Science topic

Veterinary Medicine - Science topic

Veterinary medicine is the branch of science that deals with the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of disease, disorder and injury in non-human animals.
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Hi, I am doing a research about thermal imaging in horses and I wonder if there are any databases that have the horse thermal images of different body parts, including the healthy and abnormal ones? Thank you very much!
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I'm sorry I don't have
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I want to find the target receptor for a ligand ,whose effects can be beleived to vary in physiological system of underdeveloped or new born pupps than in adult dogs. How to find the function and mechanism of the same ligand in mice models ,for the treatment of neurological disorders in dogs.
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Hi Shruthi
I have in my past life heard/learnt at Vet school about dog condition similar to Duchenne muscular dystrophy reported in golden retrievers.
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is neuro-muscular disease caused by a genetic problem in producing dystrophin, a protein that defends muscle fibers from breaking down when exposed to enzymes in muscles and particular regions of CNS. DMD occurs mostly in young males, though in rare cases may affect females. The symptoms of DMD include progressive weakness and atrophy of both skeletal and heart muscle. Respiratory insufficiency contributes to morbidity of muscular dystrophy and, along with cardiomyopathy. In dogs, condition was originally reported in golden retrievers and termed golden retriever muscular dystrophy (GRMD).
Here you can read PMID: 33071066 about study performed on young dogs
Here is more about the disease PMID: 11834588
You may decide after all reading to check GRMD more closely, if there are studies showing comparison of young pups vs. older and how they are neurologically examined by Vets in the clinic. Hope this helps
Filip
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I'll look for ovarian follicular growth, in sows
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Thanks, I will read
Stefan
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EU directives on medical devices only include medical devices for human beings. Medical devices for veterinary use are not included in the legislation and therefore there is no requirement that they must be CE-marked as medical devices or meet the essential requirements for the CE marking.
In Italy there are no local regulations for the design, manufacture and marketing of medical devices for veterinary use.
What local regulations are in force in the EU and not-EU countries?
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Can I have the Full text article for "Note on the regulation of veterinary medical devices in the EU: A review of the current situation and its impact on animal health and safety".
Request sent to author for the access
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Is there any specific antidote?
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We are looking to stain zebrafish cells with BrdU. What are the Pros and Cons of the Intraperitoneal method vs adding the stain to the environment? 
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we wish to use ivermectin for deworming some of the ewes who are in early stages of pregnancy. Are there any contraindications? If Yes, kindly suggest the literature on it.
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yes sir
as per record Ivermectin is completely safe at any stages in pregnant animals
but individual variations could not rule out.
thanks
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May someone help me to get this paper?
Holler, R., M. Lechner, H. Weyreter and W. and
Von Engelhardt. (1986). Fore stomach fluid
volume and retention time of fluid and particles
in the gastrointestinal tract of the camel. Journal
of Veterinary Medicine, A., 33: 396.
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This paper is attached.
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My dear Cat Kajsa died Friday because of ( wet) FIP. It all went so fast, we noticed she hat respiratory problems in the night before Thursday and Friday, for a while I thought she was doing better but it turned out to be a false expectation. We sat down in the truck and headed for the hospital. Our cat had always been nervous and she panicked in the truck and died on route. My question is; Is there any cure on the horizon? We took in 5 cats from the shelter and I suspect we have FIP in the population. What can be done? Best regards Henrik
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I am sorry to hear that Henrik, but it is how it usually ends with this disease, although some improvements might come with the new medications. For instance, we still do not know, why a very common virus in the feline population such as FeCOV will in some particular cases lead to the FIP, and why it is the wet form mostly in young animals and dry form in the old ones. The medication is not registered and hence available in Europe, and although there is reportedly a growing black market of the medication, I would advise you to stay away from it, as, without official control, one can not be sure what is he/she buying.
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By asking the question I wanna know whether gene present in one genera of bacteria coding for particular antibiotic resistance will also be present in another genera of bacteria. For eg whether qnr gene coding for fluroquinolone resistance will be same for Staphylococcus spp and E.coli or not.
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Both are possible, but bacteria exchange resistance genes through the horizontal genes transfer, even if they are of a different genus.so I would say in most cases they are the same.
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Would anyone happen to have a protocol on mouse vertebrae compression testing? Our lab will be investigating this soon and we are gathering as much information possible. Thanks!
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This article may be benefit for you
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moxidectin had been used in cattle and sheep, but not in swine. We expect to calculate MRL for Moxidectin in pig in non-radiolabeled residue study. Is there any equation? if concentrations at the time point at which the residues falls below the ADI is MRL? And we found thay the intake consumption at the first sampling time is far below ADI. is it suitable to determine MRL at the first time point? I am so cofused. thank you for your reply.
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there are many measurement to calculate MRI that note in book named ( veterinary MRI).
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Is there any research or an information about use of swedish bitter in veterinary medicine besides rats? I am planning to do a research on this spesific subject. Magistral formulas like this are believed to have amazing properities on human health. So I am wondering if it is not toxic, can it be healing?
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Dear Serra
I think Literature about the use of "swedish bitters" besides experimental animal especially rat is currently unavailable. I've searched and just found this https://scialert.net/fulltextmobile/?doi=jms.2013.62.66 (Effect of Bitters on the Body Weight, Lipid Profile, Catalase and Lipid Peroxidation in Experimental Animals). Maybe you can do your own research about that, good luck.
