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Age : Middle Jurassic (Bathonian)
Formation : Continental green marls
I bring to your attention that the site is very rich in other dinosaur bones (Cetiosaurs, Stegosaurus and Ankylosaurs).
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I agree, the specimen needs some cleaning. However, pterosaur appears reasonable to me.
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I am looking for a journal in Q1 in the area of Paleontology, Zoology or evolution for making a short communication about systematic and taxonomy in fossil carnivorans. I preffer a journal with a quickly and free publication: Am I asking too much? Could anyone provide me some suggestions? Thanks so much in advanced!
All the best,
Alberto
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I need a Q1 journal to publish my paper on electronics sensor technology
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Dear colleagues.
Fragments of this species are very rare from a terrestrial Lower Cretaceous locality from Germany. Up to now from this locality sauropods could not be proved with certainty. Other vertebrates (sharks, bony fish, amphibians, small reptiles, turtles, crocodiles, dinosaurs, pterosaurs, mammals) are represented by partly numerous remains. Sauropod remains would be plausible.
I would therefore like to ask the following questions: Can a sauropod tooth be uniquely identified from a fragment?
What other taxa might be possible for this fragment?
I am curious about your suggestions and hints.
Achim
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Hi Achim,
maybe Prof. M. Sander from Bonn can help you with the analysis??
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I would be much indebted if you refer to some references on using nanotechnology in the field of paleontology!! I also would like to have your feedback on this field of research
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Hi people,
I am studying bat brains through endocranial casts and I cannot identify which structure could be present in sort of a canal located dorsally to the cribriform plate. It is like olfactory nerves exit the olfactory bulbs through the punctuated cribriform plate, while another thing exit the olfactory bulbs more dorsally, going over the cribriform plate. It's really bizarre because it's like a plate of space starting at the antero-dorsal top of the olfactory bulbs, and depending on the taxa it can variate in thickness (sometimes thinner at the center of the bulbs, sometimes the reverse).
I tried to search in the literature but I didn't find anything satisfying. I eliminated the possibility that these structures may be vomeronasal nerves (they originate at the dorsal top of the accessory olfactory bulb, so rather in the middle of the main olfactory bulb ; see Fig. 6 of for instance) or the terminal nerve (aka cranial nerve 0) that also runs more ventrally (see Fig. 7 of for instance).
Could anyone help me ? Even if you don't work on bats especially, but on other mammalian groups, any idea would be helpful.
Thanks a lot,
Jacob
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Hi Daniel,
Thanks for your answer, and for the references ! They are very interesting, beyond my question. I'll try to contact these authors.
That was a good idea, thank you ! ;)
Cheers
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Dear researchers,
Can anyone help me to identify these odd mammary glands in Ornithorynchus anaticus ?
I struggle to understand its mecanism :
The secretion from all these flat lobes have a pore, or is it the central canal that erupt from the the skin ?
Is it compound tubules or acinii in nature ? Or just tubules that radiated around a canal ?
I really want to compare this gland structure to Eutherian mammals.
Thank you very much !
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Although it has mammary glands, it lacks nipples; milk is released through the pores of the skin. The female has grooves in the abdomen that form rafts of milk that allow the young to lick her. I don't know how dense the milk is, I suppose it is to avoid spreading before the baby can lick it. It is like the case of the cetaceans that the young do not breastfeed due to the morphological constitution of their mouths, however the milk is so rich in fat and dense that when the mother releases it, it takes time for the baby to take it before it is released. dilute in water.
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For linear regressions between linear measurements and body mass, which transformation is better to use? base e logarithm (LN)? or base 10 logaritm (LOG10).
Apparently they do not make such a for data transformation, but there might be a difference of which I am not aware, regarding body mass estimates. Any suggested references on this subject would be greatly appreciated.
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they differ by a constant only, use what you like:
(log(x) to base 'e')/(log(10) to base 'e' =log(x) to base '10'
1. log(100) to base 'e'=4.60517186
2. log(100) to base '10'=2
3. log(10) to base 'e' = 2.302585093
thus (1)/(3) = (2)
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I seek information of air proportion with respect to total vertebral volume in sauropod vertebrae. To be more precise, the measurement I am after is air proportion with respect to total bone volume i.e. how much of the bone is replaced by pneumatic cavities.
The reason I want such data is to compare them with the results I have obtained based on a new method my co-author and I have developed. The method calculates an estimation of the expression of pneumaticity in vertebrae and we intend to submit this work for publication.
Information can be from published material, appendices/SI that have been lost from the web or from people who would be willing to share their personal unpublished data of scanned sauropod vertebrae. I have been searching the web for a long time but maybe I may have missed some useful sources.
