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Questions related to Veterinary Parasitology
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I need to observe the fecal egg reduction in rats that I'm studying. I need a protocol how to do it without a McMaster slide.
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you can indeed do a qualitative analysis without the McMaster slide, however if you need to run some statistical tests to test the reductions the best will be to use the McMaster slide. This type of slide makes quantification of the eggs possible.
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I am searching for a research topic and funding for masters of veterinary parasitology. I will conduct research in Nepal. do you have any suggestions?? please provide a good topic and funding for research. Thank you in advance. hashtag#research hashtag#veterinary hashtag#topic hashtag#funding hashtag#science
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Please check the thesis published in this area previously so that you can identify the researchable area. Similarly, you may conduct a literature survey through online databases. You may also visit the animal husbandry department website of your country so as to identify the field level problems i.e. animal diseases, etc., to finalise the topic.
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Hello. I found this "eggs" (or not) in Dennis, Stone & Swanson technique on equine samples. It's in 40x, 40x and 10x , respectivel. I will be glad if someone could help me to identificate this structures. Thanks!
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Size and very neat and clear pictures are essential for identification of eggs in a corposcopy. Concerning identification of equine strongyles eggs, i will not bet too many using morphological keys you can find sometimes as the didn't have yet been correlated with accurate identifications, like by molecular biology
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Dear Colleagues, eggs of approx. 120×60 micrm size were freshly floated from a 6-month-old heifer's intestinal content. They do not resemble to any other eggs previously seen in our lab. What could they be? Artifacts or something of significance? Any suggestions on genera or species would be welcome. Thank you in advance!
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Hi , it looks like Bunostomum Phlebotomum egg but yours is little bit big or it can be belong to mecistocirrus digitatus. Try to culture the fecal sample to get the larvae. Good luck.
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Is there anybody tried preparing intestinal tissue from rodent for identification of Cryptosporidium? please advise.
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By fixed the tissue in fomalin 10% and dipping in parafen wax and cutting the tissue then sttaining with hematoxilien ioesen
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I am agree with David Ian Gibson
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So to summarize my research I have an OTU table of 17 cyathostomin OTUs from equine fecal samples obtained using Illumina sequencing. The data set comprises of about 3 different time courses where a different anthelmintic was used each time. A sample was obtained from each horse biweekly following the treatment. Count data was obtained when sequenced however we decided to convert this data into presence/absence data due to size of fecal material used.
I've had trouble wrapping my head around the best ways to analyze this data as abundance has been eliminated.
I have been mostly using R and Qiime to work with this data in either the form of biom or an excel spreadsheet.
Thanks for any help you can provide.
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Thank you
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Egg measured 60*40 um and contains a larvae.
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Thank you
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Dear colleagues, I am a graduate student in the field of veterinary parasitology. I have a new and innovative idea to treat or prevent parasites that cause cancer in their hosts. But I need help because of lack of funding and testing. I'd be happy if someone would be willing to cooperate, please inform me.
Best wishes
Sajjad
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Dear colleague
which equipment you need
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These were all retrieved through a formalin-ether concentration technique. The feces were collected from stray cats (Felis catus) through enema.
The first three eggs are around 35-40 µm while the fourth one is around 60. The fifth one is around 40-45 µm as well
Our guesses are (from top to bottom):
1 and 2 - Toxascaris leonina (but they're too small)
3 - I think they have polar plugs but are reeaaally small
4 - Diphyllobothrium latum
5. Toxocara cati (but again, it's quite small)
Some insight about it could be really helpful. Thanks in advance :)
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On my opinion photo 1,2 and 5 are eggs of Platynosomum illiciens; no.3 and 4 are Spirometra eggs
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Hi Colleagues
Please any one can provide me a sequence of specific primer of Theileria camelensis which infect camels or any related method for molecular identification of this protozoan parasite.
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Hi
it is specific question. out of my specialization. i will follow to know .
regards
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Our Group (Laura Jaramillo and me) have two other parasite eggs found in faeces of the river Otter, that are different of the previously discussed
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First two images may be Aelurostrongylus abstrusus,
third one is Capillaria aerophila
with all best wishes
Afkar
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Hello,
I want to know if STH and schistosome eggs are resistant to freezing and can be detected a second time if forzen feces are reanalyzed by the Ritchie concentration method and Kato-Katz.
