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If you look carefully as how exism movements like Trumpism or Italianism or Brexism or Brazilianism come to exist under majority rule based democracies, they all need the same conditions to exist,....without this condition they can not come to power....
which raises the question, what is the necessary and sufficient condition for an exism movement to come to exist under majority rule based liberal democracies?
What do you think?
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Dear Ludo, thank you for taking the time to write.
Keep in mind, in a normal liberal democratic environment based on majority rule and the independent rule of law, power moves from one normal democratic outcome to another normal democratic outcome through a peaceful transfer of power, where the normal democratic outcome is the one that reflect the majority view rule.....If the current normal democratic outcome is not working in the best interest of the majority as it should, then voters can vote with their HEADS AND FEETS and keep electing normal democratic outcomes that actually reflect the best interest of the majority....If somebody lies to you and you have the power to get rid of him/her with your vote, they you vote him/her out at the first opportunity and bring someone else committed to the best interest of the majority. The voter can use happiness to re-elect RESPONSIBLE normal democratic outcomes or to vote out irresponsable ones to bring in a responsible or more responsible one....
If the majority allows unhappiness to lead to natural full complacency or be the victim of effective targeted chaos induced full complacency, then it allows an extreme democratic outcome to win instead of another normal democratic outcome and then the majority rule process will be held hostage by the minority view as the minority view wins the democratic contest....
The minority view is the exism view, with values contrary to the normal democratic thinking and rule of law as it places the best interest of the exism movement over the best interest of the country and places the best interest of the minority over the best interest of the majority.
So Ludo, to understand the direction where informed and independent rational voter discontent should go to ensure the preservation of the best interest of the majority is always the outcome or where they go to lead to the lost of the best interest of the majority you need to think in terms of NORMAL DEMOCRATIC OUTCOMES/NORMAL LIBERAL DEMOCRACIES and EXTREME DEMOCRATIC OUTCOMES/EXTREME LIBERAL DEMOCRACIES, then you can understand how they can compete for power and persist in power as a competition between normal democratic outcome vrs extreme democratic outcome instead of the USUAL normal democratic outcome agains normal democratic outcome.
Luco, do you have a view on the actual question now that you have the context shared above?: What is the necessary and sufficient condition for an exism movement to come to exist under majority rule based liberal democracies?
If yes, please share that necessary and sufficient condition.
Respectfully yours;
Lucio
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There is a necessary and sufficient condition for exism movements to come to power under majority rule based democracy and rule of law when competing in elections; and there is a necessary and sufficient condition for exism movement to lose power when going through reelection.
Exism movements like Trumpism, Brexism, Brazilianism and Italianism came to power under the same condition to gain power; and both Brazilianims and Trumpism lost power when seeking reelection under the same condition to lose power, Trumpism fell in 2020 and Brazilianism fell in 2022.
And this leads to the question: Under majority rule and the independent rule of law, what is the necessary and sufficient condition for exism movements to lose power?
What do you think?
This is an academic question, please provide your own comments, not third party comments
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Good day Jeffrey, if you are thinking inside the box, you may not be able to see the answer to this question, you need to be able to think outside the box to understand the nature and working of exism movements within democratic contest....Just defining exism will not help you much.....I think you need to read more of what is out there....However, the definition used in my publications is below:
All my publications related to this question directly or indirectly have a list of operational concepts relevant to each question.....
In one of the article EXISM is defined as concept No. 30
30) EXISM, the extreme democratic movements aiming at destroying majority rule based institutions, locally and globally.
Now that you have the concept, the context is: There is a necessary and sufficient condition for exism movements to come to power under majority rule based democracy and rule of law when competing in elections; and there is a necessary and sufficient condition for exism movement to lose power when going through reelection. Exism movements like Trumpism, Brexism, Brazilianism and Italianism came to power under the same condition to gain power; and both Brazilianims and Trumpism lost power when seeking reelection under the same condition to lose power, Trumpism fell in 2020 and Brazilianism fell in 2022.
And this leads to the question: Under majority rule and the independent rule of law, what is the necessary and sufficient condition for exism movements to lose power?
What do you think?
This is an academic question, please provide your own comments, not third party comments
And the question is: Under majority rule based democracies and the rule of law, what is the necessary and sufficient condition for exism movements to lose power?
What do you think?
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Hello everyone, I would like to ask you what protocols you use most often in training regarding small-sided games in soccer. What is your experience in this field? I mean the scientific approach and the practical/training approach. How many series, how many repetitions, what break between games and between sets. I will be very grateful for every vote in the discussion. Best greetings Paweł
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I invite you to talk about small games.
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I think Yes, what do you think?
Below are some articles with some food for thoughts shared recently in order to understand the nature, structure and expected working of exism movements
Sustainability thoughts 133: Stating the expected step by step road from majority rule based liberal democracies to permanent authoritarianism: The case of the 2016-2020 rise and fall of Trumpism
Moral and Amoral Liberal Democracies: How Targeted Chaos Can Affect the Democratic Process?
The 2016 shift from normal liberal democracy to extreme liberal democracy in the USA: Pointing out the structure of Trumpconomics, its meaning, and its expected local and global implications, both analytically and graphically
Sustainability thoughts 131: How can the shift from normal liberal democracies to extreme liberal democracies be used to extract the democratic structure that leads to the rise of temporary and permanent authoritarianism from within?
Sustainability thoughts 131: How can the shift from normal liberal democracies to extreme liberal democracies be used to extract the democratic structure that leads to the rise of temporary and permanent authoritarianism from within?
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Yusuf, if you look at exism movements from the point of view of an paradigm shift from normal democratic outcomes to extreme democratic outcomes you need an outside the box thinking model to solve the problem of the paradigm shift knowledge gap created, you need new concepts/ideas no found in dictionaries that how the growth of knowledge works if you remember thomas kuhn's paradigm evolution loop.
If you know what exism movements are you can point out to the answer without looking at the specific concepts.
What is your view on the answer to the question?
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Hello colleagues,
when doing a meta-analysis with firm data, we accounted some panel studies haveing, e.g., 100 firms repeatedly providing data across, say, 10 years. I would naturally use N = 100 as the relevant sample size but colleagues disagree and vote for N = 100x10.
Does anybody have an idea?
All the best
Holger
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Hello Holger,
Usual practice is to count independent cases. As panel data would not be independent, I'd vote for your choice of N = number of firms, rather than number of data points.
Good luck with your project.
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How can I combine three classifiers of deep learning in python language ?
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can anyone tell how am i ensemble deep learning models those having different input shape array?
as Dnn using 2D input array shape while CNN and RNN using 3D shape input arrays.
all of the models are already fitted
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I want to write on electronic voting system in Pakistan. Is it possible to implement ELECTRONIC VOTING SYSTEM IN Pakistan as soon as possible in this political circumstances?
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Please consider the issue of Election Integrity in the US. Simple addition is not proprietary. The access to the security devices makes it hard to determine if election fraud occurs. No one is permitted to look at the software and examine it for irregularities. A recount only counts the same physical ballots but does not verify voters' existence status or address. Many people are discussing moving to paper ballots. Ballots in the US are still mailed to deceased people. The process should remain as simple as possible for the people to track for the public good, in my humble opinion.
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My thesis is on voters' evaluation of potential candidates for the US Presidency. I hypothesize that male candidates are generally rated more highly than females. I am searching for a way to measure the survey participant's identity and whether this is relevant to his/her voting pattern. A sliding scale would be useful.
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Yes this is related to his voting pattern.
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Can anyone suggest any ensembling methods for the output of pre-trained models? Suppose, there is a dataset containing cats and dogs. Three pre-trained models are applied i.e., VGG16, VGG19, and ResNet50. How will you apply ensembling techniques? Bagging, boosting, voting etc.
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It is a well-known fact that the religious beliefs of voters are their personal choices. However, when it comes to voting in an election, the same plays a crucial role in the formation of opinion on the part of the voters and the political parties and leaders make a concerted attempt to influence them on the basis of their religious beliefs. Question is, how effective are the religious beliefs of voters with regard to their making election-related choices?