So far, I have retrieved information from Wedel, 2005, Schwarz & Fritsch, 2006, and Zurriaguz & Cerda, 2017. I have not been able to find anything else; for example, the Appendix of Schwarz, Frey and Meyer (2007) does not exist in the archives of Acta Palaeontologica Polonica. In addition, there is not any such information from digital repositories like DigiMorph or MorphoSpace. Have I missed something there? What other sources of information would you suggest?
Measurements can be from any method e.g. CT scanning (X-ray, etc.), ASP (Wedel, 2005) or any other method or technique.
My deepest gratitude to anyone who can help in this project and many thanks for your time and aid, in advance.
All the best,
Naomi
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Good afternoon too! Thank you for your information and aid. I will have a look at the plates and maybe get some indicative for titanosaurs measurements although I was hoping to find measurements for the older and more known sauropods that I have in my database. Indeed, it has been very hard to find the information I seek. Very few scans have been performed on sauropod vertebrae. Happy to know that you are planning to publish more sauropod psp!
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I have been trouble finding resources to identify these two vertebrae. I am wondering if anyone could help me identify them. These two vertebrae are from the Bridger Formation, Unit B in Wyoming. Thank you for any help.
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Anura sacrum is in the upper photos, but not Ranidae. This is more similar to Bufonidae. The sample in the lower photos belongs rather to Urodella.
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I must do it myself, in paper, I mean, no drones or anything like that. Thanks a lot.
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Apart from the conventional documentation with transparent sheets outlined by Christian Meyer you should think about making a series of photographs - if possible from above (Nadir) with a ladder, a few scales of different scales and at least two- to threefold overlap between neighbouring photos - so you can calculate a model in a later step or send the data to a cooperation partner to do it for you.
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I'm actually working on an exhibition about footprints and a text without illustration is worthless.
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In 2005, Emma Rainforth produced a PhD dissertation at Columbia University titles "Ichnotaxonmy of the Fossil Footprints of the Connecticut Valley (Early Jurassic, Newark Supergroup, Connecticut and Massachusetts. The 3 volume thesis is 1301 pages long, and it includes detailed descriptions and original illustrations and new photos of all of Hitchcock's fossils.The illustrations all appear in volume 2. I presently have this dissertation on loan, but there is a full digital version available online at this address:
For those interested in Hithcock's pioneering work on fossil tracks, the 1858 Ichnology of New England monograph is currently available as a softbound reprint from Applewood Books, Carlisle, MA (111.awb.com). It has the full text descriptions, but only a partial set of illustrations. The 1863 Supplement to the Ichnology of New England can be found as a PDF , but this includes only the text, with no illustrations. The site is:
Reprint versions are readily available, digital scans of an original copy, are currently available from a publisher in India, with prices that are in the $5.00 - $20 range. These are print-on-demand books, some of them include the plates as well as text. A full list can be found at AbeBooks.com, or by doing a web search for "Supplement to the Ichnology of New England".
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Deer taxonomy
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no, only fragmentary materials are known, and to my knowledge, practically nothing was described, other than by Sickenberg 1975, and the only complete antler from Megalopolis that was preserved (but never depicted / described!), has recently been destroyed during the June 2017 earthquake on Lesvos, unfortunately (the museum was damaged).
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Hi everybody,
I want to publish a project about taxonomy and systematic in vertebrate paleontology. I have thought in some free journals, but according your experience, I would like to know what is the relatively quickest, or if some of them are very slow. My preliminar candidates are (I think it is IF 2016, please correct me if my information is not correct, especially about Q1,2,3 ...):
- Journal of Paleontology (1,591) Q1 Paleontology
- Acta Palaeontologica Polonica (1.565) Q1 Paleontology
- Historical Biology (1.556) Q?
-Comptes Rendus Palevol (1.39) Q1 Paleontology
Thank so much in advanced!
Best regards,
Alberto
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Thanks Gloria, yes for me 5-6 months is quick. i have had bad experiences with more rhan 1.5 years .. .of course it depends on several factors such as the editor, round of reviews etc. That is the reason i am interested on the experiences of others colleages. Al the best, Alberto
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Can anyone help me with these comparative measurements:
breadths of the 1st and 2nd lophids in lower third molars of Zygolophodon turicensis.
I only found measurements for Malartic (Gears, from Tassy 1977), but I need more.
Thank you in advance!
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You can try to answer to Ross Barnett on twitter. Maybe!
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I am currently working on a section in the southern Perth Basin that was previously thought to be Paleocene from forams and Chinese whispers! - but is turning out to be Late Cretaceous through to Paleocene - will keep you posted if you are interested.
