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Water Analysis - Science topic

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In some cases, the pH<4 has been observed in water wells. Water analysis indicates high levels of chlorine, Total dissolved Solids and Total Suspended Solids in samples. The used anodes are MMO and HSCI.
In this cases, what can we do?
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The hydrogen bubbles formed in the cathode reaction give rise to a gas-lift effect, which enhances mass transport of reactants to the electrode surfaces. Chlorine formed on the anode is dissolved in the electrolyte and reacts to form chlorate through a number of reaction steps.
The electrolyte at the anode surface is acidic due to production of protons in the hydrolysis of chlorine as well as occurrence of the acidifying side reaction oxygen evolution. The cathode has an alkaline diffusion layer since hydrogen evolution increases pH. Furthermore, surface pH is highly dependent on current density, with a high current density increasing the pH gradients at the electrodes.
So, at potentials E 1,150 mV chlorine evolution was again the main reaction. When reactions proceed simultaneously, chlorine evolution will dominate if chloride ion concentration is high enough.
Recommendations:
All parts of MMO anodes, anode chains and suspension devices must be made of material resistant against low pH values, high chloride content of water and high concentrations of chlorine gas. In addition, when chlorine gas evolution is a concern or long anode lives, iridium based MMO coating is required.
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One of the system dont have algal removal facility and the main treatment unit is slow sand filter . within a week we were observed floating slime and afterwards surface of the water fully covered by the slime and greenish algae, treated water also showing diurnal variation. how to control the algae without any alteration in the system  ? system capacity is around 2000m3/day. 
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You can add a blue cover on the top of your slow sand tank. It will help reduce the photosynthesis rate.
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Many open source programs exist in the field of geology with all its specializa (Water resources , hydrology , Hydrogeology, Geostatistics ,Quality water .......etc) that many people are unaware of.
What software do you want to suggest to us ?
Thanks
Reghais Azzeddine
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Here is a list of common software and free alternatives
Software list
Illustrator => Inkscape, Scribus
Photoshop => gimp
Matlab => Python, R, GNU Octave
Anaconda, R studio, Jupyter notebook, Spyder
ArcGIS Pro and ArcGIS Online => QGIS, GRASS, uDig , GEODA, FOSS4G, Leaflet
PowerPoint => Google slides, LibreOffice, FreeOffice
Microsoft Word => LaTex, Google docs, LibreOffice, FreeOffice
Excel => Google sheets, LibreOffice, FreeOffice
Microsoft OS, Mac OS (and older computers) => Linux (Ubuntu, many others)
Others
GitHub, Arduino, Raspberry pi, Audacity, BRL-CAD, freecad, Dia, PDFCreator, Blender, Cinelerra, Bluefish, KeePass, 7-Zip, Psiphon, Clonezilla, VLC, Quanta Plus, NixNote, Overleaf, TeXstudio
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Water quality analysis is a costly affair where a large number of parameters are involved and each parameter requires a significant number of samples to be analyzed.
How we can quality check the data values when only one sample is analyzed for each parameter?
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Dear Nirankar Singh,
One sample is not enough to represent the water sample that you are analyzing, Remember that composition of water (both physical and chemical) varies at different sampling point/location in the water body. It is advisable to take at least 3 samples, and even replicate the samples to be sure of your results.
Even the multivariate analysis (PCA, HCA, etc) mentioned by Mostafa F. Mostafa can only be achieved when you have a substancial data to give precise variations in the water compositions.
Regds.
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Hi guys,
Would someone share some posters used for scientific communication in the following discipline:
Wastewater
reuse of water
Water analysis
Water environmental etc.
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Hi
I'm using three different performance criteria for evaluating my model:
1.Nash–Sutcliffe (NSE)
2.Percent bias (PBIAS)
3.Root mean square error (RMSE)
You can suppose that I used a regression model to estimate a time series data such as river mean daily discharge or something like that.
But for a single model and a single dataset, we saw difference performances for each criteria.
Is this possible? I expected that all of these three criteria have same results.
You can see the variation's diagram of these criteria in appendix pic.
Thanks
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There is nothing surprising. Different criteria, different results. If these matched, would obviously be redundant (Occam).
By the way, the Nash-Sutcliff criterion is generally questioned (see https://doi.org/10.37162/2618-9631-2020-1-176-189).
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600 mg/ lit in waste water.
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What should be the optimum vale of nitrogen (in ppm) in activated sludge system.
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Focus on treatment of filtering toxins from stormwater
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In our study, we compared various tree species for the suitability of it being used in a modular bioretention tree system in the tropics. Due to the space constrains, a tree species needs to be relatively fast-growing, yet small in size to be modular. In our study we found that Talipariti Tiliaceum combined with engineered soil were relatively successful in the removal of wastewater. The key attribute to this is the root formation of the trees being deep and also the uptake of heavy metals in the water treatment residue (which is found in the engineered soil blend).
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I'm interning at a non-science conventional organization, where I'm conducting studies on a wetland that's inhabited by an endangered species of snake and a threatened species of frog. I'm trying to better understand how the flow of nutrients from the surrounding groundwater/run off sources effect the soil and surface water, which ultimately affects the development of amphibian development and habitat.