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Regular electoral competition provides incentives to political parties and leaders. Political parties know that if they raise issues that people want to be raised, their popularity and chances of victory will increase in the next elections.
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Could someone come up resemblance architecture of blockchain smart contract for internet voting 
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This work has a structure of the smart contract for voting. However, the voting protocol is left to the implementer. Infact, it goes a step further and provides a framework for repetitive voting on a blockchain.
Title: Always on Voting: A Framework for Repetitive Voting on the Blockchain
Abstract: Elections are commonly repeated over longer and fixed intervals of time, ranging from months to years. This results in limitations on governance since elected candidates or policies are difficult to remove before the next election even though they might be deemed detrimental to the majority of participants. When new information is available, participants may decide (through a public deliberation) to make amendments to their choice but have no opportunity to change their vote before the next elections. Another issue is the peak-end effect where voters' judgment is based on how they felt a short time before the elections, instead of judging the whole period of the governance. Finally, there exist a few issues related to centralized e-voting, such as censorship and tampering with the results and data. To address these issues, we propose Always on Voting (AoV) -- a repetitive blockchain-based voting framework that allows participants to continuously vote and change elected candidates or policies without having to wait for the next election. Participants are permitted to privately change their vote at any point in time, while the effect of their change is manifested at the end of each epoch whose duration is shorter than the time between two main elections. To thwart the peak-end effect issue in epochs, the ends of epochs are randomized and made unpredictable. While several blockchain-based e-voting proposals had been already presented, to the best of our knowledge, none of them addressed the issue of re-voting and peak-end effect.
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How to classify distributed systems (traditional) algorithms like XFT, RAFT, Paxos, Sieve, BFT, and DAG with blockchain (modern) algorithms like PoW, PoS, PoA, etc.?
Please refer to these diagrams:
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Roughly the following should work
----------------------------------------------
>Centralized
---------------------
  • >>Traditional
  • >>>Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting
  • >>>Trusted Third Party Authentication
  • >>Permissioned
  • >>>Authentication Based
>Partially Decentralized
---------------------------------------
  • >>Distributed Permissioned
  • >>>Centralized Source
  • >>>>Authentication Based
  • >>>>Shared Stake
  • >>>>Voting Based
  • >>>Reputation-Based
>Decentralized
------------------------------
  • >>Permissionless
  • >>>Consensus Techniques
  • >>>>Validation Based
  • >>>>>Block-Mining
  • >>>>>Non-Mining
Data Structure
------------------------
  • >>Non-branching
  • >>>Blockchain
  • >>Branching
  • >>>DAG
  • >>>Merkle Tree
--------------------------------------------------
This is just what I would do, based on current knowledge. As to what goes where… I’ll let you dig into that. DAG isn’t an algorithm, but a data structure. Some of the same algorithms can be applied, but many DAG systems aren’t mining-based but transaction based because DAG is generally used for speed advantage over Blockchain or for use in IOT-systems. I know the formatting is weird... no tabs on this editor. I hope this helps.
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Hi, I would like to focus my dissertation on the phenomenon of the public voting 'NO' to the Colombian peace treaties of 2016.
I have done some brainstorming:
Causes:
- Opposition campaign lead by popular ex-president Alvaro Uribe
- Cultural differences
- Historical background (suffering)
- People not interested in politics
- Media, propaganda coverage, fake news
- Difficulty in reading the peace accords
- The church involvement against the government
- Electoral victory of Alvaro Uribe
I was wondering if you had some theoretical knowledge I can link my research to? I would really appreciate some help narrowing down to have a more focused direction, thank you.
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Peace and reversing public distrust - antecedent crimes (...)
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I am currently working on a study about vote-buying culture through comparing voting behaviors in local, regional, and national level elections.
All suggestions and recommendations are invited.
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There are lot of studies related to this subject and you can find Clientlism politics to define your question further more as you can do your research Hanna Bint Shedique Boloto Alug
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The coming of exism movements in 2016 led to the coming of extreme democratic outcomes within majority rule based liberal democracies like in the USA.
And this brought a change in the nature of democracy as it has led to a shift from true democracy thinking to temporary democratic authoritarianism thinking.
We are probably familiar with the structure of the forces competing for power in a true democracy, I think. but not with the forces competing in a temporary democratic authoritarianism system. Which raises the question, what is the structure of temporary democratic authoritarianism? Any ideas?
Feel free to express your own views so we can exchange ideas in a positive academic environment as this is an academic question, not a political one.
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Lucio Muñoz , I would like to correct your impression, as follows: "If she would have thought that my answer was lacking, she would have said so including why she thought my answer was lacking so I have the change to reply, but she did not say so…
If there is a paradigm shift, Thomas Kuhn told us in the structure of scientific revolutions, those inside the box cannot see it and they will resist it at the beginning…. During the time of resistance in my view “they are a kind of living in the past”….
The question and focus here is: What is the structure of temporary democratic authoritarianism?"
This is my first opportunity to read your response to my question(s) because I had to work on several manuscripts, in case you are wondering, (1) a theoretical paper on Sacajawea as the matriarchal leader of the United States of America; and (2) East-West influences on Derek Walcott, the 1992 Nobel Award Winner in Literature, the first African American to win it, which blazed a pathway for Toni Morrison, in 1993 the first African American woman to win a Nobel Prize in Literature. If I had been here, I would have thanked you for responding to my request to define "outside of the box." However, it is true that my question, or rebuttal and supporting timeline, with regard to your assertion of what you posited as Trumponomics' dependency on warfare has remained unanswered.
I apologize in advance if there is another delay. Today's email brought a request that I revise a manuscript I wrote a couple of months ago and submitted for consideration for publication as a refereed journal article, which tries to argue my case for the multifaceted depiction of Capitalism in a classic film by Hitchcock, in which I also attempt to indicate ways in which the film coincides with the ideas of Newton, Einstein, Darwin, Freud, Marx, and Veblen. Needless to say, there is a good deal of generalized topical material, which makes a study like this quite vulnerable to (constructive) criticism, for which I am grateful.
I am still interested in knowing whether or not you still hold the view that what you call "Trumponomics" is inextricably bound together with a wartime economy, or have you changed your view?
With best wishes.
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During the last decades, researchers with diverse scientific backgrounds have built a common and extremely productive collaborative network around the term ‘meiofauna’.
Please, help us to identify the most crucial questions in #meiofauna research by voting our questionnaire
Your answers are appreciated even if you are not a meiofauna expert!!
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Dear all,
We will close the survey in two weeks. Please, complete our survey if you haven't voted yet. Your opinion is highly appreciated, even if you are not an expert on meiofauna!
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The International Sustainable Development Research Society invited scholars to vote for the best publication in the field of sustainable development, based on suggestions from some 5000 members and associates, and boiled down to a shortlist of 10 papers by a jury.
For this process, we asked if a paper was inter- or transdisciplinary, contributes to academic debate on SD, shows awareness of complex nature of SD and contributes to solutions for SD.
Now its your turn to decide: which was the best SD publication in 2017? Access the vote at http://isdrs.org/journals/best-article-2017/
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Done!
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If the judges don't are elect for popular voting, why would they have - in terms philosophical, and not in legal terms - legitimacy to fail to apply a law approved democratically by legislative?
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Porque ejercen justicia en nombre del pueblo
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Dear All,
I have an earlier version of eCognition (v8). It works pretty well. I often use the random forest classifier but I have a problem exploiting the results. Do anybody know how I can get the map of class probabilities? I have already tried to create class-related features, such us "membership to" , and "classification value of". Unfortunately, these image object attributes contain only 0s and 1s instead of class probabilities based on individual tree votes.
Is it possible at all to have class probabilities under version 8?
Kind regards,
Gábor
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I am not sure that it gives probability, as you mentioned it will give the output label for the final class.
regards
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I have generated denoised images using several models and would like to ensemble at the prediction level to achieve superior denoising results. What would be the best way to combine (averaging, max voting, weighted averaging, etc.) these denoised images to achieve superior denoising performance?
