Science topics: Voice
Science topic

Voice - Science topic

The voice consists of sound made by a human being using the vocal folds for talking, singing, laughing, crying, screaming, etc. Habitual speech fundamental frequency ranges in 75–150 Hz for men and 150–300 Hz for women. The human voice is specifically that part of human sound production in which the vocal folds (vocal cords) are the primary sound source.
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We are trying to use stem-loop primers for miRNAs expression investigation.
The RT reaction was performed using treated total RNA and the RT primer stem loop specific for our targeted miRNA (miR-125a). The 10 µl of RT reaction mixture contained 1 µl of treated RNA (0.1 ng–5 µg), 1 µl of RT primer (5 µM) and 1 µl of U6 (reference miRNA) RT primer (5 µM), 1 µl of 10 mM dNTP Mix, 2 µl of reaction buffer, 0.5 µl M-MLV Reverse Transcriptase. The mixture was incubated at 25°C for 5 min, and then incubation was continued at 42°C for 60 min. The reaction was inactivated by heating at 70°C for 5 min.
The 10 µl PCR volume included 1 µl of RT product, 5 µl of SYBR Green real-time PCR Master Mix, and 1 µl of primer (forward and reverse, 1 µM each). The reactions were incubated at 95°C for 3 min, followed by 40 cycles of 95°C for 5 s, 62°C for 35 s.
results were not satisfying . Negative control revealed expression and samples did not.
Do you have any suggestions regarding the protocol whether reverse transcription or PCR?
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Hi,
To begin with, I would suggest amplify U6 from 1ug of cDNA separately (like we normally do for mRNA or non-coding RNA), but use random hexamers.
I have used 200ng of total RNA for upto 3 multiplexed miRNA with excellent results. My reaction mixture (for cDNA) consists of 200ng total RNA, stem-loop primers - 3ul each, Qscript cDNA supermix - 4ul and water to make it upto 20ul.
The reaction cycle is 16-30min, 42-30 min, 85-5 min, 4- hold.
Following cDNA, the qpcr step involves SYBR green - 10ul, miRNA specific forward primer- 2ul, cDNA- 3ul, universal reverse primer - 2ul and dd water - 3ul.
The reaction cycle is standard qPCR with a dissociation curve.
You could look at these publications -
You can also contact me directly.
Best
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I understand non-associative learning is learning from a single stimulus. Many sources I can find show that habituation and sensitisation are forms of non-associative learning. Examples of single stimulus habituation are simple to imagine, but single stimulus sensitisation not so much. Many of the examples of sensitisation that people mention are actually examples of associative learning. I think the problem stems from the terminology, which suggests the following:
Desensitisation = opposite of sensitisation.
Habituation = opposite of sensitisation.
Therefore, habituation = desensitsation
I do not think that habituation is the same as desensitisation, but the terminology seems to be saying this is the case. I thought habituation was single stimulus learning, but desensitisation was the unlearning of a classically conditioned response (and therefore a type of associative learning).
Can anyone shed any light on this for me?
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It seems as though non-associative learning is no longer used in the literature on learning theory. However, the term was simply dropped, the issue with it was not tackled head-on to my knowledge. I have noticed that it is a pervasive term in the animal training and dog training world. I am searching for a reference that "puts the nail in the coffin" for this term of non-associative learning. However, everything I have discovered (or been kindly referred to) is of a high level. It seems as though there is a need for a review published in an animal behaviour journal (such as applied animal behaviour science), that debunks the term "non-associative learning" in laymen's terms.
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We are working on a project that requires the use of voice command to stop a screw conveyor in an emergency situation.
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Need to develop by plc manufacturer to adopt voice interface from Alexa or Google like devices so that voice tags can be decoded and fed in to logic for required out put genration
Or simply use IOT SPDT Switch which has voice command option connect in parellel /series with emmergency switch depends on existing logic
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Hello, I performed a GC-MS analysis for my plant extracts (stems and leaves) my questions are: 1- How can we identify the molecules if the probabilities are very close and we don't have a lot of information in the literature with which we can compare? 2- Can I compare my results with those of other species of the same family? 3- Can a molecule be observed at 2 different retention times? 4- A few molecules are present on the stems and absent on the leaves, is this normal?
Thank you in advance
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1- How can we identify the molecules if the probabilities are very close and we don't have a lot of information in the literature with which we can compare?
Plants extracts when analyzed by GCMS usually look very similar and their library probabilities are very low because the fragmentation pattern can be shared by multiple analytes. You can buy standards (at highest possible purity) and inject them into your system on at a time. This should allow you to first identify the retention time, and second to identify at least 3 fragments for each analyte that can serve as one quantifier and two qualifier ions.
2- Can I compare my results with those of other species of the same family?
I don't understand clearly what do you mean. You can't compare Apples to Oranges, because this won't be a fair comparison!
3- Can a molecule be observed at 2 different retention times?
Sure can! Again, compounds in plant extracts are very similar in their chemical structure and in many occasions you can see that different analytes produce similar fragments in the MS (fragments = molecules measured with certain m/z). Let's assume that there are two analytes (A and B) that are retained at different retention times on your column (assume RT for A is 2.3 min and for B is 3.2 min). If both of these two analytes produce a fragment of R group with m/z of 30 amu, then you'll see this 30 amu fragment twice, at 2.3 min and 3.2 min.
4- A few molecules are present on the stems and absent on the leaves, is this normal?
This is also true. In Cannabis flower, the THC compound for example is only found in the flower and can't be found in the stems.
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What is its unit of measure?
How can it be calculated?
How can it be used when shaking the tree stem?
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the rate at which the amplitude of a free damped vibration decreases
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I'm a 3rd-year psychology student at the University of East London and I'm conducting a 10-15 minute anonymous online survey to capture the everyday experience of Fibromyalgia patients and how they feel they are supported by their medical experts for my final year dissertation.
As leading voices for those who experience chronic illness and who may also be diagnosed with fibromyalgia, I would like to request your assistance in reaching those who often lack a voice, to allow me to capture their thoughts and feelings. Can you help me reach the 150 people that I need to complete the survey over the next two months.
All participation is anonymous and will be carried out under the strict guidelines of the British Psychological Society and the University of East London Ethics Committee.
As you are aware Fibromyalgia lacks robust research, I very much hope that gathering as many voices as possible through completion of the survey will be an opportunity to start addressing that.
