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Vocabulary - Science topic

The sum or the stock of words used by a language, a group, or an individual. (From Webster, 3d ed)
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Publications related to Vocabulary (10,000)
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Chapter
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This chapter reports on a study that explored developmental interdependence between lexical competence and reading comprehension in young L2 readers of Chinese. Participants were ethnic Chinese children with English as the dominant home language in Singapore. The same battery of tests was administered three times across a year, that is, end of Grad...
Article
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SARS-CoV-2 is suspected to be the product of a natural or artificial recombination of two viruses – one adapted to the horseshoe bat and the other, donor of the spike protein gene, adapted to an unknown species. Here we used a new method to search for the original host of the ancestor of the SARS-CoV-2 virus and for the donor of its gene for the sp...
Preprint
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Learning a foreign language implies a lot more than learning grammar and vocabulary. Language learners should also acquire the necessary social and cultural skills that would allow them to interact within the context where the target language is expected to be used. As a result, EFL teachers face the challenge of selecting and explaining the cultur...
Article
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Background Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental condition characterized by restricted, repetitive behavior, and impaired social communication and interactions. However, significant challenges remain in diagnosing and subtyping ASD due in part to the lack of a validated, standardized vocabulary to characterize clinical phen...
Article
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This study examines the relationship between L2 vocabulary knowledge, self-rating of word knowledge, self-perceptions of four language skills (listening, reading, speaking, writing) and students’ academic achievement. An objective measure of lexical knowledge and questionnaire on self-perception and self-rating of vocabulary knowledge were administ...
Article
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Background Late talking (LT) in toddlers is a risk factor for language weakness that may interfere with the development of using language to regulate behavior and emotion and contribute to the development of behavior problems from early childhood. This study examined the temporal stability of parent-reported behavior problems among Mandarin-speakin...
Article
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Negative word-of-mouth is a strong consumer and user response to dissatisfaction. Moral outrages can create an excessive collective aggressiveness against one single argument, one single word, or one action of a person resulting in hateful speech. In this work, we examine the change of vocabulary to explore the outbreak of online firestorms on Twit...
Article
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In the context of the critical need to support children’s early language development, teacher knowledge may enhance children’s opportunities to build linguistic skills. In this study we explored how early childhood teachers’ (n = 86) pedagogical content knowledge for language and vocabulary, and their book-reading implementation across the school y...
Conference Paper
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In Risk Management, security issues arise from complex relations among objects and agents, their capabilities and vulnerabilities, the events they are involved in, and the value and risk they ensue to the stakeholders at hand. Further, there are patterns involving these relations that crosscut many domains, ranging from information security to publ...
Article
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This study investigates the role of recursive language and working memory (WM) in second-order false belief skills in Danish-speaking children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD; n = 62; 8 females) and typical development (n = 41; 15 females), ages 6–16. Second-order false belief skills correlated with receptive grammar, vocabulary, and age; senten...
Article
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This article concerns the ways in which authors from various fields conceptualise the ethical issues arising in the conduct of research. We reviewed critically and systematically the literature concerning the ethics of conducting research in order to engage in a reflection about the vocabulary and conceptual categories used in the publications revi...
Article
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The article examined the deep learning models and Fastai text classification technique to predict the medical speech utterances, transcriptions, and intent to extract the 25 medicals problems. The experimental work was conducted using a large amount of data which contains 6661.wav files and one.csv file, including 13 distinct categorization fields...
Article
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Learning and academic performance are explained mainly by basic limited-capacity processes, most notably by working memory (WM). Consequently, training WM has been considered a promising approach to fostering these abilities. However, school-based investigations are rare. This study examined the effects of training task features and trainees’ chara...
Article
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Studies investigating relations between morphological awareness and literacy in German, a language with a rather transparent but asymmetric orthography, are sparse. Little is known about the role of grade level for these relationships and of their relative strength compared to those between other language-related variables and literacy skills. This...
