Merck), with 25-1500 mg/L range. When I used low strength simulated textile effluent, cod values were obtained in the that range, but upon increasing the strength values fell out of the range i.e. > 1500. Therefore I diluted the samples (I have tried 10 and 20 times dilution) but the values I got are very high such as by diluting my samples 10 times I got the value 367 mg/L which means that the exact values should be 367 mg/L*10 = 3,670. I am getting such values even after complete decolorization of textile effluent (when the OD values for color fall below zero) but when I perform the cod test, values are very high. Please can anybody help about this? Am I doing it doing it wrong or is there any other solution for this?
I was interested in using this kit as an alternative to more expensive water kits (e.g. MoBio powerwater DNA extraction kit). However, I can't find any publications that have used it... Any info or thoughts?
Water bacteriology analytical laboratories need to use control organisms (negative - and positive+), to get ISO 17025 accreditation. For this purpose, E coli can be used as total coliform (+) as well as E Coli (+) . As most of the E coli strains are non-pathogenic and can be used safely.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is used as total coliform (-) and E. coli (-) while, Klebsiella pneumoniae is used for total coliform (+) and E.coli (-)
As Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumonia are pathogens, to avoid risk of infections in water analysis laboratories, to use as control organisms, can any expert Microbiologist recommend non-pathogenic strains of these organism or any other alternative non-pathogenic organisms suitable as control bacteria?
I need to determine the concentration of Silver and Sodium in sea water, is there any method to do that ? knowing that the sea water is rich with chlorides which may be harmful for the device i guess.
If you have any recommandations about sea water analysis please share them with me. Thank you
I am looking at permeable/leaky dams and trying to ascertain if they play any part in reducing nutrient load within the water course.
I have seen various methods of testing but unsure what to go for? The Labs are not really geared up for water analysis so, field testing with be used then some basic lab work.
What methods or suggestions do people have? Am I looking at the wrong things, something better to look for than N and P?
Thanks in advance
Normally, Heavy water more than 99% purity analysed by FTIR. Can lower purity heavy water be analysed by NMR? Because, in proton NMR, we are getting distinct peaks for deuterium oxide.
I want to estimate the sulfide concentration in the wastewater. What is the sensitivity of methylene blue method (detection limit - how much ppm?, maximum how much i can quantify the sulfide?). Please anyone suggest easy and reliable method for sulfide estimation in the wastewater containg high sulfide concentration.
I'm currently working on hydrocarbon contamination specifically BTEX in underground waters. I would like to know which chemical or solvent is best for the extraction of the water samples for the onward determination of Benzene, Toluene, Etylbenzene and Xylene concentration. Thanks
Determination of trace concentrations of phenol in aqueous solutions.
Correlation(r) is a statistical measure that indicates the extent to which two or more variables fluctuate together. A positive correlation indicates the extent to which those variables increase or decrease in parallel; a negative correlation indicates the extent to which one variable increases as the other decreases.
I have a bottle of crystalline phenol and its solid. I saw some ways to make it liquid. Some ask to put it in 50 deg C water bath under fume hood. But in my lab the fume hood is very small and the water bath won't fit into it. And in some cases i saw to use a buffer of ph 8 which is more appropriate for molecular biology. I want to know as phenol is hygroscopic, can I put some water in the bottle and keep it for a day to make it liquid and then take out some amount of phenol to use and keep it in freeze for saturation and dispose the extra water? Kindly suggest me if it is possible and if it is safe to do. I will be very grateful.
Also, what are the best cost friendly methods for removal of Silica from water. Any help would be appreciated.
We recently aproved a grant for a project, and now we are searching the best equipment. Besides the already mentioned parameters, analysis of water hardness, nitrates, nitrites and phosphate would also be welcome. Some collegues told me already about equipments from Horiba and Hanna. Other suggestions?
The characteristic of this benfield solution as follows
COD: More than 30K ppm
Colour: Dark Blue
I have done fenton method with ferric as catalyst but not able to obtain low COD and clear water.
I would appreciate hearing any opinion and idea to treat this solution
The water analysys results always show some contamination by heterotrophic bacteria. We already tried cleaning with Sodium Chloride and 70% ethanol solution, but it was not very effective, we can't seem to ged rid of the bacteria. We also searched for biofilm formations, but could'nt find any.
Results has been over 7 even with hardness in conformity.
Every columns and filters are new and the ion exchange resin is 50% anionic and 50% cationic.
THe sample is a lake with 23725 µS/cm conductivity
alcalinity 178,20 mg CaCO3/L
FIXED WITH LUGOL
size more or less 28 x 15 microns
i think that perhaps could be a raphydophyceae ( Chattonella ?) or perhaps a Chromulina ???
In photo m1 one of them is eating a Amphora.
Thanks in advance, any idea can help me
While searching for this i had come to know that "The determination limit for carbon, nitrogen and sulfur with sample amounts of 2 to 3 mg was proven to be at about 0,05 w-% (500 ppm) with an uncertainty below 0,02 w-%". so the U(X)= +-0.02 %. Is it correct or the uncertainity is different for C, H, N and S.