To complete the fibromyalgia research survey please copy the address below into your browser.
Qualtrics Survey | Qualtrics Experience Management
The most powerful, simple and trusted way to gather experience data. Start your journey to experience management and try a free account today.
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good luck
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I am trying to build a model that can produce speech for any given text?
i could not find any speech cloning algo that can clone the voice based on speech only so I turned to TTS(Text-to-speech) models. I had the following doubts regarding data preparation?
As per LJSpeech dataset which has many 3-10 sec recordings we require around 20 hours of data. It will be very hard for me to build these many 10 sec recordings. What would be the impact if I make many 5 min recordings. One could be high resource req (but how much), are there any others.
Also is there some way through which I could convert these 5 min recordings as per LJSpeech format
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Hello Researchers,
I am keenly interested to know about the different voice therapy techniques, used by Speech-Language Pathologists (SLP) to enhance the efficient use of resonatory sub-system of elite professional voice users like singers.
Please suggest and refer me to the review pieces of literature or research studies available specific to singers.
Thank You!
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in RVT , i guess you would be using, straw exercises/ semi occluded based exercises in some form...
then thats quite comprehensive.
probably use of glides/ tongue trills in exercises may help too.
Increasing breath support is also important,
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e artificial diet for rearing Yellow stem borer successfully (1 or 2 generations) in laboratory (Not on natural hosts)
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“Quantification of Serotonin in Rice and Insect Pest and its Functional Analysis in Insects Using Artificial Diet Feeding“ This a quiet good paper where artificial rearing of stem borer is mention. However the adult part of insect need to rear on rice plan.
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What is the purpose of lemmatization in sentiment analysis. It helps us get to the lemma of a word. So does stemming. Is there another purpose for lemmatization? Like for example identifying synonyms?
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I guess you will have more explanation from here.. Steve Baker, an engineer in the search quality group at Google, just did a nice post about synonyms on the Google blog.
And this guy has summarised it,
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I'm planing to express non-coding RNA in E.coli.
The sequence design:
250 bp - hairpin - 250 bp (complementary to the first 250 bp)
I'm having trouble finding a reliable source of known stem loop sequences and the optimal way to choose in relation of the length of their attached sequence.
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Re RNA hairpins. I think it's hard to find a biologically relevant stem of 250 bp + loop, in my experience, you can find shorter hairpins in the mammalian literature, dm for more info.
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Hello Researchers,
I am keenly interested to know about and work with the effect of insecticide treatment at different rice crop stages on the carry-over of yellow stem borer. Please suggest and refer me to the review pieces of literature or research studies conducted previously.
Thank You!
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I have estimated different nutrient concentration present in plant leaf. Is there any method or equation from which I can obtain the nutrient status of stems of same plant?
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I doubt , any such empirical equation is available , where we can derive the shoot nutrient concentration from leaf nutrient concentration . But , nice question.....
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In a sentiment analysis project, does Stemming and lemmatization have an impact on the performance of my Deep Learning model?
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Does lemmatization identify synonyms and link them to same lemma?
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i enter my data by using data6=scan() for its command,
then i type data6=data, then when i use stem(data6), it is said that,
Error in stem(data6) : 'x' must be numeric
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The error appears to be caused by the fact that the data6 is not of the numeric class. Based on what I understand, you used SCAN and manually entered the values for data6 (which must be numerical). If so, what is the variable data6? And why did you choose data6=data? Data6 overrides whatever value you created in data6 using scan if it is another variable (and must not be a numeric one) and I assume that is why there is a problem. I would be glad to assist further if you need it. Thanks.
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My interest study nowadays relates to voice identity and voice quality using PRAAT software. In addition, I need another software to facilitate and verify my results.
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i understand from the q, that you are looking for acoustic analysis software.
speech analyzer from SIL, would be an option.
it also has option for annotation.
if video recording and transcription and voice analysis all required then you can look at
elan or phon softwares.
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There are many method to check about stemness of cells. But, I need a method that can compare stemness within few minutes. Is there any method ?
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Aldefluor is one of the fast method.
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Can anyone refer me to articles on the topic of gender, narrative voice and empathy when watching videos/films. That is, do women or men show higher or lower empathy levels when watching videos/films in first versus third person narrative. Or anything on the topic of gender, narrative voice (third person versus first person narrative) and empathy.
Thank you
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Thank you for the question and for the answer. I find them very interesting. Thank you!
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Hello,
I read some papers they used Pre-processing steps with text that will classify based on Sentiment Analysis.
My question is, can I use text Pre-processing techniques in the sentiment analysis classification, such as the Stop Words Removal and Stemming techniques? If can, it will cause Negations Words or Negation Prefix to be deleted, such as ( I am Not happy), will be (happy) after we use Stop Words Removal technique or (unlucky) will be (lucky) after we do Stemming process. That's mean the sentence that should classified into negative class will be classified into positive class. How to deal with that?
Thanks to answers in advance.
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Check out the following link, it might be useful for you:
Why is removing stop words not always a good idea
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Hi, do you know any literature or article, that analyse any kind of unorthodox ADR, revoicing? Extreme example is when there's woman on screen but we hear male voice. Subtle use of this could be actor doing some kind of extreme action but his voice is calm. Or something similar. Thanks a lot!
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See:
Allison Craven (2013) Heritage enigmatic: The silence of the dubbed in Jedda and TheIrishman, Studies in Australasian Cinema, 7:1, 23-34, DOI: 10.1386/sac.7.1.23_1
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Are there open source datasets and pre-trained deep learning models available for voice sentiment classification ?
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Hi everyone,
I'm looking for some ideas for my thesis and I've already had a few, but I wouldn't mind some help to come up with something better. I'm interested in neurolinguistics and dysphonia. Could anyone recommend some useful articles and materials? Thank you!
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If you're looking to combine dysphonia and neurolinguistics into a single study, perhaps some study of expressive use/implementation of paralinguistic aspects of language (prosody) in people with dysphonia and/or how any modifications that they make are perceived/processed by listeners?
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Please what are the combined effect of several weather conditions on the development and successful forecasting of stem rust disease of wheat?