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Sorry but I don’t practise those skills bécause I’m just a student in thé second year of my bachelor in Political Science in Université Saint-Louis in Brussels
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Dear Omoniyi Ibietan,
Can you be so kind to let me know where have you published this project entitled Social Media Networks and Voting Behaviour?
Yours truly,
daniel Moise
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Once extreme democratic outcomes like Trumpism come to exist they must behave autocratically as their model structure, including the political and legal loyalties structures that they needed to persist, are the opposite as those of the normal liberal democracy model inside which extreme democratic outcomes came to exist.
Then when time for re-elections comes for extreme democratic outcomes, there is the possibility of winning or losing if playing the normal liberal democracy way, but there is the need to win at all cost if playing the extreme liberal democracy way.
Which leads to the question, what is the sufficient condition for extreme democratic outcomes like Trumpism to win re-elections or persist in power at all cost? Can the absence of this condition sufficient condition explains why Trumpism failed to persist in 2020?
Any ideas? Please share your own ideas in order to exchange ideas.
Keep in mind; this is an academic question, not a political question as I am a scientist, not a politician.
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George as shown in my pictures, under an independent rule of law system and without effective targeted chaos that induces full true majority complacency, exism movements like Trumpism cannot come to exist, and if they come to exist and when they go into re-election the targeted chaos that once worked is ineffective, they will lose re-election and nothing they can do, but to fade away, as independent courts without proof or evidence of electoral fraud will validate the winner of the contest…..
In 2016 against Hillary Clinton, systematic targeted chaos was effective, trumpism won; in 2020 against Biden, systematic targeted chaos was ineffective, trumpism lost. The dilemma the Trump party has now is how to make targeted chaos be effective again…otherwise; they cannot come into power again as long as there is no full true majority complacency….
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Elections, not just voting, can become trustworthy.
Additional methods to the ones that made voting trustworthy (choose your favorite) can be applied. Eiections are not used to choose the captain of a ship, said Socrates, 2500 years ago. One can use technology to help. One has to verify competence, reciprocity, and (for fairness) anonymity.
Although voting is deterministic (all ballots are counted), information can be treated stochastically using Information Theory. Error considerations, including faults, attacks, and threats by adversaries, can be explicitly included. The influence of errors may be corrected to achieve an election outcome error as close to zero as desired (error-free), with AI providing many copies of results without voter identify. A voting method to do so, is explained at https://www.researchgate.net/publication/286459956_The_Witness-Voting_System
How about the next step, fair elections? Can one learn from the events in the US in Jan/6?
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One needs to be more attentive and not just believe on politicians.
For example, according to France and Brazil, the airplane was invented by Santos Dumont, who flew around the Eiffel Tower, and though he won the International prize for it, this is not accepted in the US, it is not even mentioned.
I see that other countries do not believe in "America First." The leadership stands divided.
Some are just grateful to be born and live here, hopeful to make contributions. China is passing the US on 5G. In short, the more one advances, the more opportunities for others to contribute and have success.
Here, elections must be based on trust, not just voting. As Stalin said, "who counts the votes control the voting." Many countries don't even consider the US a democracy, because there is no direct vote here yet -- no people voting. The president is voted indirectly. Maybe the problem yesterday will do away with the slave-time Electoral College. Will see.
Second, from size, India has a bigger claim to "largest democracy."
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I would like to try to make a list of the transformations of the elections, with examples of countries where they are located.
I have not find a site that makes a news of electoral reforms around the world.
These are the reforms that have happened and the reforms that are being considered. This may be both the digitisation of elections (electoral targeting, digital campaigning, etc.) and chandes in electoral law, such as Internet voting or reforms of voting systems.
Thanks in advance for your answers,
Thomas
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Hi,
take a look at this: https://reformaspoliticas.org/
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As all of you may know, we can take the experience of Trumpism(November 2016-January 2021) in the USA to explore questions such as when a democratic contest can lead to partial and permanent authoritarianism. The failure of the USEXIT/Trumpism to persist by losing reelection means that we just witness temporary authoritarianism, but it could have been worse as one more step was needed to move towards permanent authoritarianism in the USA and the lost of the most relevant normal democratic system in the world. Which raises the question, When can permanent authoritarianism take hold under majority rule liberal democracies?. Any ideas about what the missing step was to transition from temporary to permanent authoritarianism in the USA in 2020. Feel free to share your ideas.
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Sometimes science fiction can turn out consistent with science.... Those scenarios of authoritarianism can be framed through parallel schemes where the two main components are effective targeted chaos (ETK) and legal loyalty to individual/party when in conflict, not to country/democracy, a situation that leads to either temporary or permanent authoritarianism....
Temporary authoritarianism comes from a shift from normal democratic outcome to an extreme democratic outcome(e.g. Trumpism) where the legal system remain loyal to country/democracy,,,,,,
Permanent authoritarianism can come in two ways, i) one step(shift from a corrupt normal democratic outcome to an extreme democratic outcome) or ii) two steps process(shift from a normal democratic outcome to an extreme democratic outcome; and effective targeted chaos soon after gaining power aimed at to transform the legal loyalty to democracy/ country to legal loyalty to party/individual for when there is legal conflict....
These dynamics have been on since 2016, but the main parties and the general population cannot see that clearly yet as under paradigm shift knowledge gaps it is difficult to know how to act or how to react so the normal democratic outcome becomes hostage of the extreme democratic outcome, ....When a shift takes place, paradigm shift knowledge gaps are created….
To persist after coming to exist, the extreme democratic outcome needs to win all cost, even when it loses; and to win even when it loses it needs to have courts with legal loyalty to party/individual, not to country/democracy.
To persist after a loss the extreme democratic outcome needs, not political loyalty only, it needs at the last result the sealing touch....legal loyalty to party/individual....
In his coming last ditch to win when it has lost, Trumpism may win a political loyalty test in congress/senate, but when it reaches the loyalty to country/democracy courts at the supreme court, the normal democratic outcome(Biden) win WILL BE RETIFY in the supreme court or the supreme court will not even hear the case as show of independence.....
If the USA supreme court were to put party/individual loyalty to country/democracy loyalty, it will be the end of president Lincoln dream of "a government of the people by the people for the people" and become a " government of the minority by the minority for the minority" and the end of democracy in the USA as the seeds for permanent authoritarianism would be in place, where win or lose, the extreme democratic outcome or Trumpism persist....
Assuming that the USA Supreme Court is still an independent body that puts country/democracy before party/individual it will reject fake facts and require facts and proof, this first try of Trumpism is done....
Assuming that the last 3 judges added to the supreme court during Trumpism transformed the court into a corrupt court that puts party/individual over country/democracy by accepting fake facts and leaving the facts and proof aside, then Trumpism will persist, and real widespread chaos will begin to force Trumpism out....
Sadly, as Trumpism requires loyalty to party/individual, it does not care about the political, social, and economic cost inflicted to the country/democracy, it only cares about PERSISTING...
Understanding the dynamics that rule the shift from normal democratic outcome to extreme democratic outcome ; and the conditions needed for them to persist or to be neutralize is important to properly safeguard democracy/country in the future….
I am just right now putting together a set of articles to be published in 2021 bringing out the ideas related to the structures of democracy that ensure the persistence of normal democratic outcomes and democracy under independent rule of law….and make it difficult if not impossible to have the conditions that allow extreme democratic outcomes to persist…
Thank you for your comment and the links to science fiction to the question at hand.
Respectfully yours
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I have an experiment where 10 groups of 3 judges are asked to evaluate a list of pictures in 2 evaluation conditions.
The pictures were made in 2 between-subjects conditions (A,B) and each group of subjects created the images in 2 conditions (a,b). Therefore we can think these groups as A(a,b) and B(a,b).
The judges evaluating the images are not the same people that made the images.
Each group of 3 judges evaluates a portion of the whole set of images but, in the end, each image gets 3 votes. Each judge evaluates the same images in 2 different conditions. In the end, I have a list of pictures with a value for each image (the sum of the votes) for each of the evaluation condition (eval_1, eval_2). see image example attached.
