Science topics: Political ScienceInternational Security and Arms ControlWar
War - Science topic
War is a hostile conflict between organized groups of people.
Questions related to War
This RG open question is linked to the previous about the dramatic evolution (partly unexplainable) of COVID19 in Northern Italy during wave 1.
The previous RG open question is reported below🔴 and resulted in a completely alternative model for the evolution🟨 of SARS-CoV/2 from pre-pandemic phase to pandemic phase.
In this specific RG question, the intention is to create an open discussion on the possible emergence of a violent outbreak of avian flu or similar in central Europe.
This concern arises from a qualitative model that links three events which in the past have always characterized the violent explosion of a bird flu or similar.
The model involves three steps.. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/367046404
---Conflict/War partly out of control;
---Pandemic avian flu or similar.
The ABSTRACT of the model can be consulted directly here.. https://www.researchgate.net/figure/46_fig2_367046404
This RG open question will serve to accumulate data both for and against this dire possibility.
Thanks to all the participants.
🔴The novel Coronavirus in N. Italy, Lombardia 【 COVID19 / 2019nCoV / SARSCoV2 】 shows a fatality rate compatible with SARS-MERS. Why?? MAR.2020. -- https://www.researchgate.net/post/The-novel-Coronavirus-in-N-Italy-Lombardia-COVID19-2019nCoV-SARSCoV2-shows-a-fatality-rate-compatible-with-SARS-MERS-Why
🟨Link between the start of pandemic SARS-CoV/2 (COVID19) and the Huanan Seafood Wholesale Market in Wuhan (Hubei: China): the furin cleavage site of spike protein. FEB.2022. -- https://www.researchgate.net/publication/358443761
The Russo-Ukraine war has been going on for more than a year. Meanwhile, it is time to analyze which country is benefiting the most from this war?
Arms exports to Ukraine have been controversial, supporters argue that Ukraine has the right to defend itself against Russian aggression. However, opponents argue that the arms exports could escalate the conflict and lead to further bloodshed. What is the role of western arms exporting countries in Russia-Ukraine war?
The Russo-Ukraine war has been going on for more than a year. The question is whether Russia was able to achieve its political and strategic objective?
I am researching on the question do arms race lead to war? in concern with the 1965 war between india and pakistan.
The world is still suffering from the consequences of the pandemic. The problem of bursting deficits and growing public debt is one of the problems that existed and has worsened further as economies are exposed to the pandemic, resulting in closures and deficits, and Governments are pumping liquidity to avoid devastating downturns. And it is no secret that the source of this liquidity was the excessive purchases of government bonds by central banks, With the beginning of the recovery and the opening of economies, production, trade and investment conditions are expected to improve, but the astronomical level of public debt remains a major concern for all. and possible problems that require extraordinary action that may negatively affect productive investment.
In these circumstances, can the same criteria of public debt continue to apply? The economic situation at the time of the outbreak of the pandemic was characterized by decline and deterioration, not only because of a war or a decline in demand, but also because of the epidemiological situation that prompted governments to close, and so there was a halt in the flow of raw materials, goods and funds not only between countries but also within the economy.
This question was previously asked on September 1, 2019, before the outbreak of the epidemic and before the outbreak of war in Eastern Europe.
No one can end the war except America and Russia ,How can they save the world ?
I fully agree with your excellent contribution.
Will there exist ultimate Value for human being after the DIKWP convergence or integration?
Will it stop all wars/conflicts?
Should philosophers devote to justify the existence of the Value? Or create the necessary initials of the Value?
With the continuous evennts of war in Eukrania and interferences of others ,the war escalates and more damages economically and loss of innocents ,who cares? and who will pay ? is it going to increased or decreased?
A deeper look at the theoretical construct and security dynamics worldwide points to a volatile, uncertain and complex international order where the major powers like the US, China and Russia will be constantly engaged in a competitive slugfest. Developmental economics has been tied to technological advances and threats beyond the traditional security environment. In their book 'War and Anti-War', Alvin and Heidi Toffler surmised that war follows wealth. The shifting security landscape from the traditional to the non-traditional arena and new forms of warfare propagated by security planners seems to have changed the character of warfare or the way wars will be fought in the future.