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kindly see:
Climate change impacts the spread potential of wheat stem rust, a significant crop disease
  • November 2019
  • Environmental Research Letters 14(12)
  • Follow journal
  • DOI:
  • 10.1088/1748-9326/ab57de
  • License
  • CC BY 3.0
  • 📷Marje Prank
  • 📷Shawn Kenaley
  • 📷Gary C. Bergstrom
  • Show all 5 authors
  • Natalie M Mahowald
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Does anyone know why the same clone of plants gives different types of plants in vitro culture specially meristem extraction techniques. (eg'-single stemmed, multiple stems, thinned stems with clusters)?
Does anyone know how to get rid of contamination of in vitro plants ? fungal and bacterial contaminations
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Again it depends on a particular plant species only. Generally, comparatively more BAP induces multiple shoots, and lower BAP elongates the shoots. GA we used for elongation of shoots, generally, it would not help in multiple shoot induction.
A good combination of BAP and the mild auxin generally help in the multiplication and elongation of shoots same time. It saves time, energy, and the cost of production.
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Several reports exists relating to the frequency fundamental of male and female speech. Though they not all agree, there is a clear trend that the fundamental frequency of men's voices is lower than females. One example: "The voiced speech of a typical adult male will have a fundamental frequency from 85 to 155 Hz, and that of a typical adult female from 165 to 255 Hz."[1]
QUESTION: Is it meaningful to study speech below these frequencies and why?
I am studying speech directivity and for some reason in the literature the male and female voice seems to repeatedly compared at 125 Hz, near the male fundamental. This seems nonsensical to me but maybe there is a good reason for this? I have recorded a fair bit of female speech and I see very little sound energy in this frequency band.
[1] Baken, R. J. (2000). Clinical Measurement of Speech and Voice, 2nd Edition. London: Taylor and Francis Ltd. (pp. 177), ISBN 1-5659-3869-0. That in turn cites Fitch, J.L. and Holbrook, A. (1970). Modal Fundamental Frequency of Young Adults in Archives of Otolaryngology, 92, 379-382, Table 2 (p. 381).
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I find your research interesting. Now bear in mind that one of the objectives of conducting researches is to prove or support existing theories as well as yield results which are dissimilar to the available published findings and resources. I believe you would want to choose either of these two options.
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Dear Colleagues,
You can make a big contribution to the field of Higher Education by voicing your views on the University Ranking Systems.
Kindly spend 30 s to attend the following simple google form. A BIG Thank to all of you who contribute with your opinion.
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Done
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Hello,
My name is Khalil Ahmed, and I am studying MSc Business and Management (MBM) at the University of Strathclyde Business School in Glasgow.
As a part of my master's project, I am conducting a survey to analyse the "Use of business analytics to strengthen brand equity". Therefore, I value your practical insights and they will help me get a better understanding of this research field.
Questions:
Tell me about your experiences with business analytics?
Do you think business analytics provide an efficient forecast of future events?
How has BA influenced your company’s brand/sales?
How important is BA today?
Where do you see BA going in the near future?
This survey required detailed answers, you can even send me a voice message to my WhatsApp or Email written below. You can fill out a form, or send me a voice recording by answering all questions written above.
Best Regards,
Khalil Ahmed
Student of MSc Business and Management (MBM)
University of Strathclyde Business School
+44-7307188878
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Hermann Gruenwald Hello Sir, I would appreciate it if you fill out the survey for me. By looking at your experience I believe it will be quite helpful in my research. I also would like to request you, if you know a couple of people, please ask them if they can help out. If you have already completed the survey, I would like to thank you for taking out time from your busy schedule.
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Hi everyone,
Is there a way to promote the discussions/questions I started on RG? The read-count is desperately low comparing to others. Does it stem from the number of contacts, are there any other promotion tricks?
Thanks ;-)
Best regards,
Martin
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Hello everyone,
for my thesis I want to extract some voice features from audio data recorded during psychotherapy sessions. For this I am using the openSMILE toolkit. For the fundamental frequency and jitter I already get good results, but the extraction of center frequencies and bandwidths of the formants 1-3 is puzzling me. For some reason there appears to be just one formant (the first one) with a frequency range up to 6kHz. Formants 2 and 3 are getting values of 0. I expected the formants to be within a range of 500 to 2000 Hz.
I tried to fix the problem myself but could not find the issue here. Does anybody have experience with openSMILE, especially formant extraction, and could help me out?
For testing purposes I am using various audio files recorded by myself or extracted from youtube. My config file looks like this:
///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
// openSMILE configuration template file generated by SMILExtract binary //
///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
