Science topic

# Wakefulness - Science topic

A state in which there is an enhanced potential for sensitivity and an efficient responsiveness to external stimuli.
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Publications related to Wakefulness (10,000)
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Article
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The effect of 40-min nap (NAP) opportunity on psycho-physiological outcomes and technical performance during small-sided basketball game (SSG) was examined in ten professional basketball players. Nocturnal sleep and naps were monitored by actigraphic recording and sleep diaries. Nocturnal total sleep time (TST), time in bed (TIB), sleep efficiency...
Article
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Background Patients with disorders of consciousness (DoC) are a challenging population prone to misdiagnosis with limited effective treatment options. Among neuromodulation techniques, transcutaneous auricular vagal nerve stimulation (taVNS) may act through a bottom-up manner to modulate thalamo-cortical connectivity and promote patients’ recovery....
Article
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Objective Functional neuroimaging may provide a viable means of assessment and communication in patients with Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS) mimicking the complete locked-in state. Functional neuroimaging has been used to assess residual cognitive function and has allowed for binary communication with other behaviourally non-responsive patients, suc...
Article
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A simple model consisting of a mirror-housing and its cylindrical foot is applied to represent the automobile side-view mirror that causes unwanted aerodynamic noise and wind drag during high-speed driving. An additional slot is made on the solid foot to modify the flow around the mirror and thus reduce the side wall pressure fluctuation and aerody...
Article
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The aerodynamic performance of four train models with different windshield configurations (i.e., internal and/or external) in three train marshalling modes (i.e., 3, 6 and 8-car groups) was numerically investigated in this study. The train's airflow characteristics at Re=2.25×10 6 were determined using the shear stress transport (SST) k-turbulence...
Preprint
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Instantaneous wake structures behind a 2% thick NACA 0002 symmetric airfoil are numerically studied in 2D at six different angles of attack for Reynolds numbers ranging from 100 to 3000. Classification of the flow patterns based on vortex structure is discussed. An in-depth study of the various flow modes of vortex dynamics in the wake of the airfo...
Article
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Integrating a porous material into the structure of an aerofoil constitutes a promising passive strategy for mitigating the noise from turbulence-body interactions that has been extensively explored in the past few decades. When a compact permeable body is considered in the aeroacoustic analogy derived by Curle to predict this noise source, a dipol...
Article
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Adaptive behavior requires that organisms learn not only which stimuli tend to co-occur (e.g., whether stimulus A co-occurs with unpleasant stimulus B), but also how co-occurring stimuli are related (e.g., whether A starts or stops B). In a preregistered study (N=200 adults), we investigated whether sleep would promote adaptive evaluative choices r...
Preprint
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Aerodynamic performance of SD7062 airfoil in two-dimensional unsteady flows at high Reynolds number (≈ 5 × 10^6) has been investigated numerically for a wide range of angles of attack. The k-ω SST turbulence model is used to predict turbulent flow behavior. Time-averaged aerodynamic coefficients of unsteady simulations are compared with the steady...
Article
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Background Adults with chronic low back pain (CLBP) suffer impaired sleep. Medications for CLBP can impact sleep which in turn may influence treatment outcomes. This systematic review and meta-analysis examined the effects of pharmacotherapy (any type) on sleep in adults with CLBP. Methods In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched P...
Chapter
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The aim of this chapter is to explore how the labour market in smart cities could be affected following a pandemic (or similar large-scale disruptions), the possible scenarios and what approaches to take given the different possible outcomes. The chapter discusses what labour market areas have been struck hardest during the COVID-19 pandemic, the r...
Chapter
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The hiking in the fuel price is a great matter of concern. It is very necessary to solve this problem, in a research it is found that 50% of fuel energy consumption is due to aerodynamic drag. From the studies, it is observed that good aerodynamic technique helps in the reduction of drag. In this paper, we review the researches already done on redu...
Article
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The aerodynamic performances of aircraft change due to the ground effect for flights near the ground. The air cushion generated near the ground will change the development of the aircraft wake vortex. Researchers have compared several different ground boundary conditions with two-dimensional airfoils, while three-dimensional cases have not been stu...
Article
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The rise in crime wave in Nigerian urban centres in the wake of the 2015 general elections and 2016 economic recession, undoubtedly accentuated the need for improved security. This study examines the role of the police in controlling crime in urban Jigawa State, Nigeria, from 2014 to 2016. Most previous studies that appraised the role of the police...