So, because it's an unconventional place to be doing these studies, their facilities aren't comprehensive. I am able to do water nitrate and phosphate tests using TNT kits, but I was wondering if there was any low cost/practical soil phosphate and nitrate testing methods? Whether it would give me a general/semi-accurate result. I had the idea of mixing DI water and the soil, then letting the particles settle and using the surface water to do a regular water analysis. Does anyone have any experience doing that?
Appreciate any help
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Hi. I hope the following link could help you very much:
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Surface water level in wetlands varies in different seasons and will there be merits? Will it help in creating awareness on climate change? Please share your comments and suggestions. Thank you
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We now recognize that certain essential environmental and public resources are provided by the wetlands. They include important fish, waterfowl and other wildlife habitats, clean waste water, and track the devastating force of floods and storms. They also offer a wide range of leisure activities, including fishing, hunting, photography and watching wildlife. Since these and many other functions and qualities of wetlands are becoming more well recognized, wetlands are becoming more and more regarded as productive, important and restored properties. Due to it many functions wetland called "The kidney of the earth"
we need to protect and beware for our wetland.
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Several publications say that water age is "the time elapsed for dissolved substances to be transported from one point to another", which could be easily understood when there is only one single inflow or tributary of a lake. Because the "one point" in the concepet mentioned above is actually the inflow/tributary and the "another point" could be any location in the lake. The water age maybe reflects the time spent of water particles moving from the inflow to the specific position. However, what is the meaning of water age of a lake if there are multiple inflows? What does the "one point" mean?
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The elapsed transport time for a parcel of water on surface or underground, leave the interface of any inland drain/river or tidal inlets of the sea to a specific point within the lagoon.
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I need to measure hydrogen peroxide in sea water samples, out of the lab. Does anyone know a reliable and quick method?.
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Luisa María Vera , i am asking the same question as yours. i need to measure H2O2 concentration in acidified water.. have you found the answer you were aksed??? i am so glad if you would like to share here...thanks
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Tell me can I prefer MFT Or MPN
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Both the methods has its advantages and disadvantages. Overall, MFT is better as it is more rapid (approx 18-24hrs), less labour intensive, higher precision count, etc. But MPN is also good in some areas like recovery of stressed or damaged microbes during the process which increases the count precision.
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Here are some references that I collected and drafted from an internet search. "Plastic bottles are hugely popular these days for their convenience and perceived purity, as portrayed by effective marketing strategies. But according to the Natural Resources Defense Council, consumers should not assume that bottled water is any more pure or safe than tap water. Reusing plastic drink bottles is not recommended, as it increases the likelihood of impurities due to the introduction of bacteria and the potential leaching of plastic compounds into the water. olyethylene terephthalate or PET plastics (No. 1) are most commonly used for disposable plastic water bottles. High-density polyethylene, or HDPE (No. 2); low-density polyethylene, or LDPE (No. 4); and polypropylene (No. 5) are also used for drinking containers, though less frequently. PVC (No. 3) and styrene (No. 6) are sometimes used for food and beverage containers but are generally considered unsafe for this purpose. No. 7 plastics are a mix of different plastics and generally contain bisphenol A (BPA), which is under much scrutiny for its potential health risks."
But what is the final conclusion? In some countries all people are not aware about that, so how can we guide them?
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Plastic bottles are designed for one-time use only. They can be reused, provided they’ve not experienced any wear and tear.
Most types of plastic bottles can be reused at least a few times if properly washed with hot soapy water. Manufacturers of single-use water bottles note that if you reuse bottles, tiny cracks can develop. Bacteria and fungi can grow in those cracks, making it more difficult to remove them by cleaning.
Studies indicate that the plastic bottles may leach DEHP (diethylhexyl phthalate) when they are structurally compromised and in less than perfect condition. DEHP is another probable human carcinogen.
Reusing of plastic bottles which are damaged due to the normal wear and tear, increases the chance of leaking chemicals out of the tiny cracks and crevices that develop in the plastic bottles over time.
Two dangers are typically cited for reusing plastic bottles:
  • Chemicals might leach from the plastic into the water.
  • Bacteria can grow in the bottles once they are opened.
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during chemical analysis of groundwater of an industrial area, we found the concentration of fluoride in the range 0.15-0.32 mg/L, the pH of the water was found to be in the range 7.5-8.2 and bicarbonate alkalinity were found in the range 1000-5000mg/L.
please help me in  this regard
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depending on the nature of the soil, you can find a lot; or little fluoride.
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I am collecting samples of farm derived waste water for my PhD project. Many of them are contaminated with cow dung. I need to filter them to 0.45um for a number of procedures, however, after centrifuging they still take a long long time to filter. I get a lot of samples to filter after each sampling trip and thus time is a commodity that I can't waste.
At present I centrifuge them and then run each sample through a 0.45 filter, however I usually have to change the filters a number of times just to filter one sample. I am happy to use more than one sample but surely there is a better mix of sizes that would work instead of wasting all the o.45um filters.
Anyone got any ideas or tips?
Thanks very very very much.
Gregg
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You can use successive white sand filters with different grain sizes starting with larger grain sizes and ending with smallest grain size.
Best wishes
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I am monitoring groundwater in my region, I require AqQa software for making piper diagrams, Durov diagram etc. Can any one suggests any another software to perform the above mentioned diagrams/analysis ? Please share if you have full version.
