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Vulnerability Assessment - Science topic

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Hello,
I would like to make as broad as possible an inventory of all indices and indicators of vulnerability to climate change. Can you point me to articles or indicators that you know of to help me with this task !?
Thanks in advance !
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How to choose wisely the journal (Indexed Scopus) in which to publish your first article. I work on household vulnerability assessment to climate change.
Are there any tools to find out the reaction time of journals after submission?
Thank you in advance for your answers!
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Do you known any articles that clearly explain how to compute step by step the LVI at local scale ? For instance at the small farmers or households scale.
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There is an excellent paper by Madhuri, Tewari and Bhowmick that computes the LVI for Bihar. It provides a detailed methodology.
Livelihood vulnerability index analysis: An approach to study vulnerability in the context of Bihar
Another interesting article is by Gerlitz et al.
The Multidimensional Livelihood Vulnerability Index – an instrument to measure livelihood vulnerability to change in the Hindu Kush Himalayas
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To protect safety-critical systems against soft errors (induced by radiations), we usually use redundancy-based fault tolerance techniques.
Recently, to cut down unacceptable overheads imposed by redundancy, we can only protect the most critical parts of the system, i.e., selective fault tolerance. To identify such parts, we can use fault injection.
There are two methodologies based on fault injection widely presented in the literature toward improving the system's fault tolerance, called: Reliability assessment and Vulnerability assessment. Both use fault injection. I wonder, what is the main difference between these two concepts, i.e., Reliability assessment and Vulnerability assessment?
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Both answers of Steven Cooke and O.S. Abejide are correct. in addition, The reliability is the systematic calculations and prediction of the probability of limit state violation, and Vulnerability assessment is the weakest/ critical point in a system where failure is likely to start first before spreading to other members of the system
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How to compute the Households Vulnerability Index ? Can someone provide me articles, if possible, with supplementary materials related about Households Vulnerability Index ?
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In order to assess the socio-economic vulnerability of households, what data would be needed and can be obtained from the National Statistics Institute ?
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Data on illiteracy, poverty, and unemployment rates can be searched
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I want a clear solution for measuring economic vulnerability and social vulnerability of a household or an individual in normal weather settings or normal environment. Please help me from your side, if possible
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Vulnerability to a household/inhabitation may be due to various risk/hazard and other factors and may depend upon time and local geo-environmental setting. It may vary in space and time depending upon various factors, be it anthropogenic changes being rendered to local geo-environment by the residents/local society concerned or be it situations such as extreme events.
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Can electricity consumption (KWh) be used as an indicator or proxy variable for drought vulnerability assessment? What is the relationship between electricity consumption and drought vulnerability?
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We have worked on the technological package of crops (including electrical consumption) in these manuscripts that can serve you:
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I'm part of a project creating a public atlas to document and map people's subjective experiences of extreme weather events. I've included information and a link to a short survey below. Feel free to fill this out yourself, and/or forward to your networks via email, social media, etc. Thanks!
Extreme Weather Events Survey
Ecologies of Harm: Mapping Contexts of Vulnerability in the Time of Covid-19 The University of British Columbia
This is a digital commons project intended to provide equitable access to knowledge.
COVID-19 presents the potential for people and groups to become exposed to harm in new ways. To see the overlapping ways in which these harms may be occurring, we’ve designed a survey for experiences of extreme weather events that are affecting people across the world.
This is a citizen / community observation survey, open to anyone 18 years of age and older who wishes to contribute. Your descriptions will upload directly to an interactive map of the world that is publicly accessible on this website: https://blogs.ubc.ca/ecologiesofharmproject
Your participation is entirely voluntary, and you do not have to answer every question. If you do wish to participate, you do not need to record your name. You may contribute as many observations as you like!
Please share widely, and keep in mind that re-posting, “liking,” or “following,” will be visible to others on public network platforms.
Link to survey: https://arcg.is/fvO4G0
Principal Investigator: Dr. Leslie Robertson
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Completed
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Hello!
I’m Jonathan, an MSc student studying Cyber Security at Edge Hill University. As part of my project thesis, I’m conducting a short questionnaire on small and medium enterprise cyber security and, in particular, the opinions of professional individuals on the topic of vulnerability assessment and penetration testing as a way of securing IT infrastructure. The survey also details some features of the project, including the active design and development of an autonomous VAPT tool for SMEs.