Article
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Remote sensing provides crucial support for building damage assessment in the wake of hurricanes. This article proposes a coupled deep learning-based model for damage assessment that leverages a large very high-resolution satellite images dataset and a flexibility of building footprint source. Convolutional Neural Networks were used to generate bui...
Article
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Designing the high-performance, high-subsonic airfoils suitable for different Reynolds number flow is the major challenge for high-altitude long-endurance drones and ultra-high altitude solar aircraft. To overcome the difficulties, this paper proposed a set of aerodynamic optimization design methods that combine the improved category shape function...
Article
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In this study, a fluid-structure interaction solver is employed to explore the flow physics of tandem oscillating square bluff bodies by varying the corner radius. Based on previous research, dynamic behavior, and fluid forces only square and circular bluff bodies are chosen for a supplementary investigation. This study investigates the effects of...
Article
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This study uses a numerical simulation to examine the local mean flow similarity within an urban roughness sublayer (RSL). The simulations are conducted using a realistic building geometry for the central area of Tokyo under three different inflow conditions. The inflow properties are controlled by changing the surface geometries in the upwind dire...
Article
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In this work, we carried out roughness-resolved direct numerical simulations of cube-roughened turbulent channel flows to investigate the effects of aligned and staggered arrangements, element spacings, and element orientations on the statistics of rough-wall turbulence. The results show that the equivalent sandgrain roughness, Reynolds stresses an...
Article
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This work presents a new engineering analytical model that predicts the effect of both the turbine yaw misalignment and the inflow wind veer on the wake flow distribution downwind of a wind turbine. To consider the veered inflow, two methods were examined. In the first method, the curled shape of the wake due to the yaw offset is initially modelled...
Article
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The flapping hydrofoil bionic pump drives the hydrofoil to make simple harmonic motion and completes one-way water pumping in the flow passage. As a new pump device that can realize ultra-low head water delivery, the flapping hydrofoil device can effectively enrich the drainage methods of plain rivers and improve water delivery efficiency, and the...
Article
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: The global COVID-19 pandemic has profoundly impacted women compared to men in the workplace, creating gender disparity associated with mental health. In occupational fields where women comprise nearly three quarters of the workforce, outcomes of increased depression and psychological distress have resulted, creating even greater gender disparity...
Article
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ADHD has been associated with cortico-striatal dysfunction that may lead to procedural memory abnormalities. Sleep plays a critical role in consolidating procedural memories, and sleep problems are an integral part of the psychopathology of ADHD. This raises the possibility that altered sleep processes characterizing those with ADHD could contribut...
Article
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We explore the changes in wind energy resources in northern Europe using output from historical to mid-21st century CMIP6 simulations and the high-emission SSP5-8.5 scenario. This study improves upon many assumptions made in the past. First, we interpolate the winds to hub height using model-level raw data; second, we use a large ensemble of CMIP6...
Conference Paper
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This study aims to use 1.75 years of continuous measured wind data at a height of 50 m above ground level (AGL) to evaluate the potential of the wind resource at the site of Natadola in Viti Levu, Fiji using the standard wind industry software, Wind Atlas Analysis and Application Program (WAsP). WAsP is used to simulate the wind resource in terms o...
Book
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A sharp fall in the growth of Indian economy during the fist quarter of the fiscal year 2020-2021, plunging to minus 23.4 per cent in the wake of COVID-19 induced ramifications, and the second wave of COVID-19 created the biggest challenge to foster the envisaged double-digit growth. Amidst the biggest crisis in recent memory, signals about the res...
Article
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A devastating tsunami struck Palu Bay in the wake of the 28 September 2018 Mw = 7.5 Palu earthquake (Sulawesi, Indonesia). With a predominantly strike‐slip mechanism, the question remains whether this unexpected tsunami was generated by the earthquake itself, or rather by earthquake‐induced landslides. In this study we examine the tsunami potential...
Conference Paper
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A new alert to help commercial pilots avoid severe wake turbulence from other aircraft is under development in a project called SAFEMODE, which has the aim of integrating Human Factors into the design stage of development. The potential wake vortex encounter is predicted on the ground and flagged to the air traffic controller handling the affected...
Article
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COVID-19 significantly impacted the delivery of education with widespread disruptions, particularly disadvantaging racialized and low-income families. Our research project explored how community-based programming can be adapted and mobilized to mitigate opportunity and achievement gaps for Black, Indigenous, people of colour (BIPOC), and those from...