Article
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Both children and adults have been shown to benefit from the integration of multisensory and sensorimotor enrichment into pedagogy. For example, integrating pictures or gestures into foreign language (L2) vocabulary learning can improve learning outcomes relative to unisensory learning. However, whereas adults seem to benefit to a greater extent fr...
Article
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The current study investigated the impact of birth order on vocabulary and social language development in 1338 first-born and 1049 s-born autistic youth (M age = 9.03 years, SD = 3.57; 86.4% male) from the Simons Simplex Collection. Frequentist and Bayesian analyses revealed mixed findings in language development. There were no differences in vocab...
Article
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The aim of this study was to examine the role of different types of home learning activities, such as reading, singing, painting, playing games, and letters and numbers (ABCs and 123 s), in the development of nonverbal reasoning skills in young children. Although much previous research has focused on the role of the home learning environment in the...
Article
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Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) is a self-governing, computer-based spoken language transcript for real-time applications. It is used in various real time applications and it listens the speech signals through a microphone, identifies the words, and assists a network in converting the written text. When we use the ASR system in multiple environm...
Article
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Previous research reported bilingual cognitive strengths in working memory, executive function and novel-word learning skills (Bialystok in Psychol Bull 143:233–262, 2017; Kaushanskaya and Marian in Psychon Bull Rev 16:705–710, 2009). These skills should also support bilingual children’s vocabulary and reading development, yet bilingual children sh...
Poster
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Gamified formative assessment has been increasingly popular within English language education due to its potential to promote learning processes. However, no existing review was identified to synthesise the effectiveness of gamified formative assessment for English language learning, especially for school-aged learners. This scoping review contribu...
Article
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The background of this research is that the Arabic language material for tourism purposes still contains grammatical structure material that is prepared for Arabic practitioners, not for Arabic language users as a communication language. This study aims to analyze Arabic language material and find Arabic language teaching materials that are in acco...
Article
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Every year, thousands of students decide to travel to a foreign country to study. The popularity of these international experiences is increasing every year due to the different benefits they offer. In relation to language gains, researchers have investigated study abroad experiences that take place in countries where the students' second language...
Article
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Drawing upon Bourdieu’s conceptualization of habitus, this ethnographic study explores the cultural bases guiding engineering makerspaces at a public university in the United States. Students carry forms of capital that impact their entry into these learning spaces, over time becoming disciplined in the “game” of makerspaces as they accumulate capi...
Article
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摘要: 从晚明至清中叶,虽然《圣经》汉译并未成为天主教在华传教事业的首要目标,但仍有传教士在译经方面做出不懈的努力,出版了一系列源于《圣经》的节译、编译文本,更有人克服罗马教廷和清廷的限制,尝试翻译整部《圣经》。近期学界较为关注清中叶法国耶稣会士贺清泰(Louis Antoine de Poirot, 1735-1813)所翻译的译本,主要探讨其汉文版—或称为《古新圣经》—的译经原则和方法、白话文体特色,并扩展至对其满文版传抄历史的考证,以及对满汉合璧版的语汇和文体的研究。不过,贺清泰译本在后世流传的情况相当复杂,目前尚有多种满文及汉文抄本散藏于各地,相关研究仍存在疑问和疏漏之处。本文以文献考证为主,辅以详细的例证解析。一方面追溯贺清泰译本各版存世抄本的次第源流,其中包括笔者新发现的一种汉...
Article
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The few reports on the language skills of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) offer conflicting evidence on whether they face significant challenges, and if so, whether these challenges are present in all aspects of language. Here, we investigated a sample of Greek-speaking children with ADHD ( n = 29) using a structural l...
Article
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The present research was an endeavor to examine and compare the effects of digitally self-regulated and guided discovery learning instructions on Iranian EFL learners' vocabulary acquisition. To this end, by conducting the Oxford Placement Test, 60 out of 140 Iranian EFL male and female learners from three language institutes in Isfahan, Iran, were...
Article
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The article presents the content monitoring results for one of the most popular Telegram channels in Belarus NEXTA and NEXTA Live. Their example examines the problem of using hate speech in Belarusian social media after the 2020 political crisis. The role and importance of social media in modern social processes are highlighted. Noted that the use...
