Science topics: History of HistoryWales
Science topic

Wales - Science topic

Explore the latest publications in Wales, and find Wales experts.
Filters
All publications are displayed by default. Use this filter to view only publications with full-texts.
Publications related to Wales (10,000)
Sorted by most recent
Article
Full-text available
Background Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with poor educational outcomes that can have long-term negative effects on the mental health, wellbeing, and socio-economic outcomes of university students. Mental health provision for university students with ADHD is often inadequate due to long waiting times for access to di...
Article
Full-text available
This paper investigates tensile, flexural, impact and compression after impact (CAI) performance of weft knitted fabric reinforced thermoset composites containing glass/polypropylene (PP) hybrid yarns. Glass and PP yarns were combined at three different PP ratios and converted to supreme hybrid knitted structures using a circular knitting machine....
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Sheep scab caused by Psoroptes ovis, is a disease of concern to many stakeholders in Wales due to its welfare implications. There are good diagnostic tests and treatments available to deal with the disease. Even so, it remains a problem in Welsh flocks. As such a coordinated approach is required to deal with this issue in a more sust...
Article
Full-text available
This paper examines the unintended consequences of innovation. We show that innovative activity can have adverse outcomes in the form of increased customer complaints with the potential for reputational and financial damage. Complaints may arise directly from adverse reactions to innovative services or indirectly from service failures where firms o...
Article
Full-text available
On the way toward Net Zero 2050, the UK government set the 2035 target by slashing 78 % emissions compared to the 1990-level. To help understand how an electrified local energy system could contribute to this target and the associated cost, we develop a whole-system based local energy optimization (LEO) model. The model captures a series of state-o...
Article
Full-text available
Freshwater species and their habitats, and transportation networks are at heightened risk from changing climate and are priorities for adaptation, with the sheer abundance and individuality of road-river structures complicating mitigation efforts. We present a new spatial dataset of road-river structures attributed as culverts, bridges, or fords, a...
Article
Full-text available
This study assessed the impact of introducing a Sustainable Urban Drainage (SuDs) scheme to a socioeconomically deprived area, on residents buy-in and sustainable behaviours. Surveys were completed before the scheme was implemented by 180 residents (in affected n = 79 and neighbouring streets n = 101) and 1 year after the schemes completion by 51 r...
Article
Full-text available
Background Elective hip replacement is a cost-effective means of improving hip function. Previous research has suggested that the supply of hip replacements in the NHS is governed by the inverse care law. We examine whether inequities in supply improved in England and Wales between 2006 and 2016. Methods We compare levels of need and supply of NHS...
Poster
Full-text available
Osteopathic research has a key role in the undergraduate curriculum to educate responsible osteopaths, who will be able to proficiently apply the principles of evidence-based practice in their clinical activities. Consequently, in 2019 the research department of Istituto Superiore di Osteopatia (ISO) Milan performed several end-year focus groups wi...
Research
Full-text available
Although the COVID-19 pandemic has been particularly severe in the UK, there has been a high degree of geographic variation in COVID-19 case rates across the country. Several factors have been put forward to explain such variation in the UK and elsewhere, such as differences in population mobility, deprivation and rurality and in levels of trust in...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background In England and Wales, cryptosporidiosis cases peak in spring and autumn, usually associated with zoonotic and environmental exposures (Cryptosporidium parvum, spring/autumn) and with overseas travel and water-based activities (Cryptosporidium hominis, autumn). Restrictions to control the COVID-19 pandemic prevented social mixing and acce...
Article
Full-text available
Background Delirium is common after hip fracture surgery, affecting up to 50% of patients. The incidence of delirium may be influenced by mode and conduct of anaesthesia. We examined the effect of spinal anaesthesia (with and without sedation) compared with general anaesthesia on early outcomes following hip fracture surgery, including delirium. M...
Article
Full-text available
The effect of stitch length on the geometrical and dimensional properties of plain single jersey knitted fabric was carried out in this study. The physical and dimensional properties of knitted fabric were changed due to the use of various counts of yarn, types of yarn (ring, rotor, and compact), quality of yarn, stitch length/loop length, structur...
Article
Full-text available
Background People with cystic fibrosis (CF) are prone to bacterial respiratory infections; these are often antibiotic resistant, are difficult to treat, and impact on the quality of life and lung function. The upper respiratory tract can act as a reservoir for these pathogens, and as part of clinical care, sinus rinses are used to alleviate symptom...
Article
Full-text available
Social prescribing is a way of connecting individuals to a source of support within the community to help improve their health and well-being. Social prescribing programmes are being widely promoted within the United Kingdom (UK) and United States as non-pharmaceutical interventions for those living with addiction and substance misuse needs. These...