Thanks.
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In agreement with Hala Elwakil and Hairul Hafiz Mahsol, eggs of STH and Schistosomes could be subjected to mechanical and molecular distortion as a result of the extremely low temperature associated with freezing. Hence, they could only be useful for prevalence/ intensity studies.
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Any protocol for isolation and experimental infection of babesia spp in dogs
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I often find these items (marked with red arrows) while doing equine FECs. I am interested to know what they are. I am pretty certain that they aren't parasite eggs, and I find them in samples both with and without strongyle infections. Sometimes the two black parts are offset, giving the appearance of a Micky Mouse head.
To give a scale, there is also a strongyle egg (marked with a dot) in the image which is approx 90 um long. 
Thank you!
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hi it is pollen grain 
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What is the best statistical analysis for the reinfection of schistosomiasis, given that the data consists of the EPG (eggs per gram) of stool samples of 3 sets of different host species?
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SA Satayathum, EM Muchiri, JH Ouma… - The American journal of …, 2006‏ - ASTMH‏
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The study uses the gray geese to give basic information on the small intestine and large intestine can help to complete measurements in the other experimental study.
I have several articles but all not with a clear description of this item.
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Thanks, Dr. Marwa for your help.
Kind regards
Dr Hanan
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In case of mixed infections, how do I isolate various Eimeria species which I plan to use for separate experimental infections? 
And do I have to culture the parasites to produce enough for the experimental work? If yes, is there any simple method for culturing of the coccidian?
Thanks.
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Supplier of McMaster slide in India
where from I get it?
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I am doing a research on ticks (Rhipicephalus microplus). I want to set up an apparatus where I can feed the experimental ticks with fresh blood. Any help will be appreciated. 
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silicone membranes
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Diagnosing Giardia could be challenging using conventional parasitological techniques. I looked for commercial kits for Giardia diganose, but all of them are indicated for G. lamblia. Does anyone ever tested them with wild animals?
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Rapid detection of soluble G.
duodenalis cyst antigens (BVT Co., Ltd,
Lion) is a qualitative test., which related to dog only
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Is it possible to identify helminths from frozen intestine?
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It depends on what you are looking for. For example,  you can find Strongyloides stercoralis  with a fine needle from a part of defreezed  intestine under the stero  microscope.
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This parasite was isolated from the tract of cockroaches. It has a back like football and hooks underneath.
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I agree with Andreas, it is a spore or a conidium of fungi or plants. With all those segments inside it doesn`t look like a parasite.
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these two specimen were found parasitic on the abdomen of charybdis longicollis, I need to know the genus and species
the two pictures are ventral and dorsal view 
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Parasitized by the Rhizocephalan Heterosaccus dollfusi ???
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As the blood is going to be imbibed by ticks in an in vitro feeding system, I'm looking for non-toxic methodology (cryoprotectants).
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what is a best preservation protocol for Theileria equi ...??
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I have looked up quite a number of research articles on this topic; none provide information on how the sample was determined. All these articles choose sample sizes that vary extremely from the other. This leaves me with no space for speculation. Can i get any help from an expert in this field of veterinary parasitology?
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I agree totally with Dr Ebert for detection of "rare" events.
On the other hand, if you work on common chicken parasites like Eimeria sp. your problem will probably to have a picture of the distribution of the intensity of infection (oocyte counts in faeces, for ex) rather than an estimation of the prevalence (often close to 100%). In such case sampling 40-50 chicken at a given time would probably allow a rather good estimation of the skewness / curtosis of the data and then guide the choice of suitable statistical methods.
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I have found this organism on and in the Liza aurata intestine that some of them possess shealth their around.It looks like to some kind of nematode, but I cannot be sure.
photos magnified by 40x
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It is difficult to be certain from these images, but it looks like a cephalopod spermatophore. These are occasionally found in the alimentary canal of marine fishes - and tend to baffle parasitologists.
DIG
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experimental infections with fasciola  in rabbits
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Dear sir,
Different plants are used in different countries depending on availability. I am attaching two files which may help you.
