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Am making carbonized biomass value chain analysis and for such work, I am calculating carbon footprint.
I would therefore appreciate if anyone can share one (carbon footprint calculator e.g., spreadsheet) with me or direct me to a link/website where I can access one.
Thank you!
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Except for some early protectionist behaviour by some countries and the consumer panic buying in the early days of the pandemic, global food supply chains have demonstrated remarkable resilience during this whole time. Currently, there are no global food shortages. In fact, the prices did fall slightly at one point. During the 2007-08 economic crisis, however, food prices were severely disrupted. Please share your thoughts on how this occurred and whether global food supply chains have become more sophisticated. Also, what are the implications for "local foods" in the pandemic?
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Also check..
Development of the Organic Food Market in Romania during the...
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Could be used as a theoretical tool for understanding the alternative economic networks?
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I agree with Jutta, the term embeddedness is overused. Particularly, when it ends up meaning that individual people have a high number of connections. For Polanyi embeddedness implied social modes of coordination based on principles and patterns structurally different from market exchanges.
I think Granovetters' embeddedness can be measured at the level of the ego network (number of ties each one has). The Embeddedness by Polanyi is instead impis instead implyinglies different structural configurations and must be measured at the level of the entire network.
I enclose my paper that uses SNA to measure Polanyi's embeddedness in Vietnam.
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Value chain analysis is essential to identify major actors playing a key role from farm to fork (or table) of agricultural products. The efficiency of the actors is also assessed through value chain analysis. What are the scientifically recommended approaches and methods used for value chain analysis of agricultural products?
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I'm having a bit of difficulty in narrowing down my ideas. My study focuses on marketing and agribusiness type activities, but needs something a little outside the box.
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energy productivity and efficiency
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Artisanal fishermen, small scale fishers' and traditional dry fish processors have been suffering much amid the nationwide lockdown to stop spreading of coronavirus. As a whole, the lockdown has been impacting labors involved in different nodes of the fish value chain. The reasons may be a great reduction in inputs supply, increase in inputs price, problems in movement, low market demand of fish, lower price of fish, increase in transport cost, hoax that virus can spread from fish, etc. In bullet point-
a) What could be the major impacts of COVID-19 on fishers' and dry fish processors' livelihood?
b) What could be the best strategies and adaptive measures by the sufferers and the government to cope with the current situation?
Please share your experience and opinion....
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Thank you for sharing a good collection of published news. Very informative..
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Dr. Colin Barnes
Wolfson College
Cambridge
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A value chain is an economic system that can be described as a sequence of related business activities from the provision of specific inputs for a particular product to primary production, transformation and marketing, up to the final sale of the particular product to the consumer.The set of enterprises (operators) that performs these functions include the inputs suppliers, the producers, processors, traders and distributors of a particular product. To conduct a value chain analysis, one need to begin by identifying each part of its production process, noting steps that can be eliminated and other possible improvements. There are two different approaches on how to perform the analysis, which depend on what type of competitive advantage you wants to create (cost or differentiation advantage).
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While doing research on the value chain and competitive advantage in Islamic banks, I found no study on this aspect. Maybe because there is no difference between Islamic banking and conventional banking in terms of value chain? shouldn't we start with that?
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I think it would be an interesting topic. While in so many aspects Islamic banking shares some common characteristics with conventional banks, there are a lot of unique characteristics that await to be explored.
Good luck with your research. Looking forward to seeing the progress of the research.
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Starting with the
1. Producers - whose main objective is to maximize production and minimize on cost.
2. Processors - who will need to minimize losses and resources. Quality is their concern too
3. Distributors
Either wholesalers or retailers who9 would want to have a wider market share, make more sales aND minimize on transaction cost
4. Consumers - who will buy quality products and concerned with the price of the product.
Discuss how the above stekeholders would put in place control measures in the bread's value chain in order to achieve their targets and fulfill their set aims.
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Dear sir
You can produce the bread value chain map focusing on ((only for main Channels)
1. Product flow direction and amount
2. Information flow and
3. other parameters if any. Thanks
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Starting with the
1. Producers - whose main objective is to maximize production and minimize on cost.
2. Processors - who will need to minimize losses and resources. Quality is their concern too
3. Distributors
Either wholesalers or retailers who9 would want to have a wider market share, make more sales aND minimize on transaction cost
4. Consumers - who will buy quality products and concerned with the price of the product.
Discuss how the above stekeholders would put in place control measures in the bread's value chain in order to achieve their targets and fulfill their set aims.
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Well, I don't know if this is the right place for exam questions. What are your hypotheses? Then one can certainly take a stand on it.
