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I am trying to calibrate a random parameter ZINB model in R for analyzing factors affecting crash frequency. I found glmmTMB package in R for this purpose. But, It's difficult for me to specify the model. It would be great if I can talk to someone with/out experience in handling crash data.
If anyone has a R code for this, can you provide me?
Please tag me with someone you know.
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Nice question
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Hey there,
I want to simulate & analyze the fracture and fatigue (crack growth) in the rear axle housing of heavy tracks (Volvo company) in Abaqus.
My question is which method is suitable for this research and how I can find the geometry and the mechanical & fatigue properties for this specific vehicle?
(If there is any related paper/thesis or anyone can help me, please let me know.)
Thank you
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Also, you need to findout the Hashin Damage model parameters for the axle material from the previously published experimental studies.
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AASHTO (2001) talks about a value of 4.5 m/sec2 as it was observed that most of the drivers decelerate at a rate greater than 4.5 m/sec2 when decelerating for an unexpected condition.This value may or may not be applicable for Indian Traffic condition which is highly heterogeneous in nature. This situation is characterized by different vehicle categories with diverse static and dynamic characteristics, changing composition, lack of lane discipline. Does it mean that I need to use different DR values for different category of vehicles under different traffic facility? I could not get hold of accident reconstruction specialist who could have helped me in this regard. Kindly advise.
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Qinaat Hussain check Table 1 in my paper "Analysing truck harsh braking incidents to study roundabout accident risk" a list of letriture review regarding the lowest deceleration that may led to accidents reported. Note that a deceleration rate to be considered as near miss thier rate depends on type of vehicle the hevier the vehicle the lower the rate will be ...
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Nowadays, there are a lot accidents happened. Almost every accident involving a compact car causing death.
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If the cars fulfill safety requiremenst like NCAP, also small cars can be pretty safe. In car to car crashes of course the heavier car has advantages.
Focus also on ESP - it help to save more live than a just bigger car.
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Nowadays, big data comes into our work and life, especially in relation to road traffic. There are massive video monitoring source of road traffic in China, particularly including occurred various crashes, which can be extracted from the cameras in vehicles or on roads or other places. By means of the vivid video record, we can observe and analyze the accident process, and judge what happened, who impact who and who is in duty. Also, the vehicle speed can be easily estimated by a simple calculation method based on the video, and accordingly the whole crash could be reconstructed. However, except for these applications mentioned, what else can be carried out. It is of importance to consider how to fully use the video record source and to perform data mining to obtain more findings for promoting traffic safety and accident prevention. Have you made use of video source of crashes in your work? Any suggestion is welcome! Thanks in advance!
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It is worth checking the experience gained in large naturalistic driving studies (NDS), for example SHRP2 (https://insight.shrp2nds.us/documents/shrp2_background.pdf). The issue is not how to collect data but how to process it afterwards. One has to define and apply various (semi)automatic triggers and also link them to the environment characteristics.
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I am working on MATLAB, I cannot wrap my head around the main event of the process where the node will experience an accident and a broadcast message will be triggered.
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Dear Mr. Altamash Jawad
Dont go for MATLAB to simulate the adhoc network scenarios especially VANETs. Best you can think about a combination of NS3 and SUMO. It is the best network simulator and traffic simulator that is available presently. 
Regards
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Nowadays autonomous vehicle is developing rapidly more than we have expected. When a self-driving car just enters into a road, it looks like a careful novice drivers steering a car. The self-driving car should learn from experienced drivers and then exceed them. However, who will be good teachers to instruct the autonomous car to possess excellent driving behavior and experience? What are the proper age, gender, characteristics and driving experience of the normal drivers? Could you understand what I want to discuss with you? Are you interested in this topic? Any implication or suggestion is very welcome. Many thanks in advance!
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Interesting question, which I might answer in a complete different way.
Why should a human be the teacher?
We all know physics but we do not apply them by mathematics while we are driving. We are relating to experience but I've never seen a Driver pulling out his calculus if he should accelerate or brake. The machine on the other Hand may calculate easily if it does fit into the space or not, if it knows the own velocity and the Speed of oncoming car as well as the car in front. It further knows an approximated mean acceleration of the own car. So basically it's just math which is required and math does not rely on experience otherwise we would not use it.