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Where can I find a paper about a differentiation between theilerias. We know there is a theileria but we want to know the species.
thanks in advance
(we have blood, tissue, a lot of slides)
luiz Mendes
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morphological you can differentiate by observing  the thin smear stained with Romanowsky stain under the microscope also the clinical symptom is very important . Read a book known as Helminths, Arthropods and protozoa of Domesticated Animals (Monnig) 6th Edition E.J.L.Soulsby
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these are pics of eggs found in goat fecal sample i want to know which kind of  eggs are these ?( strongyle /nematodirus/strongyloides)
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There should be larva in the egg of Strongyloides sp. There seems to me that this "thing"  in the egg isn't larva.
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I found these structures in a dog's fecal sample examined with sedimentation . 20X weight took this photos, first one's measure is approx 84*49 µm, second one is 68*53 µm. I suspect from Alaria spp egg?
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Hi Mohammed
The egg of  Alaria has a big size(120 × 65 µm).  The egg of Troglotrema salmincola
(Nanophyetus schikhobalowi) is like it with 87 µm- 97µm X 38 µm- 55 µm size. It is limited to the geographic range in the United States, but has been reported from Russia. You Should see other characters.
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Hi all,
I have a data with 18 sites and 36 species overall. Data set comprises of presence or absence values in binary. And the sample size differs for each site. basically it looks like as the following,
sites                sp1    sp2  sp3     .....sp36
site1 (n=28)     5        3     5       .....
site 2 (n=68)    2        0      8  
and so on. 
Please someone help me,
1. how can i arrange the data for easy analysis in R.
2. which package can be used to measure cumulative species richness
3. to avoid bias would like to do extrapolation to get an exact number of samples through rarefaction between the sites keeping area of the site as a parameter.
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Hi Muthulingam  
I think if your sample size is substantial different, while it would be good to rarefy species richnss; the package "Vegan" is very convenient and suggest to use.
A R code for example
library(vegan)
data<-read.csv("myspelist.csv",header=T,row.names=1)
rere<-rarefy(data, xx, se = T, MARGIN = 1)
Best wishes!
Wumei
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Or maybe you have experience about these ticks developing in dogs?
Thanks a lot!!
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Yes, the tick has been found exceptionally on dogs on Madagascar, see Uilenberg, Hoogstraal, Klein: Les tiques (Ixoidea) de Madagascar et leur rôle vecteur. Arch. Inst. Pasteur Madagascar, 1979, numéro spécial, 153 pp. (See pp. 54-55.)
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The companies address and the email of professors would be good.
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Take contact with Prof. Raymond Hamers, VUB, Brussels, Belgium.
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I am getting Cryprosporidium parvum oocysts in rat faecal samples after experimental infection in immunosuppressed rats. I need to demonstrate the protozoan in intestinal sections as well. Since this is a superficial parasite, please suggest how should I collect intestines after necropsy for routine histopathological sectioning so as to maximize chances of demonstrating the parasite in intestinal sections.
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Thanks a lot
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Does anyone know primers that can be used to amplify all Babesia species in canine blood DNA samples? I have tried RLB primers and all 18S primers with no luck so far.
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'RLBes work well with us, Haven't it work on positive control(s)?
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i need other than DCAB balance And to be  kept on a low calcium diet before parturition 
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Hello Ahmed M. Abd EL-Hafiz,
I actually Understand as you know more about milk fever, But for more clarity, let me stand from what the disease Milk fever mean!
Milk fever  is a condition of older, third to sixth lactation, high-producing dairy cows associated with Loss of blood calcium through milk within the first 2-3 days of lactation. This Metabolic disease has three progressive stages
Stage one
-  Cows are able to stand but show signs of hypersensitivity and excitability.
- Cows may appear restless and bellowing.
- If calcium therapy is not instituted, cows will progress to stage two.
 Stage two
- Cows are unable to stand but can maintain sternal recumbency.
- Depression, anorexia, dry muzzle, abnormal body temperature, and cold extremities are seen.
- Cows often tuck their heads into their flanks or, if the head is extended, an S-shaped curve to the neck may be noted.
 Stage three
- Cows lose consciousness progressively to the point of coma.
The Prevention of this metabolic disease lays on Three things:-
1.       Managing cows at dry period by keeping them with low level of calcium so as to stimulate the calcium regulatory system from their bones. If we do this, they can mobilize their body calcium during calving when there is shortage.
2.      Since Milk fever is the result of low blood calcium level in the body during calving, providing high calcium level forages like Lucerne within the first weeks of lactation can be preventive mechanism.