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Namely, I did not manage to find any sound scientific paper on creating value within the software value chain. I use the conceptualisation of the generic software value chain proposed by Pussep, A. et al. (2011 and 2012), but I am still not completely sure which parts of VC are higher value-added vs. lower value-added elements. In other words, I still wonder if software programming (coding) is among lower value-added activities?
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Your question for software, could be the so-called "smiling curve" applied to the software value chain? , does not correspond with my field of specialization narrow for marketing management .
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Dear all,
I am analysing a number of agricultural and industrial value chains with the purpose of identifying gaps and opportunities to facilitate the development of new business models and business activities for circular economy and sustainable development.
Are you aware of practical tools able to support "circular" and "sustainable" value chain analysis?
I have identified a few that could be useful but I would like to receive your suggestions.
Thank you!
All the best,
Joan Manuel
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Hi Joan,
Interesting question!
We ran a project on this subject within the Resource Recovery from Waste programme, called "Complex Value Optimisation for Resource Recovery". This included the development of a new approach for the assessment of circular supply chains. More details and publications can be found here https://rrfw.org.uk/projects/c-vorr/
We also started to integrate the tool into a new approach for circular business model innovation. It's a work in progress and you can find our initial ideas in this report
Kind regards,
Anne
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What if a factor have minimum mean value but have the highest factor loading in PCA?
For example, in my case poor road infrastructure has minimum mean (2.49) value among all other ten constraints. On the other hand the PCA results shows it has highest factor loading (0.46) among all other 10 constraints.
How it is possible? Can Anyone guide me?
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Hello Muhammad,
I agree with Chellai Fatih , that correlations and means do not generally have a systematic relationship. Your observation that poor road infrastructure has the highest loading on a derived component means simply that it is a variable that may be salient in describing what is being captured by that component (e.g., characterizing what the component represents). Scores on a variable may still be high or low.
Both common factor analysis and principal component analysis rely on the correlations among the variables being analyzed, not the means, for purposes of identifying potential structure(s).
Good luck with your work!
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Recently I attended a high level policy meeting, arranged by a scientific department of Government. The theme was promoting bio-entrepreneurship among the women. Multiple academic - science research organisations participated as stakeholders. But there were none from either management or from commerce.
The area concerned is mostly rural and the policy was primarily focused on promoting rural women for bio-business. The participants from stake holders institutions, who had presented how their technologies can help in the endeavour. Now these enthusiastic 'experts' for promotion of entrepreneurship may not be able to sell even a pin in market and depend on government funds for their own survival. They had no idea about 4Ps, market forces, SWOT & PESTEL analysis, generic strategies, STP, cash-flow management, Costing, Value chain analysis, competition landscape etc. And neither do they find need to learn.
Global scenario is that 72% innovations fail to monetise. And these experts were betting on entrepreneurship, based on only their technical knowledge of producing something, mostly at lab scale, with subsidised space, electricity, water and man-power !
The most horrific part was that the policy maker from the scientific departments agreed to some of these proposals, without taking assesment from business perspectives, and the gullible rural women may be trained to produce something which might not be commercially viable.
Large amount of public funds would be allocated to these R&D/academic organisations based on such presentations. And the more deserving areas of entrepreneurship would be starved out of funds.
Thus the question arises - "Are we obfuscating real entrepreneurship with technological innovations ?".
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This questions whether true or strong innovation without entrepreneurship, or then business acumen, is possible.
I dont think government should lead entrepreneurship. They need to prove their commitment and ability first through their quality of service.
I see the solution as either a strong private sector initiative (led by entrepreneurs) leading entrepreneurship, and/ or entrepreneurship subject to both proper and meticulous entrepreneurship and innovation metrics to properly manage it.
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Hi i am currently working on my project value chain analysis of climate smart tea production.
If you have references or interesting research work related please help me .
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Dear Ryana
I am very nice
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This is for your reference on the basis of this questionnaire you can make for the farmers also .
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How are the value chain analysis methods developed for agriculture ??
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Many thanks Carlos. The challenge lies in applying VCA to agriculture in a systematic and innovative way.
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Actually, I have data with respect to various actors, cost and returns of shrimp farms. I have to develop a cost effective value chain model for the shrimp farmers. Which model fits best ?
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Profit analysis has been used in the literature by some authors to capture the value added along the chain. you can try it.
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I am trying to find out the best preventive measures to reduce the post harvest losses during storage of onion.
I have read research papers related to PHL. If any of you are working on post harvest losses in onion, please help me.