Totalitarianism and ideologies have often ensured that political, historical, philosophical, scientific, and artistic ideas conform to what the rulers consider correct. This has led to scientific impostures and rewritings of history, which are ethically questionable if not unacceptable. Illustration: Skulls from the collection of Samuel Morton, one of the American fathers of "scientific racism", illustrate his classification of humanity into five races (fruits, according to him, of five divine decisions), which today are outdated. Left to right: Black American woman and white man, Native Mexican man, Chinese woman and Malaysian man, PHOTOGRAPH BY ROBERT CLARK/ UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA MUSEUM OF ARCHEOLOGY AND ANTHROPOLOGY
This forum is intended as a platform for discussion and exchange on the topic where all examples and illustrations are welcome.
In the case, of the third world war using nuclear bombs everywhere destroy all the infrastructures and fundamental basics of life, especially the internet network. How can researchers deal with this situation? thank you very much for you sharing and thinking.
I'm doing a thesis about the impact of the war on economic growth and on the countries neighbors. I'm using data set of UCDP they take number of death as level of intensity ( less then 1000 death concidered as a minor conflict and 1000 and more is conciderered as a war ). But a war in one region is different than to have a war in 3 regions of the country for example. I hope to differentiate the localized high intensity conflicts then full-scale
I hope also to include neighboring countries and measure the impact of the conflict on the neighboring countries. if is existing any dataset each country and it's neighbor.
I would be gratefull to hear your ideas about this two issues.
Thank you for reading my question.
Voladamir Zelinsky started out as a comedian and satirist. As a man of the people, he even entered a dancing with the stars competition. So when Ukraine was invaded by Putin, Voladamir Zelinsky was given an opportunity to leave Kyiv. He responded “The fight is here. I need ammunition, not a ride.” Satire, Irony, Parody, and Wit have been used to demonstrate Putin’s failures, and Zelensky’s success during Putin’s war in Ukraine. These rhetorical devices are designed to ridicule Putin and Putin’s senseless war, and to show the resilience and wit of the Ukrainian people in a tragic situation. Are these rhetorical devices effective? Why, or why not?
The conflict of different country due to military force and war.
Hello everyone I'm new in this plateform I'm looking to do my master thesis about impact of the war on economic growth ( impact in short and long term ). My time serie data will be 1960-2020 and population will be most countries of the world.
I chose as independent variable real gdp per capita and dependant variable inflation, trade and military expenditure (I'm searching other dependant variables).
and for conflicts I will divide my data by high intensity and low intensidty of the war. And also by geography to catch spillover of neighbors because impact of the conflicts in few regions can be different than impact of the conflict in all country. ( I found some problems to divide my data geographically )
I choose this subject because of last conflict of ukraine and russia and it's impact on the world by high inflation and high prices and this may harm gdp growth.
If some one can help me to improve my model I will be so grathful and thankful.
Thank you for reading :)
The SDG7 seeks to ensure access to clean, affordable and sustainable energy for all. The fuelwood crisis in the 70s/80s was triggered by the Arab-Israeli War (the 1973/4 oil crisis) when astronomical increases in prices of petroleum products especially LPG led to a dramatic increase in the demand for cheaper cooking fuels such as firewood and charcoal. The COVID 19 pandemic coupled with the Russia Ukraine war has sparked another global energy crisis similar to what happened in the 70s. Is another fuelwood crisis looming? If yes what can be done to prevent it?
How can we define, from a built environment perspective, mainly in architectural and urbanistic terms, the spaces of war? I use spaces because I am looking not only at the core of the destruction, at the fight theater, but also at the transformation of space/built environment at the largest scale possible. Like, for example, the anti-atomic shelters that are present, and still compulsory for many buildings across the planet, or the impulse to build or adapt the houses in order to become autonomous in terms of energy. We recently witnessed a vivid debate and somehow inconclusive debate, accompanied by a plethora of dramatic scenarios about the transformation of space - from the domestic space to cities and territories -, during the first wave of the Covid pandemic, but there is not much theoretical debate now, though since Russia attacked Ukraine millions fled, cities were destroyed, Europe prepares for a cold winter without gas, etc. I wonder what is to learn from these events and if we have the same capacity to build scenarios and observe the transformation of our habitat (I live in Romania) under the pressure of war, and of course to understand the interplay of fragility and resilience in the case of localities in Ukraine.
Millions of peoples are affecting by the war in Ukrainian with Russia ,how to solve the problem peacefully by negociation between the two parties ,to ease not to escalate ,and America should advise Ukranion to negociate peacefully to end the war as the world is burning.How to solve the war peacefully?