Technical Report
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The fragmented nature of global value chains (GVCs), which defines present-day trade networks, makes them vulnerable to challenges. The measures rolled out by economies to contain the COVID-19 pandemic, for example, led to ports being shut, goods unable to be loaded/unloaded, and factories having difficulty accessing raw materials. Such issues have...
Preprint
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Yaw control has proven to be promising in alleviating the wake effects that plague the efficiency of wind farms. In this work, the actuator line modeling (ALM) method is adopted to simulate the flows over two tandem turbines distanced by $3 - 7$ rotor diameters, with the yaw angle of the upstream rotor varying from $\gamma_1=0^{\circ}$ to \$50^{\cir...
Article
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In this paper, a new model was established to investigate the evaporative cooling characteristics of humid air-water outside staggered tube bundles. The Euler Lagrange method was adopted based on the coupling between DPM (discrete phase models) and WFM (wall film models). The formation of spray water film by spray water droplets and the separation...
Article
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The thermal lattice Boltzmann method is used to examine forced convection heat transfer from six inline heated square cylinders for Re = 100 at 0.5 ≤ s/d ≤ 4.0, where s is the distance between the surfaces of two cylinders and d is the cylinder size. Such a heat transfer is transient in nature for which the present work reports heat transfer regime...
Article
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Background In the global health emergency caused by COVID-19, multiple experts have mandated the use of hand sanitizers as a safety measure from COVID-19. The sale of hand sanitizers has increased many folds. Therefore, when there is such large use of hand sanitizers, it becomes extremely important to study and understand hand sanitizers in a compr...
Article
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Electric vertical take-off and landing (eVTOL) aircraft with multiple lifting rotors or prop-rotors have received significant attention in recent years due to their great potential for next-generation urban air mobility (UAM). Numerical models have been developed and validated as predictive tools to analyze rotor aerodynamics and wake dynamics. Amo...
Article
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The circadian system, which is essential for the alignment of sleep/wake cycles, modulates adult neurogenesis. The olfactory epithelium (OE) has the ability to generate new neurons throughout life. Loss of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) as a result of injury to the OE triggers the generation of new OSNs, which are incorporated into olfactory circ...
Article
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To investigate the internal flow structures and the emanating pressure pulsations in a centrifugal pump with a vaned diffuser, the numerical method DDES (delayed detached eddy simulation) combined with a structured computational grid were employed to simulate the unsteady flow phenomenon of the model pump at the rated working condition. The vortica...
Article
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On 25 June 2016, a violent clash broke out between the villages of Mougna and Kossouma (Djenné, Mali), leaving 20 dead and 40 injured. While no “Jihadists” were directly involved, this was part of a process of outbreaks of armed land conflicts that spiralled in the wake of the 2012 rebellion. The sudden emergence of violence in rural, pastoral area...
Article
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The podded propulsor has gradually become an important propulsion device for high technology ships in recent years because of its characteristics of high maneuverability, high efficiency, low noise, and vibration. The performance of podded propulsor is closely related to its flow field. To study the unsteady flow field characteristics of podded pro...
Article
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Purpose: Financial wellbeing (FWB) has been gaining growing interests among researchers in financial management. Hence, there is an urgency to investigate the FWB of Malaysians during the Movement Control Order (MCO) period following the spread of Covid-19. The objective of this study is the measure the FWB of households during the MCO period. Desi...
Article
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In the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic in 2019, China’s education leaders began to focus on and promote blended learning. The process is still in its infancy in Chinese colleges and universities, and its development remains a problem to be solved. By combining technology acceptance and student participation, this article proposes an analysis model fo...
Article
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Introduction Adequate post-intubation sedation and analgesia (PISA) practices are important in the pre-hospital setting where vibration and noise of the transport vehicle may contribute to anxiety and pain in the patient. These practices are poorly described in the pre-hospital setting. This study aims to describe the current pre-hospital PISA prac...
Article
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In the present work we perform the numerical characterization of the hydrodynamic and the hydroacoustic field of a notional submarine geometry (the BB2 submarine). Starting from a model-scale CFD simulation, the full scale acoustic signature of the submarine is derived. We use large eddy simulation with a wall-layer model and perform laboratory-sca...
Article
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The World Health Organization’s first roadmap and the London Declaration on neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) have allowed an unprecedented expansion of interventions to control and eliminate this group of infectious diseases that primarily affects vulnerable or marginalised communities. The 2021–2030 NTD roadmap sustains a further acceleration of...