Cheers,  Lynne
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Hello Lynne,
Keen to hear how you deal with the foram cf. pollen results. We have encountered the same issue in Gippsland. 
Cheers, Barbara
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Does Anyone know if the presence of foramina within the longitudinal grooves on ungual claws is common in any type of dinosaurs? The mention of these foramina is rare in the literature (e.g. in a Theropod from France related to Allosaurus: Pérez-Moreno et al., 1993), but I have the doubt if it is that they are usually absent or that the authors do not bother to describe them. Thanks in advance!
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Interesting...check with rweems@yahoo.com...
Jon
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I am working with unionid bivalves from the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation and have found what I believe is a new genus.  I am currently reviewing the Smithsonian collection of Yen and the Missouri collection of Branson. I am looking for someone to help me describe the specimen and publish the description. 
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Dean:
You may find this classic link useful:
Best
Syed
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I am working on low latitude Paleogene shallow marine fauna of W India and would like to understand the trophic scenario of this fossil community. Where can I find relevant information on extant shallow marine fauna for comparison?
Thank you.
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Siddhartha:
Your question embraces broad spectrum of shallow marine environments, but this classic link would provide you essential insights:
Best
Syed
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Recognize silurus glanis bones especially vertebra, using illustration.
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magari puoi trovare qualcosa d'interessante anche qui
Ciao,
Davide
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Hi everyone,
I am working with a linear measurements in order to make OLS Regressions (simple and multiple regresions) with living taxa to estimate the body masses of extinct animals.
In the bibliography, I have found that for making regression your data have to show a normal distribution. But, I have also find some manuscripts in which nothing is said about wether the distribution is normal or not. So, my question is: Is it possible to make regression with data with a not normal distribution? or contrary are there any alternative to the regressions? (I mean in order to make predictive equations to estimate the body mass). 
It seems that you can work with "non-normal" data if the non normality is not very hight, or if the residuals in the diagnostic plots show residuals good for good models:
So , what is your experience and opinion about that?
By the way, just in case you need more information about my database for answer me question, all my raw measurement data have been natural log transformed to normalize distribution, and my database is more than 150 specimens.
Thanks so much in advanced!,
All the best,
Alberto
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The distributional assumptions are important only when you want to quantify the (stochastic) uncertainty in the parameter estimates (like for instance the slope of the regression line). But because this is almost always desired as a part of a statistical analysis, these assumptions usually matter.
These assumptions are called assumptions because they have have to be assumed as a given, theoretical, neccesary foundation of the math dealing with the probability of observations. It's like when I want to give my arrival time when travel some miles with some given speed as "starting time  + distance/speed" I am assuming that the Newtonian mechanics apply.
The distributional models (like the normal distribution) are: models. There is nothing "real" about them, and makes no sense to think that some real distribution is "really normal". A real distribution is always a frequency distribution, wheras the probability model describes something entirely different, namely a probability distribution. These two things mustt not be confused. One is about counting observations, the other is a tool to help us to fomally describe our knowledge about parameters in mathematical models.
However, there is a link between these two concepts, provided by common sense: "the more probable [event] should be the more frequent [event]". This is why we check that the shapes of the frequency distributions we encounter are similar (not identical) to the shapes of the probability models we use to describe our knowledge about the (imagined) "data-generating processes" that eventually (and hopefully) help us to better understand the relationship between variables (or "things we observe" or "the world we live in").
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I am looking for raw data (but also articles or other kind of works) regarding skelton measurements of Esox (E. lucius preferred but not only)
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Dear Nicolae,
You have received already three possible sources concerning some measurements on specimens of Esox. This has been an interesting exchange, with nice results, because some of the theses that you got are not easy to locate. Eugenia's paper is both difficult to be found and difficult to read because of the language, but you have already got an offer about its translation. However, I suggest that you keep in mind that there are personal differences in how we measure, how we use the caliper (or other instruments) so that it is always a good idea that comparable measurements in one study be taken by only one person. Despite the important help with publications that you have received already, still you will have to get your own measurements/ratios, etc... and compare them with the values given by others. I would be very interested to know what your results will be.
With my best wishes.
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Hi,
This picture is about a Gigantic Human Skeletons Found In The Nepal Mountains After Massive Earthquake?!
What about the second and the third picture...it is true these stories?