Your help on providing answers and opinions is greatly appreciated and will deliver a fundamental basis for my research. Permission is also granted if you wish to notify others that may be interested in the project.
If you wish to contribute, you can do so using this link: https://vaptian.com/go/survey. The survey is hosted by Qualtrics.
The survey is entirely optional, and all data collected is anonymous. You can terminate your participation at any time for any reason.
Thank you in advance.
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Dr. MOHAMMAD FAISAL currently working at the department of computer science and IT, University of Malakand Pakistan, received his M.S. degree in information security management from SZABIST, Pakistan, in 2012, and the Ph.D. degree in network security from the Department of Computer Science and Information Technology, University of Malakand in 2018. His research interests include ML and security of wireless ad hoc networks MANETs, VANETs, IoT, Cloud, Fog, Edge, Blockchain and digital forensics.
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Update: Consider publishing your work with Routledge in the context of tourism-COVID19 ! Click here https://bit.ly/2SBqmdH for more details
Read my paper on impact of C-19 on events tourism at https://tinyurl.com/yxbd7zs3
Tourism, one of the biggest and fastest growing sector has been considered as a vulnerable industry i.e. in comparison to other industries, tourism industry gets more affected due to any external or internal shocks or stresses. In this regard, the latest outbreak of Corona (COVID-19) virus has caused havoc across the world. The aim of this discussion is to gather the status of impacts of the virus on various national and international tourism policies, inflow, outflow, and tourism sector as a whole. Please provide any data pertaining to this context.
In this regard, you can consider publishing your work in the Routledge Call for Book Chapters: COVID-19 and Tourism Sustainability: Ethics, Responsibilities, Challenges and New Directions. Click on the link given at the beginning of this discussion!
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In conducting a Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment at the household level using a survey questionnaire, there is a need to ask participants how they characterize their experience of various hazards in terms of exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity. Is there a set of categories for each of the factors of vulnerability?
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There are three dimensions of vulnerability to climate change: exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity.
  1. Exposure is the degree to which people and the things they value could be exposed to climate variation or change;
  2. sensitivity is the degree to which they could be harmed by that exposure; and
  3. adaptive capacity is the degree to which they could mitigate the potential for harm by taking action to reduce exposure or sensitivity.
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We're working on vulnerability studies of electric power systems and we found in some papers that the MATCASC software can be used in those studies. But we can't find where to download it.
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MATCASC is an open source MATLAB based tool to analyse cascading failures in power grids.
Regards
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We live in a changing world. Not only the climate is changing but also the system that is exposed to this climate.
In the discussion on the impacts of climate change, the changing climate is given a very important role, while non-climatic factors (e.g. land use, demographic/socio-economic factors) are often only the subject of studies of the status quo. However, the changes or transformation of such non-climatic factors in the future are often not adequately considered.
Aren't these factors equally or even more important, as there is a large scope for action, especially in the distribution of these elements?
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I'm working on a project that requires a Dataset with minimum required content(It's super OK to be generated from opensource Pentesting/Vulnerability Scanning frameworks, Metasploit and Nessus for example) :
Exploit | Description | Signatures required to use the exploit
I appreciate your help!
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Did you find any dataset or any lead with this problem? I also need same dataset for my project.
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I need to understand d the concept of the social vulnerability index as it relates to coastal analyses.
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Many index-related approaches to social vulnerability display so many weaknesses as to be unhelpful. It might be useful to start my understanding the deep-rooted qualitative nature of vulnerability and where disasters arise from:
Then, depending on your needs, you could determine the relevance of an index-related approach and how to ensure that you can develop one which truly matches your needs and the traits of social vulnerability.
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Dear Researchers!
It is known that methods such as: GOD (Foster) and DRASTIC (Aller et al) and others are widely used. But are there new methods developed to evaluate the intrinsic vulnerability of the physical environment to loads or pollutants? and with easy application (accessible parameters)?
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There is no method that can fit every case of study. DRASTIC request several factors that are not available in many countries; the spatial resolution of data is another problem. GOD is made for aquifers that have a large extension; it is not the best solution for small aquifers or where lateral and vertical lithological variations are frequent. SINTACS is the italian little brother of DRASTIS; it has thus the same shortcomings. AVI is based on permeability which is generally not available or the measurement points are poorly distributed...