Certainly one thing is problematic. Friction coefficients are a good example for this. A wet or even an icy road has other coefficients than a dry one. However the Controller could be programmed in such a way that if the car is wet the worst coefficient is assumed. The detection of these Parameters may not be easy but could be communicated by V2V or X2V Communication.
In the end. It's like the autopilot for aircrafts. It is working on maths, physics, statistics, memory size and computing power. While a human may not learn everything related to driving experience until the end of his life the machine may explicitly know every situation derived from physics and statistics. No teacher actually needed because the controller does not experience emotions and age as humans do. It is just math.
If you go for the ethics. Worst case Scenario someone jumps in front of your car. you could pull away and hit another Person or drive against a wall with same injury severity for yourself. This question you should ask first yourself. If you find an appropriate answer I'll listen to it.
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Rear-end crashes involving multi-vehicle in expressways may be more serious in future. Now we are studying this crash type. For example, several vehicles follow each other with high speed and suddenly one of them goes wrong and serious crashes will occur. The characteristics, crash propagation, injury severity and influence factors should be focused. And the research methods could be mechanical modeling, accident reconstruction and computer simulation. Could you please introduce some relevant literature regarding multi-vehicle rear-end crashes? Thank you in advance!
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A recent Austroads study authored by my colleague at ARRB:
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Tire burst is one of the causation of serious traffic crashes, especially for the cars at high speed. However, it is difficult to simulate this common phenomenon. Now we will use mechanical modeling, automobile theory and crash reconstruction to investigate tire burst of cars and related crashes. But it’s hard to find some existing papers regarding this. Could you recommend some related papers or give some suggestions for me? Thanks in advance.
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Look at the Nationalk Highway Traffic Safety Administration's regulatory impact analysis on tire pressure monitoring systems at  http://www.nhtsa.gov/DOT/NHTSA/Rulemaking/Rules/Associated%20Files/TPMS-2005-FMVSS-No138.pdf
Especially look at the analysis of impact on crashes.
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I would like to assess driving styles, related to safety. For example I know about smart-phone applications, which assess driving style based on speed, acceleration, deceleration, etc. But what are the algorithms? How are the thresholds set in relation to safety? I would like to apply the approaches on vehicle fleet data. Thank you for your help.
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100 car study have done many studies regarding to driver behaviour see link below please this is a sample you can find more studies like this related to 100-car study 
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Hallo,
I am working on functional safety for road vehicle and i Need to make a documentation for all requirements. if anyone has any experience on this Topic please write me your comments or advice.
Best Regards
Marzana
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Hi Stephan,
Thank you for your Suggestion.
I think we are in same track and you understnad me. I am interested to make all safety requirements for a concrete application. I have looked in the Internet for example considering the ISO 26262 for safety requirement. Constraints is my consideration is only in the ECU part not the Overall System. Then I consider the ECUs Item for System Level consideration. The SGs has been considered for FSR and then considering the functionality TSR and HSI requirements has been creatied.
The note you have mentioned SEooC, I looked in the Standard Part 10 and we are using hte AUTOSAR Software component.
1. Do SEooC effect in the requirement list? (i think not).
2. What does Allocation of element means? (componet Name where the function has been done!)
3. How I can diferentiate the Hardware Software Interface requirement with the Hardware safety requirement and Software safety requirment?
4. How/ what is the defination of the Tlifetime ? I mean for truck/ vehicle is it  relevant to use 1 year? because i took it as Assumtion.
I found Google Scholar is helpful. Thank you again.
Best regards
Eva
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I nave tyre model data for the tyres of a large motorcycle but need to model a scooter.   The former has 17" wheels front and rear with 120/70 and 190/55 tyres while the latter's tyres are 120/70 x 13" front and 140/70 x 15" rear.  