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New Institute Proposed in India, IDDRI (Indian Disease Dissemination Research Institute). Some details are available at
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good proposition
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The website version is already available but it is time consuming to feed manually.
The software is in need very urgent. Please let me know ASAP.
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sorry, No.
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My focus is teacher preparation, primarily at the K12 level, but I have recently been thrust into a curriculum development position with a college of veterinary medicine. I am looking for seminal works dealing with classroom practices, teaching philosophies, etc. at the graduate and professional school level.
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Dan Moreno, I think your question is a base line for one health approaches that we have to aware the next generation through seminal work and collaborative approaches in this way it will depends on the skills of academician that it cover all aspect of veterinary and medical perspectives, at the same time motivation, encouragement and appreciation in class's are high priority for current generation. also search teaching and research methodologies for undergraduate and postgraduate students.
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I am looking for a time-lapse embryoscope that is able to monitor bovine embryo development.
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There are a number of published papers in this area, but the results are not consistent. In general, one must work out what developmental steps are most related to successful pregnancies in a laboratory. The equipment and software is expensive, so one must also determine whether there is an economic advantage to using an "automated" system. There is a large difference in amount one can charge for IVF in the bovine versus in the human, so affordability is an issue for both the embryologist and customer. It is probably a bit early to use such systems in commercial practice, but they may be more useful in experimental settings.
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Could anybody help me out with papers about utrine torsion in sheep?
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Please go through the following PDF attachments.
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For my current literature review I'm still looking for numbers of antibiotics used in agriculture / livestock/ animal production in developing countries. We already know about bad or no data collection in many countries and I have read a lot of "over the counter sales" etc. but rather in human than in veterinary medicine. Unfortunately, I didn't find any numbers of used antitbiotics in developing countries or any data about antimicrobial resistance of livestock in developing countries. Any help would be appreciated :)!
Thanks in advance!!!
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Thanks for all the tips! This was extremely helpful
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Dear fellow parasitologists, veterinarians, with my team, we are trying to get hands on Hyostrongylus rubidus suitable for DNA isolation (fresh or preserved in molecular ethanol). Does anyone have it? Or do you have any tips who I could contact? Thanks for any information!
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Sorry for the mistake. I have H. rubidus in my personal collection. I'll let you know soon if the worms still have DNA.
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Vaccinations of 4 Camelus dromederius starting 3rd Aug followed by 3 boosters at 14 day intervals against the foot and mouth disease virus (146S particle and recombinant nonstructural protein 3ABC).
High titres were obtained by the end of 3rd booster (19th Sep). Now I face some problems and need to immunize again - my queries are:
1) do you expect by this time (about 2 and a half months completed) the immune titres would have completely waned away?
2) if I am going to boost again, how many boosters should I give in order to attain good titre value? 
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At any circumstances, the protection level against FMD virus will persist up to 9 months
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Greetings from Romania Dr. Divakar Sharma!
I am a PhD student at Veterinary Medicine in Cluj-Napoca and my thesis is about the analysis of resistome transfer from non-pathogenic bacteria to pathogenic ones.
I am interested to find more about your methods to analyse the the bacterial resistome.
Could you share more of your ideas, please? Previous articles on such subject, please?
Thank you!
Silvian
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Hi Dr silvian im investigating yet. This is the last work on that project that i am working on it"recharacterization of viral loads, strate and state of equine herpesvirus‐1 using real‐time PCR in horses following natural exposure at a racetrack in california "
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Dear Sir/Madam
I am a BSc Veterinary Medicine graduate, Cairo University, Egypt. I have a Microbiology&Toxicology MSc Food Safety, Wageningen University, The Netherlands.
During my MSc, I did my thesis on the microbial ecology and the impact of growth history on stress robustness of Listeria monocytogenes. On pursuing my postgraduate training, I joined the Euroleague of Life Sciences ELLS summer school on '' Pathogens, Parasites and Their Hosts; Ecology, Molecular Interactions and Evolution'' provided by Hohenheim University, Germany.
May I ask whether I can join the research project as a PhD student?. Please, find my attached resume
Thank you
Kind regards,
Eslam Saleh
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Yes you can. Better add some of your published articles (if you have) that will increase your chance of hunting a PhD project. Good luck!
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What are the most reliable and scientific online/offline veterinary databases/softwares with organised guidelines and protocols which could help clinicians to reach the best diagnosis and treatment in the the shortest possible time?
In fact I am looking for a database/software like "Up to date" which is used in human medicine. I would highly appreciate if one can introduce such a database/software.
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Specifically, a dachshund, on insulin-therapy since three years.
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Prescription diets are the best in managing struvite urolithiasis in canines.
Also provide the dog with clean drinking water always.
An infection always predispose to urolithiasis as it will affect the pH of the urine due to bacterial growth.
Urinary infections has to be identified early and managed as early as possible with the sensitive antibiotic of choice.
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If there is fibrosis in an udder, how do you treat the animal?
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Potassium iodide orally is effective.
Serratiopeptidase boluses are available 60 mg Bolus twice daily can also be given.
Highly diluted acriflavine in water can be infused inside the udder at large quantities ( 1 Litre ) followed by gentle massaging for 30 minutes, strip of the udder after massaging repeat for 3 days
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I have 2 female stafodrshire terriers with vestibular signs, both positive on heartworm testing (microfilarie and adult Ag).