Since geophysical data are mostly available or surveys could be done, we suggest a geophysical method for countries where data are lacking.
Please check this recent paper:
Regards
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The vadose zone is the first groundwater protection line, what are the main physical, chemical, biological and other elements capable of attenuating the potential contaminants released on the ground surface?
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Well,
Text book, Groundwater Science / Fitts, 2006.
Regards
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When we want to write a paper about Social vulnerability index, climate vulnerability index etc. we have to calculate index score first. But after that for finding out weighted index score we have to multiply the index score with the variables domain standard score like Demographic (25).
Now my question is where can i get all the variables list and domains weighted value for each vulnerability index?
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Thank you so much
Md Nazirul Islam Sarker
.
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Generally NatCat modelers use term HVRA.
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Dear Sushill,
Hazard = the source of negative incident
Risk = the degree of riskiness (Possibility * Impact)
Vulnerability = the degree of exposure
That's why some authors recommends:
Risk = Possibility * Vulnerability * Impact
Speaking for floods:
Hazard, is the rain
Risk, is the possibility of heavy rain and the impact in case of a flood
Vulnerability, is higher when a city or a mine is near to a river or the drainage system is underdeveloped etc.
In this case a city near a river (all other factors being the same) is more vulnerable to a flood so the Risk is higher.
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Can someone provide me different Vulnerability Assessment techniques for Mountain or Eco-Tourism to Climate change? Thanks
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To evaluate recreational resources and develop ecotourism, it is possible to use methods of processing maps, on the basis of which the land zoning of the territory is carried out from the point of view of using it for recreation. A comparative analysis of maps can be made to assess the role of climate change and assess the vulnerability of the territory.
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I have go through different research papers which are useful to multi hazards vulnerability assessment, but most of the papers dealt with similar kind of hazards and their vulnerability assessment. Non of paper assimilate vulnerability imposed by both high intensive hazards like tropical storms along with slow onset hazards like drought. As different kind of hazards have different exposure group and difficult to assign with in a multi hazards vulnerability framework. So, I wants to know, availability of any guidelines or papers to assimilate different response into a common framework.
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At ITC we focus on using geosptial information for multi-hazard risk assessment (MHRA), including faster and slower onset hazards. I suggest you look at our MHRS guilde book and exercises. There is a project page on https://www.researchgate.net/project/Multi-Hazard-Risk-Assessment
In principle the conceptual approach to vulnerability assessment is the same for the different hazard types.
Best regards, Norman
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I try to assess the vulnerability to water scarcity in a semi-arid environment on the household level (smallholders). For analyzing people's capacity to cope, I would like to follow the 'Household Economy Approach'. Does anyone have experience in carrying out HEA surveys in the field?
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A good concept is the sustainable livelihoods appraoch, which can be used to easily define indicators and compare communities.
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I'm making a model for estimate the vulnerability to wildfire events in "real time" in "Valle de Aburra", in Antioquia, Colombia; so i'm interested in search for a correlation between the ambient temperature provided by meteorological stations that i can use to estimate land surface temperature. I think i can achieve that by comparing the registered ambient temperatures by the meteorological stations with the LST from a satellite. If someone knows the name of a satellite suitable for this or can share me an opinion to make it from another approach i would really appreciate that. Thank you.  
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Yes, there are LST products derived from geostationary satellites such as MSG, GOES, MTSAT/Himawari with coarse spatial resolution (4-5 km) that has global coverage. In particular GOES covers North and South America with hourly temporal coverage. If you are looking for Polar satellites then MODIS on board Terra and Aqua provides Day and Night LST (1 km) coverage daily. Less frequent, ASTER LST (90m) and Landsat derived LST (100 m) are some other options. Additionally there are 'Fires and Thermal Anomalies' products derived from Day and Night Suomi NPP/VIIRS (375 m) and MODIS (1 km) that you might be interested in. All relevant links are attached.
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doing research on analysis of flood risk.
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Fragility curves is a statistical tool representing the probability of exceeding a given damage state (or performance) as a function of an engineering demand parameter that represents the ground motion (preferably spectral displacement at a given frequency Hence, fragility curves are nothing but finding out the vulnerability of building. It is the graph of peak ground acceleration(PGA on X axis) and % of damage on Y axis.