The purpose of the model is for dynamic simulation to use in controller development.   Therefore I do not need the model to be perfectly accurate, however I believe that at least a first order improvement in accuracy (relative to using data from tyres of the wrong size) could be obtained by simply applying suitable scale factors to the models inputs or outputs.  Thus effectively scaling the slip stiffness, camber stiffness etc.   Does anyone have any advise on how to do this or data comparing the characteristics of different sized tyres from which suitable scale factors might be derived?  
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Thank you all
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We have already got a technology for higher end car parking,where vehicle automatically stops when it is about to hit nearby vehicles or objects.
So,it is better for a vehicle safety if the car can automatically change its direction or stop automatically when it's about to hit or crash.
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If you look at the websites of for example Autoliv or TRW, companies which design and make car safety systems, you will find descriptions of various radar, laser and visual sensing systems which can be used to automatically brake or steer a car. Thus a car can control the headway between itself and a vehicle in front, or brake when it senses that a car, a pedestrian or some other object is too close. Completely automatically driven cars are at an advanced state of development and will be in production by 2020.
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Scholars, I want to know the maximum deceleration rate which can be achieved by any category of vehicle travelling at a certain speed. along with it, I also want to know the average or safe deceleration rate of that vehicle. 
So, is there any norm or literature available for this purpose? if yes, please do post your answers. If not, then whether any methodology or procedures are available for calculating these rates as mentioned above?
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The maximum deceleration rate which can be achieved will depend upon the capability of the braking system, the traction available between the tyres and road, the mass distribution of the vehicle, and the position of the centre of mass relative to the front and rear axles. A good introduction to this subject is available in "Fundamentals of Vehicle Dynamics' by Tom Gillespie.
When you say 'safe' rate of acceleration, do you mean while maintaining control? If so then the threshold would occur when the brakes on one axle or the other lock. In that case rear lock-up is the more dangerous scenario as it will typically lead to oversteer whereas front lock-up would lead to understeer which is undesirable but more stable.
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If someone know about pre-crash battery temperature values for Electric vehicles from any of the vehicle safety organizations (NHTSA, NCA, IIHS, etc.)? can you please share with reference? Thanks
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Normally all the test are done at room temperature without any preheating or cooling.
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I am working on vehicle stability improvement. Can any one help me in implementing nonlinear vehicle model in matlab/simulink?
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I am working on performance of rural roads so provide literature on PSR.
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Crashes involving commercial vehicles (e g. Heavy-duty truck) are very serious. So it is crucial for these vehicles to be equipped with some practical active safety systems and driver assistant systems to avoid related accidents. Drivers are always in risky status, such as fatigue, sleepy, distraction, speeding, especially in adverse conditions of night, bad weather and visibility. Types of crashes usually include rear-end, frontal, side impact between vehicles and single-vehicle collision, which mainly have the characteristics of lane departure, speeding and with blind zone for large trucks. Due to so many casualties caused by these accidents in China, researchers should investigate some proper systems for trucks based on the contributing factors of crashes.
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In Europe, speed limiters are mandatory, and there are specific speed limits that the drivers must comply with, according to the type of roads. The itinerary must be provided to the law enforcement.
All heavy vehicles (for passengers and goods) must be equiped with a tachograph (analoge or digital) wich allows the law enforcement authorities to track the driving and rest periods, as well as the speed.
European laws are quite strict when it comes to avoid fatigue in driving so resting periods are compulsory and the company must keep the record of the data for control purposes. The driver must be able to provide the authorities the data of the last 28 days so that he can prove that he hasn´t been working more than he should.
The fines are heavy for the companies but, as in almost everything, the companies still find a way to get around the rule of law.
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When people drive in bad weather, they will be in trouble with blurred vision and disturbed by the wipers. The wipers suddenly appear and block driver’s sight and the windshield is not very clean. Now haze is a common weather in China and the windscreen is always dirty. So I think it is necessary to invent a new type of front windshield for vehicles, which can be made of some new glass material or coating with self-cleaning and dewatering function. Any suggestions on this topic are very welcome.