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Presence of microfilaria at lage numbers (6+ in LPF) can affect renal and cerebral blood supply, mostly it can cause renal failure even though heart worms affect cardiac efficiency predominantly. Cerebral lesions can also occur if cerebral circulations are affected but should be differentiated with vestibular signs, which can be easily confused with nervous signs due to cerebral lesions.
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Studies of several species reveal a wide spectrum of alterations in mitochondria, mainly during the aging. My interest is in investigating the changes of these alterations in plasma.
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For activity, you may want to look at O2 consumption as mentioned by another comment. For quantifying functional mitochondria, I would recommend using TMRE and mitotracker/JC-1 dyes. TMRE is a dye that is bright under high mitochondiral membrane potential (read: healthy mitochondria) but dim under low mitochondrial membrane potential (read: unhealthy/dying mitochondria). Performing a ratio of TMRE to mitotracker/JC-1 (either will work) will allow you to quantify mitochondrial membrane potential for the total mitochondrial mass.
The linked paper provides a really good summary of different assays to asses mitochondria function and health.
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It was written somewhere that for chlamydiosis use 250 gm Azithromycin + 0.25 oz Lactulose. Scheduled dose is one drop per gram body weight BID for 14 days. Please let me know same combination may work for respiratory tract infection.
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Azithromycin is macrolids group, and mostly Tylosin is used from this group to treat CRD. Some countries have restrictions on what to use though.You can consider others as Erythromycin, clarithromycin . All those are bacteriostatic at low dose and cidal at higher dose.
You can also use Tiamulin Hydrogen Fumerate for CRD,
For more details refer to Merk veterinary manual please.A general rule is to combine Bacteriostatic antibiotic with Bacteriostatic AND Bacteriocidal antibiotic with bacteriocidal in order to achieve synergestic effect
AND so sorry for late response
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We are going to give 10 mg/kg to adolescent, Wistar rats. 
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We have not used it in prepubertal animals. You may want to minimize acute pain associated with administration by injecting it under isoflurane induced anesthesia to attenuate pain at site of injection and make sure not to exceed a 1 ml/kg dose of DMSO as a vehicle.
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The phenomenon of infection, infectious processes and infectious diseases is very complicated and interesting. Scientific research of the infection cannot be reduced to the creation of vaccines for humans and domestic animals. In the manifestation of infection and the periodic spread of infection (epidemics and epizootics), many connections are manifested. They are often not registered. Climate change carries new infectious threats. This is a very typical manifestation of how changes in the environment may lead to a cascade of consequences. Including infectious nature. In the discussion, it is necessary to focus on theoretical and methodological issues. They are key. Important interpretation of various cases of manifestations of infectious diseases among humans and animals. The purpose of discussion is to develop effective scientific positions on the study of the natural phenomenon of infection. Infectious ecology allows to go beyond the very limited approach of modern epidemiology and veterinary medicine. We are trying to reach a new level of understanding of relationships in nature.
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The answer to the question:
"Please define" infectious ecology "in the context of global warming or cooling.
For a correct understanding of what can happen during climate change and changes in the manifestation of the pathogenic properties of microorganisms, the following should be considered:
• Refuse the human perception of climate change. Probably 99% of what is said on the subject, is connected with human perception. We are talking about microorganisms that were "always" and who saw a lot of changes.
• Do not look for a direct and simple connection. These connections are complex. In addition, nature plays infectious jazz in various parts of the world. The geography of manifestations of infectious diseases is changing.
• Including, microorganisms have seen 6 mass extinctions of biological species. The role of the infectious factor in them is not considered. In my opinion it is done absolutely in vain. An infectious factor can be an integral part of changes in the biodiversity of planet Earth.
• Warming - cooling. Usually the set of characteristics for their evaluation is purely anthropocentric. For microorganisms, the link "climate - vegetation - insects - soil" is important. It is clear that everything is much more complicated. Well, let it be so for now. Between climate change and changes in soils, a complex relationship. It should be studied. It is not easy to do.
• Another aspect of the warming - cooling. Reservoirs. In particular, freshwater reservoirs. They begin to change from an ecological point of view. This will affect the microorganisms associated with them. An example is water reservoirs in Ukraine (the Dnieper River). Warming the water gives a cascade of effects. Including, infectious nature. Fresh water changes. Its quality. We can say that the "African standard" of fresh water is being formed.
• For a correct answer to the question about the relationship between climate and infections, new taxonomic units need to be developed. Landscapes, geosystems, ecosystems and other terms are not entirely acceptable when studying the process in infectious ecology.
• A typological analysis of the soil is necessary from the point of view of infectious ecology. I can recognize about 200 types of soil environment. These types are defined precisely in the context of infectious ecology. They will behave differently depending on the geographical area of the world.
• It is necessary to take into account the new connections. Example. Habitual use of herbicides in the new environment can give is not quite the usual result. There are many examples with pathogens. Let's say tularemia. The problem is that the adaptive properties of microorganisms are not investigated. Meanwhile, the discrete activation of pathogens is likely to be an adaptive response to the environment.
• There is no reason to believe that adaptive reactions also do not change. Virulence and many other characteristics will change.