Thank you 
Abinandan
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You can Try AquaChem 14.0 version and will be available easily
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I need to determine SO4 and Chlorides in synthetically prepared water from Magnesium Sulfate and Calcium Chloride/Sodium Chloride. would any one suggest of the equipment for determination of anions. So that i would be able to get best results?
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1- For chloride ion determination , the potentiometric methods is suitable.
2- For sulphate , it can be determined using turbidimetric method, which is fast , simple and senstive
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I would like to analyse the copper concentration in industrial waste water before and after batch adsorption using AAS. What is the exact procedure for doing this?I know that I have to digest the water water for analysing the original copper concentration in waste water. But should I perform the acid digestion before or after batch adsorption? If I perform acid digestion before adsorption, won't it change the solution pH which affects the adsorption efficiency? I listed down the procedures based on my opinion. Please correct me if I am wrong.
1) Do calibration curve
2) Perform acid digestion using HNO3 solution in one beaker and then analyse the original copper concentration in the collected waste water using AAS.
3) In another beaker, add untreated industrial waste water and adsorbent for doing batch adsorption.
4) Centrifuge the sample after batch adsorption and collect the supernatant liquid.
5) Peform acid digestion on the supernatant liquid to analyse the copper concentration after adsorption.
6) Analyse the copper concentration after adsorption using AAS.
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Ankita Kulshreshtha and Robert Thomas Bachmann agree with both of you
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I need dead water for background reference for tritium measurement. I don't access deep well. how can I buy it?
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The Tritium Laboratory at the University of Miami sells dead water at $30/Liter. Their testing has determined it to be below their detection limit of 0.1 TU. Contact them for more information: https://tritium.rsmas.miami.edu
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Analyses for many physical, chemical and microbiological contaminants can be carried out in the field or in a temporary laboratory using specifically designed products that are portable and relatively easy to use. A significant advantage of field analysis is that tests are carried out on fresh samples whose characteristics have not been contaminated or otherwise changed as a result of being stored and transported over long distances.
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There are some parameters that ought to tested for in the field, such as pH, temperature, conductance and turbidity with a freshly calibrated meter, having checked it's operating quality from in the lab prior to field visit, to obtain the most accurate results.
Results obtained from these tests will give a decent idea into the chemical and microbiological quality of the water body.
Other test such as for Nitrate and phosphate can be done using a Hach test kit for example even though the L.O.D. will be far different from a lab method.
I don't see the need for a mini lab in the field, however S.O.Ps in collection, handling, storage and transportation need to be employed.
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I've purified natural melanin nanoparticles and after centrifugation processes we've dispersed the nanoparticles, suspended in 0,1M NaOH at pH= 7.5 (corrected with 0,1M HCl), using an ultrasonic bath or ultrasonic processor. After liofilization, the nanoparticles are suspended in water and then analysed with zetasizer (DLS). The particles always show aggregates with PDI of 0,5.
Does anyone have an idea how to dimish these aggregates?
Thank you
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I agree with @Titus Sobisch, lyophilization often yields agglomerates that are hard to break down. But if you're determined to work with the ones you've already lyophilized, I suggest trying dispersing them using probe sonication, at low concentrations (wouldn't go higher than 1mg/ml). This usually gives much better results than bath sonicator. Watch out for the overheating, use low amplitudes and consider sonicating on ice.
If you don't have access to the probe sonicator, you can also try gentle mincing the particles with the mortar before bath sonication. But this might also damage the particles if they're too soft, so you have to be careful. If you suspect that your particles might break, I would avoid that.
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In laboratory i measured DO 12.0 mg/L in water but i want maximum level and K2Cr2O7 effects in DO.
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The DO values obtained in Late rite mines in Odisha more than 20 at places at 27deg. centigrade by titrimetric method.
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Hello everybody, I have been overwhelmed by the responses I have had to the Process Stress in Wastewater Treatment Survey. This is the last time I will be posting the survey before it closes. So please, if you can spare 10 min to fill in the survey it would be greatly appreciated. Thank you again for your support!
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Yes
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In environmental chemistry, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) test is commonly used to indirectly measure the amount of organic compounds in water. Most applications of COD determine the amount of organic pollutants found in surface water (e.g. lakes and rivers) or wastewater, making COD a useful measure of water quality. It is expressed in milligrams per litre(mg/L), which indicates the mass of oxygen consumed per litre of solution. But how could we estimate the amount of Organics by the COD of waste water? I wanna set up a calculation relationship between the organics content and wastewater COD.
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TOC
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I am using COD kits (Merck), with 25-1500 mg/L range. When I used low strength simulated textile effluent, cod values were obtained in the that range, but upon increasing the strength values fell out of the range i.e. > 1500. Therefore I diluted the samples (I have tried 10 and 20 times dilution) but the values I got are very high such as by diluting my samples 10 times I got the value 367 mg/L which means that the exact values should be 367 mg/L*10 = 3,670. I am getting such values even after complete decolorization of textile effluent (when the OD values for color fall below zero) but when I perform the cod test, values are very high. Please can anybody help about this? Am I doing it doing it wrong or  is there any other solution for this?
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Recommend A. G. Piyal Aravinna answer
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I was interested in using this kit as an alternative to more expensive water kits (e.g. MoBio powerwater DNA extraction kit). However, I can't find any publications that have used it... Any info or thoughts? 
