Science topic

Visual Culture - Science topic

Explore the latest questions and answers in Visual Culture, and find Visual Culture experts.
Questions related to Visual Culture
Question
32 answers
In some developed countries, functional illiteracy continues to be a very serious problem, partly due to their crisis in education.. Do you think digital technologies might influence an increase in the level of literacy - particularly among children. In countries where illiteracy has historically been a persistent problem, Book publishers have been making efforts to give their books away to poorer children who have access to the internet because they believe that by introducing children to online stories these children will eventually be encouraged to read 'classical' books.
Relevant answer
Answer
Yes, but I think 'reading' and 'writing' is a continuous spectrum from txts to blogs to online comments, to published articles, to books. The number of txts that are circulating is in the billions, and this includes poor and previously poorly literate communities.
I worked in literacy programmes in many countries, and always tried to work with the texts that people already had in their environment - street and shop signs and advertising for starters. If I were to design a literacy programme today (for children too), I would start with their txts, or start by getting them mobile phones, and work up from there.
Question
17 answers
Also what are the differences between the two and the different implications each have?
Relevant answer
Answer
@pooja: camera cues is the camera angle like HIGH, LOW, CLOSE, FOLLOW, WIDE ANGLE, FOCUS etc. The camera angle explains you a lot. If audio of a movie is verbal communication ... the camera cues and visuals is the non-verbal communication. We know that Non-verbal communication speaks more than verbal. For a complete communication experience, both verbal and non-verbal should be listened and observed simultaneously.
I wonder how universal are these gestures?
Question
36 answers
Here is the set of gestures, used in critical discussion: http://criticalhandgestures.tumblr.com/ Can you recognize them? Do you find them universal, cross-culturally?
Relevant answer
Answer
To get more perspective I would suggest crowsourcing the answers via Amazon Mechanical Turk or Crowd Flower etc.. Here on RG you'll probably find mostly western perspectives but with CS you could do a quick study and get replies from all over the world! Very interesting, I'm also looking at drawings to see if similar 'universals' exist in how people apply/recall visuals associated with common words and concepts.
Question
28 answers
I am a deaf student (Design/Arts) currently working on a diploma with the topic 'Deaf and Alive'. I need an answer from everybody, especially from hearing people. What do you think about deaf people? What do they represent to you? What are they like? What are your thoughts on deaf people? etc.
Relevant answer
Answer
Good Morning.
I am a 'hearing' person and will gladly take a few minutes to respond to your questions.
In my experience Deaf people are just like anyone else only they can't hear the world around them. As far as your questions go:
What do you think about deaf people? - I am not sure what to say to this question. I think of deaf people no differently than I would think of a non-deaf person. Yes, I would not be able to talk with a deaf person as I do not know sign language, but I think I could still communicate and if it came to it I could write things down. You can still be friends with someone who id deaf and you can still share in life experiences with them e.g. going to the zoo, a stage show, a road trip etc. Just because they can not hear does not make them any less.
What do they represent to you? - Again I am not too sure what angle you are going for here. Deaf people do not really 'represent' anything different to me than a normal hearing person.
What are they like? What are your thoughts on deaf people? - Are you referring to deaf people in general? people who have always been deaf? people who have gone deaf during their lifetime? People who are totally deaf or those who can hear to some extent with the aid of technology?
My father needs hearing aids in order to hear properly. This is something than even from a young age I learnt to adapt to. If he was wearing them I knew that I didn't have to talk louder, or slower for him to understand me. If he wasn't then I knew to be closer to him when I was talking and that sometimes I would have to repeat things. It was just normal.
I think in this modern age a very large amount of interaction is done visually, and an even greater amount is done over the internet and as such I would think that a deaf person could be just as much apart of things as a non-deaf person.
Depending on specifically what your research goals are I think that by asking some different questions you may be able to tease out a better response. Possibly ask things like: Have you ever know a deaf person? If so, in what capacity and how did you interact? Are any of your colleagues / work mates deaf? How do they manage with assigned tasks? Is hearing important to you? Is a person who is born deaf any different from someone who looses their hearing later in life? If so, why? should they be treated differently? or the same?
I think you have an interesting topic of research here, I wish you all the best with it.
Question
5 answers
I'm currently winding down my data collection and at the conclusion I will have roughly 2100 images and 300 .txt surveys to analyze. Currently I have folders with each participant's 7 images (drawings) along with their survey.txt file. I'm looking at NVivo and MAXQDA at the moment and trying to figure them out. I'm curious to know what software others have used with this type of data and what their experience was with organizing and tagging the data? Any info on making my thesis project go faster and more efficiently would be appreciated!