Article
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The present study offers an in-depth lexical analysis of the reading passages in the International English Language Testing System (IELTS) to give an evidence-based confirmation to the assumptions regarding the differences in lexical difficulties between the two IELTS reading test modules. The vocabulary profile of the 186 IELTS reading passages fr...
Chapter
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Drying is one of the oldest methods of preservation processes available to the mankind. On that, we can track since prehistoric times. Food market dried foods play an important role in the food supply chain. As for fruits and vegetables it can be estimated that they constitute about 1% of the total drying in the food industry, by large being the gr...
Preprint
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Neural Machine Translation (NMT) is an open vocabulary problem. As a result, dealing with the words not occurring during training (a.k.a. out-of-vocabulary (OOV) words) have long been a fundamental challenge for NMT systems. The predominant method to tackle this problem is Byte Pair Encoding (BPE) which splits words, including OOV words, into sub-w...
Research
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Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is playing a vital role in today's complex world and government services in particular. It is observed that Zilla Parishad run schools especially in rural region are reluctant to change their style and pattern of teaching pedagogy. The difficulties for academic staff in changing approaches to teaching...
Article
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This study adapts a Medical English Language Anxiety Scale (MELAS) based on Horwitz’s Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (FLCAS) and examines students’ anxiety in medical English vocabulary, listening and speaking, communication, literature reading, and academic paper writing. The biographical factors related to medical English language anxie...
Article
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Speaking is a measure of linguistic ability and a fluent speaker is considered as a skilled language learner. In Kurdistan Region of Iraq -KRI, English is taught as a foreign language from elementary to university. However, Kurdish students, even university students, have challenges with speaking English and show their attitudes to speaking as one...
Article
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Two groups of freshman students, enrolled in a Vocabulary I and Reading I courses, participated in the study. Before instruction, both groups took a recognition (vocabulary) and a production (oral reading) pre-test. Comparisons of the pre-test scores showed no significant differences between the experimental and control group in decoding skills and...
Preprint
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This work considers the task of representation learning on the attributed relational graph (ARG). Both the nodes and edges in an ARG are associated with attributes/features allowing ARGs to encode rich structural information widely observed in real applications. Existing graph neural networks offer limited ability to capture complex interactions wi...
Article
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The quality of language that children hear in their environment is associated with the development of language-related brain regions, in turn promoting vocabulary knowledge. Although informative, it remains unknown how these environmental influences alter the structure of neural tissue and subsequent vocabulary outcomes. The current study uses magn...
Article
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Swearing is stereotypically associated with socially undesirable traits and behaviors, including limited verbal ability, disagreeable personality, and alcohol use. We sought to demonstrate that, contrary to such stereotypes, swear word fluency (i.e., ability to generate swear words) does not arise from a lack of verbal skills. We also explored whet...
Conference Paper
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In e-commerce search engines, query rewriting (QR) is a crucial technique that improves shopping experience by reducing the vocabulary gap between user queries and product catalog. Recent works have mainly adopted the generative paradigm. However, they hardly ensure high-quality generated rewrites and do not consider personalization, which leads to...
Article
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The act of reading is not a mere interaction between the reader and the text. It also involves the engagement between the reader and what he or she believes in. Readers find reading difficult because they have difficulties with the vocabulary of the target language used in the reading text. Next, some already have language barriers and understandin...
Book
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This practical series represents a comprehensive reference guide to major aspects of English vocabulary as well as the key topics in English grammar, from verb forms, tense structures and uses to modality and the structure of sentences. It will also help you to master the punctuation, spelling, and pronunciation of the verb in both American and Bri...
Article
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Dieser Beitrag geht der Frage nach, wie die Lehrkräfte des albanischen herkunftssprachlichen Unterrichts (HSU) in verschiedenen europäischen Ländern die Sprachpraxis der Kinder und Jugendlichen albanischer Herkunft einschätzen. Zur Erhellung dieser Frage wurden Lehrkräfte der Diaspora (N=133) mittels eines standardisierten Onlinefragebogens befragt...