Do you think it is necessary to adapt International Laws for the protection of woman not participating in war but because of the situation they become the subject of rape or torture by armies. Such as war heroines, do they need protection under statutory laws and how are they protected, without Common article 3 of Geneva Convention and Additional protocol II. Your opinion will be helpful for a research.
What are the scenarios of the Russian-Ukrainian war and its repercussions on the patterns of geopolitical power relations?
I am looking for the most workable recommendation(s) on how African countries can effectively combat the monkeypox disease which is gradually becoming a canker. Please bear in mind that most of these countries are HIPCs with massive problems of poverty and unemployment.
What do you suggest?
Is there hunger Bear and Banda optimization algorithms?
Also, what is the impact of simulation in hunger starvation in war simulation for these algorithm to optimize climate change problem?
Not so long ago, the impact of the pandemic on scientific research was widely discussed in the scientific society. Currently, the Russian-Ukrainian war also has a significant impact on the activities of scientists around the world. Please share to what extent this event affected your research.
I want to analyze an interrupted time series analysis to see the change of service coverage and other health impacts like maternal and child death due to the war in Tigray, Ethiopia. How can I do this? is there anyone who can help me by sending a good reference material? is there anyone interesting to be co-authored with me?
The effect of inflation on the economic growth and sustainability in emerging economies is gaining interest after the COVID-19 pandemic and the Russian-Ukraine war. There have been numerous restrictions to Russia and the effect is being felt by all, especially the emerging economies who mostly rely on import.
During times of war and conflict, are social workers more likely to suffer from professional burnout than others?
I want to study the subject standard study and I am in the stage of adjusting the data needed for the study
Millions are now suffered due to war in Ukraine ,so do we need for more peace between Russia and Ukrainian ,why not to negotiate rather to destroy cities and kill innocent peoples? What we should do to solve tragedy ?
With the Russian _alaocaruanaa continuation of the war is the world facing a global food crisis?
What are the best solutions to overcome this crisis.
all opinions are valued and appreciated.
Please, fill in this survey to help us understand Students' perception on the Russia-Ukraine war 2022. Participation in the study is completely voluntary. It should take about 10 minutes to fill in the questionnaire divided into 11 sections. All answers are treated as anonymous. The collected data will be used only for research purposes and ethical approval for the study has been taken.
Kindly fill it and share it with all UG, PG and doctoral students from your university and network (irrespective of the grad subjects).
For further information - http://www.covidsoclab.org/russia-ukraine-war-2022/
Contact person for any further queries - Professor Aristovnik, PhD, from the University of Ljubljana: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Dr Surobhi Chatterjee (Intern, KGMU) (email@example.com)
Dr Sujita Kumar Kar (Additional Professor, Department of Psychiatry, KGMU)
Dear colleagues, friends! Having launched a full-scale war against our country, Russia hoped for its rapid occupation, the destruction of our sovereignty, national and human dignity. However, we are able to defend ourselves on all possible fronts. Ukrainians are demonstrating real heroism, unknown before consolidation of people, army and government, desire to defend the chosen path of freedom and Euro-Atlantic integration. In different ways, the world helps us to endure and win. Do not stay away from the global battle of good and evil, democracy and tyranny, mind and madness. We are ready to provide the results of the monitoring of our actions, which is constantly conducted by our experts (attached to this letter). KNEU is open for any kind of cooperation to stop the war and rebuild the economy of Ukraine.
Dear distinguished colleague,
Recently we have started comparative global research that we have started recently on 'Students' perception on the Russia-Ukraine war 2022' (link to the website: http://www.covidsoclab.org/russia-ukraine-war-2022/), covering various economic and social effects of this war. The global comparative analysis helps us formulate the most useful recommendations for policymakers.
If you are interested in participating (as a contact person and a potential co-author of a joint paper, do let me know to give you further guidelines – see also research guidelines on the webpage: http://www.covidsoclab.org/russia-ukraine-war-2022/research-guidelines/). Your main task at this stage would be to motivate students from your institution (or wider in the country) to complete the online questionnaire by 30 April 2022 at the latest (here is only a preview link: https://1ka.arnes.si/a/60ee60a0&preview=on). When we have the results, we will analyse and compare them (between countries included in our study - then is a plan to prepare academic article(s) relating to different (e.g., economic and social aspects) of the Russia-Ukraine war 2022 together with the analysed results of our questionnaire survey). You will also receive data from your country/institution in order to deploy it in further research. The detailed dissemination plan will be finalised later according to the interests of international partners.