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Water bacteriology analytical laboratories need to use control organisms (negative - and positive+), to get ISO 17025 accreditation. For this purpose, E coli can be used as total coliform (+) as well as E Coli (+) . As most of the E coli strains are non-pathogenic and can be used safely.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is used as total coliform (-) and E. coli (-) while, Klebsiella pneumoniae is used for total coliform (+) and E.coli (-)
As Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumonia are pathogens, to avoid risk of infections in water analysis laboratories, to use as control organisms, can any expert Microbiologist recommend non-pathogenic strains of these organism or any other alternative non-pathogenic organisms suitable as control bacteria?
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Pseudomonas aerugiunosa is a very poor control for a non-coliform, because it is not even a member of the same family any more (of course, it non-coliform then, but is also very far apart in all other properties form coliforms!). Therefore, you should look for non-pathogenic species within the Enterobacteriaceae, A possible choice may be Shimwellia blattae (formerly Escherichia blattae), which should be non-coliform (no lactose degradation according to Bergey's Manual). For positive controls, there are many non-pathogenic strains of E. coli available (e.g. the original strain K12).
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I need to determine the concentration of Silver and Sodium in sea water, is there any method to do that ? knowing that the sea water is rich with chlorides which may be harmful for the device i guess.
If you have any recommandations about sea water analysis please share them with me. Thank you
Sicerely
Amel
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Dear Benabidi,
AAS, Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy, is the instrument that you can use it to the determination of some metals such as silver and sodium in sea water and another liquid sample.
Another instrument that I can suggest to you is ICP-OES (Inductively Coupled Plasma - Optical Emission Spectroscopy). This analytical machine is better than AAS because it is too precision for metal concentration determination (you can find out the benefits of ICP-OES and comparison between them in the book: Principles of Instrumental Analysis - Skoog and West)
However, I attached two papers for you about AAS and sample preparation in water.
Best Regards, Homayoon.
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currently I am working on Kumbh in prayagraj. River water analysis is needed for an effective output.
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Agree with Nafees.Just additional thoughts: In case of large crowds (millions) like in Kumbh, stirring of sediment by large crowds and high turbidity could be a major problem. With the mela running many days (55 days), impacts could be high and cumulative. People not using urinals and toilets before entering into the water could add to Coliform contaminants. In addition, personal care products (lotions or skin products) can also be added to the water body. Washing of Unintentional throwing of Pujan Samagri (Pooja materials) could pollute water contributing to solid waste. These contaminants and organic waste increase BOD in the river with substantial impacts on the usability of water. For example, a 2003 study show increase of BOD resulting from organic pollution was at 7.4 Mg/L (with 2 Mg/L being a limit).
I suggest parameters like Turbidity, BOD, DO, temperature, pH, TSS, conductivity, Nutrients, DOC, etc. Worth testing upstream and downstream of the site, but also before, during, and after the event.
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Need information on the protocol for water analysis.
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As Yohan Mahagamage explained there are several standard methods available. Basically your can perform those in laboratory (with minimum cost).
Abdulwakil Olawale Saba, based on the standard methods (above mentioned), analytical equipment and methods developed by some companies. Those methods are fairly easy to perform (in case you are looking for an easy method with less labour work (to perform by person with less analytical skills).
For example,
Colorimetry method is easy since all the analyst needs to do is digest the samples and let the instrument do the work. For these reasons, colorimetry is the most common method to measure COD. See the following link for more information. (there are other manufactures than this).
for BOD also, some manufacturers have developed equipment to assist the researcher. (there are some options you can get values (based on the accuracy you nee) within shorter periods than 5 day (as in normal test).
Amila
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Black Water - from septic sources..
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Well,
the attached pdf may help.
Sincerely
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Hello,
I am looking at permeable/leaky dams and trying to ascertain if they play any part in reducing nutrient load within the water course.
I have seen various methods of testing but unsure what to go for? The Labs are not really geared up for water analysis so, field testing with be used then some basic lab work.
What methods or suggestions do people have? Am I looking at the wrong things, something better to look for than N and P?
Thanks in advance
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Hi Chris,
I recommend measuring total phosphorus (TP) and total nitrogen (TN) instead of dissolved forms, as being more integrative of the nutrient balance and retention than just dissolved forms. You can select methods from “APHA, AWWA, WPCF, 2005. Standard methods for the examination of water and waste water, twenty first ed. Washington DC.”. Basically, a digestion (acid or alkaline, depending on your target) must be performed to hydrolyze all N and P into dissolved forms, then the resulting hydrolyzed form (nitrate or ammonium for TN, orthophosphate for TP) is measured spectrophotometrically after reaction with the adequate reagents using the standardized procedures also collected in APHA (2005).
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Normally, Heavy water more than 99% purity analysed by FTIR. Can lower purity heavy water be analysed by NMR? Because, in proton NMR, we are getting distinct peaks for deuterium oxide.
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thank you Mr.Benedict Ngang for your good information
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what are the best factors that show changes?