[componentInstances:cComponentManager]
instance[dataMemory].type = cDataMemory
instance[waveSource].type = cWaveSource
instance[framer].type = cFramer
instance[vectorPreemphasis].type = cVectorPreemphasis
instance[windower].type = cWindower
instance[transformFFT].type = cTransformFFT
instance[fFTmagphase].type = cFFTmagphase
instance[melspec].type = cMelspec
instance[mfcc].type = cMfcc
instance[acf].type = cAcf
instance[cepstrum].type = cAcf
instance[pitchAcf].type = cPitchACF
instance[lpc].type = cLpc
instance[formantLpc].type = cFormantLpc
instance[formantSmoother].type = cFormantSmoother
instance[pitchJitter].type = cPitchJitter
instance[lld].type = cContourSmoother
instance[deltaRegression1].type = cDeltaRegression
instance[deltaRegression2].type = cDeltaRegression
instance[functionals].type = cFunctionals
instance[arffSink].type = cArffSink
printLevelStats = 1
nThreads = 1
[waveSource:cWaveSource]
writer.dmLevel = wave
basePeriod = -1
filename = \cm[inputfile(I):name of input file]
monoMixdown = 1
[framer:cFramer]
reader.dmLevel = wave
writer.dmLevel = frames
copyInputName = 1
frameMode = fixed
frameSize = 0.0250
frameStep = 0.010
frameCenterSpecial = center
noPostEOIprocessing = 1
buffersize = 1000
[vectorPreemphasis:cVectorPreemphasis]
reader.dmLevel = frames
writer.dmLevel = framespe
k = 0.97
de = 0
[windower:cWindower]
reader.dmLevel=framespe
writer.dmLevel=winframe
copyInputName = 1
processArrayFields = 1
winFunc = ham
gain = 1.0
offset = 0
[transformFFT:cTransformFFT]
reader.dmLevel = winframe
writer.dmLevel = fftc
copyInputName = 1
processArrayFields = 1
inverse = 0
zeroPadSymmetric = 0
[fFTmagphase:cFFTmagphase]
reader.dmLevel = fftc
writer.dmLevel = fftmag
copyInputName = 1
processArrayFields = 1
inverse = 0
magnitude = 1
phase = 0
[melspec:cMelspec]
reader.dmLevel = fftmag
writer.dmLevel = mspec
nameAppend = melspec
copyInputName = 1
processArrayFields = 1
htkcompatible = 1
usePower = 0
nBands = 26
lofreq = 0
hifreq = 8000
usePower = 0
inverse = 0
specScale = mel
[mfcc:cMfcc]
reader.dmLevel=mspec
writer.dmLevel=mfcc1
copyInputName = 0
processArrayFields = 1
firstMfcc = 0
lastMfcc = 12
cepLifter = 22.0
htkcompatible = 1
[acf:cAcf]
reader.dmLevel=fftmag
writer.dmLevel=acf
nameAppend = acf
copyInputName = 1
processArrayFields = 1
usePower = 1
cepstrum = 0
acfCepsNormOutput = 0
[cepstrum:cAcf]
reader.dmLevel=fftmag
writer.dmLevel=cepstrum
nameAppend = acf
copyInputName = 1
processArrayFields = 1
usePower = 1
cepstrum = 1
acfCepsNormOutput = 0
oldCompatCepstrum = 1
absCepstrum = 1
[pitchAcf:cPitchACF]
reader.dmLevel=acf;cepstrum
writer.dmLevel=pitchACF
copyInputName = 1
processArrayFields = 0
maxPitch = 500
voiceProb = 0
voiceQual = 0
HNRdB = 0
F0 = 1
F0raw = 0
F0env = 1
voicingCutoff = 0.550000
[lpc:cLpc]
reader.dmLevel = fftc
writer.dmLevel = lpc1
method = acf
p = 8
saveLPCoeff = 1
lpGain = 0
saveRefCoeff = 0
residual = 0
forwardFilter = 0
lpSpectrum = 0
[formantLpc:cFormantLpc]
reader.dmLevel = lpc1
writer.dmLevel = formants
copyInputName = 1
nFormants = 3
saveFormants = 1
saveIntensity = 0
saveNumberOfValidFormants = 1
saveBandwidths = 1
minF = 400
maxF = 6000
[formantSmoother:cFormantSmoother]
reader.dmLevel = formants;pitchACF
writer.dmLevel = forsmoo
copyInputName = 1
medianFilter0 = 0
postSmoothing = 0
postSmoothingMethod = simple
F0field = F0
formantBandwidthField = formantBand
formantFreqField = formantFreq
formantFrameIntensField = formantFrameIntens
intensity = 0
nFormants = 3
formants = 1
bandwidths = 1
saveEnvs = 0
no0f0 = 0
[pitchJitter:cPitchJitter]
reader.dmLevel = wave
writer.dmLevel = jitter
writer.levelconf.nT = 1000
copyInputName = 1
F0reader.dmLevel = pitchACF
F0field = F0
searchRangeRel = 0.250000
jitterLocal = 1
jitterDDP = 1
jitterLocalEnv = 0
jitterDDPEnv = 0
shimmerLocal = 0
shimmerLocalEnv = 0
onlyVoiced = 0
inputMaxDelaySec = 2.0
[lld:cContourSmoother]
reader.dmLevel=mfcc1;pitchACF;forsmoo;jitter
writer.dmLevel=lld1
writer.levelconf.nT=10
writer.levelconf.isRb=0
writer.levelconf.growDyn=1
nameAppend = sma
copyInputName = 1
noPostEOIprocessing = 0
smaWin = 3
[deltaRegression1:cDeltaRegression]
reader.dmLevel=lld1
writer.dmLevel=lld_de
writer.levelconf.isRb=0
writer.levelconf.growDyn=1
nameAppend = de
copyInputName = 1
noPostEOIprocessing = 0
deltawin=2
blocksize=1
[deltaRegression2:cDeltaRegression]
reader.dmLevel=lld_de
writer.dmLevel=lld_dede
writer.levelconf.isRb=0
writer.levelconf.growDyn=1
nameAppend = de
copyInputName = 1
noPostEOIprocessing = 0
deltawin=2
blocksize=1
[functionals:cFunctionals]
reader.dmLevel = lld1;lld_de;lld_dede
writer.dmLevel = statist
copyInputName = 1
frameMode = full
// frameListFile =
// frameList =
frameSize = 0
frameStep = 0
frameCenterSpecial = left
noPostEOIprocessing = 0
functionalsEnabled=Extremes;Moments;Means
Extremes.max = 1
Extremes.min = 1
Extremes.range = 1
Extremes.maxpos = 0
Extremes.minpos = 0
Extremes.amean = 0
Extremes.maxameandist = 0
Extremes.minameandist = 0
Extremes.norm = frame
Moments.doRatioLimit = 0
Moments.variance = 1
Moments.stddev = 1
Moments.skewness = 0
Moments.kurtosis = 0
Moments.amean = 0
Means.amean = 1
Means.absmean = 1
Means.qmean = 0
Means.nzamean = 1
Means.nzabsmean = 1
Means.nzqmean = 0
Means.nzgmean = 0
Means.nnz = 0
[arffSink:cArffSink]
reader.dmLevel = statist
filename = \cm[outputfile(O):name of output file]
append = 0
relation = smile
instanceName = \cm[inputfile]
number = 0
timestamp = 0
frameIndex = 1
frameTime = 1
frameTimeAdd = 0
frameLength = 0
// class[] =
printDefaultClassDummyAttribute = 0
// target[] =
// ################### END OF openSMILE CONFIG FILE ######################
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Hi,
Please pay attention to these parameters:
...
nFormants = 3
formants = 1
bandwidths = 1
...
Change the 1's with 3's
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sp1 is a cross section of a syngonium leaf. sp2 is a cross section of the syngonium leaf stem, and sp4 is a christmas cactus. i stained with light green and counterstained with nfr.