• And 35 - 45 more points.
The general conclusion - we need to deal with this subject. In epidemiology and veterinary medicine, only try to treat infected warm-blooded. They consider a tiny segment of connections. They do not want to hear about anything else. A failure in the fundamental understanding of how exactly the activation of pathogenic properties of microorganisms takes place. As a consequence of the limited position of epidemiology and veterinary science, it is not understanding why the infectious process begins and for what it ends.
Do you remember the ebola of 2014?
This is the ebola report for June 5, 2018. Ebola is back in the Congo. 13 pages of the report for one day. And all about the consequences. And not a word about the study of the environment. On this basis, it is impossible to understand the links between climate change and the changes in the manifestation of infectious diseases.
In the infectious ecology the object can be explored in a fundamentally different way.
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What is the difference between H-index, i10-index, and G-index?
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I have only 70 reads. How do I work to increase this rate?
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I am working in remote areas away from laboratory services. It takes hours to get the samples to the laboratory. Most blood parameters start to change as soon as the blood samples are taken from the animals. Is there a means that can used to preserve samples and retain the true values of the blood parameters? Thank you
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We want to measure TEWL in NC/Nga mice and wonder whether someone has experience with the different "vapometer" available?
Our experience with dog skin was somewhat unreliable...
Thanks Wolfgang
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Hi.
we have been measure the TEWL in mice and got some experience by using the AquaFlux AF20 without shaving the belly of the mice and without anesthesia. Indeed the data have high variation, but so far n>10 is enough for comparison between groups. the more important issue was to acclimate the animals at least 30 min in dry bedding, control the room humidity and Temperature.
Regards
Antonio
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I need to do a sero-surveillance and stool antigen detection for these two organisms in pigs.
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Here a Taqman assay that works on H.heilmannii and H. suis
Helicobacter heilmannii s.l.
HH UreB For: 5-TGC ACC ACT TAT GGY GAA GAR AT
HH UreB Rev: 5-TTG CCR TYY TTA ATS CCA ATG TCG
HH UreB Probe: FAM-5-AT GRS HCA AAC CAA CAG CCC YAG C-3-BHQ1
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I inactivated virus by formaldehyde 0.3%, but I don't know how to neutralize formaldehyde to stop reaction?
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Apologies for lengthiness again.....Honestly pointed also to an ResGate-Question asked 3 years ago: cf.:
https://www.researchgate.net/post/How_do_you_neutralize_formaldehyde
where you'll find also some Ref's.
Additionally:
from SciGen, USING THE EPA/DTSC CERTIFIED NEUTRALEX® TECHNOLOGY:
NEUTRALEX® Aldehyde Neutralization Agent (Product Code 4047) :
(other Companies dealing with chemicals might offer different but similar reagents, e. g. SIGMA: unfortunately in the Austrian Catalogue the product "Formaldehyde/Formalin Neutralisations Kit" = Formalin Neutralizer Kit (e.g.: https://www.sigmaaldrich.com/catalog/product/sigma/fn0010) has been discontinued from their product catalogue..
or NEWCOMER supply: CAVE: NOT USABLE for concentrated FA- or Formalin solutions (maximal concentration to be neutralized:
1) 10% formalin (4% formaldehyde) and 4% glutaraldehyde are the highest concentrations that can be neutralized.
1a) Formalex® “GREEN” should never be used to directly treat concentrated 37% formaldehyde for sanitary sewer disposal.
http://www.newcomersupply.com/product/formalex-green-formalin-formaldehyde-neutralizing-liquid (whatever "Formalex" consits of...great commercial secret!.(:-) [but you'll find there primary references:
  1. Bancroft, John D., and Marilyn Gamble. Theory and Practice of Histological Techniques. 6th ed. Oxford: Churchill Livingstone Elsevier, 2008. 22-23, 27.
  2. Dapson, Janet Crookham, and Richard W. Dapson. Hazardous Materials in the Histopathology Laboratory: Regulations, Risks, Handling and Disposal. 4th ed. Battle Creek, MI: Anatech, 2005. 181-186.
  3. Modifications developed by Newcomer Supply Laboratory.
or see the following article (unfortunately accessible only to subscribers or as PPV-article): Gearheart et al, 2006:
Technical Note: Application of Methods for the Detoxification and Neutralization of Formalin in Fish Hatchery Effluents,
Journal: North American Journal of Aquaculture, Vol. 68, 2006 - Iss. 3, pp:256-263: cf.: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1577/A05-048.1?journalCode=unaj20,
Abstract (copied and pasted only for convenience of the reader):
"Sodium sulfite, Neutralex, hydrogen peroxide, and hydrogen peroxide with a ferric iron catalyst were studied for potential application in reducing formalin in effluents from aquaculture facilities. The neutralization capacity of each method was examined at formalin concentrations that are typically found in effluents from fish hatcheries that utilize formalin to control ectoparasite infestations on fish. The toxicities of the products were also evaluated. A 75% reduction in formalin concentration was observed within the first 10 min after the addition of sodium sulfite at a 3:1 (sodium sulfite : formalin) mass treatment ratio. The addition of Neutralex to test solutions at a 6:1 (Neutralex : formalin) mass treatment ratio reduced the formalin concentration by approximately 90% of initial values within 10 min and completely eliminated formalin within 20 min. Degradation of formalin was not successful under the test conditions using hydrogen peroxide alone or in combination with a ferric iron catalyst. Both of the sodium sulfite-formalin and Neutralex-formalin reaction products were more toxic to Ceriodaphnia dubia test animals than formalin alone. Although regulatory limits for formalin discharge from aquaculture facilities could most likely be achieved with sodium sulfite or Neutralex, the direct discharge of their neutralizer-formalin reaction products would probably be harmful to some aquatic species." ==> cross reference to: MASTERS, 2004: A Review of Methods for Detoxification and Neutralization of Formalin in Water cf.: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1577/A03-060.1?src=recsys .