Article
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When exposed to fluid flow, elastically supported multiple square cylinders may experience either one or a combination of vortex-induced vibration, galloping, and wake-induced vibration phenomena. Due to these high-amplitude instabilities, it is necessary to utilize vibration control devices. The present paper studies the suppression of flow-induce...
Article
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Accelerometers measure the acceleration of the body part they are attached and allow to estimate time spent in activity levels (sedentary behaviour, light, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity) and sleep over a 24-h period for several consecutive days. These advantages come with the challenges to analyse the large amount of data while integra...
Article
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This article explores practices of community-based energy justice activists in Johannesburg. Against the background of municipal corporatization of electricity delivery in the wake of the postapartheid state’s neoliberal policy turn, residents of the urban periphery organize to ward off cost-recovery measures and illegally (re)connect to the grid....
Article
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Background: The cognitive reserve hypothesis aims to explain individual differences in susceptibility to the functional impact of dementia-related pathology. Previous research suggested that poor subjective sleep may be associated with a lower cognitive reserve. Objective: The objective was to investigate if actigraphy-estimated sleep and 24-hou...
Article
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With the growth of cars and car-sharing applications, commuters in many cities, particularly developing countries, are shifting away from public transport. These shifts have affected two key stakeholders: transit operators and first- and last-mile (FLM) services. Although most cities continue to invest heavily in bus and metro projects to make publ...
Article
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The establishment of the office of the Public Protector alongside other Chapter 9 institutions in the Constitution 1996 in supporting South Africa's constitutional democracy signaled the needed dramatic change in the promotion of good governance. The Public Protector is a unique institution that was designed as the cornerstone, pillar and foundatio...
Article
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Based on the enlightenment of contra-rotating propellers (CRP) and propeller boss cap fins (PBCF), a numerical study of the contra-rotating propeller boss cap fins (CRPBCF) is carried out by using the STAR-CCM + software and the large eddy simulation (LES) model. The geometric model of the auxiliary propeller is obtained by transforming the blades...
Article
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This paper numerically investigates the aerodynamic performance of the T106A low-pressure turbine based with different inflow conditions at moderate Reynolds number by using high performance computing based on high order unstructured methods. Two different inflow conditions respectively of uniform and disturbed are considered, while for the latter...
Article
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In this paper we estimate the effect of infrastructure investment on tourism demand. For this purpose, we analyse the case of the Kuelap Archaeological Complex (Peru), which became more attractive and accessible following the construction of Peru’s first cable car system and the redevelopment of a nearby airport located in the city of Jaen. In orde...
Article
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Background Smith–Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a rare genetic syndrome associated with a unique profile of early morning waking and daytime sleepiness. Children with SMS evidence high rates of self-injury and aggression and have a preference for adult over peer attention, with strong motivation to interact with a particular caregiver. In addition, peop...
Article
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Wave–particle interactions are fundamental processes in space plasma, and some plasma waves, including electrostatic solitary waves (ESWs), are recognised as broadband noises (BBNs) in the electric field spectral data. Spacecraft observations in recent decades have detected BBNs around the Moon, but the generation mechanism of the BBNs is not fully...
Article
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Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is related to the progression of cardiovascular diseases (CVD); it is an independent risk factor for stroke and is also prevalent post-stroke. Furthermore, heart rate corrected QT (QTc) is an important predictor of the risk of arrhythmia and CVD. Thus, we aimed to investigate QTc interval variations in different sleep...
Article
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In humans, an adaptable internal biological system generates circadian rhythms that maintain synchronicity of behavior and physiology with the changing demands of the 24-h environment. Development of the circadian system begins in utero and continues throughout the first few years of life. Maturation of the clock can be measured through sleep/wake...
Article
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Background/aims: Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is a disease affecting the central nervous system. Over the last decade, the incidence of TBE has steadily increased in Europe and Asia despite the availably of effective vaccines. Up to 50% of patients after TBE suffer from post-encephalitic syndrome that may develop into long-lasting morbidity. Alte...
Article
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This case study examines the dramatic change of fortune of the Chinese war epic “The Eight Hundred”. The movie was censored in 2019 during China’s celebration of the country’s 70th anniversary but became the market-saving hero in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020. Through the lens of Bourdieu’s theory of the field of cultural production, th...
Article
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Ever since the Covid-19 vaccination rollout, governments have aimed for herd immunity. Yet, many countries are far from achieving this goal mainly due to vaccine refusal. Previous research has pointed to conspiracy beliefs and the role of trust in governments as predictors of vaccine acceptance, yet a more comprehensive explanatory model is still m...