Best regards
Hakima
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!!!! Have people heard of Photoshopping
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35 years ago, when I was a young boy of 15 years, I could find my first really interesting vertebrate fossil in the garden of my parents house at Ochsenhausen near Biberach/Riß (Southwest-Germany). The stone, a broken furnace brick, with a fossil fish (Holostei, cf. Hypsocormus sp.; see photo!) derives from the area of Holzmaden/Ohmden ("Posidonienschiefer", "Fleins"; Lower Jurassic, Lias Epsilon II3). The total lengths of this fossil fish (with the damaged skull elements) amounts to nearly 40 centimeter.
Do you have an idea, to what taxon this fossil fish of prey belongs to? Please give me informations and/or pictures for comparison with my fossil object!
Thanks Volker
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Dear Volker,
Nice to know that you has found "Das Holzmadenbuch" because I was photocopying it to send a copy to you!  You have seen how magnificent those fishes look in the photographs in the Holzmadenbuch.  Still, I will send you copies of a few descriptions of other pachycormiforms that have been mentioned for Holzmaden, so that sometime, you should send me your post address in a message.  
With my best wishes. 
Gloria
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I've spent dozens of hours in Avizo 9 segmenting a lizards skull. I have 40 different "materials" corresponding to different bones. The project is pretty big.
I want to make a reconstruction of the missing parts of the skull in Maya (maybe you could recommend smth better or simpler than Maya for mac?).
So, I need to export the entire project to Maya without loosing labels, ie I need to edit different bones separately.
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I agree with the above. I segment bones into a separate label field if I want them separated form other bones. Then you can generate a surface model for each of the label fields, and be able to export them separately. Amira/Avizo has you use different materials, but that gets glitchy when you have a lot, and does not allow you to manipulate them separately. 
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The question says it all.
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Joseph:
Have a look at this link for important insights:
Best
Syed
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This fossil remains has been discovered from limestone section associated larger benthic foraminifers pointing middle Eocene age. This fossil remains resembling to  fish scale but the only fin part is in homogeneous while partition in scale part is heterogeneous  which raise some doubt. Any one can clear doubt and also suggest some relevant literature for proper identification.
Thanks
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 Thank you so much dear Oleksandr Kovalchuk   and all for kind input.
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I have recovered this specimen from oligo/Miocene horizon, the type of associated fossils belong to fossil fish and may be belong to fish othilith?
Note: the scale is 5 mm using the square that contained the specimen.
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Dear Mohammed! This specimen looks like a small fish otolith, however I can not determine it. If so, You may contact with Werner Schwarzhans (https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Werner_Schwarzhans) or with Bettina Reichenbacher (https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Bettina_Reichenbacher).
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This molar was assigned to M. primigenius,  but looks very unusual. 
First of all, the structure of the enamel is very unusual: very many tiny plates, and very parallel. 
Besides the enamel structure, another issue is represented by the type of fang is presented in the images.
How could you describe this tooth ?
Could this molar be assigend wrong to M. primigenius ? What is the right identification ?
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Dear Bogdan! Please contact with dr Arthur Chubur (https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Chubur_Aa). He is a very good in dentition of mammoths and other proboscideans. Good luck!
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The attached photo show some tracks from a small mammal from an Early Eocene site in western Washington, USA. The radiometric age is 54 Ma. The setting is a low elevation riverbank in a semitropical environment. The footprints consist of 5-toed tracks with narrow digits terminating in slender sharp claws.The stride/gait indications suggest a narrow-bodied animal with fairly long legs, about the size of a modern possum or racoon. Tracks like this have not previously been reported.  I welcoming speculations as to a possible track maker.
Thanks, George
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Christian,
Thanks for the quick response. I am familiar with the Sarjeant & Langston monograph. The mustelid tracks they describe have much shorter digit lengths, and the digits terminate in curved claws. The  amphicyonid tracks (ichnogenus Axiciapes) have very short, broad digits.  Sarjeant, Reynolds, and Kissel Jones (2002) described a different amphycyonid Miocene track from California (ichnogenus Herpexipedes). Those tracks have elongate digits, but the size is much larger than the Washington tracks. Also, the interdigital angles are quite narrow, almost parallel. The Washington tracks have much broader interdigital angles.
Best wishes, George
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Approx 10cm in length. Desperate to ID down as much as possible. Skull was found as is and appeared undamaged. On a beach, on the central east coast of Brazil.
Many Thanks!
Dan
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Comparing the photos with specimens in my college's collection, the closest match is a goose-sized Anatid. The paired occipital fenestrae visible in the second photo (looks like a little handle in the profile) is present in the specimens I have access to.