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There are some polish available on the market, which are based on the lotus effect. These nano-structure coatings result a reduced friction coefficient on the windscreen surface, so that the rain drops are blown away by the air flow caused by the vehicle speed.
e.g.:
Kind regards,
Mario
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The main objective is to know the future number of traffic fatalities in several countries and several years. We have the past number of fatalities for each country from 1991 to 2012 and want to forecast it up to 2018. The idea is to use just one model considering all of the countries all at once and not modelling for each country. Therefore, it is panel data.
Thanks a lot!
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If you are talkling about taking yearly fatality totals from say 28 countries taken at random from a UN list of countries. I do not think it can be done. The reason is that some of them are still on an upward trend (Algeria, China, Brazil...), but not all: some seem to have had their absolute maximum in fatalities.
So to build a joint estimation model (with some explanatory variables, I assume) on some that are going up and others that are going down would require knowing when and why they had their maximum. (I realize ARIMA will fit anything, but fitting is not explaining: it is self-referencing, explaining a variable by itself and various own and error lags). The problem of substance here is that we do not have the slightest idea of why the maximum occurs.
Consider only OECD countries now. About 18 of them had their absolute maximum of fatalities in 1972 or 1973 (give or take a year). The reason for this cluster is unknown, I argue in the enclosed piece (available on this site). So how can one meaningfully forecast the future if one cannot meaningfully explain obvious past maxima? Will there be an upturn for those that are on a downward trend? Will there be a minimum, an inverted Meadow? The question cannot be answered if we cannot make sense of the timing of past maxima. This would appear to deserve some work....
Finally, consider only current EU members. Last time I looked, it seemed that all of them were past their absolute maximum (but some just...barely). Some peaked in 1989 (like Spain), most before (in 1972-1973) and others at other dates (Greece, Portugal...)..  If that is so, they are arguably all past their maximum and on a downward path, but certainly with different slopes and ups and downs that are correlated, as are the residuals, on the downward trend.
Marc Gaudry (sent from Paris where I am currently working)
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ISO standard 2631 defines human tolerance to whole body vibration in terms of r.m.s.  and the curves used to evaluate same are given in 'Theory of Ground Vehicles' by J.Y. Wong, which I am attaching below. How do I obtain the standard curves so that I can compare my results with the ISO standard ? 
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Using Matlab you can define it as follows:
%<<<<<<< definition of ISO 2631 limits >>>>>>>>>>>>>
%reduced physical efficiency limit (8h)
xu=[0.71 0.63 0.56 0.5 0.45 0.4 0.355 0.315 0.315 0.315 0.315 0.4 0.5 0.63 0.8 1.0 1.25 1.6 2 2.5 3.15];
%exposure limits (8h)
xsz=2*xu;
%reduced comfort limit (8h)
xk=xu/3.15;
%frequency vector
cz=[0.8 1.0 1.25 1.6 2.0 2.5 3.15 4.0 5.0 6.3 8.0 10.0 12.5 16.0 20.0 25.0 31.5 40.0 50.0 63.0 80.0];
figure;
loglog(cz,xsz,'r');
xlabel('Frequency [Hz]');
ylabel('RMS value of the vertical acceleration [m/s^2]');
hold on;
loglog(cz,xu,'m');
loglog(cz,xk,'g');
%loglog(ff,P1); here you own vector can be ploted
aac=legend('exposure limits (8h)','reduced physical efficiency limit (8h)','reduced comfort limit (8h)');
grid on;
zoom on;
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I am involved in making a fire-resistant vehicle. The chassis is to be made of 304 grade stainless steel and for insulation rock wool is being used. How to use rock wool now?
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That sounds complicated. I would rather use a double layered steel with air in the middle - so better cover the chassis with a thin metal sheet and some spacers to keep a distance. Rockwool will just pick up the mud and water (if you put it outside). Inside there is a certain risk that your outside steel (which covers load) will fail.
Good luck
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For national (or regional) road safety evaluations and comparison we have been using two safety performance indicators (SPIs):
- direct (crashes, fatalities, injuries...)
- indirect (speed, speeding, seat belt use, daytime running lights use, cell phone use...)
Now I am trying to find some correlations between them. And I ask, for example: Should percent of speeding correlate with crash counts? or with fatalities? or injuries?