What is the concept of fragility curve?. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/post/What_is_the_concept_of_fragility_curve [accessed May 29, 2017]
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cybersecurity vulnerabilities
types of vulnerabilities
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have a look at my publications. I have some illustrations that will provide an opinion at least.
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The method depends on the specific ecological aspect to be assessed. However, a number of researchers are resorting to the use of GIS and remote sensing technics to assess ecological aspects such as biodiversity, fragmentation, invasion etc.
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Working on a current project, I was wondering if there were a large difference between the effect of (meteorological) droughts in mountain and plain regions. I am particularly interested here in possible negative effects on local farming and pastoralist production systems. 
Any help on this point will be highly appreciated. 
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I have found in my own research in Tanzania that often mountain ecosystems can help people cope with drought easier because of the different microclimates around the mountains.  For example, while there may not be pasture in the lower dryland areas during drought, the higher elevations may still provide some pasture for livestock.
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Geospatial data, especially remote sensing data, have widely been used for providing main data into flood modelling due to it free availability, high resolution dataset can be derived. However, I was wondering and studying how such remote sensing data can be used and provide important data into vulnerability assessment of flooding? Is there anyone could share me your idea.
Thanks. 
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High resolution data like LiDAR and digital elevation models can be used to determine degrees of flood risk in stream basins. However, there are many factors that go into predictive flood models, including floodplain width, floodplain depth, floodplain and adjacent lowland vegetation density, geologic constrictions in the floodplain, man-made constrictions such as railroad and road berms and their bridges, size of drainage basin, topography of drainage basin, extent of adjacent lowlands, geomorphology, soil permeability, etc. All of these things attribute to how a flood acts at any given location. It is not just plugging these data into a computer program and getting results. An experienced hydrologist should look at the variables and see/predict how these interactions work to produce flooding using scenarios such as 5, 10, 20, 30, 50, etc. centimeters of rainfall over a given period in different portions of the basin.
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The question is related to the recent 3rd edition of FEMA -P154 which has considerable revisions in the derivation methodology of basic score and score modifiers among others.
FEMA -P155(3rd edition) does describe the methodology but a simpler explanation is required.
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Dear Akash,
I would request you to go through the following two papers which may answer your question to some extent:
  • Mukhopadhyay, P. and Dutta, S. C. (2016). “Rapid visual screening of earthquake-susceptible buildings.” Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers – Municipal Engineer, ICE, Vol. 169, Issue 1, pp. 1-8, doi: 10.1680/jmuen.15.00031 (Apr 8, 2016). ISSN: 0965-0903
  • Mukhopadhyay, P., and Dutta, S. C. (2012). “Strongest Cyclone of the New Millennium in the Bay of Bengal: Strategy of RVS for Nonengineered Structures.” Natural Hazards Review, ASCE, Vol. 13, Issue 2, pp. 97-105, doi: 10.1061/(ASCE)NH.1527-6996.0000057 (May 26, 2011). ISSN: 1527-6998
FEMA 154 talks about RVS for earthquake-affected engineered buildings in the American context. The first paper attempts to extend the idea of RVS propounded by FEMA to non- and semi-engineered buildings in the Indian context.
The second paper takes the idea beyond earthquake-affected engineered buildings to cyclone-affected non-engineered ones.
Best wishes,
Parthasarathi Mukhopadhyay.
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can anyone suggest me the best method for assessing coastal vulnerability to climate change? Is there any standard protocol to fix the vulnerability index?
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Thank you v.much Dr.Annes and Dr.Rajiv Pandey for providing your valuable comments and suggestions.
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the research is about Climate variability risk and vulnerability assessment.
through this assessment we want to find out how many infrastructure(roads, Irrigation and water system) which destroyed by climate risk in each villages and sub villages. we already finalized the secondary data collection from related ministries and department regarding to the infrastructure data, government policy, implementation on reducing infrastructure  damages that affected by climate risk. 
So I just want to ask how to design methodology, and if we already collected the data ho to analyse it? thank you for your help
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Dear Alito
The issue may be discussed either only the rural infrastructure or in combination of the bio-physical and socio-ecological drivers,a s suggested by Dr Kalra. The scale may be spatial as per your study. 