3.      Lastly, Cows with high risk can be injected with vitamin D3 within 2-8 days prior to calving.
For more information, you can see the following links:-
Actually there are alot of articles regardng Milk fever
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It was observed that a fly used to lay eggs on the skin of Hog deer (Hyelaphus porcinus) in Kaziranga National Park, Assam, India during winter season as told by wildlife rescue operators. These larvae emerge as adult flies from the host body after few weeks. Can anyone help me in identifying the fly responsible for this infestation? Can these larvae belong to bot flies? Please find attached few images as sent to me by the rescue operators. 
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Dear Debabrata,
on attached pictures are bot-fly larvae. Morphological identification of bot-flies could be performed on adult flies obtained from environment or on third stage larvae recovered from a host. For more details see Veterinary Parasitology written by Taylor, M.A., Coop, R.L., Wall, R.L. or Veterinary Ectoparasites - Biology, Pathology and Control written by Wall, R.L. and Shearer, D. (attached).
A lot of success in identification.
Jaroslav
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Can you identify these hemoparasites that i found in rodents?
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I don't think anybody can identify them on the basis of these pictures, certainly not as long as no multiplying forms are shown. And even then, one would need molecular tools.
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I made every changes that I know in the RT-PCR conditions but I still cannot obtain any thing!
Primers are absolutely ok. I examined gradient annealing temperature from 5 C below to 2 C over the Tm of the primers, different concentrations of the MgCl2, Taq, primers and cDNA but ... nothing!
I also changed the PCR and cDNA synthesis kit but ... nothing!
Should I do something before extraction of RNA from Toxoplasma? I use RNX (like Trizol) reagent in similar manner that I do for human cells.
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There is a good possibility that you have some sort of inhibitor working.  Perhaps test your DNA extraction by also targeting a host gene.
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Also, can microscopy alone confirm its viability? 
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Hi Cyrelle, you may find an answer in this paper: Dena Azam et al.
Temperature and the development and survival of infective Toxocara canis larvae, Parasitology Research (2012) 110:649–656
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 This egg captured from dog feces Its about 100×50 um and ×40 magnified If it possible tell me your detection.   Also any ebooks  or atlas that help me to detect  of dog intestinal parasites, please introduce to me  thank you
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I would like to know if there is any morphological or life cycle characteristic that allows the differentiation from any avian- Plasmodium spp. and Fallisia neotropicalis in a bird blood smear. I know F. neotropicalis only very rarely is found in reticulocytes.
Is there also anyone who can confirm if any other Garniidae species have been detected in avian species apart from F. neotropicalis?
Thank you very much!
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The parasite Fallisia infects circulating leukocytes and thrombocytes.
The schizonts produces 18-64 merozoites and are larger than the gametocytes.
The gametocytes are normally oval in shape and have a prominent nucleus. The nucleus is elongate in the macrogametocytes and triangular in the microgametocytes. Thanks.
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Some oocysts are found by fecal flotation. But I have no idea what they are, and would like to identify them to genus if not species by PCR and sequencing. What are the targeted genes and what are the primers? Thanks!
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OK, Chao. Perhaps, if you are lucky, more might be known about intestinal coccidian species that have been recorded from "your" mongoose than is known concerning coccidia in some other mongoose species.
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Can anyone help identify the following larvae. It was found in dog’s stool collected from grass in a park (Europe, Poland)? The feaces were not fresh (excreted max. 2 days before collection).
Sample was prepared using ParaSys Semi-automatic Station for fecal analysis with no staining.
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Dear Paweł,
In this case, it is important to consider that there are many species of nematode that are not parasites. Indeed, although almost 30,000 species have been described, of which about half are parasitic, the total number of nematode species has been estimated to be about 1 million. Anyway, whether the detail seen in the nematode in the third figure is a stylet, this suggests that the species is not parasite from the dog. All plant parasitic nematodes have a protrusible, hollow stylet, however not all stylet bearing nematodes are plant parasites. Thus, also consider the possibility of free-living nematodes: a world to be thoroughly studied!
Good luck in your investigation!
Best regards,
Vitor
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I have always wondered what was behind the evolutionary forces / benefits that lead to this. I wonder if this is the forum to ask this question? Thanks for your input.