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For transverse section (TS) of leaf. You first describe the CUTICLE. Is cuticle straight or undulating or wavy is it striated or not?. EPIDERMIS, Is epidermis straight or undulating or wavy?. Is it uniserate, biserate or multiserate?. Epidermal cell shape and arrangement, any epidermal appendages like trichome?. MESOPHYLL. Is mesophyll distinguishable in to palisade and spongy or not. If it is not distinguishable describe the type, shape and arrangement of the cells of the mesophyll. If it is distinguishable describe the cells of palisade and spongy separately. Then the MIDRIB, sometimes the features of cuticle and epidermal layer around the midrib may be different from that around the lamina then you have to mention it. The MIDRIB CORTEX- describe the type, shape and the arrangement of the cells of the midrib cortex. VASCULAR BUNDLE- Type of bundle Is all cortical bundle or ridge or both? Is it radial or conjoint? If it radial what type of radial and if it si conjoint what type? ERGASTIC SUBSTANCES- crystals type and location, starch granules shape and location, fat or oil location, tannin etc. All these features are better observed on the Microscope. The photomicrograph is good but not adequate to observe these features.
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Natural fibers are usually obtained by retting of stems of bast fiber yielding plants and then beating them manually or mechanically to separate the fibers. I would like to know if there is any method by which it can be done without the process of beating.
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You need some mechanical action to finish the separation even when bast fiber ribbons have been retted. You could pass the ribbons through fluted rollers; the finer the flutes the better the cleaning job but the lower the capacity. You could put the retted ribbons on a belt or slats with steel pins starting with coarse widely spaced pins and then passing to another pins with slighting finer more closely spaced pins and then to a belt with even finer pins and closer spacing. On top of these belts you have other pined belts that run slightly faster than the lower belts. The upper pins are set so they go between the lower pins. This gives a combing action and will pull apart retted bast bundles. You could also try a coarse garnet machine with very large drum and teeth; followed by one with finer teeth etc. In flax this is done with a "breaker card" followed by a "finisher card".
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When a Maize plant is given normal condition for growth development, stand & establishment, it grows without tillering. But, when it get infected by any infestans for eg, Stem borer or FAW that infestes on Plant whorl making it unable to grow any further tall.
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Dear Radhakrishna Bhandari Modern maize (Zea mays L.) has descended from teosinte (Zea maxicana L.) possibly through a macromutation with pleiotropic effects including preclusion of tillering habit. In cases of early pathogen infection, insect induced or physical damage, "tillering" genes get activated in order to sustain pertetuity of the modern maize. To my opinion, such a phenomenon in modern maize is the relic of tillering ability of its ancestral species.
Best wishes, AKC
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Hello, Please I need help with a statistical analysis. I don't know which statistical test to use. The study I did is as follows : an extraction by maceration of the leaves and stems of a plant and an ultrasonic assisted extraction of the leaves and stems as well. I then performed the following tests in triplicate (polyphenols, flavonoids, flavonols, condensed tannins and DPPH).
I want to make the following comparisons: - leaves with stems - Leaves (maceration) with leaves (sonication) - stems (maceration) with stems (sonication)
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If you want to look at the statistical difference between groups when all the work is done, you can do One-Way Anova if you have enough examples.
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My research direction is to modify existing molecular beacons but I cannot seem to get the solid phase synthesis of the quencher-free molecular beacon with flurophore attached at the loop region. It appears they are lots of work on this but the synthesis is not clear. I need help on whether the fluorophore is attached before the stem region or after the stem region.
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I finally succeeded in designing the molecular beacon (although this is coming late). I figured that the best way of attaching the Thiazole Orange fluorophore is by attaching it first before completing the stem synthesis. This is because after the stem has been successfully attached, it is a bit rigid for the dye to insert itself into the middle position again.
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I do my research and have a big problem to collect speech sample of cleft palate child.
thank you for your help.
Rujira
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Thank you !
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Dear Researchers,
Greetings !!!
Department of Computer Applications, Madanapalle Institute of Technology and Science (MITS), is going to organize one-week online Faculty Development program on "Scientific Writing Using Latex" from 22/03/2021 to 26/03/2021.
E-certificate: All registered participants will be eligible to get e-certificate whose attendance is above 75% in all sessions and after submitting feedback form.
Registration Link: https://tinyurl.com/7hm3skj5
Registration Fee: No registration fee required.
Objective:
  • The objective of the programme is to introduce fundamentals of Scientific Writing and its applications.
  • The program would help the participants to under- stand basics of Latex software.
  • It helps the participant to write research papers using journal Template.
  • This programme also focuses on writing Thesis using Latex.
Contact for correspondence:
Dr. Mohammad Shameem
(MITS, Madnapalle)
Voice: (+91)-8791368088, (+91) -9852147345
Dr. Naeem Ahamad
(MITS, Madanapalle)
Voice: (+91)-8510930530
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We are planning a study in which we want to isolate PBMCs from study participants blood in order differentiate osteoclasts. As we are interested in differences between two groups of participants, we are worried about inter-assay differences, which do not stem from participants but rather from the assay itself. We are not able to collect blood from all the participants at the same time. Is there a way to minimize any inter-assay differences or at least to somehow control for them?
Thank you very much in advance.
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Hi Susana,
thanks a lot for that recommendation. The dentin idea sounds really interesting, I'll see if we can add this to our protocol.
Gracias por la ayuda, espero que nuestros intentos sean buenos.
Beatrice
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Further, I came up with results of a positive correlation between nodule number and total-N percent, while nodule mass was positively correlated with N%. Any reasons? Any previous studies or insights will be appreciated. Thank you!
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  • При выращивание бобовых самое главное не в диаметре стебля и клубеньков а в процессе симбиоза, т.е активности бактерии и накопление биологического азота. Вы должны знать и определить как идет симбиоз? Если этот процессе не происходит или идет медленно необходимо при посеве бобовых замачивание семян нитрагином, который ускорит накопления азота.
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How to extract a single-stranded DNA from a double-stranded DNA sample isolated from stem borer(rice affecting insect)? As I need to amplify ss Dna using a COX-1 marker having primer sequence as Forward: 5'-GGTCAACAAATCATAAAGATATTGG-3' and Reverse: 5'-TAAACTTCAGGGTGACCAAAAAATCA-3' .
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I'm staining some brains with several stemness markers but the OCT4 antibody that I have been using is not working. I would really appreciate your recommendations!
Thank you!
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I used (SC-5279) for IHC and immunofluorescence in human gonad sections, as well as immunofluorescence human ES cells. All the results are excellent I Hope that help you.
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I'm looking for morphological models that could used for stemming (NLP) in python for following languages: Croatian, Czech, Estonian, Slovakian.
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Hi.