Hope this helps anyway...(;-))
DISCLAIMER: No affiliation to any of the mentioned companies / dealers, no financial interest. Only having had interest again into the "old question", for the long existing solutions and admitting that I've neutralized / blocked my used fixatives (for tissue fixation in LM & TEM) for over 30 years of my profession with the addition of 50mM NH4Cl (Ammoniumchloride), or sometimes also with addition of 'technical' >10N (saturated) NaOH (made from used CO2-loaded sodium-hydroxide pellets) because:
When conc. sodium hydroxide (NaOH) reacts with formaldehyde (HCHO), the products formed is/are sodium formate (sodium-formiate, HCOONa , and methanol (CH3OH). | HCHO undergoes Cannizarro's reaction as follows: 2HCHO + NaOH → HCOONa + CH3OH ). After use / addition of Sodium-metabisulphite at least after effective swirling standing overnight prior to regulated disposal to a municipal disposal site.
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Several clones had been produced in the lab before Dolly, including frogs, mice, and cows, which had all been cloned from the DNA from embryos. Dolly was remarkable in being the first mammal to be cloned from an adult cell. This was a major scientific achievement as it demonstrated that the DNA from adult cells, despite having specialized as one particular type of cell, can be used to create an entire organism. Please, the question is that what are the steps for cloning of Dolly sheep?
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Animal cloning from an adult cell is much more difficult than from an embryonic cell. So when scientists working at the Roslin Institute in Scotland produced Dolly, the only lamb born from 277 attempts, it was a major news story around the world.
To produce Dolly, scientists used an udder cell from a six-year-old Finn Dorset white sheep. They had to find a way to 'reprogram' the udder cells - to keep them alive but stop them growing – which they achieved by altering the growth medium (the ‘soup’ in which the cells were kept alive). Then they injected the cell into an unfertilised egg cell which had had its nucleus removed, and made the cells fuse by using electrical pulses. The unfertilised egg cell came from a Scottish Blackface ewe. When the research team had managed to fuse the nucleus from the adult white sheep cell with the egg cell from the black-faced sheep, they needed to make sure that the resulting cell would develop into an embryo. They cultured it for six or seven days to see if it divided and developed normally, before implanting it into a surrogate mother, another Scottish Blackface ewe. Dolly had a white face.
From 277 cell fusions, 29 early embryos developed and were implanted into 13 surrogate mothers. But only one pregnancy went to full term, and the 6.6 kg Finn Dorset lamb 6LLS (alias Dolly) was born after 148 days.
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In a course of Veterinary Medicine, I am teaching embryology (defined as the morphological development of the embryo / foetus) along with developmental biology (mechanisms of development as differentiation, patterning, cell migration; regulative development, cloning, molecular phenomena in different organ development, and so on). In a medical course, should developmental biology teaching be more important than morphologic development or vice-versa?
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Dear Jose,
I think that a good understanding of the morphology of embryonic/fetus development is important basis for gross anatomy (for instance for the understanding of the central nervous system) I would put more emphasis in the veterinary curriculum on it compared to developmental biology.
Kind regards,
Daniela
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Please, I need picrosirius red staining protocol including using phosphomolybdic acid (PMA).
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Dear Dr. Jun Zhao, if it was my answer which helped you to get rid of cytoplasmic staining: you're welcome and thanks to Dolber PC, Spach MS.,1987 who found it worthwhile to write a scientific/technical article...Regards, W.M.
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A few reports illustrate that blue tongue can infect dogs. Does any body know any information with regards to epizootic hemorrhagic disease in dogs?
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Dogs may be infected with BTV and contaminated vaccines are considered to play a major role in spread of infection
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I am aware of some work on the affects of anthelmintics on the fauna feeding on dung but was keen to find if wider work has been done on their effects on wider range of pasture insects and the consequence effects on species that feed on them in particular birds. Changes in land use are and to some extent predation are cited as causes of decline of some species of farmland bird, however for some the impact of veterinary medicines on food chains is also a possible contributor and I am keen to find out who and where such wok may have been carried out. Any thoughts welcome.
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Herbal remedies are the current focus of most livestock researches. indigenous knowledge on plants are being backed up with scientific evidences to provide ideal solutions for safe animal production
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Greetings from Romania, Maria E. Farías!
I am PhD student at Veterinary Medicine in Cluj-Napoca and my thesis is about the analysis of resistome transfer from non-pathogenic bacteria to pathogenic ones.
I am interested to find more about your methods to analyse the the bacterial resistome.
Could you share more of your ideas, please?
Thank you!
Silvian
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Greetings from Romania!
I am a PhD student at Veterinary Medicine in Cluj-Napoca and my thesis is about the analysis of resistome transfer from non-pathogenic bacteria to pathogenic ones.