If your time is limited and do not allow you to fully join at this moment, we would kindly ask you if you could motivate and share a link with your students to fill out the questionnaire (please, do see a message and a link for students below) and we will be happy to provide you with the data/result/report for your institution.
Please, do not hesitate to contact me in case of any further queries.
Prof. dr. Aleksander Aristovnik
One of them asked Einstein what do you think of World War III? The answer was, I do not know, but I think World War IV will be with sticks and stones.
This smart answer from a great scientist of Einstein's weight has very serious connotations.
It can be understood that the end of World War III will be the world's annihilation and the destruction of the planet by using nuclear weapons to begin life again as primitive as it was at the beginning of time.
The question is basic relation of human mind with war in history
Mass extinction phenomenon has been explained by natural phenomena but it must be possible by nuclear war also
Hello friends I hope you all are doing well,
Dear Seniors, I am a PhD aspirant in Civil Wars Studies and new to this area.
I request experienced scholars in the field to please suggest me some good books/articles readings for understanding the basics in the area.
Any suggestion about good articles/books on the Research Methods in Civil Wars studies would also be welcomed.
I am working on a project to analyze war news using 'Peace Journalism vs War Journalism' framing. Which theory along with Galtung's Peace Journalism Model will be helpful to analyze war news?
I am studying The Role of Strategic Communication in the Prosecution Stages of the Biafra Revolution from 1967-1970(Nigeria civil war) .The crux of the argument is that apart from the use of weapons, strategic communication helped the Biafran side to sustain the war for three years. Any suggestion will be appreciated.
I need it for my term paper immediately, thanks in advance
I am interested in the causes of war and wish to investigate the role of alliances in causing wars via case studies. My current hypothesis is that as alliance networks tighten between countries, war becomes more likely. What might be a typical, deviant and critical case to study on this topic? If possible, can you also explain why you think each case you suggest is a good case study for me (so I have something to weigh on for my research). Please do help me in this regard.
Hi there! I am looking for things like the monthly denazification reports that were produced throughout the post war years in order to assess the success/failure of the denazification program. Any direction would be fantastic
I am working one a civil war final paper for my graduate course. I am interested in examining the dynamics of Sengal civil war.
First, I will be exploring the root causes of civil war from 1982-2014. What are the difference contexts and greivances that trigger the civil war?
As the main conflict essentially ended in 2014 with a ceasefire, I will then go on to explore how that ceasefire was initiated and access the effectiveness of the stabilization/nation-building elements within this ceasefire period.
However, despite ceasfire in place, low-level violence remains and the problem seems to be unresolved. This leads me to my last part, why the previous ceasefire manage to successfully end the war, but not mitigating the unrest in the region altogether. In other words, why is 2014 ceasefire successful in reducing violence but why the major problems unsolved leading to current low-level violence in Senegal? In short, this last part will explore why 2014 ceasefure is not perfect?
I am urgently in need of literature for that, any form of assistance will be highly appreciated. Thank you!
The problem of the demand for fresh water is greatly exacerbated by the increasing consumption of water as a result of the increase in human population growth around the world on the one hand, and the persistence of the problem of climate change and global warming on the other hand. We do not want to talk about international problems and the possibility of wars due to the conflict over water in the riparian countries on the rivers, but we are talking about air pollution. Building more desalination plants leads to the release of larger quantities of toxic and greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, etc. Are there solutions to control pollutants, or are there desalination plants that do not use fossil fuels?
If all human beings are united by the Internet and social networks, wars can be considered much more difficult as there will be plenty of information among the citizens who support the rulers.
Heat transfer analysis using abaqus/standard
Can climate change be considered a new national emergency and do it require immediate actions? If it is in conflict with national security concerns, which one should be prioritized, e.g., national business benefits vs climate change commitments OR carbon emissions reduction vs livelihood improvement?
In addition, will requirements on accountability and transparency of militaries' performance on climate affecting national security?
A national emergency is a serious situation that requires immediate action from the nation. The most typical emergency is war and the latest one is COVID-19. (Read more: https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/we-are-living-in-a-climate-emergency-and-were-going-to-say-so/
Most of us believe that climate change is there and needs our effective actions. However, every country and region bears different forms and levels of risks and impacts, and therefore reacts variously. Someone hopes to stop using fossil fuels and achieve net-zero emissions right now. Some others prefer incremental and just transitions. How immediate the actions are appropriate?