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Matthew,
There is no simple answer to you specific question.  However, the general pattern of arthropods having different numbers of appendages at different developmental stages is widespread, and includes not only arachnid chelicerates, but also many crustaceans, myriapods, and others.  Insects also exhibit variation in appendage number across orders and across developmental stages.  However, with insects the variant appendages do not typically include the ambulatory appendages of the thorax, but rather other appendages of the abdomen.  There may be no particular advantage to this variation among acarines evolutionarily, but such developmental sequences may have arisen as simple patterns of ontogeny that were retained from ancestral taxa.  The entire phenomenon of variation in appendage number and function among diverse arthropods is known as "serial homology", and is related to the basically metameric nature of the arthropod body, coupled with tagmosis during embryonic and postembryonic development leading to different body regions by fusion of original embryonic metameres, each primitively with a single pair of appendages.  I discuss this briefly in my book that I have linked below.
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We have been trying to isolate the cysts from cow dung and sewage using Zinc sulfate flotation method. But the method only gives very few cysts and also has many debris in it. 
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For axenização, desencistamento and cultivation techniques perform: after checking the viability of the cysts isolated, using eosin 0.125%, axenização start the process in order to become free samples associated bacterial flora and fungi. The cysts are treated initially with a solution of HCl 1-2%, for two days at 4 ° C, or directly with amikacin (100 mg / ml) and nystatin (10.000UI / ml). Then wash with phosphate buffered saline (PBS), pH 7.2, making up new assessment of viability with eosin 0.125%. For induction of desencistamento, using the Bingham & technique Meyer (1979) and the technique of Feely et al. (1991). In Bingham & Meyer technique, the cysts are subjected initially to an soluçãode HCl at pH 0.5, pH 2.0 and pH 4.5 at 37 ° C for 5, 10 and 15 min., Respectively under stirring in ratio of one part of cysts solution with nine parts of HCl solution. Then, centrifuging the material at 2500 rpm / 5 min., Disregarding all HCl solution, and resuspend the pellet in PBS (pH 7.2). Lavadar material three times with PBS (pH 7.2) to a total elimination of HCl. For desencistamento using the technique of Feely et al. (1991), by adding a potassium phosphate buffer solution to a solution of 0.1M sodium bicarbonate 0.3M, to obtain a pH of 7.5, and this means induction by incubating the cysts in 15ml centrifuge tube at 37 ° C for 5 min. After centrifuging at 3277rpm for five minutes, rinse in 15 ml of pH 7.0 potassium phosphate buffer, concentrating again by centrifugation 5 min. to 3277rpm, resuspending in 1 to 2 ml desolução saline (0.85%) and incubating at 37 ° C for subsequent determination of desencistamento rates of 5.15 and 30 minutes. Sowing pellet in screw-capped tubes (120 x 16 mm) containing 12ml of medium TYI-S-33 modified Keister, DB (1983) plus de1mg / ml of ofloxacin and 100 IU / ml nystatin, and maintain in an oven bacteriological, to 35.5 - 37 C, in an inclined position. Examine tubes daily, inverted microscope with 100X, for the presence of trophozoites. Positive that trophozoites adhere to the wall present, should be placed in the ice bath for 15 min., Inverted several times to the detachment of trophozoites aseptically doing, the ringing to a tube containing fresh medium. In tubes where there are few trophozoites, instead of the chime, perform replacement of the medium, ie asubstituição the old medium by fresh medium.
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Hello folks,
I have a parasite infecting the liver in mice model and i could see the parasite in blood stream under the microscope.As it is in blood stream it is difficult to get the images of the parasite by microscopy. I wanted to know how i can isolate the parasite from the blood without contaminating with other cells. How can i prove that it is a free parasite in blood stream.
Your answers would help me a lot.
Thanks
sree
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I don't have to keep it viable. I just need to know a method to prove its in there. Could differential centrifugation be a good option?
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Does anyone know of a simple, fast method to detect Eimeria oocyst in faecal sample?
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Okay thanks Rakesh! 
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Hello, everyone
Now, I plan to design my experiment about hookworm parasite infection. So, I want to know what i should do in blood test for hookworm infection in golden hamster. I saw in many publications that used a measuring hemoglobin level only. Why do the CBC and HCT blood test is not use?
Thank you for your kind response
Sarit
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Better will be complete blood count or at least erythrocyte parameters...
It will be interesting if you focus on change in cell morphology with respect to severity of hook worm load. 