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Post harvest loss results from fungal or bacterial rot at harvest to a couple of months and from weight loss or physiological disorder such as transluscent or water scale in intermediate day type onions. Normally disease rot is mainly affected by unsuitalbe preharvest management such as late or excessive nitrogen application or excessive irrigation, failure to disease management including Botrytis spp. Fusarium spp. or black mold etc.
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Power asymmetries in dairy value chain
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From above discussion, the leverage point can be identified by understanding the system dynamics, it may be the weakest actor in the chain or a difficult point which can make a grater changes in output, that may be economic and social structures/incentives. Is there any statistical tool or optimization model with the help of which, leverage can be calculated. Like change in output / change in input . In a value chain analysis entire chain and network starting from input supply to the output reaches to final consumer is to be considered, which make us difficult to quantity leverage at each unit operation or actor level. Thanks Drs Dipesh, Kwamina and Lakhwinder Kaur for your kind answer.
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Market chain from raw materials to manufacturing of consumer products to consumption of those products
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Nice answer by Taifa....
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dear all
There are many literature on Supply Chain Managements in manufacturing and other services but hardly any on oil and gas. therefore I would appreciate any references or articles on what differentiate oil and gas industry supply chain from the rest. does it differ in emerging economies?  
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thanks for your insight, appreciated
reg
amor
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New Zealand government goal to plant 100 million trees a year - with the goal of planting a billion over 10 years.
More details of the policy enclosed.
What are the potential impacts on:
- jobs,
- climate change,
- forestry industry,
- wood processing industry,
- supply chains especially the overlap with the wall of wood (http://www.nzherald.co.nz/business/news/article.cfm?c_id=3&objectid=11937668)
- log prices (domestic and Asia),
- carbon prices
- forestry investments?
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Perenniality of the trees and the extent of their deciduous nature will reveal their overall effects. But , good points given above by Ales...there are other sides as well...
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I am looking for collaboration in data collection and processing to perform a supply chain resilience study. During the emergency situation, we won't bother anyone, but we can start to collect data from online sources.
Let me know if you have the capacity to help me in that.
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You would first have to specify the industry/ market of the chain referred and even so you may be only able to generalise until after the actual event. It is impossible to accurately forecast precisely the type and degree,likely series of impacts a hurricane can have and its immediate and longer term disruptive effects. Kudan Sagar's comments above are relevant. Notwithstanding and in light of the unpredictability of this type of event,increased focus must continue to be be placed on building robust and resilient supply chains in the first place and on risks and business continuity planning.
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Micro enterprise  fight for their survival in general and we talk about sustainable strategies in such enterprises. Can somebody help me in exploring the sustainable solution for micro enterprise?
Micro enterprise- firm's Investment in plant and machinery excluding land and building for enterprises engaged in manufacturing or production, processing or preservation of goods not more than 25 lakhs. 
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Apart from the insightful responses of the colleagues, the attached link, concerning the question, may be helpful.
Regards
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Integration can be found in examples such as integrated supply chains, integrated design for buildings, and the integration of IS/IT within an enterprise.  I am looking for papers about how integration is measured and used as a construct when evaluating the integration of a new paradigm within or across different business functions.  A new paradigm for this application of integration I am particularly interested in is sustainability.  Thank you in advance for any help toward this matter.
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Thank you for the responses.  I am also interested in how integration and sustainability, environmental, or green constructs  have been measured and used in the literature.
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Introduction.
A. The Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB) will “provide financing to any entity or enterprise operating in the territory of a AIIB’s member, as well as to international or regional agencies or entities concerned with economic development of the Asia region.”
The AIIB’s strategic goals are:
1. sustainable infrastructure development
2. cross country connectivity
3. catalyzing private finance .
 
B. “One Belt – One Road” (OBOR) Project is within frames of the AIIB’s mission. Therefore the investments outside Asia could also be financed by AIIB, especially railway tracks, logistic centres alongside the OBOR’s paths, general cross-continental road infrastructure.
C. I take as assumption necessity of cooperation between EU and South-East Asia region in long-term perspective (increasing PPP, number of inhabitants, regional advanced technology investments, alternative in market diversification strategy, FDI opportunities as a base for TNC expansion).
D. This is a fact that Chinese FDI placed in EU are focused on:
1. exploration of various industries know-how
2. advantages of access to the European resources within domestic market (EU market)
3. and advantages of gained specialization within a value chain.
Questions:
1. Do European companies perceive OBOR as opportunity for their development? If yes, in what categories:
a/ expansion through FDI’s,
b/ participation in foreign investment projects?
2. Where geographically could they expend? Which sectors are preferred?
3. Do the strategies of companies development very between various EU countries? Different expectations of advanced technologies countries and those where lower labour cost factor is their main competitive advantage?