As researchers, what could be our responses contributing to provide more proper climate choices or actions?
Looking forward to dear folks' responses. All welcome!
On White Supremacy:
The obsession as to whether human-kind is fundamentally bad or good has preoccupied scholars for millennia. This can be traced back to the Catholic theologian, Augustine (354-430), who believed that men and women are basically bad, all born into original sin, and therefore require close supervision by which to cleanse their souls. In the enlightened age, intellectuals such as Rousseau (1712-1778) came up with the counter argument defending the premise that human-kind is basically good, an ethos that has been adopted by many liberal societies of today even if only by lip-service. We know that if one wants an economy that is maximally uncreative and unproductive, totalitarianism (left or right driven) is the best political system by which to achieve this. Here a minority of the population under its leadership employs all the state’s resources to control the majority under the assumption that the majority has ‘bad habits’ that must be altered and if not possible contained using police-state tactics. Such a society is unsustainable, as we witnessed with the disintegration of the Soviet Union in December 1991.
So, what about White Supremacy. This viewpoint has a long history in the United State going back to the age of slavery [1620 to 1865] when Black people (including their children) were sold and killed like cattle. At its zenith in 1860, some 13% of the US population, 4 million people of a population of 31 million, were enslaved. Shortly after the passage of the 13th Amendment (which was meant to end slavery in 1865) segments of the White population resisted this policy by forming the Ku Klux Klan who adopted an Augustine-viewpoint that led to the mass lynching of mainly Black males that continued well into the mid-20th Century. According to the Equal Justice Initiative (2017), 4084 African-Americans were lynched between 1877 and 1950, mainly in the Southern United States. In the 1960’s three acts were passed by Congress to remedy this bad history: the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965, and the Civil Rights Act of 1968.
Now let us fast forward to the Age of Trump (2016-2020). Donald Trump, an Independent, became a Republican so that he could win the presidential election in November 2016. His madness, which includes racism, bigotry, and contempt for women, is expressed regularly via Twitter and Fox News. This madness has now been amplified by the recent killing of an African American man, George Floyd, who was caught on camera being suffocated by a Minneapolis police officer. With Christian Bible in hand and in front of St. Johns church in Washington DC, Trump declared (much like Hitler did during his rallies in the 30 and 40’s) that he would impose law and order on the masses who are protesting the killing of George Floyd. So far, 10,000 protesters have been arrested by police (Aljazeera, June 4, 2020). The ~ 25,000 White Supremacist of America are standing by to see whether Trump can create an opportunity for them to return America to its roots: by having a large segment of the population (mainly immigrant and non-White) be put under the control of a White minority to satisfy (unbeknown to them) the dictates of the Catholic theologian, Augustine (354-430). If you believe in humanity and its sustainability, you can never allow this to happen since this is a recipe to continuous warfare, much like what goes on in the Middle East today.
I just need a few hints or examples of its application after world war 1
Was the civil war in Iraq (the Northern War) and the civil war in Lebanon in the 1970s part of the new Middle East project and the U.S.-Israel alliance to strike Arab countries from within to weaken them?
Which determinants other than tariffs should be considered in determining the winners and losers of trade wars?
Can I get an introduction to war writers or war time literature? I am researching the sociological and psychological causes of war and the consequenses of war in the works of Punyakante Wijenaike(Sri Lankan writer), and would like to know of any contemporary or modern novelists who write about similar themes.
BREXISM finally is over and they got a trade deal with europe now, but exism left the UK poorer according to the news
Brexit is finally done. It will leave the UK poorer
TRUMPISM set a war of tariffs with other countries making US citizens poorer, including the supporters of exism, as they have to pay more to continue consuming those goods...
But being poorer both is Brexconomics and Trumpconomics as a result of exism means being a winner as exism is the goal, no matter the cost, loyalty is to the exism is the rule, not to the country....
Which leads to the question, Are there only winners in the world of exism? What do you think?
I am planning to apply for the PhD degree in the Supply Chain Mgt. with specific area of "Cold Storage warehouses" during Pandemics and wars. Where lock downs and shut downs are frequent.
Please advise on what subject and area should I be focusing on and suggest any "Title" for my research.