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The teeth come from Eocene marine deposits (old collection so Eocene is not differentiated). Maybe you saw something similar? Any reference you might think? Thank you
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Hello again! I am definitely interested in the subject. I will write to you on e-mail
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I have heard several authors and seen several reconstructions that have portrayed some ornithischians, particularly heterodontosaurids and basal ceratopsians, as omnivorous. I was wondering, is there any positive evidence in support of this hypothesis? That is, beyond "well its possible that they could have been omnivorous based on their anatomy and the fact that a lot of living herbivorous animals have been documented occasionally eating meat" and more along the lines that "this evidence suggests these animals were most likely including some amount of animal matter in their diet". The only evidence I have been able to find so far is Farke's mention of how heterodontosaurid canines do not vary with sex or sexual maturity.
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moreover, consider size and mrtabolic rate to hipotesize on omnivory... several authors relate the small size in ornithischian dinosaurs as an indirect evidence of omnivory, together with anatomically plesiomorphic dentition. This kind of conclusions is arribed in Heterodontosaurids (See Sereno 2012) such as Heterodontosaurus (Norman et al., 2011), Fruitadens (Butler et al., 2010, 2012), Manidens (Becerra et al., 2013, 2016) and you can also look for this kind of reference in papers of feeding behavior in oprnithischia of Norman and Weishampel. I don´t remember if this kind of feeding is mentioned in Eocursor, Lesothosaurus, and stormbergia, but you can search the papers by your oun.
Cheers!
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I am looking for comprehensive atlas of Macaca genus anatomy (especially nervous system). Language of the publication is the secondary matter for me. 
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For the peripheral nervous system this is a good source and has some comparative notes as well:
Hartman, C.G. and Strauss, W.L. eds., 1933. The anatomy of the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta). The Williams & Wilkins Company.
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It is possible that these molars have malformations? Or they were just growing in a wrong way ?
I identify them as Mammuthus primigenius? and the black spots represents burning traces. Probably found near a paleolithic site.
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Both are from different parts of South Bulgaria.
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The first one ( first three pictures) is with Oligocene age, the second one is probably upper Oligocene or lower Miocene.
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This is in the Paleobiology Database for the Maastrichtian of South Dakota.  I am trying to identify these mollusks from the Fox Hills near Boulder, Colorado.  
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May be Gyrostrea subtrigonalis (oyster). 
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I need to draw rarefaction or species accumulation/rarefaction curves for paleontological samples.
I have the data of the number of specimens of each species is present in each sample. I need to compare curves of different samples to knew of accurate is the sampling and how similar or different are the taphopopulations between sample.
Tank you in advance.
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Hi Enrique
Have you tried Past (http://folk.uio.no/ohammer/past/) or EstimateS (http://viceroy.eeb.uconn.edu/EstimateS/index.html)? Past is easier to use but a little more limited. EstimateS allows greater flexibility.
Regards
Eddy Cannella
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I will be thankful for any suggestions concerning the papers with the description and photos (pictures) of femur and pelvis belonging to leporids from the late Miocene and Pliocene deposits of Europe and Asia (e.g., Alilepus, etc.).
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Here the Marfa 2009 PhD manuscript and other works from Spain. You may consult Angelone and Rook (Alilepus in Geobios), and Erbajeva.
Best!
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Interested in the identification of dentition and bones of vertebrates.
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Dear Bogdan,
Besides the books which be mentioned above by others, I want to recommend the Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. Surely useful and up-to-date.
Regards,
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Hi Everyone!
Here are two more mysterious bone elements from a Late Cretaceous freshwater sediment. Mosasaur? Fish? Theropod? I have no idea, but there are two, almost identical one (first three pics and second three pics). Both specimens are nearly 5 cm long.
All comments and all ideas are welcome!
Have a nice day!
Thank You;
Márton
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I guess that is a problem with the images since none of them shows, no matter the browser
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This was found in the spongy bone of a Hell Creek dinosaur. Note the scale bar. Does anyone know what it is?
Thanks in advance,
Tom Kaye
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Tom et al.:
Tom as you are happily hunting Solenhofen fossils, here are opinions from two other experts of US.:
Dear Syeda
the part that you show of the mite is a tarsus of a prostigmatid mite. I did ask my coleague Cal Welbourn for his opinion as well, and we come with simirlar findings.
"Ron,
Interesting images. The leg is of a eupodid either Eupodidae or possibly Bdellidae. More images are needed to make a more definite identification. Cal
Cal Welbourn, Ph.D.
Acarologist
Division of Plant Industry - Entomology
Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services ""
Best wishes to "Fluff Bunny"
Syed
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Sandstones they are printed on these forms belong to Wadi Malik Fm. (Lower Carboniferous) outcropping in Jebel Uweinat (Sudan, on the border with Libya and Egypt). This may be footprints of tetrapods?