4. How GDP structure impacts on interests in the OBOR development within EU? Are export orientated countries (e.g. produced in Germany goods and exported, have a significant share in German GDP) more interested in cross-country connectivity improvements, than countries utilizing this paths mainly for import?
5. Does the train road change a lot in the course of maritime cargo well-being? Could one notice other determinants refocusing the transportation means towards inland areas?
6. And finally, are the AIIB’s funds expected by EU countries as co-financial means of such infrastructure projects on the territory of EU (Poland, Slovakia, Hungry, Czech Republic, Austria, Germany or even further towards West)?
Kind regards,
Karol
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Dear Karol,
thank you for your interest in the FIW project as well as your interesting and detailed questions regarding our policy brief on the “One Belt – One Road” (OBOR) strategy.
Our policy brief approached the analysis of OBOR from an international trade perspective. To answer your question, a firm-level survey would be necessary. The results might, however, be sobering: Even if European companies would like to engage in infrastructure investment projects, we think that the probability of large-scale employment effects is pretty low given the excess capacities that China has to reduce, particularly in the construction sector. From a political point of few, the direct participation in infrastructure investments would be most desirable, as it would go along with direct employment effects.
Regarding sectors, it really depends on the expertise in the country. In the case of Austria, we do have special expertise in tunnel construction and cable cars, which we could bring in directly in foreign investment projects. We could also be attractive for cooperation in the field of research or as a ‘gateway’ for trade with Southeastern and Eastern Europe, given the long lasting trade relationships and geographical proximity. Other countries for sure are competing for projects in the fields of construction of power plants, railways, harbour infrastructure and telecommunication networks.
Geographically, I would argue that a strong focus will be given to the Western Balkans, given the Chinese investments in Greek harbours. But regarding the economic and political turbulences in Turkey, Iran, and Pakistan, I do not dare to speculate on whether European firms are eager to invest in countries along the “one belt” land route.
If we look at the current plans of the ‘new sild road’, it appears that in Europe countries with low labour costs will be recipients of investments, whereas countries with a comparative advantage in technologies compete in strategies how they can actively participate in these investments. Whether FDI destination countries can profit from employment effects is questionable – again: due to the Chinese excess capacities. Although Eastern European countries do have a cost advantage over Western European countries, they probably don’t in comparison with Chinese labour.
In general, I can follow your argument, that there should be a difference in the perception of transport infrastructure investments, whether an EU country is a net exporter or net importer. My counter-question is: Is this question valid for ‘the factory of the world’? As you have already mentioned, it is more or less only Germany, that in the EU (also sometimes Scandinavian countries and the BENELUX states) that run surpluses. So one might want to distinguish the effect for Germany (the greatest net-exporter) and the rest of the EU.
I think your argument is, that net exporters appreciate better trading routes, whereas net-importers fear these developments. For OBOR this might not be true, as particularly low income countries and net importers are targeted by investments, stimulating the economies.
New train connections will for sure impact maritime transport, e.g. potentially shifting cargo from the Netherlands or Italy to Greece, with further on land transport to Eastern and Western Europe via rail.
Projects of the AIIB which have already been approved do not target European countries. Also in the future, AIIB investments will not focus on investments in Europe, but the presence of many European countries within the AIIB signatories might allow for more inclusive projects (involving EU members’ firms and expertise).
Best wishes,
Julia
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A research about strategies used in handling small vegetable businesses
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Dear Colleague
I think the following answer helpful to your question, that already answered to the similar question,
Marketing Strategies for Fresh Fruits & Vegetables
by Nancy Wagner
Finding smart ways to market fresh fruits and vegetables encourages customers to learn about and buy healthy food. Whether you primarily sell fruits and vegetables or a produce area is a part of your grocery store, being known as a business that provides helpful information on how to use produce is key to building customer loyalty. Implementing a variety of marketing strategies helps you appeal to all of your customers, some of whom are more knowledgeable about choosing and preparing produce than others.
Giving Details
Providing details about each type of fruit or vegetable you sell helps people understand the quality and value of the produce so they feel confident buying. For instance, small cards that describe the taste of the different varieties of apples you carry, such as sweet, crunchy or sour, help people learn and appreciate more than just the color. Note where the produce comes from, such as the name of a local farm, to help the consumer realize the value and quality of the produce you carry.
Merchandising
Displaying your produce so it’s at eye level and easily visible is important to moving these perishable items as fast as possible. Add a basket near the cash register filled with seasonal fruit for sale by the piece so people can pick one up on their lunch break or as a snack. Cross-merchandise items by putting together small baskets or displays of items that go together to create a dish, such as grouping an onion, a few tomatoes, a lime and a hot pepper to suggest the ingredients to make salsa.