All is done on the level of country (or regions) - so direct SPIs are from national/regional statistics. Indirect SPIs are from surveys, typically 7 locations per region, once per year.
And lots of other questions, for example: when surveys are done in weekdays, spring/autumn, dry weather, should crashes to correlation also come only from the same conditions? (or possibly even only in the days/hours of survey?)
I will welcome any ideas on how to do these analyses, references, etc. Thank you in advance.
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When discussing correlations you have to keep in mind that correlations do not necessarily imply causal relations. Often, they are a consequence of a common influence by an ignored third factor such as properties of the infrastructure (many or few freeways), regional structure (predominantly urban or countryside), cultural properties,  (liberal or strict) legislation, (sloppy or stringent) control/enforcement. For example, in countries with liberal speed regulations (e.g., 75 or even 85 mph allowed on some roads) and sloppy enforcement (hardly any speed limit monitoring), few speed tickets are issued, i.e., the statistical data show little speeding. Nevertheless, in an objective sense, there may be many drivers driving too fast for the given situation resulting in comparatively many accidents.  This results in a paradoxical correlation with an unexpected sign between speeding and accidents.  This is a variant of the classical Simpson's paradox: The more firefighters are sent to the scene, the more damage the fire will  cause.
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Dear Researchers,
I need to calculate the probability of the vehicles having some kind of incidents/accidents based on the intersection characteristics (grade, signage, median, etc.). It will answer the question that, for example, how much the probability of head-on crashes would change if we add raised median to the intersection.
However, I was wondering if there is any method/model to be used that relates this probability to actual frequency. For instance, back to my previous example and given the probability of head-on crashes, we can determine 5 head-on crashes will occur on a given intersection.
Thank you!
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Dear Mahdi, I suppose that crash prediction models are what you are looking for. They relate crash frequency to various explanatory variables, which is exposure (traffic volume) and geometrical characteristics, such as median, etc. Since crash frequency is a count variable with non-normal distribution, they are usually developed using generalized linear models with negative binomial distribution. This is also what I am using; however for the work of real guru look for example here - https://www.researchgate.net/publication/239438865_Statistical_Road_Safety_Modeling
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The most usual way to do this is the ratio  (crashes) / (billion vehicle km travelled). But what if we don't have AADT data? Is it right to calculate the ratio (crashes) / (road length) for 2km road segments? The 2km is an example of course..  Thank you in advance!
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Dear Ioannis, you ask very important question. There are various perspectives and indicators. As you mention, crashes are the typical indicator. But are they the best one? It depends on crash frequency, time frame adopted, extent of underreporting... - how many crashes do you typically have in your conditions? Is the frequency sufficient for the analysis you need? If not, other indicators may be used, based on more frequent events, such as for example traffic conflicts.
Nevertheless AADT is usually the most important condition, this is why it is used as exposure indicator - and risk is basically count of events related to exposure. Some good reading - http://www.swov.nl/rapport/R-2002-12.pdf
Regarding section length - there are discussions about it. If you need risk related to some conditions, then these conditions should dictate how are section formed (segmentation). See for example here - http://docs.trb.org/prp/13-4372.pdf
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Adaptive cruise control is an active safety system, widely used in Foreign countries. The German, Japanese and many more foreign car manufacturers launching luxurious cars in India, having Active safety features like Adaptive cruise control.
As per my knowledge the major control is by Camera and Radar Sensors. Will the same mapping or programming of ECU is compatible with Indian Driving scenario?
The camera in the vehicle is used for lane assist and obstacle detection and RADAR mainly detects the vehicle in front.
But for Indian road conditions where there is lack of lane markings and huge traffic of Two wheelers, how modifications are necessary ? or the same ECU programming is good enough to tackle the challenges in India ?
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Some sensor fusion between the camera system and radar would be necessary as camera systems can only function to a certain speed before they become unreliable (e.g. Mobileye and Eyesight by Subaru). The camera can be used for object detection (vehicle, moped, pedestrian), the radar can compensate for the short comings of cameras at higher speeds by assisting in detecting object size, and relative change in object size to determine if the time gap between the subject and lead vehicle is low enough to require a change in speed. 