What I am trying to find are the effects of (A, B), (a,b) and (eval_1, eval_2) conditions.
Although some of the images across groups were made by the same person, each image belongs to one group only. Can I use a repeated measure mixed ANOVA with eval_1 and eval_2 as dependent variables and A,B and a,b as independent?
What other options do I have?
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It isn't entirely clear, but if you have some participants creating a subset images and some judges rating a subset of images it seems likely you have a cross-classified design with three fixed factors AB, ab and eval and two or more random factors (judge, creator1, creator 2, image). I'd probably try and run this as a multilevel or linear mixed model with multiple random factors rather than a repeated measures ANOVA (which would treat image or judge as random effects but not both).
Its possible some of the random effects have too small n to be estimated well and just using dummy variables for those effects might be OK. Its also possible that some of the random effects (or even fixed effects) might be aliased with others and you can't simultaneously estimate all of them. The aliasing of fixed effects could arise because its a fractional factorial design. The aliasing of random effects could arise because the random factors are confounded (i.e., the creator combinations and image id are redundant).
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I think this process shook people's trust in the state. And it led to an insecure environment in the country so this situation can cause people to change their opinion about their votes. Maybe Trump administration also may be affected from the pandemi. So I want to learn your comments about this topic. Does this process change people's views, thougts and votes?
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Dear Şeyma Kızılay,
There is already bit of research being done on exactly this issue. Here is one study that might be helpful, but there is much more (e.g. search in google scholar).
Best,
Florian
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Hello everyone!
I am working with a comparatively small audio dataset for classification task. I was searching for a means to ensure robust performance and thus, came across the following paper [1] that performed test-time augmentation on the test set. The test-time augmentation includes four procedures: augmentation, prediction, dis-augmentation and merging as follows:
First, the test images are augmented (rotation, flip) as done on the training set. Prediction is performed on both the original and the augmented images, then they revert the transformation on the obtained predictions (dis-augmentation). Merging can be done by employing the majority voting criterion with several additional steps.
I am confused regarding the dis-augmentation and the merging steps in case of time-frequency representation of audio signals (spectrograms, scalograms). Is this method applicable for time-frequency representation of audio signals? If any of you can enlighten me in this regard, that will be really helpful. Thanks in advance!
[1] Moshkov, N., Mathe, B., Kertesz-Farkas, A. et al. Test-time augmentation for deep learning-based cell segmentation on microscopy images. Sci Rep 10, 5068 (2020).
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audio signals are presented as a change in the amplitude in the time domain in your reference paper. For time frequency representation, the signals are presented as a frequency change in the time domain, not amplitude. You can process your augmentation, by the same manner. Just replace the amplitude values in your signal vector by the frequency values. Try it.
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Now we can able to develop a Blockchain so can we able to discuss the technology in evm for perfect voting
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Blockchain is already used in this area. for instance, check for Luxoft, it is using blockchain for a decentralized voting application that ensures every vote is counted. Moreover, blockchain is also used to make the Internet of Things more secure than it has ever been.
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What do we know about re-election or out-voting of persons or parties in government in or after times of crisis?
#corona #voting #elections #democracy
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Dear Markus, to make sense of democratic data during chaos you need a different type of democracy model than the traditional one to explain how within a democratic contest there can be an extreme democratic outcome where the view of the minority; and therefore, the best interest of the minority supersedes the common good.
Before 2016 I saw the chaotic wave affecting the UK and saw the BREXIT movement coming and I realized that the traditional democracy model does not fit the dynamics of an extreme democratic outcome like BREXIT, and I started thinking about how the structure of a liberal democracy would be affected by the coming of what appears to be impossible, an extreme democratic outcome. Become reality and once reality what environment does it needs to persist and if possible spread/expand or what could bring it down and back to a normal democratic outcome….
I wrote a paper to link voting complacency and normal democratic outcome and extreme democratic outcomes, then I wrote a paper providing the conditions needed to predict specific type of democratic outcomes, after I wrote a paper showing that the nature of an extreme democratic outcome can be extracted simply by flipping the nature of a normal democratic outcome, and finally I linked all the above to targeted chaos to create the conditions of extreme democratic outcomes….
I am sharing the last paper below:
Moral and Amoral Liberal Democracies: How Targeted Chaos Can Affect the Democratic Process?
As there were no clear examples in practice about extreme democratic outcomes like BREXIT, USEXIT, BRAZILEXIT…. before 2016 I waited until after 2016 BREXIT and 2016 USEXIT to start publishing my ideas explaining them as even the opposition parties who lost those elections and the general true majority could not understand what had happened as the unexpected happened….
Now that there were examples that match the extreme liberal democracy model I was advancing, I wrote about what to expect locally and globally, from extreme democratic outcome movements/leaders using USEXT/Trumpism as the general model, which is shared below:
The 2016 shift from normal liberal democracy to extreme liberal democracy in the USA: Pointing out the structure of Trumpconomics, its meaning, and its expected local and global implications, both analytically and graphically
In general. complacency theory suggest that if there is no chaos aimed at the true majority view as targeted chaos is reined in by the rule of law or the true majority has learned the past lesson that voting in ways that will later comeback to bite you is not a good way to protest or advance the common good…. For example, if chaos is rained in the USA, we will see a normal democratic outcome in the USA….. If chaos is rained in all countries that fell under exism mode since 2016, we will see them returning to a normal democratic outcome position…
I wish my comment and the material shared is useful to what you are working on.
Respectfully yours;
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My work focuses on image quality enhancement where qualitative comparisons (for ex using PSNR and SSIM distortion metrics) are not possible, although the majority of reviewers request it ...
So I plan to rely on survey results where people will judge visual image quality, and I wonder if this study (or vote) is sufficient in a research paper.
What de you think ?
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Image Visual Quality or ( Imperceptibility) can be measured by either quality measurements or quantity measurement. The one you are looking for is quality measurements called ( Humane visual systems or HVS), this measures is less immunity than the other one( quantity measure) which has the highest powerful robustness.
Please try to work with MSE, PSNR, NCC. I can help you well is you like.
regards
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In Arendt, masses are distressed due to traumatic events, economic hardships imposed upon them, or political crises, systemically marginalized and pushed out of the boundaries of the political realm. Therefore, they are out of the boundaries of the ‘rational’ decision-making processes such as voting. But did Arendt include electoral behavior as irrational, mass action which, in the German case, eventually catapulted the Nazis to power through democratic means? When did German society become a 'mass' a la Arendt: when they voted en masse or when they gave in to emotional, demagogic narratives depicting particular groups as the culprit of their collective misery?
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Role of the electoral process will immensely help in eradicating many social, political and economic evils, but the condition is that there should be a massive exercise through the help of various electoral processes even at the grassroot levels.
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Hello, i have a data set with only categorical variables. I am interested to examine the factors that affect voters to vote & the factors that affect voters to vote particular candidates. I want to run two models:
1.) My dependent variable (DV) is a binary variable of vote/no vote
2.) My DV is a categorical variable that holds the name of the candidates
My independent variables are all categorical variables such as: age bins, sex, geographic location, annual income bins and more.
I was thinking to use a logistic regression for the first model and a multinomial logistic regressionvfor the second one but i am not sure if that's the best option. What do you think?
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If I would be you, I would have followed the same models. Categorical variables, I feel are best shown by the help of logistic regression.
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Here is a small challenge:
In a research community (e.g., uni faculty, conferences) consisting of researchers (e.g., professors, etc), every researcher knows each other. There are good researchers and a corrupt one. Each researcher knows about some other researchers and whether each of them is good or corrupt, but s/he doesn't know whether her/himself is corrupt or not. One day, a queen who has the power to know everything about all communities, came to the research community and told that "there is one corrupt researcher in this community. You should not exchange with each other what you already know about the corruption. I ask any of you to leave in the midnight of the day once you know that yourself is corrupt."