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I agree with Jérôme, but to be sure, you should contact Per Ahlberg from Uppsala University, Sweden, he's a specialist in tetrapod footprints, his e-mail is Per.Ahlberg@ebc.uu.se
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Dear all,
I would apreciate any help on determining this conodont.
Any help is welcome!
Have a nice day!
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In the opinion of my colleague:.... it is probably Paragondolella bifurcata Budurov and Stefanov, 1972.
This indicate it is middle to late Anisian in age.
But I am still not very sure, because we can not see the lower surface, and the photo is neither a full upper view, nor a lateral view.
Cheers
Alex
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Is the shortening of the posterior end of the lower jaw in reptiles typically considered as a defining feature associated with the development of a venom apparatus?
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Hello Everyone!
Does anyone have any idea on what this tooth could be? Late Cretaceous, freshwater sediment, lepisosteids and pycnodonts are known from the locality. It doesn't seem to be Lepisosteid, but could it be Amiid?
Any help is welcome!
Have a nice day!
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Dear Marton,
The photograph is not very clear, but still you can observe the striations in the proximal region of the tooth. You are asking weather this tooth could be of an amiid or a lepisosteid fish. Those fishes have very different dental morphologies. I suggest that you to read two papers to find the answer, but also in those papers you will find literature that could help you to understand the characteristics of amiid and lepisosteid teeth.
Grande, L. & W. Bemis. !998. Comprehensive phylogenetic study of ammd fishes ......J. Vert. Memoir 4.  See Lance Grande or William Bemis profiles in RG.
Grande, L. 2010. Empirical synthetic pattern study of gars (Lepisosteifomes.....ASIH. Special pub. 6.  See Lance Grande's profile.
Best wishes,
Gloria
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I have seen in several publications on paleoecology that the C3/C4 diet, inferred by carbon isotopes, is treated as exactly the same as the difference between browsing and grazing. Nevertheless it appears that the non tropical grasses use mostly the C3 pathway and tropical grasses use more the C4 pathway.  
So my questions are: Does a  C4 diet mean necessarily predominantly grazing behaviour? And is C3 diet clearly browsing or could it be both?
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A C4 diet indicates grasing, but only in the tropics. In the tropics many grasses, especially the savannah grasses, use the C4 pathway, while all trees use C3. However, outside the tropics most grasses also uses C3. For instance, the cows in Europe eat C3 grasses.
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I'm currently in the process of creating a model pterosaur limb based off a fossil, but to a larger scale. I wish to create the model 4 times as large as the fossil and am unsure as to whether I could simply multiply the components by 4 (i.e the tibia and feet) or whether I would need to use allometric/isometric scaling equations.
The feet of pterosaurs exhibit isometric growth yet the tibia and femur exhibit allometric growth to body mass (Brower & Veinus, 81).
How would I go about using the allometry formula (Y=a*M^b) in terms of inputting the numbers and calculations. Would tibial length be M and the exponent 4? But then what the intercept be?
Hope this makes sense,
Thank you for your time and help.
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While the tibia and femur do exhibit allometry across species with increasing size in pterosaurs, the allometry of the hind limb elements is relatively weak (while the allometry of the forelimb elements is very strong). Allometry equations need to include an intercept if you are trying to predict the one major body dimension from another (for example, how body mass scales relative to limb bone circumference). If you want to make that sort of prediction, then you'll need a full allometry equation, generated from known specimens, that predicts the output variable (like total size) from the variable you have (such as hind limb lengths). 
However, it sounds like you are just trying to scale known elements up to larger versions of the same elements. In that case, all you really need are the exponents. So, for example, you have a femur of known length. You want to make it four times longer (I'm assuming that's what you mean by 4 times as large). The diameter in this case would increase by a bit more than four times, because there is an allometric effect. That means that the regression of femur diameter on femur length would have an exponent different from 1 (since they are both linear dimensions, the isometric condition is a regression exponent of 1). You need to check the original literature in question (such as Brower and Veinus) to see what that exponent is. In practice, allometric regressions are often log transformed and the allometric exponent recovered as a slope, rather than an exponent. This makes the algebra a bit easier, but does not fundamentally change the result.
For sake of example, imagine that the exponent for diameter as compared to length is 1.2. That would mean that when the length increased by 4 fold, the diameter increases by 4^1.2 fold, or about 5.27 fold.