I am interested to find more about your methods to analyse the the bacterial resistome.
Could you share more of your ideas, please? Previous articles on such subject, please?
Thank you!
Silvian
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Hello, it depends of your aim. In this study I'm working with whole genome sequencing to find the resistance genes and their genetic environment. I use the following programs: rast, resfinder, plasmid finder. I also work with Geneious and command line by Linux to assemble my genomes.
Now, if you just want to see the transfer of an specific gene or plasmid, you must do conjugation experiments. Than, you can do susceptibility tests and pcr.
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The CLSI VET01S 2015 performance standard does not have standards for this, but does have the following MIC breakpoints:
Cats (UTI/non-UTI): R > 0.25 µg/mL
Dogs (UTI): R > 8 µg/mL
Dogs (non-UTI): R > 0.25 µg/mL
The standard states that
"With the exception of an uncomplicated UTI , amoxicillin or amoxicillin - clavulanate are not appropriate for treating infections caused by E.. coli , including skin and soft tissue infections , and should be reported as resistant."
However, a standard should still exist to enable laboratories to make judgements on AMC resistance, shouldn't it?
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Hi, not all bacteria have the established breakpoints. It also varies from animal to animal to human also. If you think CLSI does not have the breakpoint for E. coli for UTI for dog or cat, you may want to extrapolate the established breakpoint from another closely related animal or from another regulatory body like EUCAST. However, the best thing to do is to determine the epidemiological cut off point. With the distribution of the MIC, you can easily determine at what concentration a larger percentage of the isolates (some use 95%) are susceptible to AMC.
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Any protocol for isolation and experimental infection of babesia spp in dogs
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Dermocystidium koi & D. salmonis
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hi
he genus Dermocystidium was described in 1907. It was previously thought to be a genus of fungal parasites, related to Thraustochytrida and Labyrinthulida (both those groups are now considered to be stramenopiles rather than fungi). Other biologists considered it to be a sporozoanprotist.
It was subsequently identified as one of a group of fish parasites (the "DRIP clade") of previously uncertain affiliation, which were later identified as non-animal, non-fungi opisthokonts,[2] and renamed as Ichthyosporea, and after expansion as Mesomycetozoa. Parasites of crustacea (Dermocystidium daphniae) and molluscs (Dermocystidium marimum) placed in this genus have been found to be stramenopiles and reclassified as Lymphocystidium daphniae and Perkinsus marinus respectively.
The frog parasite Dermocystidium ranae has recently been segregated as Amphibiocystidium ranae
Species[edit]
Dermocystidium anguillae — a gill parasite of eels
Dermocystidium branchialis — a gill parasite of salmonids
Dermocystidium cochliopodii
Dermocystidium cyprini — a gill parasite of carp[5]
Dermocystidium erschowii — a skin parasite of carp
Dermocystidium fennicum — a skin parasite of perch [6]
Dermocystidium gasterostei — a parasite of sticklebacks[7]
Dermocystidium granulosum
Dermocystidium guyenotii
Dermocystidium koi— a skin parasite of carp
Dermocystidium kwangtungensis
Dermocystidium macrophagi
Dermocystidium nemachili
Dermocystidium percae — a skin parasite of perch [6]
Dermocystidium pusula
Dermocystidium salmonis— a gill parasite of salmon
Dermocystidium sinensis[8]
Dermocystidium vejdovskyi— a parasite of pike
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Viral diarrhae is a common problem in ruminant.
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kindly check in text book of pathophysiology of diarrheic viral disease of animals by Kofret Lingan
  Thanks
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In our study on Mithun (Bos frontalis) we found that Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex specific serum PCR detected more animals positive for the infection those could not be detected with intradermal tuberculin test. However, by no means, we were able to confirm that the animals detected positive with PCR were really infected with tuberculosis. How can the test be authenticated?
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Sir, Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex produce granulomatous inflammation in lungs or any other body organ depending upon the exposer to bacterium. It is less likely to come in circulation. And if comes, then it depends on chance factor that we get bacterium in blood sample. and chances also further decreases for serum.
In above study, its looking bright spot that serum based early diagnosis may be done for tuberculosis. We must track these three serum PCR  based positive animals for signs and disease progression, that will be better to authenticate the methodology of early diagnosis of TB.
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I am wondering if I could get published article or any possible scientific explanation about the possibility of rabies virus transmission with contamination of open wound with saliva of rabid animal/ or dog.
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Hello,
Also, check the links below and the attached file.
I think you might find this articles useful.
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How to detect causative agents for ERU in the anterior chamber of eye?
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I would like to measure veterinary antibiotic residues in chicken and swine manure.
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Antibiotic residues in edible animal products are of great concern to regulatory agencies and consumers, so reliable screening methods for rapid, selective and sensitive detection of these residues are necessary to ensure food safety. 
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I'm working on MNCs isolation from rabbit bone marrow aspirate by using ficoll density centrifuge.  
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I plan to do intracerebral injection to 6 weeks old chicken to do challenge test for Avian Encephalomyelitis Virus.
Does anybody ever did this before? Does the method similar with ICPI to DOC for NDV? Or anybody has literature relating this topic?
Really appreciate any help.