Edit: Readers may find the definition of 'corrupt': https://www.dictionary.com/browse/corrupt
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Corruption detection in Distributed Network
In computer science, if a 'good entity' doesn't act under the rule nor communicate their knowledge, it is said malfunctioned, compromised or corrupted. Theoretically, those entities actually become no different from the corrupt ones who actually targets the network. Mathematically, if many such 'good' entities existed, the whole network is compromised, it can no longer distinguish what is good or not. When the network comes to that state, it is irreversible. Detected corruption is as important as the knowledge, and sharing detected corruption must be part of the rules.
Only computer science is given in this example, readers may get their own intuition in the matters they are concerned.
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Conjecture 1:
Given: there are rules (law) for every good entity to follow, and assume they all follow.
Conjecture: If all good entities still act (do, follow, obey) based on the common rules (law) and share knowledge (truth, facts) via communication, then corruption can be uncovered if not dominant.
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Truth, Majority, Transparency and Education
For any sample of population and any person in the sample has an equal chance to access to or deduce the truth, then majority is likely to get closer to the truth than the remainder. In practice, the chances vary and truths sometimes are restricted to only a small portion. That's why majority may not work in such setting. Transparency and education help.
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Summary of discussions
Knowledge and communication may be not sufficient to stop corruption. It needs rules and transparency.
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Version 2: In a committee of n researchers, each researcher interacts with exactly k other researchers each day and finds out whether any of the k is corrupt. The researcher then gossips the new finding with 1 other research on that day. Note that, the corrupt researcher can also gossip, but his/her message can be true/wrong each time. If the queen comes and tells that there is one corrupt researcher, can the committee spot it out? in how many days? if there is no such queen, can the committee still find it out?
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In my opinion, the main cause of corruption is the morality.
Regards.
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Hello. I am writing a research paper on municipal elections in Saint Petersburg. The recent elections of 2019, according to observers, were held with a large number of violations. In my work, I try to check this. But I have some questions. If I understand correctly, the elections are held using the “Multiple non-transferable vote”/Block Vote system. In other words, the voter can choose up to five candidates from the entire list, and the winners are those who received the highest number of votes in all precincts. Are there any countries with such a voting system, and open data about elections? For example, in Russia, it is possible to view data on each specific polling station where elections were held, for example, how many votes were cast for candidates, how many ballots were issued, etc. Could you recommend literature specifically about this voting system?
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In Croatia you can have one preferential vote from the list. Although ot seems not significant we had a last person on the list being elected for EU Parliament due to preferental votes.
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A recent poll on Twitter showed that 52% of respondents believe that COVID19 will speed up and/or improve Bioinvasion Scientists' efficiency to communicate the importance of addressing Biological Invasions. The three options to vote were: YES, NO and I don't care. (https://twitter.com/Ale_Bortolus/status/1254144480502046726?s=20 )
To me, the most important result was not the shy 2% by which the option YES won the poll. The best result was that the "I don't care" option received zero votes. That's unprecedented. It means that people care about this serious problem. Let's remember that although biological invasions are now considered by IPBES as one of the top 5 major causes of biodiversity loss, some years ago most people (including *many* scientists) wouldn't even know what "biological invasions" and "invasive species" meant.
The COVID-19 pandemic has made clear that the introduction of exotic invasive organisms (such as the SARS-coV-2 ) may not only affect the landscapes and/or the biodiversity around us, but they can also have fast deadly effects on people worldwide. But, will our societies learn fast enough to see the big picture? will COVID19 speed up and/or improve Bioinvasion Scientists' efficiency to communicate the importance of addressing Biological Invasions? Does that depend solely on the skill of the Bioinvasion experts or of our society's? we´ll see.
Share your thoughts here, if you have one.
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Before addressing the proposed topic, which incidentally, we have been studying for years with other pandemics and epizootics in my laboratory, it should be noted that the hypotheses to understand their origin in humans have a lot to do with the thought of the landscape ecology.
These hypotheses, structured as landscape sciences do, but under the thought of rhizomatic ecology, tell us about how all animals are connected; hypotheses that serve to remind us of our animal condition and that shout at us, because they cannot say it louder, that as much as we live in artificial environments, we continue and will continue to be animals on the planet; a planet called earth which is our holistic environment.
Regardless of the origin or the time we have been together, some animals with others, the pandemic is the result of a zoonosis that may well be direct or indirect, in this case, as of May 2020, the way in which we are transmitted: Hypothesis 1: bats transported to the Guangzhou market were the original source for direct transmission of CoVid-19 to humans; Hypothesis 2: Pangolins (the most trafficked animal on the illegal market worldwide and widely consumed in China and other Asian regions) or a domestic animal such as dromedary or cat, could have been infected with CoVid-19 by bats and be the intermediary vectors of the virus to reach humans; Hypothesis 3: Pangolins could have directly infected the human. As can be seen, the crazy conspiracy idea that it was a virus created in the laboratory by either North Americans or Chinese and deliberately released or accidentally escaped into the environment is discarded biochemically.
Now, to understand this pandemic, we must remember that rhizomatic ecology tells us that humans are immersed in an ecosystem (holon) within larger ecosystems until they reach the Holo (Earth), and that each system has subsystems that directly influence adjacent or remote holons.
Bats are a very special group of mammals because their ability to fly allows them to have very high thermal regulation. Its temperature rises a lot during flight and drops considerably during rest. Their metabolism is more intense than that of the rest of the mammals and their immune system is much stronger, in such a way that they can have viruses, bacteria and parasites without causing apparent damage, but transport them long distances (zoocoria). The tangle of the rhizome extends indefinitely since where the bat reaches, it can infect endemic organisms such as the pangolin or dromedary, or common domestic animals, such as cats. It can even infect people when they are crowded into a market to trade and move more from there; huddled in a refugee camp or crowding into migratory groups to escape environmental catastrophes, dictatorships, famine, for example.
The natural migrations of fauna are becoming more extensive every day in the sense that the borders and the breeding or feeding sites are widening, covering more geographic area, interacting more with humans. A human population from a site that, if it did not previously have contact with said animal, can be infected more easily than people from populations that have lived with this animal for centuries. Likewise, consequences of the recent climate change and the illegal trafficking of species is the favor of this dispersion of pathogens, since the trafficked animals lack a clinical certificate, are transported in poor conditions, increase their stress, and therefore are more susceptible to suffer more pathogens and infect the fauna that accompanies them on their journey and final destination, including humans, of course, since we are also accompanying fauna. Climate change, on the other hand, encourages migratory behaviors in animals that are increasingly longer in their days of searching for places to reproduce, feed, hibernate, etc. The rhizome of the Earth has no territorial beginning or end, lacks a center and has nodes with vanishing lines and nodes with convergence lines, which can change, appear more or disappear; They can also modify their arms and nodal extensions, but it will always remind us that the whole planet is oneself and that humanity belongs to this planet as well as a bat or a pangolin, caring for them is caring for ourselves.
Avoiding the introduction and translocation of biological species is a pending subject of landscape ecology that now tries to give us the same teaching as in the time of the black plague (1347-1353), of cholera (1817), of the Spanish flu ( 1918) or the Asian flu (1957), the numerous cholera pandemics (1961, 1991, 1992 ...), swine flu (1976, 2009 ...), avian flu (1878, 1997, 2003, 2005, 2006 ...) and of course, by CoVid (2003-2004).
The next question is, are we ready to learn and apprehend the teachings of the earth? This question is the same as the beginning of the forum, and although I tried to answer it with historical facts, I think I did not reach a favorable conclusion for us. We will soon forget what happened and the whole rhythm of life will remain the same, only with the memory of these bad days of humanity.
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Measurements of Disproportionality of votes and seats, such as the Gallagher's Least Square Index, are frequently used to compare different electoral systems. But they might be noisy due to geographic malapportionment, which is a different source of disproportionality than electoral systems (although linked to them). On the other hand, this might be useful since it captures all the sources of Disproportionality. If this reasoning is correct (i.e., these indexes really include malapportionment), could we develop indexes that distinguish disproportionality brought by electoral formulas from the disproportionality of seats and votes/population among districs (i.e., malapportionment)?
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Thanks, but my question is about malapportionment, i.e., disproportionality INSIDE a country, not about cross-national comparison. Anyway, I have found the answer in Gallagher's paper itself. It does include that sort of disproportionality.