You can also look for regression analysis to predict the impacts, as per the selected independent variable.
Regards
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please mention the tools used and also how vulnerable a community is.
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Brownly, 
I believe you need to define multiple parameters before you choose the proper tool to asses communities' post-disaster vulnerability.
First, which dimension are you looking at; physical infrastructure, social, economic, or environmental? All of the three dimensions are impacted by disasters, and in fact amplify the disaster impact on the community. 
Moreover, you should also determine if you are looking for vulnerability due to exposure to risk (proximity to hazards) or due to internal/inherent properties of the community. Even though some vulnerability assessment tools account for both in the same model (Environmental Vulnerability Index), I believe it is crucial to define your need. Exposure to risk vulnerability assessment is mostly beneficial for choosing where to rebuild. While inherent vulnerability helps in determining factors that needs to be enhanced to decrease future vulnerability to hazards. 
Furthermore, the level of analysis. Most tools focus on aggregated vulnerability assessment; countries and cities (Economic Resilience Index for OCED countries). However, there are tools that can calculate and assess vulnerability on the block level (Social Vulnerability Index by Cutter et. al 2003). 
Below are a list of some of the tools that I would recommend for such assessment: 
Environmental:
  1. Environmental Vulnerability Index - http://www.vulnerabilityindex.net/  community level assessment for exposure and inherent vulnerability to hazards. 
  2. Environmental Sustainability Index - http://sedac.ciesin.columbia.edu/data/collection/esi/  a more large scale assessment of communities' sustainability and resilience.
Social: 
  1. Social Vulnerability Index - http://webra.cas.sc.edu/hvri/products/sovi.aspx a community level vulnerability assessment to environmental hazards
  2. Disaster Resilience of place (DROP) - http://lbrr.covalentwords.com/assets/docs/33.pdf  a framework for enhancing community resilience to hazards.
Economic: 
  1. Economic Resilience Index - http://www.oecd.org/economy/growth/economic-resilience.htm a large scale resilience assessment for economic shocks (both natural and man made)
  2. Economic Resilience to Disaster (Rose 2007; 2009) - http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1747789107000555 an industry level resilience assessment to disaster. 
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Dear colleagues,
We know, everywhere and in everything the hazard exists without us, as a potential threat to all environmental and socio-economic components, in particular to humans and their welfare plus the vulnerability, immediately brings the negative consequences, exposure and susceptibility to losses cause the risk probability of hazard occurrence and in the end have the disaster, which makes the realization of a risk.
What is the ratio between hazard and risk when the vulnerability is at very low, low, modrate and high levels?
Thank you very much for opinion in advance!
Regards,
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If the word danger refers to threat, the equation that relates the threat, risk and vulnerability is:
R = T * V
-R = risk index
-T = threat index
-V = vulnerability index
Therefore, if the vulnerability is very low, the risk will be very low (if the vulnerability or threat is 0 the risk will be 0). If the vulnerability or threat is high, the risk is also high. If the vulnerability is low, and the threat is high or vice versa, the risk will be high or low depending on what values have the threat and vulnerability.
The equation of the disaster is: 
Disaster = threat * vulnerability / social preparation
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Hi
I have a dataset of  groundwater seasonal variation for a few wells for say 10 years. How can I incorporate this individual water table readings to get a impact raster which can I use to identify vulnerability of soils against degradation.
1) I can take average values of post and pre monsoon water tables and find reduction in water table to get a unified value of water consumption at that location. I can use this data for all the wells to create a interpolated surface. Which can be then used for vulnerability. this will be simplest of all approaches.
2) Is there any scientific method of analysis like Trend Analysis which will give me a value like Index.
3) which key words should I search for?
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@William
Thank you for reply.
I am trying to make my question more clear.
I have to analyze effect of groundwater on soil degradation. (Like shallow water table will act excessively by increasing salinity.) I have data of groundwater variation over some years. I have to create a raster surface which will show capacity to act negatively at different locations. For creating such raster, I have to integrate data from many years to a single map.  Is there any method which can be used to integrate/analyze such data.
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 sir/ madam i m working as a researcher on the topic  “Assessment of Livestock Owners - Wildlife Conflict in the Vicinity of National Park”.