Covid 19 effects on developed countries are well documented, but in poor or war torn countries it's undocumented. It's pity that they will be the last one to receive vaccine. Kindly comment on the apathy of world towards them.
I have a question for Paraguayan political history researchers. I would like to know if there is any vestige of the records carried out by Victor Silvero during the years of the Triple Alliance war against Paraguay.
I would appreciate if any researchers can give me direction in sourcing articles or books related to the above discussion, especially if it has been written in the last decade.
I would also like to have access to the following books or related articles Dan I, II, III, IV and V.
Thanking you kindly.
It is quite interesting that some of the leading historians of India have never accepted the role of Veer Savarkar and his sacrifices in Indian national freedom struggle. Either he was Savarkar or Subhas Chandra Bose they have never been given a proper place in Indian history books instead the court historians have created ample "history books" for those who were sitting in Jails and were reading the morning newspapers and writing books with proper accommodation within the jails. It is a hard history of this country that if Savarkar has not written a book in 1909 "The History of the War of Indian Independence," I am sure still 1857 has become just a sepoy mutiny in Indian history.
How are these literary formulations themselves being reshaped along a sectarian/secular divide? In what capacity can nonviolent resistance through art combat sectarian violence on the ground?
I need good recommendations for papers/articles on the translation problems of war-related texts/discourse. Thank you!
About a billion people suffer from some form of hunger, brought about by war or climate change or simply a lack of means.However, COVID-19 is likely to leave 130 million people acutely hungry this year, adding to 135 million already in the category.
please take it in the US and China's trade war context.
we lost a large number of intellectuals, critics and writers during the years from 2003-2020.
The current world, known for wars of secterical, religious, economic, intra-community types.
Pour la communauté francophone
Comment œuvrer pour la paix dans le monde?
Le monde actuel, connu pour ses guerres de types sectaires, religieux, économiques et intracommunautaires.
Comment arrêter cette effusion de sang ?
The current situation between China and Taiwan is alarming and Chinese government continue preparing her military for training exercise, while US is sending strong messages to support Taiwan. Would it result to war or peace?.
Could you explained all wars as the sum of decisions, actions, and reactions in an uncertain and dangerous context, and also as a socio-political phenomenon as Clausewitz argue. What do you think if you comparing to United States and Middle East wars?
What do you know about the new Middle East project, and are generational wars associated with it?
Recently we have seen the role of Drones in Armenia- Azerbaijan war.
As many of you know, the US police departments are well armed with the latest technology to keep us safe. Robotics is being added to their arsenal of things to acquire—social work is usually not part of that arsenal. Face recognition is based on the population of faces used to train the AI algorithm, and this being so, it is very likely that if trained on white faces only, the victims of police abuse via robot will be people of color (which is no different from what we have now by having white police officers in charge of protecting and killing). Of course, one way to level the playing field is to have China program the algorithms on its population of one billion Asian faces so that both black and white faces here in America are killed at the same rate of error, which some might see as going a long way to improving race relations but the 70 million who voted for Donald Trump might object to this solution--especially (and ironically) the black people who voted for him thinking that when the robot sees them it will think 'white face'.
We know that different variables affect the occurrence of a war. Such as economic, social and political variables.
How can one decide on the start of a war by knowing these variables and using game theory?
The USA, Russia and China all interfere or have interfered with smaller states: USA in the Americas and Far East: Russia in Europe and Middle East: China on an economic and technical fashion and not yet military.
interference and non-interference can equally be seen as part of the humanist critique of war, whereby diplomacy dominated and state boundaries and rights were acknowledged. The Peace of Westphalia at the end of the Thirty Years War, based mainly but not entirely on religious disputes, established that no state had any right to interfere with another state's sovereignty or meddle in its internal affairs. While Machiavelli had proposed the 'the self preservation of the state with all means at any price'.
Great states require stasis and advantages for themselves, but often their interference creates problems and turbulence. Afghanistan, Vietnam, Hong Kong and perhaps soon offshore states. Do you agree?
In the recent past, we have seen both the countries are suffering economically.
Are they ready to go for a full-scale war?
The number of lives lost on a battlefield is significantly lower now, but is terrorism really any sort of an "improvement"? Is conventional warfare a fairer form of political action? And, finally, can either conventional warfare or terrorism be justified according to some sort of a value system or a scale of measurement?
In light of the difficult conditions the world is going through, what are the war policies against COVID-19?