Article
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Background: Autistic disorders which have been increasingly known as pervasive developmental disorders since the 1980s represent a heterogeneous group of disorders that share a significant impairment in communication and social interaction. Typical autism is not associated with significant mental retardation while patients having classical autism w...
Article
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A great deal of studies have explored the effects of electronic-portfolios (e - portfolios) on various measures of language learning, including writing and speaking in English. However, the effects of e-portfolios on vocabulary, motivation, and attitudes of EFL learners have remained unexplored. Thus, this study aimed at disclosing the effects of e...
Article
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Emotion and focus of children during handwriting are essential for language learning. Handwriting for young children is challenging because it needs deep motivation and willingness to complete the task regardless of its difficulty. Recently, emerged haptic guidance systems have a good potential to offer children a better sense of engagement to keep...
Article
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For many years, the teaching and learning English as a Foreign Language (EFL) has been predominated by the teacher-centered approach implying behaviouristic’s paradigm. In many EFL classes in Indonesian higher education, it is common for EFL learners to be asked instead of asking questions to develop their speaking skills. Consequently, students ar...
Article
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The Shanghai epidemic (COVID-19) is another large-scale epidemic in China’s central cities in the post-epidemic era from the end of March 2022. It is of great significance to study the public’s attitude towards the Shanghai epidemic to support healthy psychology and a positive attitude. This study used crawler technology to obtain the Weibo data re...
Book
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This book contains: 3 Essential skills for teacher; Interpersonal skills for tutor (checklist); Events of instruction (summarized); Methods of teaching (more than 100); English learning material for Vocabulary, Grammar, Reading, Writing, Listening, and Speaking.
Article
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A number of studies on second language or foreign language anxiety have reported the enervating effect it can cast on learning, particularly speaking a second/foreign language, that must be overcome by students in order for them to take full advantage of second/foreign instructions (Horwitz et al., 1986 as cited in Tanveer, 2007). Hence, the main p...
Preprint
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Almost none of the 2,000+ languages spoken in Africa have widely available automatic speech recognition systems, and the required data is also only available for a few languages. We have experimented with two techniques which may provide pathways to large vocabulary speech recognition for African languages: multilingual modeling and self-supervised...
Article
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The use of shared book reading is regarded as valuable to support young children to build their oral language and emergent literacy skills in preschool classrooms. Quantitative and qualitative features of early childhood teachers’ (ECTs’) shared book reading practices are important contributors to quality shared book reading experiences. The aim of...
Article
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Purpose: The user interface is the first point of contact with a website. If the content of the website, especially its textual and graphic symbols, does not match with the ability of users to comprehend it, they will probably leave the website. This research has measured comprehensibility of the textual and graphic symbols used in the user interfa...
Article
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The development of technology has rapidly affected the growth complexity of the 21st century's work environment which also influences educational environment. Thus, approaches in teaching and learning such as self-determined learning has been considered relevant to enhance the quality of learning. Researchers and educators have been pursuing to acc...
Article
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Little is known about the impact of teachers’ questions on child bilingual’s heritage language reading process and outcomes. This study examined the role of adults’ questions in English-Mandarin bilingual preschoolers’ Mandarin word learning, story comprehension, and reading engagement. Ninety-nine 4- to 5-year-old preschoolers in Singapore were as...
Article
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This paper aimed to assess language development in infants and toddlers with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) and epilepsy, which increase the risk of autism spectrum disorder. We assessed language development in 61 patients with TSC at 8–36 months using a standardized Speech Development and Communication Inventory tool. The results showed differen...
Article
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The article reveals the peculiarities of the use of mental maps as a tool for visualization and structuring of linguistic and literary material in the process of teaching pedagogic students geared (“Primary Education”, “Philology”). The purposes of use, principles of creation, the maintenance of mental maps are outlined. The main purposes of the...
Preprint
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It has been shown in separate studies that phonological grammar can operate probabilistically and in phonetically unnatural directions. This paper examines whether phonological grammar can be both probabilistic and unnatural at the same time. We create a new corpus of Tarma Quechua vocabulary (based both on published and unpublished data), and argu...