Promotion
Create short surveys to ask your customers what types of fruits and veggies they’d like to see in your store or stand, and then run promotions to encourage people to buy it. Feature a handful of produce items each week on banners hung in the windows and in local print ads. Provide discount coupons to help gauge the response. Share information on how to prepare the produce featured in your ads so people feel encouraged and knowledgeable about what to do with their purchases.
Education
Providing nutritional information about the fruits and vegetables you sell helps make the buyer more aware of their value. Have fliers or brochures that explain how to handle and store various types of produce to encourage customers to buy more. Work with schools, community centers and clinics to raise awareness of the importance of eating daily servings of fresh produce. Offer tours of your produce area to school kids, complete with samples of in-season goodies, as a way to foster appreciation of the produce you carry.
Regards,
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There are different types of innovative capabilities and types of innovation. I want to investigate the effects of product and process innovative capabilities on product and process innovation? 
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You might be interested in our recent paper on innovation competencies.
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I am trying to integrate quantitative approach into GVC research; however, I am struggling on how to measure the effect of governance on upgrading. What should be the measure for the governance of lead firms to the supplier firms that could affect local firm's upgrading?
I tried to look at Gereffi's work (The governance of global value chains) and the paper states that there are 3 factors that affect value chain governance which are 1) complexity of information, 2) the extent to which this information and knowledge can be codified, 3) the capabilities of suppliers.
I believe that the concept of Lall's technological capabilities (1992) can be used to measure the capabilities of suppliers; however, which concept can I use to measure 1) complexity of information, 2) the extent to which this information and knowledge can be codified?
Please kindly help me. Any suggestion would be appreciated.
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Dear Veerasith,
You may find the following article useful: Beasley, M., Chen, A., Nunez, K. and Wright, L. (2006): "Working Hand in Hand: Balanced Scorecards and Enterprise Risk Management", Strategic Finance (March 2006), pp. 49-55. The authors adopt the Balanced Scorecard as a governance mechanism to Supply Chain Management. 
If you are interested in a general analysis of the Balanced Scorecard approach, please feel free to refer to my research paper: "The Balanced Scorecard and Beyond – Applying Theories of Performance Measurement, Employment and Rewards in Management Accounting Education".  In the paper you can find further references. It was published in the International Research Journal of Management Sciences 4 (7), pp. 483-491 and thus can be used for referencing.
Paul
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project related
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Using this technology as therapeutic strategy or diagnostic strategy what do you mean?
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I would like to study camel meat industry in a region of southern Algeria, and I'm looking for advice and recommendations, and eventually guides (or article) to develop relevant questions for the various surveys of various stakeholders. I would be very grateful for your help
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Dear Hossem, these articles maybe helpful for your research. there are some important analysis that will be helpful for you. https://anatomiayplastinacion.wikispaces.com/file/view/Camel+meat.pdf
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I want to argue for a revised framework for entrepreneurial orientation. To this the value chain could be useful in order to deconstruct the Entrepreneurial Orientation. The EO construct does only differ between being "conservative" and being "entrepreneurial" How can I argue that the value chain can be helpful to argue that firms can be conservative in one part of the value chain, but not necessarily conservative in other parts?
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All the papers listed under your name were written by me. Why do you claim to be the author ?
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value chain - porter- business
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Dear Colleagues, I absolutely agree with Dr. Richard. Camp model is very good and useful.
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There are number of definitions of the term value chain in the literature. various development institutions/ INGOs are applying the rhetoric approach in different ways. it seems there are significant gap in theory and practice.
what are critical dimensions and aspects that should be taken into account in value chain analysis?
is VC an improved version of SC as VCs are considered more responsive to market dynamics and sustainable than SC?
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Hi deae Arshad,
the best things i ve found in the literature can be listed below:
1- Kaplinsky, R., & Morris, M. (2001). A handbook for value chain research (Vol. 113). Ottawa: IDRC.
2- Rayport, J. F., & Sviokla, J. J. (1995). Exploiting the virtual value chain. Harvard business review, 73(6), 75.
Value chain maybe can be studied in every field. value chain in economy, agriculture, tourism industry or food and health. The important issue is that which filed you are going to apply value chain and what kind of variables you will catch up. The content you are in can guide your value chain approach as well. 