Article
Full-text available
In this article, we present the use of the coupled land surface model and groundwater flow model SWAT-MODFLOW with the decision support tool WEAP (Water Evaluation and Planning soft-ware) to predict future surface-water abstraction scenarios in a complex river basin under condi-tions of climate change. The modelling framework is applied to the Dee...
Preprint
Full-text available
We present a climate-conditioned catastrophe flood model for the UK that simulates pluvial, fluvial and coastal flood risks at 1 arc second spatial resolution (~20–25 m). Hazard layers for ten different return periods are produced over the whole UK for historic, 2020, 2030, 2050 and 2070 conditions using the UKCP18 climate simulations. From these,...
Preprint
Full-text available
Sehemu hii imekitwa katika kuyaangazia masuala ya fasili, dhana na nadharia kuhusu mkulima mdogomdogo hasa kwa kuegemea mijadala na mielekeo mbalimbali ya wasomi. Yamkini, istilahi-mkulima mdogomdogo‖ huenda ikawa na sinonimia yake mwafaka zaidi lakini andiko hili linaitumia vivyo hivyo kwa makusudi mahsusi. Hata hivyo, tunawiwa kabla ya yote kuuje...
Preprint
Full-text available
Geographic clustering of haplotypes appears to have emerged in the UK as a result of differing patterns of immigration and drift in regions that have been relatively isolated from each other. However, until recently it has been unclear how such patterns of regional genetic differentiation might impact the protein-coding fraction of the genome. Here...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) induces a prothrombotic state, but long-term effects of COVID-19 on incidence of vascular diseases are unclear. Methods: We studied vascular diseases after COVID-19 diagnosis in population-wide anonymized linked English and Welsh electronic health records from...
Article
Full-text available
From the eighteenth century compression hosiery has been applied as therapeutic physical therapy. Mechanical compression procedures were mostly applied by wearing graduated compression hosiery as they tend to be convenient, economical, sustaining and ambulant therapeutic functions. Research and Development in the design of pressure hosiery not only...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Maternal sepsis remains a leading cause of death in pregnancy. Physiological adaptations to pregnancy obscure early signs of sepsis and can result in delays in recognition and treatment. Identifying biomarkers that can reliably diagnose sepsis will reduce morbidity and mortality and antibiotic overuse. We have previously identified an...
Article
Full-text available
Background Medication use assessment has a critical role in promoting the effective and rational use of pharmaceutical medications. There are no studies that have explored the utilization of all medications in England and Wales in the past 15 years without restrictions in the age group being studied or class of medications. Aim To explore the medi...
Article
Full-text available
The COVID-19 pandemic and the subsequent emergency measures had a fundamental and disruptive impact on societies and, in particular, on the educational sector. The transition of the modality of educational delivery from face-to-face to online occurred within days; this research study considered the concepts of digital trust and digital access, usin...
Article
Full-text available
Most sewer networks collect domestic wastewater and a variable proportion of extraneous water, such as rainwater, through surface runoff and industrial discharges. Accounting for wastewater dilution is essential to properly quantify wastewater particle loads, whether these are molecular fragments of SARS-CoV-2, or other substances of interest such...
Article
Full-text available
Male rape literature is limited in the UK, with little public attention and limited research about prison officers' perceptions. The aim of the current study was to explore the attitudes and perceptions of prison officers in England and Wales. Two groups of participants were recruited: Group 1 included 24 retired prison officers; group 2 included 1...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This study developed a series of new, semi-automated methods for quantitatively analysing the contribution of rock weathering processes and geological control on shore platform evolution and boulder production. We used high resolution Digital Surface Models (DSMs) and orthoimages to map and classify a series of geomorphological and geological contr...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background The sex ratio at birth (male live births divided by total live births) may be a sentinel health indicator. Stressful events reduce this ratio 3-5 months later by increasing male fetal loss. This ratio can also change 9 months after major population events that are linked to an increase or decrease in the frequency of sexual intercourse a...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives We examined whether decision-making at age 11 and 14 is associated with prodromal eating pathology at age 14 and whether it would persist across adolescence and also be present at age 17. Design This prospective, observational, population-based cohort study used a longitudinal design. Setting Data from the Millennium Cohort Study (MCS)...
Article
Full-text available
Background Trauma-informed (TI) approach is a framework for a system change intervention that transforms the organizational culture and practices to address the high prevalence and impact of trauma on patients and healthcare professionals, and prevents re-traumatization in healthcare services. Review of TI approaches in primary and community mental...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In their normal color morph, polecats have black guard hair and light-yellow wool hair, except on the face, which is white with a black mask. This gives them a characteristic body appearance, generally very dark or contrasted with yellow where the guard is sparser like in the loin and belly. However, some polecats suffer erythrism, a pigmentation a...