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The quantification of grey water generation was calculated in terms of average values of hourly, monthly, daily, and annual basis. The average value of observed grey water generation was recorded to be 86.76 (l/person/day (lpd)) liters per capita per day. However, this value was around 64% of that recommended by the Indian Standards (IS: 1172-1963), i.e., water consumption requirement of 135 lpd. Generally, 75% to 85% of wastewater discharge is considered sewage water which includes black and grey water, but in the present case, the lack water is allowed to go into the septic tanks of eac house, hostel, and college because the University campus has no sewage treatment facility. The grey water quality was found to have a clear cut seasonal variation. The annual data of grey water quality was found to significantly lower the degree of pollutants when compared to the permissible limit of discharge. The grey water organic load on the average and maximum low rate basis was calculated in different seasons of the year. The maximum loading due to average and maximum flow rate was recorded to be significantly higher in the summer season, i.e., 33.31 and 83.34 kg/day, respectively. However, in the winter season, the minimum loading was found to be 24.05 and 52.0 kg/day, respectively, due to the higher organic loading; in the summer season, the maximum loading was due to more consumption of water in the household.
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I want to estimate the sulfide concentration in the wastewater. What is the sensitivity of methylene blue method (detection limit - how much ppm?, maximum how much i can quantify the sulfide?). Please anyone suggest easy and reliable method for sulfide estimation in the wastewater containg high sulfide concentration.
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Check first the Standard Methods for Water and Wastewater analysis....then chosee.
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I'm currently working on hydrocarbon contamination specifically BTEX in underground waters. I would like to know which chemical or solvent is best for the extraction of the water samples for the onward determination of Benzene, Toluene, Etylbenzene and Xylene concentration. Thanks
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Hi My Dear:
From my work in hydrocarbons ,you can use the hexane for many reasons: low cost, high affinity with hydrocarbons especially when increase the contact time between them in room degree and the easy to evaporation and this point is very important according to use the rotary evaporator to maintain the evaporation point for hydrocarbons
Thank you
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Determination of trace concentrations of phenol in aqueous solutions.
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this link is useful
ttps://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/.../3527600418.bi10895e000...
regards
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what is the biochemical mechanism of biodegradation by microorganisms in relation to BOD during water analysis?
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In the aeration basin microorganisms agglomerate in the form of flocs and develop using pollution as a substrate necessary for the production of vital energy and the synthesis of new living cells. Part of the pollutants that are not biologically degraded can be adsorbed and incorporated into the sludge flocs (BROUZES, 1973).
Many microorganisms with very different growth rates are associated with this degradation process: bacteria, algae, fungi and protozoa are usually found. Bacteria, however, remain the most involved microorganisms, they transform organic matter by means of their metabolism into microbial biomass, This process of microbial degradation can be broken down into several phases. A transport phase that brings the pollutants (soluble and insoluble) from the breast of the liquid to the surface of the bacteria. A diffusion phase during which the soluble substrate diffuses easily through the membrane, while insoluble materials (particles, colloids and large molecules) are first adsorbed on the surface of the bacterium and then hydrolyzed by exo-enzymes , before being in turn assimilated. Finally, the phase of metabolization of pollutants that takes place within the cell. This stage, much slower than the previous ones, is divided into three parts:
1) assimilation (or anabolism) which is the use of pollutants for the synthesis of new cells;
2) respiration (or catabolism) which allows the combustion of substrates to release the energy necessary for microorganisms to perform their vital functions;
3) endogenous respiration where microorganisms use their own material as a substrate.
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What is the biochemical mechanism of biodegradation by microrganism employed for water analysis
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In the aerobic system microorganisms consume the organic waste as substrate and convert them into water and carbon di oxide.
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Correlation(r) is a statistical measure that indicates the extent to which two or more variables fluctuate together. A positive correlation indicates the extent to which those variables increase or decrease in parallel; a negative correlation indicates the extent to which one variable increases as the other decreases.
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This is a complex question and can be used in many different ways for evaluating water parameters. It can be used for instance to find surrogates and as a result reduce the amount of money spent for laboratory analysis....By finding surrogates you can also evaluate for instance treatment performance with a reduced number of variables to analyze. Another interesting possibilities of using r is the potential of designing a treatment system with focus on one parameter that at the same time can remove/reduce other parameters that have good correlation.
An important aspect for you to evaluate is the significance of your r....You can find sometimes high correlation coefficients but without being significant (p>0.05) and then this results will not be as useful as it would be if p<0.05.
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I have a bottle of crystalline phenol and its solid. I saw some ways to make it liquid. Some ask to put it in 50 deg C water bath under fume hood. But in my lab the fume hood is very small and the water bath won't fit into it. And in some cases i saw to use a buffer of ph 8 which is more appropriate for molecular biology. I want to know as phenol is hygroscopic, can I put some water in the bottle and keep it for a day to make it liquid and then take out some amount of phenol to use and keep it in freeze for saturation and dispose the extra water? Kindly suggest me if it is possible and if it is safe to do. I will be very grateful.
Thanks
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Hi All
Suppose I want to make a 500mls of Phenol:Chloroform:Isoamylalcohol of the ratio 24:24:1, how do I go about with phenol in crystal form?
Thanks
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Also, what are the best cost friendly methods for removal of Silica from water. Any help would be appreciated.
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hello
ASTM D859 - 16 Standard Test Method for Silica
regards
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We recently aproved a grant for a project, and now we are searching the best equipment. Besides the already mentioned parameters, analysis of water hardness, nitrates, nitrites and phosphate would also be welcome. Some collegues told me already about equipments from Horiba and Hanna. Other suggestions?
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hello
I recommend НАСН products to measure water pollutants
regards
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The characteristic of this benfield solution as follows
pH:10.82
COD: More than 30K ppm
Colour: Dark Blue
I have done fenton method with ferric as catalyst but not able to obtain low COD and clear water. 