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We don't let anyone be a doctor just because they are a citizen. We don’t allow teachers in a school to choose who will be their principal; and we don’t allow parents to choose who will be their child’s teacher. We don’t allow the fans of a sports team to choose the players on the team. We don’t let the employees of a company choose the CEO. The average customer has no say in who will become the manager of their local grocery or furniture store and we do very well in this regard. Yet we let anyone and everyone select presidents and representatives regardless of their ability, knowledge or experience. Our current process has led to the selection of presidents and representatives who may not be the best, brightest and most capable people to lead the nation. In fact, any conversations in this regard are moving in the opposite direction, such as seeking to lower the voting age or allowing felons to vote. It seems axiomatic that the only way to improve the quality of our leadership is to improve the quality of the people selecting our leaders. 
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Perhaps we don't have to worry about the relative intelligence or knowledge of voters in a democratic election.
James Surowiecki, in his book, "The Wisdom of Crowds," claims (with a number of confirming examples) that, when a group (a "crowd") is faced with a problem to solve or a decision to make, the crowd as a whole is often more intelligent than the smartest individual in the crowd. This kind of "group intelligence" increases with the size of the group, as well as with the diversity and independence of its members.
Here is a review of the book, which summarizes the main points:
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Hello,
I have a dataset, which contains two groups of participants: one who watched TV in one region before 1990 and one who watched tv in another region before 1990 (marked with a dummy variable). I also have their preferences on political parties for the years 1990 till 2020.
I would like to divide the dataset into 2 groups (dummy = 1 and dummy = 0) and examine how the TV program in each region affected their voting behavior in a way, that I can see what party the two groups preffered in each year from 1990 ongoing.
What is the correct statistical approach to this?
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I do not see the hypothesis you want to test - apart from, that party preferences of two regions are approaching each other. But TV before 1990 was only randomly chosen, but - I think - cannot have any relevance for the party preference. Therefore, there seems no reason for regressions, because there is no explaining variable apart from region, which means it is sufficient to show the relations of party preference for both regions over time.
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I have been recently studying proprietary voter files and data. While I know that voter files are for the most part public (paid or free), I am confused as to how companies match this data to other data.
For example, the voter files (public) never reveal who you voted for, or your behavioral attributes, and so on. So how do companies that sell this "enhanced" data match every "John Smith" to other data. How can they say that they have a profile on every voter? Wouldn't that require huge data collection? or are there models that simply do that job for them?
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Hi Melissa. I don'. Do you mean private opinion surveys ? They just ask who the interviewee voted for or who they intend to vote for. If I misunderstood your question and it doesn't have anything to do with my answer, I'm really sorry.
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I am running a multivariate logistic regression to predict the likelihood of individuals voting for the green party, using a survey of european election studies of 2019. My main IV is education levels; when I add other explanatory variables, there are significant. However, my classification table (as shown below) shows that my model cannot predict anything; I have tried using other IVs to see if that could be the issue but, as I thought, it is not. I do not know how to resolve it; or can I simply state in my report that the goodness of fit of the model is simply not so good?
I would like to understand why this is happening and if there is a way for me to resolve it?
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This is not answering you question directly, but I would like to point out that there is a problem in using standard logit models when the number of cases for one outcome is relatively are compared to the other. And it is the absolute number that counts. The usual maximum likelihood estimates are know to be biased. This is a good and clear account of the problem and suggested solution (Firth logistic regression). https://www3.nd.edu/~rwilliam/stats3/RareEvents.pdf It is often a problem in voting data. This is also a good account followed by illuminating questions and answers
For users with IBM SPSS Statistics version 23 or higher, the STATS FIRTHLOG extension is installed as part of IBM SPSS Statistics-Essentials for R. For Stata see
That of course is tackling the problem via analysis, it is also possible to do it ameliorate at the design stage by oversampling the 'cases' (with or without matching). This is often used by epidemiologists in what is known as a case: control design. You cannot use the data to estimate prevalence as you have fixed this, ( eg 50 cases and 50 controls; or 50 cases and 200 controls ) but under certain assumptions you can get regression-like estimates of the effect of exposures on the outcome. ( See )
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Scientists report that commercial jet travel may cause up to 50% of the local problems in public health and contribute significantly to unprecedented climate changes. Individually and collectively, scientists can stop contributing to catastrophic planetary heating caused by continued burning of fossil fuels. Do you have a problem with this proactive agenda: each and every one of us who regularly present papers or serve on panels at conferences can deliver our papers remotely and we can all reduce the number of conferences we attend. A "media Blitz" whereby every scientist who opts to attend a conference remotely posts it, or asks a local radio or television news station to give a minute of broadcast time showing an empty commercial jet airplane seat or private plane in its hangar with explanatory voice-over, will get the core message across: scientists not telling, but showing, the public by being live "action figures" and "role models" who are "casting a vote" for proper conduct in today's drastically changing world?
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The key statement is " To put things into perspective, a recent investigation by the leading research Swiss institution ETH Zurich found that flights accounted for a staggering 50% of its emissions."
i.e., 50% of ETH Zurich's emissions are due to air travel.
Personally, I believe the quality of conferences (and science in general) has declined significantly in the last two decades. Poor, too specialized research, too many presentations etc. Attendees (presenters and others) should question the reason why they need to go. I gave presentations at ACS meetings in 2017 and 2018. I also gave a webinar on the same topics which I then put on YouTube, and I answer a lot of questions on RG. The latter two give me far more visibility and I've made more clients - without having to leave home. More people have watched my videos than attended the conferences.
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I am wondering that the differences between ranking and voting. What are the applications of ranking and voting?
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The voting system where the choice with the most votes wins is called "first past the post".
Ranked ballot voting systems differ by requiring voters to list most to least favourite choices (1, 2, 3...). There are different ways to employ ranked ballots, but one is the alternative vote. Generally with this method, in the case where a voter's first choice is eliminated by receiving the least number of votes upon the first count, their second choice would count as their vote, so their votes are reallocated to the remaining choices. Here is a video that explains it in detail; the YouTube channel that created it has other videos about different voting systems that may be of interest: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3Y3jE3B8HsE
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Govt passed ordinance regarding reservation in teacher cadre for university. Now recruitment process is based on caste not on merit. What are are the short and long term impact on teaching quality, research and Indian university ranking at global level .
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RG is not an appropriate outlet to discuss about sociopolitical issues. Let us focus only on the 'real' science in this forum - not government policies related to science. No offense to anyone.
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Although blockchain technology originally devised for the digital currency, different potential uses cases are discussed in the tech communities. Blockchain can be defined also as a new filing system for digital information, which stores data in an encrypted, distributed format.
Potential use case list includes cryptocurrency, digital identity, voting, notary,  smart contracts, IoT, insurance, healthcare etc. 
Blockchain and Machine Learning (ML) are two big areas highly discussed and used over the last couple of years, but not so much together.
How machine learning and blockchain technology can be combined? What are the potential use cases of ML and blockchain combination?
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Sadly, most technology, like 3d printing or AI is often thrown at the most simple problems, like marketing for AI or printing toys for 3d printers. Blockchain is a ledger and great for tracking money. But it can also track other things that require a lot of effort to track. 3d printers took a while to be used for the benefit of society. do data scientists really want to build a better marketing algorithm to sell 5% for widgets? I think we would rather use our time to find the next combination of chemicals/items that would solve world problems. Could we find the optimal road layout to reduce wrecks or increase the durability of roads to save us billions. Could we use AI to re-plan food distribution and farming to reduce chemical and fertilizer pollution and regrow our forest and grass lands without overgrazing. Is there an optimal population per square mile? What amount of properly cultivated land could sustain a family without environment harm? Could we find these answer if we had more data, yes we could. It wasn't until we saw the change in yellow stone with the introduction of predators and the reduction of overgrazing of herd animals did we realize we have been mismanaging nature. What other areas of our life could we track with blockchain then analyze with AI to make ground breaking discoveries?