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we need to calculate the number of lambs of different breds  to evaluate the phenotipic resistance to gastrointestinal nematode. But we dont´t have experience, could sombady help us?
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Try playing with this:
Num=20
SD=5
REPS <- 10000
TT <- matrix(1:REPS)
for(i in 1:REPS)
{
  y <- rnorm(Num,mean=30,sd=SD)+4.5
  z <- rnorm(Num,mean=30,sd=SD)
   TT[i] <- t.test(y-z)$p.value
}
mean(TT)
Num is the sample size, in this case 20 to match your experiment. SD is the standard deviation of the sample. I have set it at 5, but you can change it and see what happens. REPS is the number of times I run the simulation. The variable TT holds the p-values of a t-test to look at the differences in means. I have added 4.5 to the random draw of 20 values from a normal distribution with a mean of 30. The result is that it is barely not significant most of the time. If I increase the value to 4.6 it will become significant most of the time at the 0.05 level. So with this simple code you can replace my values with better guesses. I used 30 to keep all the values above zero (if SD is too large you might have to increase the mean).
The real question here is with 20 lambs, is the expected difference sufficiently large that you expect to see a significant difference? Alternative, given that you don't find a difference, does it matter to you that you are unable to detect a real difference this large? The more realistic the numbers you can supply to this program the more likely it will accurately reflect the probable outcome. You can also work it backwards -- having collected the data and failing to find a significant difference, you can put in the real sample mean and standard deviation and approximate the smallest difference that you could have detected. Just be careful that you don't end up simulating a negative number of nematodes.
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Some of parameters such as LT50 & LD50 needs to evaluate insecticide.
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LD50 and LT50 both have importance. LD50 gives the idea about dose and LT50 decides the duration of suffering before death. Both factors must be considered   critically.  Log-probit analysis should be useful.
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These eggs were found in feces from Neotropical Otter (Lontra longicaudis)
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Dear Efrain,
These structures are too large to be a egg of Taeniidae.
Do not rule out the possibility of it to be a vegetal structure.
Best regards,
Hudson
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Can you share your knowledge about Pomphorhynchus tereticollis Rudolphi, 1809 with me?
Thank you, for taking the trouble..
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I recommend that you appraoch Dr Marie-Jeanne Perrot-Minnot (mjperrot@u-bourgogne.fr) who has recently done significant molecular work on this species.
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The  picture 3 (sample 54) was obtained by flotation, in contrast picture one and two were obtained by sedimentation.
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Dear Efrain
I recommend you to use the service of Diagnostic Assistance of the CDC for Parasites. This is very useful. I have used it before.
Please check this link: http://www.cdc.gov/dpdx/contact.html
There, is also the information required to send the images for diagnosis.
Finally, please if you consider this answer appropriate, please upvote it using the green up arrow click. Thanks.
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Hello parasitologists, i'm making a proyect about hemoparasites in bats and rodents in peruvian amazon. I finded these protozoans and i don't know its names. Help me please to identify it, thank you.
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Dear Gerald
I recommend you to use the service of Diagnostic Assistance of the CDC for Parasites. This is very useful. I have used it before.
Please check this link: http://www.cdc.gov/dpdx/contact.html
There, is also the information required to send the images for diagnosis.
Finally, please if you consider this answer appropriate, please upvote it using the green up arrow click. Thanks.
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I would like to identify wide spectrum of Cestode, Nematode and Trematode individuals living in the gastrointestinal tract of micrommamals from central Europe.
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Keys to the cestoda and trematoda (in djvu format)
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Parasite eggs from river otter, Lontra longicaudis
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The first egg does look like an ascarid egg.   Dioctophyma renale eggs are found in the urine, so if this sample was collected in a way that avoided urine contamination, D. renale eggs would be unlikely. Also, in my limited experience, D. renale eggs are a bit more pointed at the ends, unlike this oval egg.   The second egg may be a trematode or pseudophyllidian tapeworm egg.  You could concentrate the eggs out of the feces and place them in a thin layer of distilled water (so they are exposed to oxygen) and incubate them for a while and see what type of larvae develops inside (ciliated = trematode; 6 hooks = tapeworm).  Also, keep in mind that the otter is eating organisms that will have their own parasites, so if you are only finding one or two eggs of a particular type, they may be from a food item and are not actually parasitizing the otter.