3 - Siva Balan, K. C., Swaminathan, B., Hughes, J. D. A., Kasemsap, P., Dasgupta, S., Dutta, O. P., ... & Chantrasmi, V. (2015). Farm profitability and value chain management of tomato growers: a case study from India. In Proceedings of the Regional Symposium on Sustaining Small-Scale Vegetable Production and Marketing Systems for Food and Nutrition Security (SEAVEG2014), 25-27 February 2014, Bangkok, Thailand. (pp. 298-309). AVRDC-The World Vegetable Center.
4 - Walsh, K. (2015). Healthcare professional education: the perspective of value chain analysis. Journal of Contemporary Medical Education, 3(2), 93-94.
try to seek for "value chain analysis" and "value chain management".
hope these help you.
wishes 
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I am doing a research on fodder value chain in Makueni and Kajiado Counties
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Dear Erick, yes you can. Various researchers have documented fodder value chains in various countries across the globe. For instance in Ethiopia, India and Kenya just to mention a few. Do some thorough literature review and you will find answers to you question. I hope this is resourceful.
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Is there any methodological analytical framework, which is already developed and applied? With thanks for your responses.
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I will recommend reading: Agriculture for Nutrition in Latin America and the Caribbean: From Quantity to Quality.  
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its my thesis so am looking for the literature concerning with this title
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Dear Rehema
You can read this handbook.
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Looking for case studies with reference to actual implementation of the International Framework rules from the vantage point of developing economies.
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The PhD. Wim Pelupessy, Tilburg University-IVO, was a specialisty in the Global Value Chain or Merchandises. But he died in 2014. Is possible to PHD Rafael Díaz, help you: rdiaz@una.ac.cr
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We run two projects, one is on food security that uses value chain analysis as major analytical approach. The other project deals with nutrition security in the same case study areas. 
Do you know - aparte from value chain analysis - publications on innovative linkages / approach that combine food and nutrition security? 
Thanks for your suggestions. Have a good evening, Stefan Sieber 
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very good report 
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For humans beings, food has a direct impact on our social and economic spheres. Therefore, it’s important for us to understand and care about the issues related to food value chain. Food also affects our lives indirectly because of its impact on the environment, health, public expenditure and its contribution to climate change.
Could Collaborative Economy be an economic model where technologies enable people to get what they need from each other –rather than from centralized institutions?
For this reason I have great interest in:
-new insights and specific challanges from collaborative economy and digital innovation, focusing on innovative international experience on energy and agriculture 
-most recent examples of how other large companies in other industries are adapting by creating and enabling P2P marketplaces around their companies or by providing a platform for others to co-create with them
- useful methods to Bridge the gap between research, business and policy makers on these issues
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Could Collaborative Economy be an economic model where technologies enable people to get what they need from each other –rather than from centralized institutions?
Our world and our society are in trouble. Nature’s systems are complex and interconnected, yet our knowledge resides in disciplinary silos. As a result, our human activities tend to originate from within these siloed domains, and as they become increasingly impactful, the risk of unforeseen consequences becomes ever stronger. The interdependent systems we rely on for our survival and our welfare are in danger, sometimes even due to the actions we take to try to protect ourselves and our planet.
Most of the economic models exhibit survival for the fittest, thus people cannot be satisfied since demand and supply will play a role. Its not about centralizing institutions but having "one language". Culture and language are a barrier to collaboration however, ensuring trust and security will enhance collaboration and foster privileges among stakeholders.
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We have started a new research project on the circular bioeconomy in Scandinavia. The project title is "Sustainable path creation for innovative value chains for organic waste products"  (short: SusValueWaste) and we start with screening the State-of-the-art. This is a rather interdisciplinary project, combining transition theory, innovation theory, value chain analysis, political science and life cycle assessment.
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You can check this paper: 
Published as: Corvellec, Hervé (2014) Recycling food waste into biogas, or how management transforms overflows into flows. In, Czarniawska, Barbara & Löfgren, Orvar (eds.) Coping with excess: How organizations, communities and individuals manage overflows. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar. 
Even the attached paper can be of interest: Corvellec, Hervé & Hultman, Johan (2014) Managing the politics of value propositions. Marketing Theory, 14(4): 355-375, even if it is not focused on just food waste, it shows how waste management entails the creation of different kins of values. 
Kind regards
Hervé
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I´m trying to understand how the industry functions in LATAM, who are the main players, where are they located, main sucessful games franchise and etc...
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I have recently followed this presentation at the SASE conference in London: https://sase.confex.com/sase/2015am/webprogram/Paper2448.html
Very interesting, maybe you can contact the author to have the presentation/paper. Even if it is not on south America maybe you can share some ideas.
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What are ontological and epistemological assumptions about this field of sudy
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Thank you all. I think I am just learning.