Relevant answer
Answer
To answer my own question I've decided on Dedoose; it has the most straight forward tutorials and resources as well as phone support. I've not yet started using it but it's only $10.95/month for students and you only pay for the months you use plus it's accessible online so you can work from anywhere.
Question
4 answers
Since there are no topics that address Visual Literacy I thought it was overdue. So how do you define these literacies and what goals should we set at each level of development to educate students on the consumption and production of images?
How can we help develop/ instill a critical approach to visual culture where students thoughtfully question the motivations and sites of production of the imagery they encounter on a daily basis?  
Looking at the recent release of National Core Arts Standards (in the US) http://www.nationalartsstandards.org/ does it do enough to address visual and media literacies? What competencies or components might you add? 
Should the teaching of such literacies be restricted to the arts? What other subjects areas do you see these literacies playing an important role in?
Relevant answer
Answer
In the English National Curriculum for English Language and Media Studies at both GCSE and A Level there are requirements for students to consider the messages in visual imagery. See the attached website for one exam board (there are others) http://www.aqa.org.uk Younger students in the UK are expected, as part of their English Language course, to develop an understanding and appreciation of how images can be constructed to convey messages and to analyse them. As a starting point students are asked to look at an image and describe what they see, to try to stay with only what is in the picture and refer to specific aspects. They are then encouraged to think about what emotions/feelings the image evokes in them. They may then consider an image in a range of contexts - appeal for donations, attached to a newspaper story, illustration in a story, illustration in a non-fiction text. They would produce their own text with images for a specific purpose. In moving image the sequencing of shots, and angles would also be explored. There has been lots of interesting work done.
Question
5 answers
I'm very interesting on digital ethnography and visual methods. We have a laboratory on digital visual cultures at my univerisity and we are developing experimental research within a postgraduate course using those technologies and methods, mainly on urban subjects (gentrification, minorities, public space, social movements) 
Relevant answer
Answer
I believe Research Gate Member, Martin Zimper
Prof. Dr.
Head of Program Cast/ Audiovisual Media
Zürcher Hochschule der Künste · Design/ Cast/ Audiovisual Media, is involved in research in this area. https://www.researchgate.net/post/Transmedia_Research_Zurich_October_2013-looking_for_partners_experts
Educational resource: DocumentaryEducational Resources Information: http://www.der.org/
There is a  Book and Organization called, "Humans of New York", a photograph and a brief statement by individuals randomly interviewed on the streets of New York City. http://www.humansofnewyork.com/
I have also seen groups on Vimeo and YouTube such as the Transmedia Storytelling Group:https://vimeo.com/groups/transmedia/videos
And the University of Colorado has a certificate if you are looking for educational models: http://storycenter.org/certificate-program/
Question
28 answers
I'm looking for examples where social representations embodied in visual cultural products were studied. I found very few examples. Does anyone know some work  that help me to study social representations in  images? Is someone doing  a research of this kind?
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi Carolina
You could try some of these; 
Gill, R. (2011) ‘Bend it Like Beckham? The Challenges of Reading Gender and Visual Culture’ in P. Reavey (ed) Visual Methods in Psychology: Using and Interpreting Images in Qualitative Research, pp. 29-42. London: Routledge.
Goffman, I. (1979) Gender Advertisements. New York: Macmillan.
Morant, N. (1998) ‘Social Representations of Gender in the Media’, in: Miell, D. and Wetherell, M. (eds) Doing Social Psychology, pp. 234-283. London: Sage.
Moscovici, S. (1998) ‘Social Consciousness and its History’, Culture & Psychology 4(3), 411-429.
Mulvey, L. (1975) ‘Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema’, Screen 16 (3): 6-18.
Zarzycka, M. (2012) ‘Madonna’s of Warfare, Angels of Poverty: Cutting through Press Photographs Photographies 5 (1): 71-85.
I have recently finished a study on intergenerational breastfeeding, where participants brought artefacts to interviews, and I am going to do some SR stuff around motherhood but not written up yet. Also, I have a small section in a chapter I am drafting up for a forthcoming book that looks briefly at SR and visual images, get in touch if you would me to send this
best wishes
Dawn
Question
9 answers
I am busy completing a masters degree at DUT on shadow in photography in the field of children's magazine covers. I need ti cite what other researches have written about it.
Thanks
Mark 
Relevant answer
Answer
I expect you may have already come across E. Gombrich's (2014)  Shadows: The depiction of cast shadows in Western art and M. Baxandall (1995) Shadows and Enlightenment, Yale University Press. There is vast range of papers to be accessed through Google Scholar.
Why do we need to protect the traditional urban fabric?
Question
112 answers
Issue of protection of traditional urban fabric is very interesting specially related to the visual culture. why and how?