Article
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Doing biblical exegesis, say in Africa, is not easy; selected text must be interpreted to carry the same meaning as the author meant, whiles making it relevant to the new environment the gospel finds itself. The situation becomes challenging when the selected text is part of the range of texts with Synoptic Problem. This problem has lingered on yea...
Article
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The ability to predict upcoming information is crucial for efficient language processing and enables more rapid language learning. The present study explored how shared reading experience influenced predictive brain signals and expressive vocabulary of 12-month-old infants. The predictive brain signals were measured by fNIRS responses in the occipi...
Article
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This research aims to find out the solutions of the students' problem on speaking skill , through implementing pair work activities using functional languages examples. . The.goal of teaching speaking skill is to communicate efficiency. Learners should be able to make themseties understood, using th6ir current proficiency to the fullest. They shou...
Article
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To maximize the accuracy of the news headline generation model, increase the attention ratio of the model to significant information, and avoid duplication of generated headlines and problems unrelated to feature semantics, we proposed a topic inference Chinese news headline generation method integrating a copy mechanism (TI-C-NHG). First, we enric...
Article
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The thrust of this study was to investigate the impact of learning styles in general and Field dependence/Independence (FD/I) in particular on the receptive/productive lexical performance of language learners. It aimed to check whether FD/I learners perform differently on receptive and productive vocabulary tests. To achieve this, first, 94 Iranian...
Article
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Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the cognitive and linguistic profiles of students with specific learning disability versus students with learning problems. The participants constituted 100 students with learning disabilities and 100 students with learning problems who were matched based on age, gender, grade and IQ. The major eval...
Conference Paper
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The word stock of the language is getting changed day by day. It is a known fact that the English language has the word stock naming neutral, literary and colloquial words. Depending on the context or the situation words are known to change their meanings. There also exist such words that are dropped out of the language already. These types of word...
Article
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Of the effective ways to have successful interactions, the proper use of words could be mentioned. The vocabulary items chosen by the speaker can act as conversation starters. Consciously chosen vocabulary items that are attractive and functional enough could make a profound impact on the audience. The success of the speaker's utterance is effectiv...
Article
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The linguistic rules of medical terminology assist in gaining acquaintance with rare/complex clinical and biomedical terms. The medical language follows a Greek and Latin-inspired nomenclature. This nomenclature aids the stakeholders in simplifying the medical terms and gaining semantic familiarity. However, natural language processing models misre...
Article
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Objective: Law enforcement officers often encounter alcohol-intoxicated suspects, suggesting that many suspects are presented with the challenge of grasping the meaning and significance of their Miranda rights while intoxicated. Such comprehension is crucial, given that Miranda is intended to minimize the likelihood of coercive interrogations resu...
Article
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Individual differences in executive function (EF) are key to a child’s development and school success. Few studies have investigated the family’s influence on EF from a holistic perspective that extends beyond socioeconomic status, parenting style, mother-child talk, and maternal depression. To fill this gap, the present study aimed to investigate...
Article
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Purpose This study aimed to assess the written language skills of children with auditory brainstem implants (ABI). Methods In this study, 15 children (from second to eighth grades) with ABI were evaluated for their written language abilities using a written expression skill assessment form. Five different features of written expression points were...
Article
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The studies on the history of the notion of “personhood” have largely recognized that Christian thought had a central role in the development and significance of this concept throughout the history of Western civilization. In late antiquity, Christianity used some terms taken from the classic and Hellenistic vocabulary in order to express its own t...
Article
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The emergence of the Internet and social media has provided a ground conducive to the rapid development of violent ideas and online malicious behavior, and even to rising the share of hostile content (hate speech, fake news, etc.). Such behavior raises concerns about children who are overly exposed to the internet and likely misusing the online con...
Article
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The goal of this study was to assess the relationships between computational approaches to analyzing constructed responses made during reading and individual differences in the foundational skills of reading in college readers. We also explored if these relationships were consistent across texts and samples collected at different institutions and t...