I would appreciate hearing any opinion and idea to treat this solution
Thanks
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Thank you Farid on the suggestion.  Does the activated carbon able to remove high range of COD?
HI Hesham.. Is it possible to perform in the lab?
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The water analysys results always show some contamination by heterotrophic bacteria. We already tried cleaning with Sodium Chloride and 70% ethanol solution, but it was not very effective, we can't seem to ged rid of the bacteria. We also searched for biofilm formations, but could'nt find any.
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I recommend to use Persteril 35% acidum peraceticum. It is very effective desinfectant and, what is important, it is degraded by oxygen very quickly.
Best regards
Vit 
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Results has been over 7 even with hardness in conformity.
Every columns and filters are new and the ion exchange resin is 50% anionic and 50% cationic.
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In cases of water after purification,it is recomended to add a little KCl to ha ve the real value of pH.----
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THe sample is a lake with 23725 µS/cm conductivity
pH 8,85
alcalinity   178,20 mg CaCO3/L
FIXED WITH LUGOL
size more or less 28 x 15 microns
i think that perhaps  could be a raphydophyceae ( Chattonella ?) or perhaps a Chromulina ???
In photo m1 one of them is eating a Amphora.
Thanks in advance, any idea can help me
Maria 
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Looking foreword - thank you very much
Malte
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Coagulation-flocculation 
Water treatment 
Wastewater treatment 
Alum
Natural coagulants 
Zeta potential 
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Actually your article states some connection between aluminium in occurring in the brain and neurological disorders. "Many scientific articles are available,covering various aspects aluminum toxicity like the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative disorders (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Parkinson dementia, Alzheimer’s disease)." These conditions are caused by other physiological disorders and not related to drinking aluminium contaminated water.
If a hospital use water with very high aluminium concentrations for dialysis it can cause "dialysis encephalopathy" which is mentioned in your paper and in patients poisoned with aluminium in this manner some neurological effects similar to Alzheimer's occur.
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While searching for this i had come to know that "The determination limit for carbon, nitrogen and sulfur with sample amounts of 2 to 3 mg was proven to be at about 0,05 w-% (500 ppm) with an uncertainty below 0,02 w-%". so the U(X)= +-0.02 %. Is it correct or the uncertainity is different for C, H, N and S.
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Agreements with  Peter Apps
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Hello.I hope you have a good day. I'm using cationic resin form H+ for reducing the hardness and EC(electrical conductivity) of water.now in my experiments the hardness of water has decreased ,but EC has increased. To what extent H+ ion can affect EC in water? I want you to suggest me a solution that how can I reduce EC ?i appreciate it.
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Good question
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I hereby would like to know that whether the samples for Biological Oxygen Demand(BOD) test needs to be fixed prior to taking the readings if the Dissolved Oxygen(DO) readings are to be taken with a probe as  in Winkler's method?
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However, please keep in mind that for the BOD test, the field DO value is not needed.  Instead, you want to know the DO (usually after bringing it to 20 C and aerating the dilution water or even the sample to get it above 8 mg/L) immediately before sealing the BOD bottle for the 5 day incubation period. Best of luck with your work!
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Hello,
I want to organize a plate reader and the colometric chemicals for water analysis.
Can you recommend methods for water analysis of ammonium, nitrite, nitrate, phosphate, salinity, turbidity, conductivity, as well as for micro - and macro-nutrients in plant nutrition, such as potassium, calcium, magnesium, sulfur, chlorine, iron, manganese, zinc, copper, boron, molybdenum? What are the methods for nutrient analysis of e.g. raw protein, various amino acids, crude fat, various fatty acids (E.g. n-3, n-6), carbohydrates, NFE, ash etc?
 
In particular the preparation of the samples (comes from aquaculture, aquaponic and fish body analysis) is of our interest.
Especially what calibration curves should be created and which reagents must be used (company?).
We would also like to know the reagents' prices to do a cost planning.
Thank you very much,
Stefan Theisen
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Hello
I realize my old question and this topic is still interesting to some researchers, thus I want to inform you:
In June 2015, we bought a "machine" for colorimetric water analysis, the chemicals for various elements/nutrients and the sandards for calibrating are sold from the same company. The machine costs around 50,000 Euro. We can test a lot in more or less short time... So far, we are satisfied. If somebody needs the machines or companies name, send me a message...
All the best,
Stefan
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Sampling and sanitization frequency after water system qualification was already decided. What are the  requirements to revise the  sampling frequency and sanitization frequency? Does it also require any risk assessment or just a trend data of one year is sufficient. Does any guideline mentioned how to revise the sampling frequency and sanitization frequency in water distribution system?
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Rishabh, in the England and Wales the water quality monitoring sampling frequency is set by the Water Supply (Water Quality) Regulations. They describe the required sample frequencies for different water quality parameters and when this should be amended. For example, in the case of regulatory sample failures against the prescribed standards.
John
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I have some test results for Chromium (totals and dissolved) and the dissolved levels are higher than the totals How is this possible even though all quality controls are acceptable ? that's mean 100 % of chromium is in dissolved state?
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If you measure dissolved Cr without digestion maybe you have some kind of positive interference in your matrix. Try to digest the sample after filtration (and take care of blanks)
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Hello. I am interested in the quantification of some pure organic polymers using the TOC analyzer. When I make a calibration curve, though, I find a much higher concentration than expected, and I cannot understand why. Any suggestion will be appreciated, thank you all in advance!