It should be noted here that apparent allometry of linear dimensions can result in isometry of major mechanical variables. So, for example, to maintain the same bending strength of a bone relative to body mass (essentially a form of mechanical isometry), the diameter of the bone must show a strong allometric increase relative to bone length. In pterosaurs, the hind limb elements show positive geometric allometry in the strict sense (they get a bit more robust in big animals) but not by enough to keep up with body size, so the *mechanical* geometry relative to size in the hind limb actually shows slight negative allometry across some of the major pterosaur clades - that is, the hind limbs are actually a bit weaker relative to estimated mass for some of the larger species.
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Maybe is this a crocodylomorph vertebra? Thanks in advance.
Fossil locality data: Barremian (Early Cretaceous) bonebed from alluvial-lacustrine deposits
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Could it be from a Choristodera?
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I am looking for bibliographical references on the first record of a member of the Order Carnivora in South America (also including marine forms such as proto-pinnipeds, pinnipeds, otters, etc).
All your help is welcome.
Thanks in advance
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As far as I remember, the first record of terrestrial carnivorans in South America should be some Procyonidae, possibly as early as 6 Ma, and Mustelidae during the Miocene.
See those references and herein.
Cheers!
Antoine
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The rocks containing the fossil are in Terrell County, Texas, late cenomanian, and this horizon is about 50 feet below the cenomanian-turonian boundary as identified by isotope work and nanofossils.  I have had two opinions given already: a polycotylid or a pliosaurid such as Brachauchenius.  Can anyone give me a species? Both the flipper and the jaw appear to be part of the same individual and are several feet apart, there is a jumble of what appear to be vertebrae in between the two. The scale is in cm. Thanks.
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I agree with Christian, for further identification further preparation would be very helpful.
And yes, it well be a plesiosaur based on the paddle morphology. Sorry that I can not help you more.
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I'd like to identify deinonychosaurian theropod specimens that perfectly preserve the articulated distal end of the gastral basket in lateral view for comparative purposes. Any suggestions?
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Thanks for the suggestions Alessandro! Those are great specimens but unfortunately not as perfect as I need for the comparison I want to make. Thanks anyway, I'll keep looking.
Best regards,
Michael
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I am working in a new Oligocene locality from Ecuador, but the rock seems to be the result of a massive pyroclastic flow, covering the continental shelf and quickly burying all the marine animals (most of them are articulated). I am still conducting the petrographic analysis on the rock samples, but I was wondering if there were more examples of these processes in the fossil record.
Thank you in advance.
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Juan,
It is obviously possible to find marine fossils preserved in volcanic ash layers. As other colleagues have already said, it is not a frequent feature at all, and there is a possibility to achieve special preservation conditions that may lead to a fossil lagerstatte, so you should pay attention to the preservation of the faunal content. About the concretions, I cannot find any clear evidence of volcanic origin, but volcanic ashes have a certain potential for natural cementation, and they might be actively involved in sedimentary processes leading to lithification. You can find an example of Ordovician marine beds made of volcanic ashes in this reference here in Researchgate:
Calcareous K-bentonite deposits in the Utica Shale and Trenton Group (Middle Ordovician), of the Mohawk Valley, New York State
You may find many references regarding marine sediments and rocks composed of volcanic ashes. Good luck with your search!
Juan
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These remains are derived from the Pliocene strata of Southeastern Europe. They regarded earlier as isolated pharyngeal teeth of Mylopharyngodon. However, I think that these remains may be isolated JAW teeth of some other (non-cyprinid) fishes (maybe Sparidae or something else?). I will be very thankful for help with its identification.
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I would contact Robert Yohe or Ken Gobalet at California State University, Bakersfield.
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Teilhard de Chardin (1945) studied Neogene mustelid from China. Some of this mustelids , e.g. the holotype of Plesiogulo crassa, Plesiogulo minor and Plesiogulo major are housed in that collection. But I have no idea about where is it. Please, could someone provide me more information?
Thanks so much in advance!!
Best regards,
Alberto
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Dear Alberto Valenciano Vaquero,
assume you are referring to  the material mentioned in this paragraph (from Haile-Selassie Y, Hlusko LJ, Howell FC. 2004. A new species of Plesiogulo (Mustelidae: Carnivora) from the Late Miocene of Africa. Palaeont. afr. 40: 85–88)
"Teilhard de Chardin (1945) reassigned most of
Zdansky’s (1924) P. brachygnathus to P. b. crassa. He used
Licent Collection 10.261 (snout and mandible with teeth)
from Yushe, Shansi, as the type specimen and referred
Lagrelius Coll. Nos. 1–4, and 6–12, AMNH-26376
(ex-Lagrelius No. 9), AMNH-26377 (ex-Lagelius No. 3),
and Yale YPM 13816 (mandible fragment with teeth,
Kurtén 1970) from the Dhok Pathan of India (per G.E.