Thank you,
Syabilla
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yes
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I am Dr. M Nasir Rofiq from Indonesia.  it s interesting to find out the essential oils efct on rumen manipulations. I read alot of literature about it on your name . Ferret and Losa. My Professor from turkey (Prof Hasan Kutlu) has a paper with Mr Ferret. I studied from Prof Hasan. and now I am in Indonesia would like to continue the research about essentials oil effect on rumen using some herb from Indonesia. Could I study more from you by follow your project or may be collaboratiion research.
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I am worked on some essential of some plant in Iraq. and I ready  for any co work with you 
Thanks 
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Trypanosoma evansi infection in camels
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Nice
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Hello all, What are the different sources of variables in data being collected from siblings mice came from the same cage, given same diet, water, bedding, and handling? 
Thanks
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The possible explanations coulde be individual biological variations, genetic variations, microenviromental variations and interaction of all these variations. Even in monozygotic twins, individual biological and microenvironmental variations play a major role given the fact of genetical identity of siblings. Further data measurement errors also should taken in to an account.
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When slaughtering calves is 8 months old, we notice very little spots or bleeding between the muscles and the meat.
Sometimes other calves notice several liver abscesses.
Calves are healthy from all diseases and there is no fever,free FMD ,free septicemia and we do not know why.
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I start a project about the prevalence of GIT nematodes in horses reared in middle province of Iraq , I need the most accurate method for identification .
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Generally the classical method including the direct and concentration (flotation and sedimentation) method to observe the eggs and you should be use the culturing of eggs to hatching to larvae that which used for difirentiation among nematods.
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For my research on the transmission and effects of zoonotic diseases (particularly Anthrax and Brucellosis)  to slaughterhouse workers.
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Indeed my dear and this link ensured about your questions .. Best regards
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How can measure the mineral in bone in lab?
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Quite often the ash content of the (defatted) bone is taken as a measure of the mineral content of broiler bones.
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I need it for Ascoli test, but can't find anywhere. Last time I found it in Czech republic, but they do not produce it anymore!
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Thank you for information.
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I would like to measure intracavernosal pressure in rat penis using the ICP/arterial pressure ratio. I have not done this before and would like to visit a lab that does this routinely - to learn. Please assist or contact me directly consewa@hotmail.com 
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you can many researches in this line in feline 
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I want to know the best dose to super the performance in mare rats reproductive performance
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also , of course Dr i agree with Dr Monyer & Dr Ahmed with there opening
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I've read in most papers (including Tian et al 2015) that immature (21 day old) Sprague-Dawley rats are used to make primary ovarian cell cultures. However, the currently available SD rats in our area are 6-8 weeks old. Would it be possible to collect granulosa and interstitial cells? Thanks!
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Hi Mellissa, theoretically yes if you could isolate the tissue. The medium is the critical component which will support the cells grow out. Using serum free medium to inhibit the fibroblast over-grow in the culture. Good luck!
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Came across a case of few mortality in a herd of pigs. Post mortem lesions were not typical of CSF. The herd has persistent arthritis problems, Tested the tissue samples for CSFAg by ELISA and got positive result with only a moderate increase in the titre. The animals were vaccinated 6 months back with live vaccine. Is it possible that the vaccination leaves virus in spleen and kidneys which may interfere with Ag detection diagnosis?
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Dear colleague
Here in Cuba is used as a vaccine against classical swine fever Chinese strain, it is considered that this strain is replicated only in tonsils and for no more than 30 days, the question is What vaccine strain did you use to immunize?
No vaccine eliminates the virus, only the severe forms of the disease are controlled; however, the low virulence strains may be refractory to the vaccine and cause chronic or inapparent forms of the disease, in which case the lesions are totally non-specific.
When low-virulence strains are circulating, it may be the case that sows bear piglets that never recognize the virus as an antigen, so they do not develop an immune response, these pigs usually develop the disease after weaning or die from secondary infections.
Therefore if the forms it has are chronic or inapparent it is better to use immunohistochemical techniques, which do differentiate the vaccine virus from the field virus.
For arthritis problems I suggest you to investigate mycoplasmas, streptococci or porcine erysipelas
I hope you find the information useful
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In Australian sheep, gastro-intestinal worms reduce productivity and also cause diarrhoea and faecal contamination that attracts blowflies, leading to flystrike. Moreover, the worms are now resistant to drugs and the use of 'mulesing' to avoid flystrike is no longer socially acceptable. Breeding worm-resistant sheep is very effective, but some resistant animals still develop diarrhoea because they become hypersensitive to mild worm infection.
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Although not directly linked, you might find the following paper interesting.
This study evaluated resistance to commonly used antibiotics (in humans) among isolates causing clinical diseases in Australian animals. Among 324 E. coli isolates that were tested,  resistance to tetracycline seemed to be common, followed by trimethoprim/sulphas and streptomycin and they were all susceptible to imipenem and amikacin.
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i am using buffalo endometrial explant tissue culture method for evaluating the role of lysophosphatidic acid role in ealrly pregnant. for which i need solvent that can be used without affecting the cell and medium ph?
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In my previous lab it was just in water (for cell culture assays to induce gene expression by LPA treatment). Don't know if it's the best for your tasks.