Relevant answer
Answer
I agree with Salil Bhatt and I want to add this simple point that we need to protect our "traditional" (if it is the right word) urban fabric because as a result of globalization and universalization meaning as a spiritual aspect of our life is disappearing in our experienced daily life. we need to enrich our visions and sensuality with some characters in the city, the characters in the place which can link us to our collective memories. Roja
Question
9 answers
In my research I will use a measuring scale based in McCroskey Studies. (http://www.jamescmccroskey.com). I would like to know more about another research in this field or theme.
Thanks.
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi Andree,
i advise you to see this site of Joan Fontcuberta - http://fontcuberta.com/
Best Wishes
Question
38 answers
With respect to “public art,” an examination of the state of the question points to at least two ways in which that concept may be defined, two “circles” within which it may fall: It may be related either to the space the art object is to occupy (which might be called a “public space”) or to the art object itself (which might then be called “public art”). Here, we might pose several questions that seem either to make it easier to understand the public art/ public space duality, or to make such an understanding impossible. We might, for example, ask questions about:
Legitimacy (Is the work an art object?)  
The constitution of the cultural imaginary with respect to what a “public space” is and what “public art” is (Does the work reflect my identity?)
Ownership of the space and the work (Who owns what?)
Authorship (Is the work created by an individual with personal title to it, or is it created on behalf of a collectivity?)
Decency and decorum (Is the art appropriate to the space it occupies or will occupy, and is it suitable for being seen by men, women, and children?)
Preservation and conservation (Who shall assume the ownership of the patrimonial work and be responsible for its explanation and esteem, defense, custody, maintenance, restoration, and permanence?)
Each of these issues raises a debate, implicit in the very existence of the public-art object, and each debate may be different. And each potential controversy suggests its own “public,” in the sense of audience or interest group, each with its own defining expectations. Below a polemical article I wrote about a country-wide public art project:
Relevant answer
Answer
Public art is not public in the sense that each individual perceiver/observer will have a personal interpretation of what is exposed? What is personally perceived can not be shared with others, and is therefore not public?
Question
3 answers
I am planning a research about environmental education, and I would like to make children draw mind maps and analyse their perception of space, favourite areas, and hope to be able to withdraw some conclusions from these drawing. However if another project already exist it could be useful to see its methodology.
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Eszter:
If I understand it well, your are planning to perform:
(1) a research on environmental education;
(2) to see if children's environmental education affects their ability to draw (mental) maps and their perception of space and favorite areas
(3) to know if there are previous studies on children's perception of space, namely their capacity to draw maps.
(4) to withdraw some conclusions from these drawings.
Your idea of perform a research on environmental education is noteworthy. I use to say that environmental education should be even mandatory in schools. Traditionally, most of us have heard from an ethic of justice (i.e., we should not treat others unfairly; See L, Kohlberg's work) and from an ethic of care and responsibility (i.e. not to turn away from others in need; See C. Gilligan's oeuvre), but not from an ethic of conservation, that is, an ethic whose main injunction is that we should respect and protect nature, not only because it is useful for us --  anthropocentric reasoning -- but mainly because nature, refer it to water, air, or earth, deserves to be respected in itself -- biocentric reasoning  See P. Kahn's thinking on this respect.
As for (2), it seems natural to think that children's environmental education  affects their perception and representation of space and their ability to draw maps of several kinds (e,g., from a valley, a city, a road and so on). Let me say that to speak of mental maps does not make much sense to me. As I see it, it makes sense to speak of a road map, a city map, and so forth. So,  when we speak of mental maps, we are speaking metaphorically, because there are not in our minds mental maps in the sense that there are roads maps, cities maps and so forth in our office or car.
I know of several authors who have studied children's conception of space and their ability to draw maps of several kinds. (see, for this respect, Mary's cogent answer). Piaget, for example, found that children's conception or respresention of space evolve from a topological to a topographic to a Euclidean space. Based on Piaget' work, the USA psychologist Lynn Liben, for example, has researched  extensively children's ability to draw maps and other cartographic concepts. However, both Piaget's and Liben's work has nothing to do with your excellent idea of analyzing children's perception and conception of space and their ability to form certain mental maps as a function of their environmental education. In this sense, your research seems to open a new line of research,
As for (3), look at my previous  considerations.
As for (4) I am eager to know the main conclusions of your research.
I hope that this helps.
Best regards
Question
10 answers
It is just something like reimagining of one’s childhood and personhood, like a re-engagement with the ‘shadow child’ within, in the face of the disturbing ephemerality of self alongside the destabilising onset of modernity. What is your opinion?
Relevant answer
Answer
Thanks a lot Matylda Sęk-Iwanek for your input.