My understanding of value chain analysis is with regards to all the processes and stakeholders involved in the transformation of a primary good to other stages of production such as to include how it gets to the end users (Consumers).
I will still open myself to more learning from my teachers in the field.
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Impacts on suppliers, workers, communities and eco-systems in developing countries
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Firstly, the two concepts are complex. To govern means to have charge and once people are left to govern them selves they may have a better  way of finding solutions to their challenges. Thus, for sustainable international business self but guided governance would eliminate may challenges within the system that are perpetuated by the governors external to the context but hurt the running of the business.
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I am a first year PhD student and I am struggling on my research proposal.
Currently, I plan to analyze the business environment within the global production networks of supplier firms in order to find out how internationalization can improve their performance and the workers' living condition. I am planning to use quantitative method in order to measure how the firms have improved their performance, how the working condition have improved, and how much each major actors (such as MNCs, government, NGOs) affect the performance improvement. Then, I plan to use qualitative analysis to deeply explore the factors of the quantitative study by interviewing managers of supplier firms, for example, why and how does actor A affects factor B on performance improvement of supplier firms and how to improve the current situation. 
Anyone has any suggestion on this rough idea? Is it possible as a PhD research and what else do I need to do in order to improve this idea.
Thank you very much for your help.
Veerasith
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Hi Veerasith, I found this paper quite good. It talks about the idea of social upgrading, theory and measure both. Hope you'll like it.
MILBERG, W. and WINKLER, D.(2011)Economic and social upgrading in global production networks:Problems of theory and measurement, International Labour Review,150(3–4).
Are you in UM's School of Environment and Development?
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I am trying to measure supplier firms' product/process improvement after entering global value chain. I want to quantify the effect of how government, MNCs, and other key actors in the value chain affect supplier firms' performance. I have tried to find the related literature on google scholar, but I have not found any good journals at all. 
Can anyone give me example of the literate or suggestions on the 'key words' that I should put to find the related materials?
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Dear Veerasith,
Still searching then take a look, Please let me know if you found something interesting.
Thanks.
Good Luck
Michael.E.
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I'm looking for references / publications of work using commodity chain or value chain analysis to study the ethanol market in the US. My interest is in the distribution ends (refueling service stations) in US-Northeast urban areas.  Thank you!
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Thank you! I will take a look at these.
Much appreciated,
Myriam
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Do you have any suggestion for promoting the value chain?
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Dear Prof.  B.R. Rajeswara Rao
Thank you very much for the suggestion. As a PhD student, I will try my best at least after my PhD work approaching to culminate.
Kindly regards,
Mebrahtu
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Are there any acknowledged definitions of "value chain" and "supply chain" in the literature that allow us to clearly understand where they do differ?
Or, is there a work addressing exactly this issue and clearly explaining the differences among them? (and maybe suggesting how to use them)?
Despite the existence of particular studies, considerations and reflections supported by previous experiences are always welcome.
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Dear Ilaria
to my understanding any "value chain" is also a "supply chain" and vice-versa. I cannot think of a supply chain dscnnected from a value chain, and the reverse is also true. So, they ought to be the same thing.
What differs is the point of view. Value chain is viewed from the customer side, so the relevant aspect is the value-for-money that it can provide customers with.
On the other side supply chain emphasizes the suplier point of view, so it is about material and information flows, costs, sevice level, etc.
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I am interested in carrying out an economic and financial assessment of the investment on AMP. I'd like some examples and case studies pertaining to the WANA region (Egypt, Tunisia, Maroc, Jordan, etc.).
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The internal rate of return (IRR) is a measure of profitability much contested. The values it provides are always overestimated. The use of the modified internal rate of return (MIRR) shows more reliable results.
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In order to understand the sources of competitive advantage firms are using many tools to analyze their external (Porter’s 5 Forces, PEST analysis) and internal (Value Chain analysis, BCG Matrix) environments. One of such tools that analyze firm’s internal resources is VRIO analysis. The tool was originally developed by Barney, J. B. (1991) in his work ‘Firm Resources and Sustained Competitive Advantage’, where the author identified four attributes that firm’s resources must possess in order to become a source of sustained competitive advantage. According to him, the resources must be valuable, rare, imperfectly imitable and non-substitutable. His original framework was called VRIN. In 1995, in his later work ‘Looking Inside for Competitive Advantage’ Barney has introduced VRIO framework, which was the improvement of VRIN model. VRIO analysis stands for four questions that ask if a resource is: Valuable? Rare? Costly to Imitate? And is a firm organized to capture the value of the resources? A resource or capability that meets all four requirements can bring sustained competitive advantage for the company.