"Analytical evaluation at 10 mg per ml of chloroform:methanol:acetic acid (95:5:5) gives a clear solution. Solubility in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) or ethanol is limited. The sodium salt of oleoyl-LPA is reported to be readily soluble at 5 mg per ml (approx. 11 mM) in calcium and magnesium free buffers. Solution has also been achieved in phosphate buffered saline (PBS), pH 7.2, at up to 0.3 mM (0.14 mg per ml) in the
presence of 0.1% (w/v) bovine serum albumin (essentially fatty acid free)."
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EHV: Equine Herpes Virus
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Wikipedia: EHV may stand for
Education on Human Values, Education on Human Values a methodology for inculcating Values in Human .
Extra high voltage, a type of power supply
Equine herpesvirus, a group of viruses that affect horses
and much more
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What are the common conditions you come across
Newer techniques in diagnosis and management?
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I  diagnosed different stages of ocular SCC in white faced cows either invasive or non invasive also that involved third eyelids or bulbar and palpebral conjunctiva.  
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Can Bacillus anthrasis cause gastrointestinal anthrax or any other form of anthrax to birds, dogs, cats and fishes if they are fed by infected flesh and blood of a dead cattle?
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Dog is relatively resistance. Although It may infected by ingestion of contaminated raw meat. Clinical sign may not so acute. In others species, I don't know.
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Hamster can eat and drink without any difficulties.
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Dear Martyna,
tongue edema (and probably throat edema that you aren't visuallizing) and paw edema are signs of a type I hypersensitivity reaction.
If this is an adverse reaction that you are not interested in investigating, I suggest using an antihistamine drug (like diphenhydramine) before injecting the melanoma cells. Since you are working with tumor cells I would not recomend you to use corticoids which can modify the immune response.
Best regards
María
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Does anyone know the most appropriate and affordable method of studying the motion of an entire or part of the body of an animal?
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Dear Miriam,
Good day. I have contacted the company you referred me to. I saw their product called equimetrix. However, it is very expensive (12, 500 euros). Please, can you suggest any other alternative which may be cheaper and affordable? 
Kind regards,
Shade.
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I develop a water soluble powder for veterinary medicine which consits multivitamin, mineral and also plant powder-extract. The plant powder-extract are insoluble in water.
I've added some wetting agenst to improve the solubility, such as:
  • Silicon Dioxide Colloidal (Aerosil)
  • Sodium Lauryl Sulphate / SLS
and also alkalizing agent, meglumine.
When I added meglumine excessively, the final product were dissolved completly, but when I calculate the quantities and refers to the safety of ADI, it's not allowed to adding in that quantities...
I've tried to make wet granulation with mix the plant powder-extract with polysorbate 80 and oven it at 60 degres Celcius... the final product were perfectly dissolved, but the powder became harder and stone-like form...
If I was not oven it, then I just mixed that surfactant with another raw materials, the final product was still completely dissolved, but after 3 - 5 months it darken gradually and became wet...
Would you like to give me suggestions?
Best regards... :'D
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more information is needed e.g. 1. what was the solvent used for extraction? 2. have you tried some buffer (alkaline or acidic? please note that basic components of the extract may only dissolve in acidic media. provide more iinformation.
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Hello I am asking you which protocol you use for some shortterm surgery procedures like is castration? We mostly use combination of Xylazine, Ketamine, Diazepam and for local anesthesia Procaine hydrochloride (Procamidor). In this protocol we also use Flunixin meglumine for the prevention of inflammation and pain. Because I Know that α-2 adrenoreceptor agonists may cause respiratory depression, hypercapnia,... I would rather use some other safer products. I am looking forward to receiving your reply.
Best Regards, Nataša
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Thanks for both answers. I think so, but anyway I have to ask. Yes of course, we use diazepam only for the case, when we castrate the animals which are not used for food produce. You also mentioned that lidocaine is not so safe, which local anesthetic do you recommend? 
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I need to typify some strains of Mannheimia haemolytica from wild animals broncopneumonia.
Thanks, Lorenzo Domenis
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If there isn't any commercially available, some labs will create some on special order, or you could run your own ELIZAs, but I understand that's time consuming and not everyone has a tissue culture lab.  
I apologize if that wasn't terribly helpful. 
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Positive (antibodies, confirmed in ELISA) and negative sera versus toxin neutralization assay. Complement was heat inactivated as per recommended protocol.
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In a lot of cases you need to decomplement those sera first but to run the assay properly you have to include a small portion of serum with known complement content for neutralization assay. At least in my field are many SNTs which are complement depending. With other words they need the complement but not their own one.
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Q fever in human & sheep
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Dear Khetam Alhamdawee
Pls. find the attached files
page 333 in: Rudolf Toman, Robert A. Heinzen, James E. Samuel, Jean-Louis Mege. 2012. Coxiella burnetii: Recent Advances and New Perspectives in Research of the Q Fever Bacterium Springer Science & Business Media,Pp.406. ISBN9400743157, 9789400743151
Page 578. In V.Courtney Broaddus, Robert C Mason, Joel D Ernst, Talmadge E King Jr., Stephen C. Lazarus, John F. Murray, Jay A. Nadel, Arthur Slutsky, Michael Gotway. 2015. Murray & Nadel's Textbook of Respiratory Medicine Elsevier Health Sciences, 2208. ISBN0323261930, 9780323261937
Hoping this will be helpful
Regards
Prof. Houda Kawas