Hello.I hope you have a good day. I'm using cationic resin form H+ for reducing the hardness and EC(electrical conductivity) of water.now in my experiments the hardness of water has decreased ,but EC has increased. To what extent H+ ion can affect EC in water? I want you to suggest me a solution that how can I reduce EC ?i appreciate it.
I hereby would like to know that whether the samples for Biological Oxygen Demand(BOD) test needs to be fixed prior to taking the readings if the Dissolved Oxygen(DO) readings are to be taken with a probe as in Winkler's method?
I want to organize a plate reader and the colometric chemicals for water analysis.
Can you recommend methods for water analysis of ammonium, nitrite, nitrate, phosphate, salinity, turbidity, conductivity, as well as for micro - and macro-nutrients in plant nutrition, such as potassium, calcium, magnesium, sulfur, chlorine, iron, manganese, zinc, copper, boron, molybdenum? What are the methods for nutrient analysis of e.g. raw protein, various amino acids, crude fat, various fatty acids (E.g. n-3, n-6), carbohydrates, NFE, ash etc?
In particular the preparation of the samples (comes from aquaculture, aquaponic and fish body analysis) is of our interest.
Especially what calibration curves should be created and which reagents must be used (company?).
We would also like to know the reagents' prices to do a cost planning.
Thank you very much,
Sampling and sanitization frequency after water system qualification was already decided. What are the requirements to revise the sampling frequency and sanitization frequency? Does it also require any risk assessment or just a trend data of one year is sufficient. Does any guideline mentioned how to revise the sampling frequency and sanitization frequency in water distribution system?
I have some test results for Chromium (totals and dissolved) and the dissolved levels are higher than the totals How is this possible even though all quality controls are acceptable ? that's mean 100 % of chromium is in dissolved state?
Hello. I am interested in the quantification of some pure organic polymers using the TOC analyzer. When I make a calibration curve, though, I find a much higher concentration than expected, and I cannot understand why. Any suggestion will be appreciated, thank you all in advance!
I have an equation to calculate the amount of coagulant required to remove colour from water samples which uses Hazen units. I have absorbance values which I would need to covert to Hazen units, anybody know of an easy way to do this
What are the international standard regulations for the quality of produced water for reinjection purposes in oil reservoirs? What is the maximum micron (ppm) of dispersed or emulsified oil in produced water to be used for re-injection to improve oil recovery?
From Na2SO4 high concentration sulfate wastewater i would like to remove sulfate by gypsum precipitation. I have tried many test, using lime milk, temperature, dilute solution and still no gypsum precipitation. Any clue?
If the raw water is fairly good quality overall but high TOC, which alternative would be more cost effective to control DBP.
I am currently looking for a method in determining the total organic carbon content of my water samples. Unfortunately, TOC analyzer is not available in our country as of the moment
Hey, I would appreciate if somebody help me “what is the Max permissible limit for Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, Ca2+, Cl−, HCO3−, in drinking and irrigation water according to WHO standard. Thanks
We ran SPE extracts of surface water samples taken after a fishkill in a banana growing area with our Agilent GC-MSD. In one of the samples we detected two peaks which we could not identify with our NIST08 database. Who could help us in identifying the two attached spectra.
i am now evaluating physicochemical analysis of soil by using standard methods so when i get result i want compare my result to the standards so if anyone have standards in physicochemical parametres of soil pls i need your help?
In Hospital, specifically Kidney hospital, RO water was used for the cleaning of many equipment that could be reuse after cleaning. The RO water line would be sanitize with formalin to prevent microbial contamination. After disinfecting by formalin it should be necessary to identify whether formalin was removed or not. So, How to check the formalin residue with very short time.
How to measure the concentration of elemental mercury in a gas stream using UV-Vis spectroscopy? I read that mercury vapor can be captured using potassium permanganate. But how to quantify the amount of elemental mercury in the permanganate solution?
Thank you very much.
I want to determine Methylene blue (MB) concentration in textile effluent. Since there are too many pollutant in the effluent spectrophotometeric determination of MB is not efficent. i want to know that by using which method it could be possible to determine MB concentration?
Smart Water is established as a techno-economically promising method through laboratory core flood studies and single well tracer studies in field pilot cases. The method is based on lowering salinity of injected water and spiking of multivalent ions such as Mg2+, SO42−, PO43− ions. Nowadays smart water is prepared by adding chemicals to fresh water.
I am using closed reflux method for internal monitoring of water analysis. At the same time, we do send samples to accredited lab for analysis. The results from lab (titration method) and the digestion method (commercial digestion vials) differ greatly (~1000mg/L COD). What can be the reason for the vast differences? Samples are taken from same point, same time, same preservation method.Thank you.
I have a question concerning groundwater analysis. We have been sampling for major ions, including Fe since october 2016. As the AAS was out of operation for the first three months, half of the sampled water was frozen and preserved below zero until the AAS would be operational again and Fe concentration could be determined. Unfortunately the samples that were frozen were anion samples (not acidified). Now, as the samples are being analyzed, the concentrations seem to be below zero, which probably is due to Fe precipitation. Am i correct? The question is, if water samples which have been treated with microwave mineralization prior to AAS analysis, would still be somehow comparable and usable in statistical analysis with the rest of the ion concentrations?