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Considering that the whole population is utopically 100% informed about the available political parties it is expected that the true willingness of the people (majority) is acquainted in the democratic system. But unfortunately, the world is a messy playground tainted with uninformed and misinformed voters. The first question is: are uninformed people prone to vote for "change" blindly instead of considering gathering more information to make an assertive choice. The second one is: Does the 50%+ majority democracy premisse is valid if the assumptions on the first question are validated?
I have a methodological framework that might work quite well here. Nonetheless I would like to hear the opinion from people specialized in psychology and political sciences.
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Following. Readers may interest in the following question: https://www.researchgate.net/post/What_is_your_opinion_about_majority_in_voting
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The European take on this is uniformly negative
And yet in Britain he seems unstoppable. Every Tory will come behind him as they fear oblivion at the hands of Farage or Corbyn.
Labour voters think he is 'fun' and may vote for him. Remember he defeated Ken Livingston for Mayor of London when he had a 20% lead.
Can anyone explain this?
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unfortunately, yes
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I have conducted a survey experiment with two treatments and a control group. When I run my bivariate regression one of the treatments is significant. I then add an interaction. The interaction variable turns out not to be significant but the treatment that was significant before is now not significant anymore. How can that be?
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Thanks! I'll look into that
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Which type of research is better in your opinion: excellent research or research that is most impactful in making a difference in solving real-world problem?
We all know that sometime, the most sophisticated research published in high-tier journals has no real-life implications or use.
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I think both are important it depends upon the out come of your aims
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The global economic system is simply a combination of multiple political economies, all seeking control to make good on promises made to the voting population at large. Currency manipulation has become the atomic bomb of the 21st century and has destroyed /capped the lives of innocent bystanders, there by creating a human rights epidemic. Are there solutions available to the people?
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If using a gold standard, how does the economy adjust for dislocations of capital, and currency flight? Also, does a gold standard negate monetary policy as a tool vs. a weapon?
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Suppose i have A and B criterions and out of five respondents three vote 5,7,9 respectively for A, while the other two respondents vote 3,5 respectively for B. Now what i can do how i merge these to make a pairwise matrix. Kindly facilitate me i will be very thankfull for this.
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Dear Muhammad Nizar Alam,
I suggest you to see links and attached file on topic.
Decision Making Using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP); A Step ...
Comparison between multiple-choice and analytic hierarchy process ...
AHP PAIRWISE COMPARISONS VERSUS A ... - Semantic Scholar
questionnaire design for survey research: employing weighting ... - isahp
Best regards
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South African elections have ushered in a new thinking on the role of social media in influencing elections. The EFF had the highest number of young people who where on social media. ( 6 million) and they did not register to vote. these votes would have swayed the election in favour of EFF but sadly they did not vote.
What does this mean?
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yes. debate of candidate for election is very important. Social media affect on our decision ( of course, it would be good or bad ) . It depends on us.
Social media completely can change our decision about people election .
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Basically I`ve done a review of the literature on disengagement from Early Intervention Psychosis services using systematic methods. There was heterogeneity across the studies, no RCTs and I`ve used `vote counting` to make sense of the results
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According to Cochrane's handbook, there are two main concerns about using vote counting to make sense of results: by considering each study on its own you are not allocating different weight to them, and too much emphasis is given to significant/not-significant, without considering range of effects (e.g., CI) (https://handbook-5-1.cochrane.org/chapter_9/9_4_11_use_of_vote_counting_for_meta_analysis.htm)
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I pursued my doctoral work in the domain of political branding in the context of a developing democracy, India. During my work, I conducted an empirical analysis to establish the relationship between political branding and political participation and other related concepts. The findings of the study do indicate that such a relationship exist, that is, political branding influences political participation. However, the relationship the other way around, that is, political participation influencing political branding left things to be desired. Also, the role of social media, which is quite hyped in an event like an election, was not found to be much as far as influencing voting preferences was concerned. All this got me thinking whether the efficacy of political branding could be similar in a developing democracy like it is in an advanced democracy? 
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It is very difficult to exactly specify the factors involved in national elections both in developing and advanced democracies. Although political branding can influence the participants' preferences, there are certain byzantine complexities predominating elections which make it difficult for the researcher to ascertain the true validity of the findings. After all, the world of politics is a context with many interlocking variables that may be manipulated by both internal and external contenders.
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The purpose of this discussion is to learn from valued research colleagues their perceptions on why nurses (RN and Advanced Practice Nurses) are not more involved with healthcare policy, contacting elected officials, and in general getting involved with politics at any level (even to registering to vote!). Secondly, I want to have a better understanding of why nurses believe that they do not have a stronger voice in healthcare policy at the federal and local levels. The last item I desire to discover is the "magic" bullet to change the "oh, it doesn't matter as I just want to take care of patients..."
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Well. I'm not sure as I'm very much engaged in my clinical courses; I'm a critical care fanatic. But I can see students engaging more in social activities, and in less political meetings as compared with other schools. I'm not quite happy with nurses being the largest workforce at the healthcare system, and usually having a percentage way below its proportional presence with the system, perhaps less than 10% of the representation in the councils or committees responsible for making legislative concerning healthcare. I believe that we are so authoritarian and demanding as we do not allow students to grow in different directions and let them build up their hobbies. On the contrary, we demand that they submit papers, NCPs, assignments, and read pure nursing materials, which have lots of issues in nothing but clinical and basic science issues, leaving so little space for other areas of interest, such as how to contribute to making the healthcare system more human-oriented, how to build up laws and regulations, and how to become leaders. We, nurses, nurse researchers and scholars, still need a lot to do, only of we recognize that there is an issue, and only if we admit that.
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Most voting theory limits itself to studying "democratic" voting methods. Is there an extension using for these methods with Artificial intelligence?
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I've heard of cases where artificial intelligence is used to simulate voting behaviours in order to develop voting theories. I've provided a citation for one such article below.
In terms of theorizing the role artificial intelligence could have in voting processes or other forms of decision-making, this seems to be fairly new, but it will likely become more relevant in the future as AI technology continues to improve.
Meir et al. "Iterative voting and acyclic games." Artificial Intelligence. vol 252 (2017): p. 100-122.
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Brexit in the UK was the result of a poorly judged referendum being called that was accepted as part of the democratic process. Since then the legislature has made every attempt, sometimes disguised, sometimes not, to overturn the referendum decision asserting in effect that they know better.
In the USA Trump was voted in as President, an absurd choice perhaps, and since then many members of the legislature have attempted to overturn that decision, again asserting they know better than the voters.
Surely, both these actions, whatever you think of the voters choices, represent an attack on democratic processes and assumptive rule of a self-appointed elite?
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Thanks.
You might try the references in , particularly Tainter,Friedman, Diamond ("the world until yesterday").
2 more F.A. Hayek "The fatal conceit, the errors of socialism" and
Stephen M. Walt "The hell of good intentions, America's foreign policy elite and the decline of US primacy"
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If Brazil is really successful in the electronic voting systems in the world so far, what is still missing in an electronic voting system.
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I think the gap lies in a subset of electronic voting: online voting. While electronic voting can refer to voting in-person at a specific electronic voting machine, it can also refer to online voting, which allows for voting to take place remotely. While there is some concern about those who do not have access to computers or an internet connection not being able to vote, this can be remedied by keeping in-person voting stations, just instead of casting paper ballots, voters would use the online system using technology provided at the voting station. I've noticed that Canadian student unions can be useful case studies for online voting in practice.
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If you could place these concerns into the categories: Technology, Information Security, Social and Political, it would help provide some structure to the responses. Thank you.
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I won’t really have much concern about me but I would be concerned about people who don’t know how to vote unless they are given instructions as it is usually done during elections conventionally. The question is whether that would even work ?
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Dear all,
I am applying for IUPAC Next Generation Program for Sustenable Crop Protection and selection is partly by public voting. You can help me by clicking on the link.
After reading the blog, please leave a comment on the comment section below the page as number of comments on each article is going to be used by the selection committee.
THANKS
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Great work. Good Luck!!