Your ACC algorithm would have to have a lot of additional constraints factored into it, given the variability of driving/roadway conditions as you well know, but also where that system would be used most often and the driving behavior of individuals in those regions (e.g. lane splitting by motorcyclists and moped riders would have to be taken into account). 
I hope this helped. 
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One method to achieve "lateral force understeer" characteristic in torsion beam suspension system is to use special bushes; such as complex bushes. dose any one know any thing about this method and this bushes?
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VW used these bushes in the Passat and later Golf.
Under lateral forces the curve outer side of the axle is moving to the front of the car, the inner side backwards. This reduces the oversteering behaviour.
Have a look at the picture.
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Measurement can be done by radar technology, but I am looking for cheaper solution that can measure long term travelling at an instantaneous basis means, maybe every second or so measuring both distance and speed.
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using data logger
I recommend KAYABA and GPS to collect the data real time via NI and also record the vdo while collecting data
 
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Since many bicycle accidents occur when the driver never sees the bicyclist, I want to take several videos from the car driver's point of view as he or she is driving down the road in different situations. I want to change several variable on the bicyclist as far as what they are wearing and compare reaction time when the driver would first notice the bicyclist on the road.
I want to incorporate the videos as a time reaction test and have people test their reaction to the different driving scenarios on a computer screen. The goal is to see if there is a difference in reaction time.
Does anyone have an idea how I would go about constructing a test like this, that would record the results of groups of people taking this reaction test? I appreciate any ideas.
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Hi Denis,
I believe that a driving simulator could help you.
We're using it to measure the effect of information on drivers' behaviour, and we can implement different scenarios for different level of information. Similarly, you should implement different scenarios for different situations.
Good work
Mauro
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I read an article about Caterpillar selling an eye tracker system for $20,000 to combat driver fatigue. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/technology-22640279.
Personally, it seems to me that a viable fatigue detection solution could be done less expensively. I'm curious about what other researchers or companies are doing in the driver fatigue research area. The end of the article mentions a few alternatives to Caterpillar's system - any comment on those?
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Dear Dariusz.
You can find at least two products with several options and prices (http://www.smarteye.se/ and http://www.seeingmachines.com/). I am not sure about http://www.noldus.com but you can try it.
You talk about driver fatigue detection but there are other works related with drowsiness and distractions. They are different but related problems.
In my humble opinion, there are several important facts in this problem.
Experts in traffic safety are needed to provide ground truth information.
Based on our research in automatic detection of driver distractions, to obtain a robust risky signal, you will need to take into account information about road, vehicle and driver (we combine all of them using a fusion method). We used a camera to detect driver´s hands activity. In some experiments we also considered driver eye information. At the end, driver behavior is a very complex problem and a multi-disciplinary approach is required (in our case: Traffic Safety and Technology experts).
Hope this helps,
Enrique
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This question is inspired from reading this article at the Huffington Post, where a US senator is very concerned about security issues in driverless cars. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/05/17/driverless-car-hack_n_3292748.html.
Is the security technology at a sufficiently mature level now that the senator's security concerns are, for the most part, unreasonable?
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There's quite a threat evolving for cars in general. Right now it isn't really fiancially interesting to attack vehicles, but this may change in the future. Besides that there's always the risks of attacks that are designed to disrupt traffic (or crash a vehicle, in the extreme case). However, it should be remaked that this isn't specific to AI-controlled vehicles: this also applies to other connectivity like bluetooth, wifi, tire pressure sensors and pretty much anything that communicates through the car's CAN bus. For examples, see the following resources, which include IEEE S&P and USENIX SEC publications:
Once the attacker controls the CAN bus, it seems extremely obtruse to attack the AI system instead of the engine or the breaks, if you want to do real damage. Yes, the AI system should be protected from attacks, but it isn't exactly the most interesting target. For driverless cars, the insurance is much more interesting -- who is liable when the car crashes? In any case, I would say that current non-regulated use of driverless cars is not a good idea, also because the technology is still maturing.