Article
Full-text available
This article offers a critical forecast on violent crime as the UK begins to emerge from the global Covid-19 pandemic. The article is structured into three thematic sections that separately address three key issues related to the issue of violence contemporarily. Firstly, the article places in context the rise in serious forms of violent crime acro...
Article
Full-text available
To achieve net zero greenhouse gas emission by 2050 as set out by the 2019 amendment to the 2008 UK Climate Change Act, a major shift towards renewable energy is needed. This includes the development of new methods along with improving and upscaling existing technologies. One example of new methods in bioenergy is developing new Miscanthus cultivar...
Article
Full-text available
Social Network Analysis (SNA) has shed light on cultures where the influence of patronage, preferment, and reciprocal obligations are traditionally important. We argue here that episcopal appointments, culture, and governance within the Catholic Church are ideal topics for SNA interrogation. This paper presents preliminary findings, using original...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: To examine the prevalence, time trends, and risk factors of diabetic retinopathy (DR) among youth with type 1 diabetes (T1D) from 11 countries (Australia, Austria, Denmark, England, Germany, Italy, Luxemburg, Netherlands, Slovenia, United States, and Wales). Subjects and methods: Data on individuals aged 10-21 years with T1D for >1 ye...
Article
Full-text available
The role of literature in the growth of critical thinking and the development of moral conduct cannot be over emphasized. In Africa, and particularly in Nigeria, the prevalence of political, economic, religious and social abnormalities is so devastating that the nation is almost a failed state. The sophisticated dimensions these social evils assume...
Preprint
Full-text available
Objectives: To determine whether clinically extremely vulnerable (CEV) children or children living with a CEV person in Wales were at greater risk of presenting with anxiety or depression in primary or secondary care during the COVID-19 pandemic compared with children in the general population, and to compare patterns of anxiety and depression duri...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Aims: Well-designed surgical registries are essential for high-quality patient-centred evaluation of implantable devices and surgical procedures. However, there is currently a lack of information about how existing registries are designed and funded; what data is collected and how this can be used. The aim of this work is to identify existing surgi...
Article
Full-text available
This introductory article foregrounds the articles in this special issue, “Professional–Collector Collaboration: Global Challenges and Solutions,” complementing the special issue “Professional–Collector Collaboration Moving beyond Debate to Best Practice,” also published in Advances in Archaeological Practice . The articles that we introduce here c...
Article
Full-text available
Measles is one the best-documented and most-mechanistically-studied non-linear infectious disease dynamical systems. However, systematic investigation into the comparative performance of traditional mechanistic models and machine learning approaches in forecasting the transmission dynamics of this pathogen are still rare. Here, we compare one of th...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Shielding aimed to protect those predicted to be at highest risk from COVID-19 and was uniquely implemented in the UK during the COVID-19 pandemic. Clinically extremely vulnerable people identified through algorithms and screening of routine National Health Service (NHS) data were individually and strongly advised to stay at home and s...
Article
Full-text available
A man in his mid-40s presented to hospital with confusion, headache and feeling generally unwell. He had had a total resection of a grade IV astrocytic glioma one year prior. Initial observations, blood tests and computerised tomography (CT) head scan were unremarkable for acute features to explain the patient’s presentation. However, a magnetic re...
Chapter
Full-text available
Nice publication in which drawings and short essays celebrate the significance of some of the industrial heritage and archeology which you can find across Wales
Article
Full-text available
Objectives Examine if pre-COVID-19 pandemic (prior March 2020) health-related behaviours during primary school are associated with (1) being tested for SARS-CoV-2 and (2) testing positive between 1 March 2020 and 31 August 2021. Design Retrospective cohort study using an online cohort survey (January 2018 to February 2020) linked with routine PCR...
Article
Full-text available
Research on the social determinants of Problematic Social Media Use (PSMU) among adolescents is scant and focused on proximal contexts and interpersonal relationships. This study examines the relation of PSMU with economic inequality, measured at country, school and individual levels. It also evaluated the moderating role of family and peer support...
Article
Full-text available
The peer-to-peer (P2P) goods-sharing economy has flourished into a significant economic sector. However, in the law of England and Wales, the existing legal mechanisms for managing risks to consumers, such as the Consumer Protection Act and Consumer Rights Act, are unsuitable for regulating risk in the P2P-sharing economy. Platform service provider...
Article
Full-text available
Background It is not known whether emergency departments (EDs) with primary care services influence demand for non-urgent care (‘provider-induced demand’). We proposed that distinct primary care services in EDs encourages primary care demand, whereas primary care integrated within EDs may be less likely to cause additional demand. We aimed to explo...