 I want to develop a index on livelihood vulnerability index, if any one have knowledge regarding this ,please share with me.
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I need questionnaire on vulnerability assessment among elderly population, any reference?
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Hi Akanni,
Maybe my Book chapter can help you (attached):
Contreras, D., & Kienberger, S. (2012). GIS in the vulnerability assessment and recovery process in a community with elderly and disable people after a disaster. In A. Awotona (Ed.), Rebuilding Sustainable Communities with Vulnerable Populations after the Cameras Have Gone: A worldwide study (pp. 117-154). Cambridge: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, United Kingdom.
 Best regards,
Diana Contreras
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I am interested in:
  • synthesis of evidence for the elements that make up the model
  • research on the introduction of S-V as a form of psychoeducation
  • development of multimedia methods of explaining the model
  • patient outcomes as a result of being exposed to S-V psychoeducation 
I have found the patient acceptability for the model to be very high, but I foresee problems in being able to demonstrate patient outcomes - other than knowledge acquisition.
Thanks in advance,
Richard.
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Many are now calling it resilience research used in different context - veterans health, mass disasters, children and women's health i nthe context of early trauma, aging, HIV, etc
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A step-by-step modeling procedure is needed.
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BS 5628 ‘Code of practice for the use of masonry’
Part 1
‘Structural use of unreinforced masonry’ attempts to align the standard with appropriate BS EN standards. BS 5628-1:2005 was published in December 2005.
Part 2
‘Structural use of reinforced and pre-stressed masonry’. BS 5628-2:2005 was published in December 2005.
Part 3
‘Materials and components, design and workmanship’ incorporates a new version of BS 8000: Part 3: ‘Workmanship on building sites – Code of practice for masonry’ (also available separately). BS 5628-3:2005 was published in December 2005.
Amendments to all three parts of BS 5628 ‘Code of practice for the use of masonry’ brings the suite right up-to-date and maintains the economy and efficiency of masonry design and construction.
You might like to see this book
Design of Masonry Structures,  by A.W. Hendry, B.P. Sinha  and S.R. Davies,  Routledge; 3Rev Ed edition 
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Is there any specific method for identifying the significant wave height in coastal vulnerability assessment?
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Do not forgot that you have to consider wave height close and along to the shoreline Consequently wave height at the breaking point is probably the best indicator. You may use a numerical model or empirical rules from Goda and others  (see en SPM, 1984)
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I have been studying vulnerability discovery models (VDMs) for a time. Most VDMs are focusing on predicting the number of vulnerabilities of a software. But I am  focusing on predicting the location of vulnerabilities. A software is composed of several modules. By learning the vulnerability history of a software, it is possible to build a model that can predict the location where the next vulnerability will occur, or predict the probabilities for each module that the next vulnerability will occur.
Therefore, I am searching for a vulnerability data set that not only contains the vulnerability's ID and its occurrence time, but also the location where it occurs. Vulnerability databases such as NVD contains the description of vulnerabilites. It is possible to confirm the location of each vulnerability. But that is a labrious work since so many pieces of vulnerability should be processed. Therefore, I am looking for such an avaiable data set? Do you have any information or suggestions?
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What you are looking for is very specific to a particular product . There is no way but to build it . You could identify an open source project like Firefox, OpenSSL, Linux Kernel etc for which the bugs (and vulnerabilities) are tracked publicly on their bug tracking systems. So you can pull the locations and build models around that. It is very specific to the project and may not be generic. 
We did similar work some time back not specifically on vulnerabilities but bugs in general , feel free to check out here . https://ece.uwaterloo.ca/~lintan/publications/imbalanced-icse15.pdf
Check this interesting paper in similar lines
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Use  modified DRASTIC method in semi-arid area to make vulnerability assessment for groundwater resource, and I will use diffrent scale maps like soil map with scal 1:2000000, Geologic map 1:500000 to recognize Vadose Zone, no hydraulic conductivity map,I will add Land Use map. I need help to make this study correctly.
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The references provided above are good enough to give you a guide. However, the major determinant of using DRASTIC or any Vulnerability assessment method is the parameters. How many of these parameters do you have available to you based on your area of investigation? DRASTIC is not adaptable in all situation and environments. Based on what data you have you could develop your own method. There are very simplified forms of vulnerability assessment that do work out well in certain environemtn, even though they tend to be old-fashioned. I will suggest you have a read of available methods and compare based on what you have and need?