I don't know whether this question is still actual however I'd like to recommend you the Universal Dependency tool, namely, UDPipe: http://lindat.mff.cuni.cz/services/udpipe/. There you can find models for all languages that you need. These models allow performing both morphological and syntactic analysis. I've used them for different Slavic languages in Python, it's working pretty well.
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I'm reviewing charging data records (CDRs) from a mobile carrier for one user's cell phone and I notice that for many of the voice calls, there is an associated data record that starts about 1 second before the voice call and is torn down at the end of the voice call.
Is this a feature of an LTE or 4G voice call? What is the purpose of this data channel. It appears to use approximately 40 K of data in the uplink and downlink directions for each call.
Thank you.
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I'm not sure whether "voice over LTE" service, specifically, requires a data channel, but "voice over IP" does. If your voice calls, over a 4G/LTE network, sometimes (but not always) have an associated data channel, then my bet is, those are VoIP telephone calls, where the cell phone is using an IP network, to make the phone call.
When voice calls are made, from an IP network to the standard public switched telephone network (PSTN), or vice versa, there has to be a server involved, to map the PSTN telephone number with the IP address being used by the VoIP side of the connection. This is always needed, whether the call is going out on, or coming into, the IP network.
And it makes sense, right? The standard 10-digit telephone number, or other schemes used in other parts than North America, are not native to IP networks. Something has to do the translation, and something has to provide the steady stream of packets, required to keep that phone connection alive.
If you want to know the details, this RFC 3372 describes the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP), used in the IP end of that phone connection.
SIP-T is not a new protocol - it is a set of mechanisms for interfacing traditional telephone signaling with SIP. The purpose of SIP-T is to provide protocol translation and feature transparency across points of PSTN-SIP interconnection. It intended for use where a VoIP network (a SIP network, for the purposes of this document) interfaces with the PSTN. Using SIP-T, there are three basic models for how calls interact with gateways. Calls that originate in the PSTN can traverse a gateway to terminate at a SIP endpoint, such as an IP phone. Conversely, an IP phone can make a call that traverses a gateway to terminate in the PSTN. Finally, an IP network using SIP may serve as a transit network between gateways - a call may originate and terminate in the PSTN, but cross a SIP-based network somewhere in the middle.
There is a more basic RFC to cover SIP, in general, not necessarily related to telephone calls made over IP networks. RFC 3261:
There are many applications of the Internet that require the creation and management of a session, where a session is considered an exchange of data between an association of participants. The implementation of these applications is complicated by the practices of participants: users may move between endpoints, they may be addressable by multiple names, and they may communicate in several different media - sometimes simultaneously. Numerous protocols have been authored that carry various forms of real-time multimedia session data such as voice, video, or text messages. The Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) works in concert with these protocols by enabling Internet endpoints (called user agents) to discover one another and to agree on a characterization of a session they would like to share. For locating prospective session participants, and for other functions, SIP enables the creation of an infrastructure of network hosts (called proxy servers) to which user agents can send registrations, invitations to sessions, and other requests. SIP is an agile, general-purpose tool for creating, modifying, and terminating sessions that works independently of underlying transport protocols and without dependency on the type of session that is being established.
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I'm working on research on speaker recognition performance on twins. Would be grateful for any links to datasets that contain voices of twins!
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Hi :)
Sorry. I don't know any dataset about twins' voices.
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Olá meus amigos, como vocês estão? Gostaria de construir junto com vocês uma discussão sobre REPORTAR CIÊNCIA para o público. Como vocês se sentem ou se posicionam como cientistas nessa discussão tão atual sobre DIVULGAÇÃO CIENTÍFICA? Vamos interagir um pouco?
-----------------------------------------
Hello colleagues, how are you? I would like to introduce a discussion on HOW TO REPORT SCIENCE FOR THE PUBLIC. How do you feel, as scientists, in this very current discussion about SCIENCE OUTREACH? Let's interact a little?
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Acredito que estamos perdendo a guerra do conhecimento, porém a divulgação científica é a ferramenta para mudar isso. O crescimento da negação da ciência é fruto em partes dos trabalhos de pesquisas ficarem imersos na bolha acadêmica. Além disso, é necessário que esse conhecimento chegue nas camadas mais leigas da sociedade, de forma de fácil entendimento, para que as futuras gerações compreendam melhor o método científico e os trabalhos feitos pelos pesquisadores.
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hello. I'm using ESP8266 module(ESP-01) and a Stm32f103 micro controller to send a ". Wav" voice format to a specific server on the internet. a variable contains the sound and i want to send it through a HTTP POST request. and also it should be on the body request of the POST request. can you help me how can i do it?
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Is it alright if I can use both but more of an emphasis on the passive voice in the literature section and the active voice in the results and dsicussion
Thanks
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In scientific research the writing should be in passive voice.
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How can we compare two audio files, or voice recorder files, according to Al-Quran. Al-Quran has special pronunciation compared to Arabic pronunciation. Is it possible to do the comparison between user voice and the way Al-Quran is pronounced?
I have already tried the Google Speech to Text for Arabic, but it seems it does not handle the pronunciation for Al-Quran.
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Why do you want to do such a comparison?
Do you want to convert voice to text, or you just want to do voice recognition?
In case of voice recognition, I would recommend some well-known softwares, like Shazam, Dictate, google assistant...etc.
Also, you can easily modify some free sources codes.
Otherwise, I don't think there is such an app or code that can detect the text from "Quran pronunciation" unless you develop your own.
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Africans leaders are using constitution to rule their countries but its constitution without constitutionalism because thy are not following the demands of constitution. Africans leaders are they following their constitution. Focus on the issue of democracy. There is no voice of people in African countries. Activist are now under captivity if they try to raise a voice against the government. So help me with many points to come out with a good argument.
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Tashinga -
I suspect that you are correct. I suspect that many authoritarians use selected and distorted references to constitutions while violating the spirit of their nation's constitution and without being willing to abide by its restrictions. If you have examples from Africa, I think there are plenty elsewhere as well. Donald Trump in the US seems a good example. His damage has been limited by institutions, but they have been greatly weakened and need to be refortified.
This seems all too common.
Best wishes - Jim
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I would like to detect my participants' emotional state and categorize how engaging their speeches are under different metrics. I wondered if any programs categorize the "emotion" and speech quality of speakers, so we can focus on higher-level analyzes.