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How important online discussions (forums, social media, microblogging etc.) are in the process of shaping the public agenda and political participation? We have already know that media coverage affects peoples' perception about particular socio-political issues. Thanks to the media outlets one can deepen knowledge, fulfill the information gap and look "beyond the box" . Nevertheless, users comments are no less important. Interesting here is to what extent users' comments/opinions (malicious, substantive etc.) can affect the degree of political views and participation (particularly voting act) of other users? Does offended comments have more impact on that ? Does the spiral of silence still applicable? I'd love to know your opinions on that matter!
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The point is that comments on social media do affect political attitudes and behavior, for good or worse. Especially nowadays, when people do not read books anymore. In fact, most of them read 4-5 lines on Facebook or 1-2 lines on Twitter.
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For decades, scholars and think tanks have debated the effectiveness of aid in reducing poverty. In this debate, we will build on previous arguments about the effectiveness and value of aid, but focus on its role in disaster risk reduction and post-disaster reconstruction and recovery.
Scholars, think-tanks, celebrities, and politicians have claimed aid is crucial to prevent famines, diseases, and deaths. They argue that donors’ money can be used to solve basic problems in areas like sanitation, vaccination, education, housing, and infrastructure. Aid can also be used to fund monitoring activities and learn from interventions. More importantly, they contend that traditional markets alone cannot resolve housing and infrastructure deficits. They note that the poor are often stuck in feedback loops that economists call “poverty traps.” In other words, millions are poor precisely because they live in poverty. Slum dwellers, for instance, find it difficult to escape poverty because they pay proportionally more for services and infrastructure than wealthier citizens. Foreign aid is needed to break these vicious cycles and replace them with virtuous ones that make vulnerable people more resilient. For defenders, the real problem is lack of funds, not present mechanisms of aid. From their view, people use criticisms of aid merely as excuses to justify not donating money.
On the other hand, critics often find too much money is “wasted” on aid. For them,  initiatives seldom produce positive long-term change and—in many cases—even create more damaging than desirable results. They contend that donors’ money is spent on band-aid solutions that rarely have long-term impacts. They argue that aid is largely controlled by political agendas, feeds on forms of neo-colonialism, focuses too much on technology transfer, creates dependency, and bypasses legitimate governments and authorities. They contend that aid is often based on centralized schemes produced by over-confident and idealistic decision-makers with little knowledge of what is needed “on the ground.” For them, aid is often driven by ideology, and lacks the performance incentives and accountability mechanisms found in competitive (and typically “more efficient”) markets.
For this debate, we have invited two internationally recognized experts in humanitarian assistance and interventions to defend each viewpoint.
Our panellists will present their most persuasive arguments over the next ten days, but the outcome of the debate rests in your hands. Don’t hesitate to vote immediately—you can always change your mind. Better yet, once you have cast your vote, add your voice to the debate and explain your decision.
Vote and participate here: https://oddebates.com/
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Hi Ted. Can I post your answer in the blog?
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We investigate whether a higher level of complexity leads to increased reliance on expert knowledge when voting. We find that when more referenda are held on the same day, constituents are more likely to refer to parliamentary recommendations in making their decisions.
Here is a link to a short YouTube presentation http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RH2vmbAiwrQ on our research. I would be glad if you could give me your comments.
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In Organizational psychology is there any ,measure of bounded rationality available ?
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For the sumptuous prize of $1.
Voting will be judged on the most recommendations per post.
Deadline July 31 2019
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Paul: Teenagers who spend more time playing computer games spend less time doing their homework.
Publication: Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine
by Hope Cummings of the University of Michigan
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Thinking of ways to reduce corruption in the elections systems.
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Empirically, there are no democracies without voting; voting is evidently sine qua non for democracy.
But vote for leaders? Leaders are the cause of all the world’s troubles and tragedies. The only time we ever hear of a "good leader" is in a context of countering some "bad" (criminal) leader.
In a democracy the people vote for laws—for example in Switzerland. In Switzerland there are no leaders. The people vote for legislators and administrators but there is no leader at all. Switzerland is arguably the world’s best run country and it is one of the wealthiest per capita. And in terms of foreign policy, it has not had a war for 170 years.
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This study is supposed to use phenomenological approach with key informants. I was advised to make my objectives specific and measurable (i.e., SMART). I was also told to conduct triangulation. Is this correct and proper?
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Specific objectives, yes. Member check for triangulation, yes. However, I do not understand what they mean by making the objectives measurable. It will be a qualitative piece of research so you will not do 'measuring': one account will be just as valid as the other one.
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My question is simple:
If a government leader is chosen (through legal, transparent and audited democratic means) to follow an specific ideological line that fosters certain social programs, and after getting into power the leader of said government decides to change policy due to internal and external pressures that would stir the spending away from social programs (in order to cut spending and avoid risky national debt): is it treason to the democratic will of the people?, or, is it just displaying good economic intentions?
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''Treason is a matter of dates.''
--Napoleon Bonaparte
Regards
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We need a statistical test to evaluate two samples that are rankings of A(1) to A(n) elements, which are based on votes from participants. We want to compare those rankings to see if any difference in ranking is significant (based on the amount of votes given to each element). The null hypothesis would be that there is no significant difference between the rankings of the elements between the two samples. The alternative hypothesis would that there will be a significant difference in the rankings.
Can someone please suggest such a statistical test?
Thank you in advance.
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You can choose among different alternative in my opinion the most elegant is to build a correlation matrix Made by all the pairwise Spearman correlations between elements this summetric matrix is the input (once transformed into a distancematrix by d(ab) = 1 - r(ab) with r(ab) Spearman correlation between generic a b elements..in the case of strongly negative correlations use 2 - r ad metrica otherwise is preferable approximate negative to Zero correlations) This distance matrix is the input of a multidimensional scaling procedure (eg Kruskal scaling) that sul file rise to two explicit quantitative coordinates for such element reflecting orderin similarities compare the two Group e coordinate value by t test and you got it !
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Consider multiple neural networks for the same task and suppose we can optimize each network such that the output errors are as uncorrelated as possible with respect to the input data.
Does integrating the outputs of these multiple neural networks (e.g. by voting) improve the accuracy for the outputs and robustness against the attacks (e.g. adversarial examples)?
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I agree with the comment of Sébastien Dourlens, if the data has no good separability then multiple nn may not work.
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Hello I'm a post-graduate student of political science and I'm interested in political involvement and conventional political participation in my country, Lithuania.
The title of the thesis is: "The Factors of Political Interest of Lithuanian Society and Their Impact on Conventional Political Participation."
The goal of the thesis is to understand what motivates Lithuanian society to be interested in politics and the relation between interest and behavior during the national elections (that would include, for instance, voting turnout; and electoral volatility, also party partisanship).
I'm concerned whether the research question is well articulated and logical. It looks double but if I took only one of them my research might get too narrow. Moreover, If I was concerned only on factors that motivate society to be interested in politics while leaving voting behavior aside, the political aspect of my thesis seems to be at risk.
I appreciate your support,
Karolis
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I am already visualising two research topics from this topic you have tendered for some advice. Let me disaggregate to see whether or not my advice shall be helpful. I am inclined to align myself with the topic suggested by Professor C. Nock above. Then, the second topic could be framed from the segment of your initial topic as follows: "The Impact of Conventions on Political Participation in Lithuania." In regard to this latter topic, it would be obligatory for you to rigorously analyse what conventions exist in your country and through such exhaustive analysis that you may provide, especially in the impact they thus created on participation, your readers shall be in a proper position to judge for themselves the most salient. The two topics are apparently aiming at the attainment of the same objective in terms of issues pertaining to political participation. However, the difference inheres in the central concepts such "factors" and "conventions," which are not necessary the same. In addition, the concerns of the two topic are also different: one is about "cause" and the other is about "impact."
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I am waiting your voting and comments about my topic that 'ornament vs. purism'.Do you think just function is enough or additionally ornament is needed?
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We do not need to immitate stylistic or artistic features of the old periods but we should think on the aesthetic aspects of our time and there should be an effort to answer the question like this: How can we express and apply todays art on todays architecture?