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Thanks Makuachukwu Gabriel Ojide. You are simply great.
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Specifically I want to see the linkage within the forestry sector involving activities like producing raw materials, processing, and trading goods domestically and internationally.
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Hello. APL is a tool derived from input-output analysis. In a strict national perspective, it should not be used to look at micro-economic or qualitative properties such as sophistication.In a pure national perspecitve, some sectors will show larger APL than otherones only due to their relative upstreamness. Level of aggregation is also an influencing factor. This said, when used with an international I-O matrix, APL can provide information on the lenght of inter-idustrial linkages across several countries, showing how particular sectors aremore or less inserted in international value chains. Recentpublicly available database is OECD-WTO Trade in Value-Added (TiVA)
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I am collecting all sector, supply chain or value chain studies that have been conducted on rice in Asia. Any suggestions?
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Here are some references treating the similar question in Africa:
Demont, M. & Rizzotto, A.C. 2012. “Policy Sequencing and the Development of Rice Value Chains in Senegal.” Development Policy Review, 30(4):451–472.
Demont, M., Rutsaert, P., Ndour, M., Verbeke, W., Seck, P.A. & Tollens, E. 2013. “Experimental Auctions, Collective Induction and Choice Shift: Willingness-to-pay for Rice Quality in Senegal.” European Review of Agricultural Economics, 40(2):261–286.
Demont, M., Rutsaert, P., Ndour, M. & Verbeke, W. 2013. “Reversing Urban Bias in African Rice Markets: Evidence from Senegal.” World Development, 45:63–74.
Demont, M., Ndour, M. & Zossou, E. 2013. “Can Local African Rice Be Competitive? An analysis of quality-based competitiveness through experimental auctions.” Cahiers Agricultures, 22(5):345–352.
Demont, M. 2013. “Reversing Urban Bias in African Rice Markets: A Review of 19 National Rice Development Strategies.” Global Food Security, 2:172–181.
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Experimental auctions can be used to measure the value of quality characteristics of agricultural goods. Trust games can be used to assess the impact of institutional innovations (e.g. contracting) between stakeholders. Any other ideas?
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In the context of global value chains, I know the OECD has released some research on the role of SMEs. That might lend some ideas to your work, Matty. If you've come across any studies on upstream & downstream activities in agricultural value chains could you let me know. Thanks.
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The best option for governments to link farmers to modern retail is by creating an enabling environment for foreign direct investment (FDI). UNCTAD (2009) focuses on foreign direct investment (FDI) and transnational corporations (TNCs) as sources of investment in agriculture. Contract farming is seen as a significant alternative to FDI in terms of TNC participation in agriculture. In this view, governments should address the specific obstacles to efficient cooperation between TNCs and local farmers. Among them are education and training programs for local farmers, the provision of government-led extension services, the establishment of standards and certification procedures, the granting of financial aid, matchmaking services to connect local farmers to TNCs, support for the establishment of farmer organizations, and improving the domestic court systems to increase legal security. Governments could also consider the development of model contracts to protect the interests of farmers in negotiating with TNCs.
Governments can also play a more active role in leveraging private-sector participation in value chain development to the benefit of smallholders. Many mechanisms for alleviating the high transaction costs of market participation focus on the organization of smallholders into formal and informal groupings (FAO, 2012), encouragement of vertical coordination through stakeholders’ platforms (Demont and Rizzotto, 2012; Poulton and Macartney, 2012) and public-private partnerships (PPPs). PPPs have received increasing attention as a way to involve the private sector in supplying goods and services with some degree of public goods characteristics and for bringing together private and public investors to promote agricultural development, poverty reduction and food security (Poulton and Macartney, 2012). According to UNCTAD (2009), PPPs for R&D can serve as models for fostering innovation, reducing costs, and for mitigating the commercial and financial risks of the venture through risk-sharing between the partners.
References
Demont, M. 2013. “Reversing Urban Bias in African Rice Markets: A Review of 19 National Rice Development Strategies.” Global Food Security, in press.
Demont, M., and Rizzotto A.C. (2012). "Policy sequencing and the development of rice value chains in Senegal." Development Policy Review, 30(4), 451-472.
FAO (2012). The state of food and agriculture: Investing in agriculture for a better future. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO).
Poulton, C., and Macartney J. (2012). "Can public-private partnerships leverage private investment in agricultural value chains in Africa? A preliminary review." World Development, 40(1), 96-109.
UNCTAD (2009). "World investment report.", United Nations, New York and Geneva.
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I am about to work on value chain analysis and I want guides on it.
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This is an interesting area. You may also like to look at "Value stream mapping" . This is an interesting framework for value analysis.