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For emotion detection I ended up finding this link:
and this survey:
Marechal, C., Mikolajewski, D., Tyburek, K., Prokopowicz, P., Bougueroua, L., Ancourt, C., & Wegrzyn-Wolska, K. (2019). Survey on AI-Based Multimodal Methods for Emotion Detection.
However, I still haven't found anything to detect how engaging the speech is.
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I have used bbb in online teaching and Zoon in online conference. I would like you to share your experience with me if you have used any of them. Please share any technical problems.
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Zoom offers a full-featured Basic Plan for free with unlimited meetings. ... Both Basic and Pro plans allow for unlimited 1-1 meetings, each meeting can have a duration of 24 hours maximum. Your Basic plan has a 40 minutes time limit per each meeting with three or more total participants. https://zoom.us/pricing
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The methods I have used have low yield
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I appreciate the useful contributions of Ghassan and Sandhya. Thank you very much
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What will be the RTL design? How can it be implemented inoder to secure voice communication using AES128 bit encryption on FPGA.
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If you want to implement AES on FPGA, then you have to write its code in a VHDL language. That is you need to implement the AES algorithm VHDL hardware description language. If you have this description you use the simulation tools to get the RTL logic description. The whole software tool serving all the design steps from VHL to an executable file on FPGS is available from the vendors of the FPFAs such as the XILINIX ISE software tools.
For much more details please follow the data in the link:https://www.xilinx.com/products/design-tools/ise-design-suite.html
Best wishes
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I am wondering if there is any published study or anecdotic field observations that show that active howling (human voice, playback) could disturb (even slightly) wolf packs? I am aware that it could be hard to make any sound conclusions even with wolves followed by means of telemetry. I am also interested in studies that show that wolf packs are not disturbed at all. Many thanks in advance. Best wishes Fridolin
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Hi Fridolin, Here is a nice paper on the topic out of Algonquin Provincial Park in Ontario, Canada. They looked at how GPS-collared wolf space-use changed in response to human howls. Hope that helps if you have not seen this already!
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The affected plant (with others) has been under drought for sometimes and planted on re-used soil. Could these have any connections to the disease?
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The 2 likely diseases of cassava are necrosis and anthracnose (the canker, like you called it). And from the close-up view, I would go with your diagnosis (the latter).
Regarding the possible mode of transmission, the anthracnose disease is a fungal one, and is air-borne. The existence of infected stems or leaves is enough to spread the fungal spores, irrespective of whether the infected vegetative part is dead or not. Infected soil could as well be threatening. In your case, wind could have spread the disease during the drought season, if your soil is innocent.
I recommend you completely eradicate (destroy by burning) old/infected stems, and practice shifting cultivation; bearing in mind that the same fungal spp. can attack other crops like paw-paw and pepper.
Kind regards
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I am on the research for studies that investigate speaker normalization in children. For example, I wonder whether children around the age of six years can already normalize acoustic differences between speakers as well as adults. Any suggestions for literature on this topic?
Looking forward to reading your suggestions.
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Isabel,
I know of many studies on when phoneme detectors develop but never thought about your question.
Are we even sure that people perform speaker normalization in the same sense that speech recognition systems do (or at least used to before deep learning)?
Since we do know that one of the early layers of human speech recognition processing produces a sequence of best phoneme guesses, and higher layers can force backtracking to try the next best guesses, it is possible to check psychophysically if there is such a normalization at lower layers by checking the processing speed, and if there is a change in processing speed after normalization takes place.
It is also an interesting question how the speaker recognition and speech recognition processes are related. Do we first recognize the speaker and then apply that speaker's phoneme recognizers? I remember reading a paper a few years ago about recognizing accents before recognizing speech (but can't find the reference).
Another clue is Hearing different accents at home impacts language processing in infants from U Buffalo (www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/12/171205104127.htm ) which found that infants exposed to multiple accents before 12 months develop different recognition strategies. See also the JASA reference there and
Linguistic processing of accented speech across the lifespan (www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyg.2012.00479/full).
Finally Language Discrimination by English-Learning 5-Month-Olds: Effects of Rhythm and Familiarity (labfon.letras.ulisboa.pt/personal/sfrota/aeli/Nazzi_Jusczyk_Johnson_2000.pdf) may be of use.
Would love to hear what you learn!
Y(J)S
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What are the reasons why non-Anglophone academics are under-represented in critical reviews in academic articles?
What can be specifically done to give voice to under-repesented academics?
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Thank you so much for your detailed answer and your comments. It is also the same in the academic critical reviews that only repeat those that have been repeated which usually disregards women, and BIPOC scholars (even if the subject matter is about them, hope you will here more in my near future presentation about this; and also in some near future research).
"Who Speaks for History?" Wednesday 23rd September, 6 pm British ST
With Dr Natalya Din-Kariuki, Dr Murat Ogutcu and Eva Momtaz Chaired by Lubaaba Al-Azami
Organised by MEMOs in collaboration with RenSoc.
Thank you once again for your kind reply.
I wish you all the best.
Best regards,
Murat Öğütcü
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Do you think that scientific research is currently going on the right track, that following up on scientific research in periodicals and scientific literature, we find that it is complementary research or repetition of ideas and we do not find the new is this voice, how do you evaluate scientific research currently in different tracks, in light of the current crisis as COVID 19?
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Good question
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In an upcoming research project we need voice recordings. The recordings will be transcribed and used together with the texts for statistical analysis.
According to ethical principles, personal data must be anonymised or at least pseudonymised after a certain time as indicated in our informed consens. This is problematic in the case of sound recordings because a person can be recognised by his or her voice.
Is there an uncomplicated way to make the voice recordings anonymous or pseudonymous?
What are ethically acceptable alternatives?
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Jeff Sedayao Thank you. That's a practical answer.
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I have a complex channel matrix 'H' and I want to quantize it in such a way so that the quantization error is minimum. In particular, how to select the dynamic range (the maximum and minimum interval) of the quantization level. Also, what is the best way of finding the appropriate values of each quantized point?
A MATLAB code-based supported answer would be icing on the cake. :)
-------
Below is what I am doing, at the moment, but it is not the best way.
Example:
H =
[-0.9767 + 1.0234i, -1.0477 - 0.4223i;
1.0364 + 0.0454i , 0.0095 - 0.4758i;
0.2724 - 0.4980i , -0.4430 - 0.7466i;
-0.7302 + 0.7945i , -0.2508 + 0.1906i]; %Matrix H having 4 rows and 2 columns
H = H.';
H = reshape(H,1,[]);
partition = [0:1]; % Quantization levels
codebook = [0:2]; %Values for each quantized point.