Article
Full-text available
Background and ObjectiveA postpartum haemorrhage quality improvement initiative (the Obstetric Bleeding Strategy for Wales [OBS Cymru]), including about 60,000 maternities, was adopted across Wales (2017–2018). We performed a cost-consequences analysis to inform ongoing provision and wider uptake.Methods Analysis was based on primary data from the...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives Behçet’s disease is a rare, chronic, incurable, multisystemic disease. It causes significant morbidity, with patients experiencing symptoms including mucous membrane ulcers, and joint pain and swelling. It is an important cause of avoidable blindness due to ocular involvement. The aetiology is unknown. The aims were to identify populatio...
Article
Full-text available
The first year of the COVID-19 pandemic put considerable strain on healthcare systems worldwide. In order to predict the effect of the local epidemic on hospital capacity in England, we used a variety of data streams to inform the construction and parameterisation of a hospital progression model, EpiBeds, which was coupled to a model of the general...
Article
Full-text available
Town centres and high streets typically form the social and commercial cores of UK cities and towns, yet, there is no uniform definition of what a town centre or high street is. In this study the spatial delineations of retail agglomerations are generated using open-source data for England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. The extent and bound...
Article
Full-text available
Background Novel clinical challenges are faced by cardiac surgeons under the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19) pandemic. Amidst the uncertainties faced due to the socioeconomic and public health impact, there is little evidence surrounding COVID‐19 vaccination in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Timing of vaccination and postvaccination adver...
Article
Full-text available
Marine renewable energy site and resource characterisation, in particular tidal stream energy, require detailed flow measurements which often rely on high-cost in situ instrumentation which is limited in spatial extent. We hypothesise uncrewed aerial vehicles (UAV) offer a low-cost and low-risk data collection method for tidal stream environments,...
Article
Full-text available
Evidence-based policing is an integral part of the police approach to crime prevention work being closely associated with the problem solving approach as developed by Goldstein (Problem-oriented policing, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1990) This research explores the effect of the new initial police entry programmes, co-delivered in partnerships between h...
Article
Full-text available
Objective To review guidance, included in written local UK National Health Service (NHS) organisation policies, on information provision and consent for the introduction of new invasive procedures- including surgeries, and devices (IPs/Ds). Design A qualitative documentary analysis of data on patient information provision and consent extracted fro...
Article
Full-text available
Welsh Government policy establishes town centres as central places of community activity and local prosperity, recognising the positive impact towns have on the local economy and the well-being and cohesion felt amongst local communities. In light of this, recent declines in the usage of town centres are a major cause for concern. These have not be...
Article
Full-text available
Objective To investigate the importance of key characteristics relating to diagnostic testing for ovarian cancer and to understand how previous test experience influences priorities. Design Case 1 best–worst scaling embedded in an online survey. Setting Primary care diagnostic testing in England and Wales. Participants 150 women with ovaries ove...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction We have been using LAB (Buvidal) in Cardiff after its pandemic use was funded by Welsh Government. Objectives We wished to review the benefits of introducing LAB (Buvidal) into treatment during the pandemic. Methods This service development review of the first 73 patients treated with LAB (24mg/96mg rapid titration Welsh protocol) wa...
Article
Full-text available
Background Forty years from the seminal work of Welsh GP Julian Tudor Hart on the Inverse Care Law, inequalities in health and healthcare remain deeply embedded in Wales. There is a wider gap (over 17 years) in healthy life expectancy between people living in the most and least deprived neighborhoods in Wales. This health inequality is reflected in...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives Across diverse ethnic groups in the UK, explore attitudes and intentions towards COVID-19 vaccination and sources of COVID-19 information. Design Remote qualitative interviews and focus groups (FGs) conducted June–October 2020 before UK COVID-19 vaccine approval. Data were transcribed and analysed through inductive thematic analysis and...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Research has established varying levels of efficacy of oral health education (OHE) efforts. However, little is known regarding how outcomes impact dental professionals and their OHE practice. This study explores dental professionals' reactions to varying OHE outcomes and their motivations to persist with their efforts. Methods Qualitat...
Article
Full-text available
Prominent places were powerful places. The persistence and stability of prominent places typically depends upon the prioritisation of their physical and visual attributes. Yet if we are interested in the expression of prominence and power, then we should take account of the potential ways that places reached acoustically into the landscape. Acousti...
Article
Full-text available
In the year ending March 2020, an estimated 773,000 people in England and Wales were sexually assaulted. These types of crimes have lasting effects on victims' mental health, including depression, anxiety (Petrak et al., 2007), and post-traumatic stress disorder (Epstein et al., 1997). There is a large body of literature which identifies several fa...
Article
Full-text available
Aims: To estimate recent trends in the prevalence of disposable e-cigarette vaping in Great Britain, overall and across ages, and to measure these trends in the context of changes in smoking and vaping prevalence. Design: The Smoking Toolkit Study, a monthly representative cross-sectional survey. Setting: Great Britain. Participants: A total...