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I needed the harness to collect faeces for parasite eggs from particular non penned sheep for research.
In our University, there is no faecal collection harness. I have looked at the internet to find and buy one, but have not found any. So, I both some synthetic straps and made the harness myself. Now I would like to publish the method in order to help someone who has similar problem.
In your opinion, does it worth to publish that as a technique?
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Start with a mesh-type material such as cheese cloth. Cut into a pattern that can have 4 to 6 "corners". Use a tube-type glue that is often used to paste tags onto cattle at sale auctions. Put glue on each corner of cloth. Press the cloth against wool around rectum and vulva. Urine will pass through and fecal pellets will be trapped inside material. To remove, use scissors to cut corners free from glue spots. The glue and residual cloth will eventually fall away. We used similar approaches with another material to collect urine samples.
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Anaemia Chart standardized by Faffa Malan be used as such in any country. If not then how can we go for standardizing a chart for our local use.
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Stanislav Simin
           Thank you so much for the advice. am planning to validate according to my conditions so ur information was more beneficial to me
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In the last 10 years we have seen an increase in published cases of proliferative sparganosis and/or proliferative Mesocestoides tetrathyridiosis reported from several host species in many parts of the world.  These are tapeworm metacestodes that normally are not asexually proliferative, but seem to become so under some circumstances.  It is possible that this is an emerging infectious disease group, but perhaps more likely increasing awareness, better surveillance and more robust field surveys are resulting in more reporting.  We continue to work on this in my lab, and I would like to hear perspectives on this, as well as information from those who have observed unpublished cases.
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Dear David Conn
I think this may be explained by several factors, namely increase of wild carnivore populations, higher intertransmissibility between wild and domestic carnivores, high degree of ingestion of small vertebrates (paratenic hosts) by both, misdiagnosis in faecal exams (lack of knowledge on this kind of cestode eggs) in carnivores and lack of attention in differential diagnosis regarding small animal peritonitis (see attached file on this issue written by american colleagues). Besides and still regarding domestic carnivores, the only drugs 100% effective against these cestodes are praziquantel and epsiprantel. Therefore, a thorough coprological exam (to assess infection and the degree of endemicity of the area) and a regular deworming with those products it's essential for a good control.
In what concerns the human part, the higher contact with these cestode eggs shed in carnivore faecal samples in the wild (namely during outdoor activities or while grabbing wild berries), may contribute a great deal to this scenario.
Finally, these cestodes are commonly neglected in practice, but this has to change due to their zoonotic potential and consequences on animal health.
Best regards
Luis Manuel Madeira de Carvalho
Associate Professor of Veterinary Parasitology and Parasitice Diseases
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the wolf scats (from isle royale) were collected since 2000, and frozen but have been thawed by other students in the previous years and stored in fridge 4-5 celsius.My project aims to identify helminth eggs.
i performed volumetric dilution using distilled water, analysed 1ml under compound microscope and found no eggs, so i stored the faecal mixture under fridge conditions for a week. i returned to the mixture, took 1ml out and performed microscopy: found alot of the live organisms under x400 magnification. There were about 10 organisms per ml. is it possible that tiny cysts of ..some protozoan flagellate laid dormant for YEARS and only hatched when i applied distilled water? if so, what parasite could this be? or is this just contamination from other students?
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I think the PhD dissertation by Sandra Appelt "Paléomicrobiologie des coprolithes" (in English) might be of interest to you:
Read the journal article "Growing Acanthamoeba out of medieval coprolite reveals a new endosymbiont" in the Chapter IV. Ameba were grown from cysts preserved in a human fecal sample from the 14th-15th century.
This fragment of the Introduction seem to be the answer you seek:
"Cysts such as those of amoeba are also known to be highly resistant to extreme temperatures, desiccation and disinfections (Coulon et al. 2010; Sriram et al. 2008). Free-living encysted amoeba can stay persistent for at least twenty years (Mazur et al. 1995; Sriram et al. 2008). In particular several studies showed that Acanthamoeba cysts survived a period of twenty to twenty-four years stored at 4℃ in water or in a desiccated stage without losing pathogenicity (Mazur et al. 1995; Sriram et al. 2008)."
I think it does not meen that the organisms grown from your wolf scats are necessarily parasites but in theory it seems quite possible that they had laid dormant since 2000.