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Maybe that the gas is not pure or of non-quality required
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I have an equation to calculate the amount of coagulant required to remove colour from water samples which uses Hazen units. I have absorbance values which I would need to covert to Hazen units, anybody know of an easy way to do this
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Dear Dr
TCU= 1 Mg/l (Pt (Chloro-pelatinate))+0.5 Mg/l CO (element).
1 Mg/l Pt-CO= 1 HAZEN
I hope i could response to your question.
Good luck
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Here i use iron nanoparticle in textile waste water to degtader DOM. where BOD, COD and TOC also reduced.
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Interesting question..First hand information on the issue says , these parameters are  inter-linked to each other...
Correlation between BOD, COD and TOC..
Cubic Equation : BOD = 3.376E- 7 (COD)3 + 6.82E- 4 (COD)2 + 3.96E –4 (COD) + 4.822.For BOD versus TOC, exponential equation is preferable because of lesser errors. For BOD versus COD, cubic equation gives better estimation...PDF enclosed fro further reading ..
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Are there any publications with details of where BAF units are installed in France? (or The Netherlands or Belgium, but given size France should have more sites).
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Hi Jeremy.  Look for information on Cergy, FR; Blagnac, FR; Formiguere, FR; Colombes, FR; Lagny, FR.  These are all BioStyr, but there are many Biofor units too.
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We would like to use ultrapure water to grow algae, for different cell analyses,  to measure metal content in different samples,... 
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What are the international standard regulations for the quality of produced water  for reinjection purposes in oil reservoirs? What is the maximum micron (ppm) of dispersed or emulsified oil in produced water to be used for re-injection to improve oil recovery?
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Thanks Kevin,
Do you have a reference for the 15ppm?
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From Na2SO4 high concentration sulfate wastewater i would like to remove sulfate by gypsum precipitation.  I have tried many test, using lime milk, temperature, dilute solution and still no gypsum precipitation. Any clue? 
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Hi Benjamin,
Yes, the relative solubilities are similar.  I'm just throwing up ideas.
How do the solubilities change relatively with temperature and how close to the solubility product limit are you achieving?  Remember too that total ionic strength will affect solubility in these relatively concentrated solutions. 
Can you allow the reaction to proceed in an evaporation basin?   How may atmospheric CO2 limit that process? 
Regards, Paul
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During the testing of surface water samples, PI values are lower than the TOC values. 
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yes it is , when i was working with surface water it dependency was estimated in regression . i suppose you can do the same for your water
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If the raw water is fairly good quality overall but high TOC, which alternative would be more cost effective to control DBP. 
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Please refer : SJ Randtke,   Journal of American Water Works Association ,1988. Detailed study available on line with cross references.
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I am currently looking for a method in determining the total organic carbon content of my water samples. Unfortunately, TOC analyzer is not available in our country as of the moment
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Dear Prof Virendra Kumar Saxena,
Thank you very much for your response.  Your recommendation regarding the paper of "S.C.Byers and others 1978" describes about TOC determination for soils. Do you have other reference with TOC analysis for water samples?
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Just wondering, how to add HCO3 without raising sodium to the irrigation system ? what is best source of HCO3 for irrigation? 
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Lithium carbonate or magnesium carbonate are the closest matches. I think you will find the easiest to dose is magnesium oxide (MgO) which dissolves well and convert to hydrogencarbonate in water in contact with air.
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Hey, I would appreciate if somebody help me “what is the Max permissible limit for Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, Ca2+, Cl−, HCO3−, in drinking and irrigation water according to WHO standard. Thanks
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Hello,
Can potassium chromate (K2CrO4)  be used in place of Potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7), in the determination of chemical oxygen demand in aqueous samples by the close tube method?. 
Thanks
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Chrome is hexavalent in both salts so they oxidise the same. Chromate turns into dichromate in acidic solution. As the COD procedure use sulfuric acid K2CrO4 will turn into dichromate in the procedure. Therefor I think it is possible to replace potassium chromate (K2CrO4)  for Potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) in the determination of chemical oxygen demand.
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We ran SPE extracts of surface water samples taken after a fishkill in a banana growing area with our Agilent GC-MSD. In one of the samples we detected two peaks which we could not identify with our NIST08 database. Who could help us in identifying the two attached spectra.
Thanks Clemens
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Please refer : 
Director,  National Institute of Ocenography, Panjim, Goa.
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i am now evaluating physicochemical analysis of soil by using standard methods so when i get result i want compare my result to the standards so if anyone have standards in physicochemical parametres of soil pls i need your help?
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If you are doing analysis you will need a reference sample (known composition) so you can check the quality of your results.   Look up the WEPAL sample exchange and purchase a previously tested sample from their stock, or likewise from Global Proficiency.  There are other providers but you will find that meterials of certified composition, CRMs, are very expensive.
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In Hospital, specifically Kidney hospital,  RO water was used for the cleaning of many equipment that could be reuse after cleaning. The RO water line would be sanitize with formalin to prevent microbial contamination. After disinfecting by formalin it should be necessary to identify whether formalin was removed or not. So, How to check the formalin residue with very short time.