All the best!
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1) I would like to know various mathematical and statistical methods used to check the accuracy of vulnerability maps generated by groundwater vulnerability assessment models such as DRASTIC, GOD, AVI and so on
2) How to validate the geospatial maps generated by vulnerability assessment models?
Kindly let me if there is any relevant paper for this purpose.
Also, is the physical investigation only option to validate the theoretical results obtained by vulnerability assessment models?
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Hi
Take a look to my paper entitled: ''Modelling nonpoint source pollution by nitrate of soil in the Mateur plain, northeast of Tunisia". 
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Usually an Internet search would return billions of results when the following keywords are looked up, 'disaster statistics' or 'natural hazard statistics'. Further exploration reveals official and unofficial numbers. To complicate matters there are various news reports which  furnish unverified  figures. Although I believe it may not be that easy to come to a consensus on putting a numerical figure on the losses but still where does one look for the right sources.
Having said that, I would appreciate if I can get some help in identifying the legitimate sources. It doesn't matter if it is at the International, national, regional or even local level.
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There are no reliable data about disasters, as all sources have both (avoidable and unavoidable) technical problems, scope, and not least self interest in manipulating the information (political, financial or otherwise). In addition, you have serious problem of aggregation across events, countries and over time when, especially but not only, using panel data. As long as you are aware of these deep failures, you can entertain some loose thought experiments. But my recommendation would be that you should be extremely careful from reading, let alone interpreting, too much from available data. Have a look at my 2013 book (Routledge) “Disasters and the Networked Economy” (especially Chapter 1: The Problem with Quantitative Studies).
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Dear all,
I am doing my final year undergraduate degree project based on "Assessment of groundwater vulnerability to contamination in the vicinity of a landfill in Mauritius".  I am planning to develop numerical model for groundwater flow and contaminant transport in order to carry out predictive simulations for advective-dispersive transport of leachate within the subsurface.
Can you advise me on which software is suitable between ArcGIS and Visual MODFLOW Classic for this purpose?
Also, the landfill is characterised by a double liner system made of clay and geosynthetics.  From technical journals, it has been acknowledged that these liners deteriorate with time.  Is it worthwhile to carry out this groundwater vulnerability assessment?  Can you provide me with your views on this type of assessment?
Thank you.
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We study the feasibility of the project and identify the elements using ArcGIS for developing the DTM and the river system, MODFLOW® for hydrogeological study and COMSOL® for modeling containment. (Fluid-structure interaction)
This is the only work in the laboratory in this field.
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Hi, 
I am looking for an expert(s) in the application of machine learning methods to geoscientific issues and especially aquifer vulnerability. The purpose of this, is collaboration in a pdoc research i am conducting, co-authoring in papers and potential partnership in proposal submissions for project calls relevant to this field.
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Hi,
I am expert in the application of machine learning methods in geoscience, but not in  aquifer vulnerability. 
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I am reviewing the current trends in vulnerability assessment for climate change impact. While every discipline seems to have their own definition and conceptualization for vulnerability itself, it is interesting to note that they have some similarities that convey the same ideology when applied. It is to this end that I am looking for a framework that aims to synthesize an assessment of vulnerability regardless of whatever field that may be.
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Are you looking for something like that?
Bruno Soares et al. (2012): Conceptual elements of climate change vulnerability assessments: a review. International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management. Vol. 4 No. 1, pp. 6-35.
Füssel (2007): Vulnerability: A generally applicable conceptual framework for climate change research. Global Environmental Change 17, 155–167.
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How migration, population growth is an additional stress on urban vulnerability.
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Here are two papers that may be relevant. They are a bit dated, but well cited. I would check the papers that cite them.
Kaufmann, R.K., K.C. Seto, A. Schneider, L. Zhou and Z. Liu, 2007, Climate response to rapid urban growth: evidence of a human-induced precipitation deficit, Journal of Climate, 20:2299-2306.
Zhou, L. R.E. Dickinson, Y. Tian, J. Fang, R.K Kaufmann, and R.B. Myneni, Evidence for a significant urbanization effect on climate in China, Proceeding National Academy of Sciences, 2004, 101(26):9540-9541.