Lewis 1934) to this subspecies. Teilhard de Chardin (1945)
also assigned a cranium and associated mandible (Licent
Coll. No. 553) from K’ingyang, Kansu, to P. b. minor."
That means you are referring to the material from the Yushe  basin.
There is a book out there about the "Late Cenozoic Yushe Basin, Shanxi Province, China: Geology and Fossil Mammals". Here is a link to the google books page about the book: https://books.google.com/books?id=X_LCVrDxKyUC&pg=PA16&lpg=PA16&dq=%22licent%22+tientsin&source=bl&ots=MhHrwewLOz&sig=sOfLC2pDBb2EX4P2b8yImm6n-rI&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwj5gvOBzejJAhXHeCYKHUBFBW8Q6AEIHjAA#v=onepage&q=%22licent%22%20tientsin&f=false
Sadly I couldn't find more about the specific collection in the Teilhard de Chardin biography; only the fact that Licet's collectin was turned into the Tianjin Natural History Museum after world war II and that it still exists.
So I suggest you could either start by looking for information in the book mentined above (Tedford RH, Qiu Z-X, Flynn LJ. 2013. Late Cenozoic Yushe Basin, Shanxi Province, China: Geology and Fossil Mammals: Volume I:History, Geology, and Magnetostratigraphy. Springer Science & Business Media. Pp 109) or you could sk someone (preferably a curator) from the Tianjin Natural History Museum.
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I have a data set of 19 fossil taxa and 189 morphological characters.  I am familiar with Splitstree and T-rex, but like I said, I would prefer a program that is not distance-based.  
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Hello Joanna,
You can use MrBayes for a Bayesian approach or TNT for a parsimony approach. Also you view any phylogeny as an unrooted network if you would prefer.
Best Regards.
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 The enclosed photographs are from Upper Jurassic - Lower Cretaceous fluvial succession of Gondwana. I am of the opinion of their origin through biogenic activities, however, not very sure. The preservation of the structures is in light to dark gray clayey horizons having abundant leaf impressions of Pteridophytic to Gymnospermus remains. The clay units occur as interbedded horizons with siltstone or, lenicular/poketed occurrence in medium grained sandstone
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Thanks for comments, interesting, approach you shortly.
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If it´s possible omit the related to Cryolophosaurus and Glacialisaurus
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Hi Antonio,
This article is not cited by Smith et al. (2007) for obvious reasons: Carpenter, F.M. 1969. Fossil insects from Antarctica. Psyche 76: 418-425 (Toarcian dragonfly Caraphlebia antarctica)
Cheers,
Mike
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Here is one fossil fish bone from the middle Sarmatian of Eastern Europe. I suggest that it belonged to a gobiid fish. Is it true or not? If yes, which genus and species it was?
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Hi Olesandr
Yes the size and shape reminds us of an Otolith.
Best
Syed
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Looking to find out if it is possible.
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Tom,
Have a look for example into papers listed below:
Blumenthal et al. 2014 (GCA)
Hedges et al. 2006 (chapter)
D’Ambrosia et al. 2014 (Paleo3)
Kohn&Law2006
Parks 2009 (thesis)
McGlynn 2007 (thesis)
Reynard&Bartel 2014
Wang 2008
Clementz 2012
All the best,
Ziggy (with the hope to work with you again one day:-)
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I will be very thankful for any suggestions about this thematics (terminology, methodology of decription such fractures etc.). It is important for describing fossil fish bones (catfishes) with accrete fracture of pectoral spine.
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Veller et al. (2002) classified the biogeographic methods in a priori, which allow data modification in cladograms, cutting and add taxa to getting a maximum adjustment of general area cladogram, and a posteriori methods with not allow alteration of cladograms and explain the incongruences after the analysis. In this classification BPA (Brooks Parsimony Analysis) is put in a posteriori method. Thus, is possible apply the time-slicing method of Upchurch et al. (2002) to a BPA of fossils taxa?
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Check out this publication
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I was reading Chatterjee & Templin 2004 and they mention that pterosaurs are classed as basal ornithodirans because of the hindlimb morphology and referenced Unwin & Lu 1997. After reading Unwin & Lu, there isn't mention to this basal relationship nor the hindlimb morphology. 
So my question is why are they classed as basal ornithodires based upon the hindlimb morphology?
Thank you
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According to Tatarinov the apomorphy of ornithodiras is mesotarsal articulation. This is the type of articulation when the joint is located between two rows of tarsal bones in contrast to crurotarsal articulation located between astragalus and calcaneus.