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I need a method to extract metacercariae of Fasciola hepatica (liver fluke), for microscopic analysis, from herbage samples. I have heard it can be done with household bleach but there is no published method I can find.
Thanks.
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Dear Andrew,
you could use the technique described in Manual of Veterinary Parasitological Laboratory Techniques (MAFF, 1986).
Please find it attached. 
Best regards!
Stanislav
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I need to quantify larval stages of Taenia pisiformis found in the viscera but I can not find references about this. Thanks
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Thanks to all. Unfortunately, cysticerci of T. pisiformis I'm looking for are in dead hares, in peritoneum and not in muscle. Fortunately they are easily visible without a microscope (at least when they are mature) but unfortunately sparse in the peritoneum and often attached one another so it should be quite difficult to count them with a standardized method.
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I am beginning training in equine small strongyle identification.  The resident expert in our department prefers to use a Beechwood Creosote solution to clear the worms and make their internal structures visible for subsequent identification.  It works extremely well and clears the worms within a few seconds.  However, Beechwood Creosote is quite caustic and does raise health concerns with my research supervisor.  Other researchers use lactophenol or glycerine to clear the worms. How well do these solutions work?
Thoughts?
Advice?
Concerns?
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Dear Jennifer
I strongly agree with Stanislav, since I use lactophenol since the 80s for horse strongyles identification and it works fine.
Some tips for a good and safe use:
- Whenever possible, avoid a long direct contact of your finger tips with the liquid. Of course that does not happen much, but with dificult specimens, you must take a longer time to identify them and while manipulating the nematode(s), you must clean more often your fingers with lab tissues.
- Use a lab with good ventilation, because the scent at the beginning is nice, but can be annoying if you work continuouly for 3-4 h.
- For larger and thicker specimens, like Strongylus, Triodontophorus or even Poteriostomum, some times you must need to leave the strongyles some hours in a petri dish with lactophenol and only after that you are able to see the internal structures. On the other hand, don't leave tiny cyathostomins, like Cylicostephanus longibursatus or C. minutus, too much time in lactophenol (more than 24 h) , because otherwise they will be too much cleared and you will loose the necessary contrast.
- To save time, organize strongyles by size in a Petri dish and then mount 10-20 at same time, for a faster identification.
- Stored nematodes in ethanol 70% can be easily cleared with lactophenol. After identifying the specimen with lactophenol (that we also call lactophenol of Amman), the nematode can return again to ethanol 70%.
In conclusion, using lactophenol it's easy, namely for working  on horse strongyles identification. I am sending a PDF with the Top 10 Cyathostomins of a study performed with lactophenol, so that you can see how cleared they are.
Best regards
Luis M. Madeira de Carvalho
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This larva had clearly defined cells except at the very anterior and posterior ends that ranged from what is considered brick-like cells at the anterior end to elongated triangular cells at the posterior end.  The esophagus was approximately the same length, the width the same, the length of tail the same as what is more typical of poteriostomum spp. or even Triodontophorus spp.  I have included a picture, but was unable to take one with scale bars before the larva swam away (heat treating the larva to "sedate" it unfortunately degraded it's cells such that it could not be found again).
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 I work with horse strongyles since 1987 and I have never seen L3 with 24-26 cells. I believe this can be a modification, or some specific morphotype, perhaps from Triodontophorus sp. The shape and organization of cells are pretty much the ones from this genus.
In Cyathostomum s.l. I found L3 with 6,7,8 and 9 cells. so I would not be surprised that could happen with other genera. I hope it can help your research.
Luis Carvalho
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I need to infect the rats with the cysticercoid of Hymenolepis diminuta.
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This is super easy to do. You can use a regular dissection microscope and dissect the beetles (usually Tenebrio molitor for H. diminuta) in a watch glass with Tyrode's solution.  Remove the thorax and a small portion of the posterior abdomen.  You can then take a Pasteur pipette and flush out the cavity with the Tyrode's solution, and that will bring out most of the cysticercoids.  You can then use a rodent oral gavage syringe to pipette up the required number of cysticercoids and clean Tyrode's solution to equal 100 microliters. Then anesthetize your rats and administer via oral gavage.  Let me know if this helps.
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Hookworm or Strongyloides spp.?
Under 40x magnification, and the size of the egg is around 77µm x 40µm.
From deer feces sample.