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Thanks for providing information, Furthermore, some strips are available into the market to check the content of formalin,
So, Is that product is reliable? and By which principle the strip can detect the formalin?
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How to measure the concentration of elemental mercury in a gas stream using UV-Vis spectroscopy? I read that mercury vapor can be captured using potassium permanganate. But how to quantify the amount of elemental mercury in the permanganate solution?
Thank you very much.
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Dear Sir. Concerning your issue about the quantification of elemental mercury in potassium permanganate solution using UV-Vis spectrophotometer. A new, reliable, surfactant-sensitized method is described for the spectrophotometric determination of total and dissolved inorganic mercury at trace levels. The method is based on the ternary complex formation of Hg(II) with 2-(2-thiazolylazo)-p-cresol and a cationic surfactant, cetylpyridinium chloride, at pH 9.5. The detection and quantification limits of the method with surfactant were 6 and 19 μg L−1 , while those of the method without surfactant were 22 and 67 μg L−1 , respectively. The method obeys Beer’s law at up to approximately 10 mg L −1 Hg(II) in an aqueous surfactant medium. The relative errors and relative standard deviations of the method were 2.2% and 3.2%, while those of the direct method were 11% and 4.4% (1.0 mg L −1 , n = 10), respectively. The accuracy and reliability were examined by the recoveries of spiked solutions at 3 and 5 mg L−1 for the determination of mercury in tap water, drinking water, dental unit wastewater, and artificially prepared model water samples. It was found that the results were very good and comparable for both the present method and the modified dithizone method, which was used as an independent reference method. Speciation studies for binary mixtures containing Hg(I) plus Hg(II) ions at known concentration ratios were also conducted. I think the following below links may help you in your analysis:
Thanks
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I want to determine Methylene blue (MB) concentration in textile effluent. Since there are too many pollutant in the effluent spectrophotometeric determination of MB is not efficent. i want to know that by using which method it could be possible to determine MB concentration?
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Thank you so much Mr.Neagle and Mr.Al-Anbakey for your help
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Smart Water is established as a techno-economically promising method through laboratory core flood studies and single well tracer studies in field pilot cases. The method is based on lowering salinity of injected water and spiking of multivalent ions such as Mg2+, SO42−, PO43− ions.  Nowadays smart water is prepared by adding chemicals to fresh water.
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I am using closed reflux method for internal monitoring of water analysis. At the same time, we do send samples to accredited lab for analysis. The results from lab (titration method) and the digestion method (commercial digestion vials) differ greatly (~1000mg/L COD). What can be the reason for the vast differences?  Samples are taken from same point, same time, same preservation method.Thank you.
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I think its the same procedure but you can use one of them according to the range of pollutant you have and open reflux method have wide raneg of pollutant.
The open reflux method (5220B) is suitable for a wide range of wastes where a large sample size is preferred.The closed reflux method (5220C and D) are more economical in the use of metallic salt reagents and generate smaller quantities of hazardous waste, but require homogenization of samples containing suspended solids to obtain reproducible results.
I think your sample need more homogenization in case for The closed reflux method,
please read the two method carefully
please see these sites:
regards.
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Permissible limit of nitrogen and ammonia for outlet of sewage treatment plant.
Purpose of using outlet water is irrigation. 
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Actually, the nitrogen element can not be alone in wastewater,  but can be found in the forms of Ammonia (NH4), Organic Nitrogen (org-N), Nitrate (NO3), and Nitrite (NO2).
Total Nitrogen (t-N),  and Total Kejeldahl Nitrogen (TKN) ,  Ammonia (NH3 and/or NH4), and Nitrate (NO3)  laboratory tests can be used for the nitrogen measurements in an effluent sample. 
The standard limit depends on the use purpose and the country recommended limits, however, if your country does not have such a guideline you can see the FAO guidelines in the following links.  
For Irrigation and as the inorganic nitrogen in the form of nitrate NO3 is considered as a fertiliser so it is difficult to find a limit. but for the ammonia, the limit is important.   
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I have a question concerning groundwater analysis. We have been sampling for major ions, including Fe since october 2016. As the AAS was out of operation for the first three months, half of the sampled water was frozen and preserved below zero until the AAS would be operational again and Fe concentration could be determined. Unfortunately the samples that were frozen were anion samples (not acidified). Now, as the samples are being analyzed, the concentrations seem to be below zero, which probably is due to Fe precipitation. Am i correct? The question is, if water samples which have been treated with microwave mineralization prior to AAS analysis, would still be somehow comparable and usable in statistical analysis with the rest of the ion concentrations?
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An Fe value less than zero is clearly an artefact, but the problem remains.  Once you thaw and subsample for anions why not acidify the solution to dissolve the Fe, measure it  and adjust for the volume removed?
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Do we really need to follow the system of Ro system and then evaporation in ZLD system, when our TDS is 7000 ppm as a feed.
.Why can't we directly use evaporation technique for this scenario?.
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I agree with answer Biswas above:
Reverse Osmosis for reducing effluent quantity for evaporation, reuse of the
recovered RO permeate in tanneries’ process, evaporation of the RO concentrate
in evaporator, reuse of the recovered condensate in tanneries process, recovery of
crystallised salt, recycle of un-crystallised salt for evaporation with RO
concentrate, and storage of the recovered salt in safe impervious covered storage facility. For details you may visit http://www.iwma.in/Guidelines%20on%20ZLD.pdf