[index,Q_H_real] = quantiz(real(H),partition,codebook); % Quantized real of H.
[index,Q_H_Im] = quantiz(imag(H),partition,codebook); % Quantized img. of H.
Q_H=Q_H_real+i*Q_H_Im;
%Fig. 1. Plot real part of H and its quantized version
stem(real(H),'b');
hold on
stem(Q_H_real,'r')
legend('Original (Real Part) H','Quantized (Real Part) H')
title('Quantization of Real Part of H')
%Fig. 2. Plot Imaginary part of H and its quantized version
figure;
stem(imag(H),'b');
hold on
stem(Q_H_Im,'r')
legend('Original (Img Part) H','Quantized (Img Part) H')
title('Quantization of Imaginary Part of H')
Attached is the outcome of the above code. There is a huge quantization error.
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Dear Muhammad,
You have to understand how this quantiz function works and what exactly are the arguments used for. Your "partition" vector will decide what are the bounds of the quantization grid, and the "codebook" will decide what value to output for every "window" defined in the partition vector, including what value to output when the signal is below the lowest bound and when it's above the highest bound. I think the examples on the link I gave you are pretty much self-explanatory and give a good idea of how it's done. From there, I think this function is pretty versatile and can be used for your purpose. You could, of course, adapt your bounds via the partition vector, according as you said to the dynamic range of your signal.
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I am working on a project related to Mine to Mill optimisation. I would like to predict and incorporate the heterogeneity of fragmentation in the associated analyses. The question, however, is that how we can incorporate the three-dimensionality of the problem in fragmentation prediction? Is there any approach available to predict the gradation of the rock fragment size distribution due to energy partitioning, the network of natural fractures, and stemming effects? Any idea is highly welcome.
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Dear Salmi, did you try to check if the Multiple Blasthole Fragmentation (MBF) model developed by Ruilin Yang fits to your needs? it is a 3D approach model based on the near-field vibration modeling, where several of the major blast and rock parameters can be addressed (hole and bench 3d geometries, vod and seismic velocities, etc.). He has published several papers about his model:
You can find others of his papers in FRAGBLAST and ISEE proceedings as well.
Regards
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I believe the language Amharic is still under-resourced due to unavailability of linguistic resource such as stop words, stemming standard pronunciation and other used for a number of NLP application.
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What under-resourced or low-resourced means is really something highly subjective. It is not uncommon to see papers in major NLP venues that call languages such as Hindi “low-resourced”. This is a bit problematic as there are severely endangered languages with as few as 200 speakers. And me and my colleagues still manage to do NLP for them, sometimes even by using modern deep learning methods with the little data we have and some savvy approaches in generating more data.
I would say that if a language does not have good NLP tools available or not enough academic annotated data available, it is still not under resourced if we are counting its speakers in millions. There are several data-driven methods for solving different NLP tasks, and more recently we have seen a peak in the number of approaches for using the annotated resources of one language and applying them to another language that just has enough raw text available.
Amharic has some of the core resources in place such as an UD TreeBank (https://github.com/UniversalDependencies/UD_Amharic-ATT/tree/master) and some (small) morphological analysers (https://models.uralicnlp.com/nightly/amh/).
Whether usable off-the-shelf tools exist for Amharic or not is not really a question about the language being under-resourced, but rather just a question of someone crawling data on the web in a savvy way and training some of the existing models for whichever NLP task one seeks to solve.
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I need to stain the stem of lily flower (semi-herbaceous). is their any commercial staining that can be used directly.
Also, Is their any updated procedure or commercial product (mixture) of Saffranin and fast green Staining.
Thanks
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Hi All
I trust you are all well.
I have seen articles stemming from Darwin's theory to Thorndike's social intelligence theory on the evolution of EI.
Does anyone have any interesting information/articles on the evolution timeline of EI?
Many thanks
#EmotionalIntelligence #Timeline
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I did a bit of a timeline in my research you can have a look at my profile.
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Some 1,370 papers have been published in medical journals about Covid-19 involving 6,722 authors but only 34% of these were female, according to research published last week by Ana-Catarina Pinho-Gomes, a researcher at The George Institute for Global Health at the University of Oxford.
"Women's voices are being heard less in the scientific response to the pandemic," she said. (June 18, CNN)
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It's the reality under gender stratified culture and of course men-made culture Dr. Ette Etuk
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Usually casparian strip works as barrier for most inner root tissue, is there Casparian strip within the stem?
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Actually , casparian strip s conjugated with root , the differentiation in plant growth related with function , that express that stem did not need casparin strips in its function , also the casparian strips effect on lateral transport of water in the stems
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In most world regions we foresee significant challenges of education stemming from the COVID 19. What can be the recommendations to building a better education system under COVID 19, especially in the context of your country?
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1. Teaching from home via ZOOM etc.
2. Learning from home
3. Attending meetings from home
4. Easy online interaction with colleagues
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The problematic specimen is a fossil endocast of a calamite stem from the Carboniferous. It contains some pyrite and the oxidation process is already running. What is the best method to stop the decomposition and to preserve the fossil?
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The only way to stop and revese the decay is treating it with Glyzerine under vaccum, thta's how we treated hundreds of pyrite ammonites and plants from the Triassic in the Natural History Museum Basel.
Ther is also a paper about it in the Journal Der Präparator. You can contact Antoine Heitz at the Msuem he might be able to send you a PDF
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We are trying to achieve from one set of sample audio files (utterances, sentences, vowels & constants, ...) a single or group of voice models that will be used to generate Text-to-Speech (TTS). It is possible, that the samples may have to be 3 groups instead of 1, (Germanic based, African based, East Asian Based), to cover similar vocal styles within subgroups of major languages.
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I started translating it. In fact, the preliminaries are already translated. Follow me and wait until I'm done with each chapter, which will be shared after one is translated.
If you can't wait till then, simply translate it yourself.
Hope I've helped.
José
P.s. I won't be publishing anything about the technological technicalities of Al speech in the near future. But if you need help, feel free to ask.
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Hello,
this is yet another urgent question for my assignment:
Does the genus Capsicum contain solanine in their stem like other nightshades do?
Thank you for your answers in advance!
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