Science topic

Vaccination - Science topic

Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
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Publications related to Vaccination (10,000)
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We now have a Special Issue in 《Vaccines》(JCR/Q2, IF: 4.961) with a topic "Advances in Cancer Immunotherapy and Vaccination". Welocme to submit a manuscript.
Article
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Background: Quantification of COVID-19 burden may be useful to support the future allocation of resources. Objective: To evaluate the public health impact of COVID-19 in French ambulatory patients with at least one risk factor for severe disease. Study design: A Markov model was used to estimate life years, costs, number of hospitalisations, n...
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The process of tumorigenesis leaves a series of indelible genetic changes in tumor cells, that when expressed, have the potential to be tumor-specific immune targets. Neoantigen vaccines that capitalize on this potential immunogenicity have shown efficacy in preclinical models and have now entered clinical trials. Here we discuss the status of pers...
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SARS-CoV-2 vaccination is the most effective strategy to protect individuals with haematologic malignancies against severe COVID-19, while eliciting limited vaccine responses. We characterized the humoral responses following 3 mo after mRNA-based vaccines in individuals at different plasma-cell disease stages: monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined...
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From March 2020 to July 2022, in Liguria region (North-West Italy) incidence of MIS-C among pediatric patients infected by SARS-CoV-2 was 38.7/100.000, which is higher than that of myocarditis after COVID-19 vaccination. In our opinion severity of MIS-C-related cardiac disease outweigh the risk of myocarditis after COVID-19 vaccine.
Article
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As of September 18th, 2021, global casualties due to COVID-19 infections approach 200 million, several COVID-19 vaccines have been authorized to prevent COVID-19 infection and help mitigate the spread of the virus. Despite the vast majority having safely received vaccination against SARS-COV-2, the rare complications following COVID-19 vaccination...
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Background The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in the majority of public engagement with research work moving online. This shift to online engagement is likely to affect inclusivity and diversity in such events and this requires further consideration as a result of the pandemic. Through comparing case-studies both pre-dating and during the pandemic,...
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Hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients are at high-risk for severe COVID-19 and have altered immune responses to vaccination. We sought to evaluate the dynamics of immune response to BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine in HSCT recipients. We systematically proposed vaccination with BNT162b2 to HSCT recipients and gave a third vaccine dose to those...
Article
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Background The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic, considered as the worst global public health event in nearly a century, has severely affected more than 200 countries and regions around the world. To effectively prevent and control the epidemic, researchers have widely employed dynamic models to predict and simulate the epidemic’s devel...
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The BNT162b2 vaccine is highly effective against COVID-19 infection and was delivered with a 3-week time interval in registration studies ¹ . However, many countries extended this interval to accelerate population coverage with a single vaccine. It is not known how immune responses are influenced by delaying the second dose. We provide the assessme...
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This paper empirically examines the economic effects of COVID-19 vaccine rollouts using a cross-country daily database of vaccinations and high-frequency indicators of economic activity—nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) emissions, carbon monoxide (CO) emissions, and Google mobility indices—for a sample of 46 countries over the period December 16, 2020 to Ju...
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Background With the increasing incidence of asymptomatic carriers or milder symptoms, children and adolescents are likely to become a silent source of infection. In view of the efficacy and safety of vaccines in the treatment of novel Coronavirus pneumonia, population-wide vaccination will be an inevitable trend to control the spread of COVID-19. H...
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There have been sustained global efforts to promote the uptake of COVID-19 vaccines, yet studies suggest the upsurge of vaccine resistance around the world. Considering the wide adoption of social media as crucial sources of health information, the nature of popular online debates on vaccination initiatives can significantly sway people's vaccine-r...
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Identifying preimmunization biological characteristics that promote an effective vaccine response offers opportunities for illuminating the critical immunological mechanisms that confer vaccine-induced protection, for developing adjuvant strategies, and for tailoring vaccination regimens to individuals or groups. In the context of malaria vaccine r...
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Background Healthcare workers (HCWs) are at the front line in battling infection transmission, such as that in coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19). Additionally, they may act as potential carriers passing the virus on to others. Anti-spike (anti-S) antibodies for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are formed either as a resu...
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In this paper, a new mathematical model for dual variants of COVID-19 and HIV co-infection is presented and analyzed. The existence and uniqueness of the solution of the proposed model have been established using the well known Banach fixed point theorem. The model is solved semi-analytically using the Laplace Adomian decomposition Method. The impa...
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Background COVID toes or chilblain-like skin lesions have been widely reported during COVID-19 pandemic. Most cases were described in patients with negative microbiological tests for SARS-CoV-2, therefore the possible relationship with SARS-CoV-2 infection, as well as with the nowadays broadly available mRNA-based vaccination, has not been fully el...
Article
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COVID-19 vaccines are effective and important to control the ongoing pandemic, but vaccine reactogenicity may contribute to poor uptake. Analgesics or antipyretic medications are often used to alleviate vaccine side effects, but their effect on immunogenicity remains uncertain. Few studies have assessed the effect of analgesics/antipyretics on vacc...
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Background Despite the growing evidence of the extreme efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines in adults and the elderly, the administration of the same prophylactic measures to pediatric subjects is debated by some parents and by a number of researchers. The aim of this manuscript is to explain the reasons for overcoming hesitancy towards COVID-19 vaccinati...
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Background During the fourth COVID-19 wave in Japan, marked differences became apparent in the scale of the epidemic between metropolitan Tokyo in eastern Japan and Osaka prefecture in western Japan. Methods Public epidemic data were analyzed, with performance of mathematical simulations using simplified SEIR models. Results The increase in the n...
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Social media have a significant impact on opinion building in public. Vaccination in India started in January 2021. We have seen many opinions towards vaccination of the people, as vaccination is one of the most crucial steps toward the fight against COVID-19. In this paper, we have compared the public’s sentiments towards COVID vaccination in Indi...
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Background Vaccines against SARS-COV2 have been crucial in efforts against COVID19, yet there have been reports of pericarditis following vaccination with mRNA-based vaccines. Methods We questioned consecutive patients with a history of acute pericarditis (AP) evaluated in the pericardial disease clinic during 3–11/2020 in a single tertiary center...
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The aim of this paper is to present and analyze the fractional optimal control model for COVID-19 and diabetes co-dynamics, using the Atangana-Baleanu derivative. The positivity and boundedness of the solutions was shown by the method of Laplace transform. The existence and uniqueness of the solutions of the proposed model were established using Ba...
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Cholera is an acute intestinal infectious disease caused by the bacterium Vibriocholerae. To explore the multiple effects of spatial mobility, spatial heterogeneity and the seasonality on the transmission of cholera, we propose a time periodic reaction–diffusion equation model with latent period. Based on the basic reproduction number R0\documentcl...
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We formulate an age-structured SEIR epidemic model using vaccination and treatment as control measures. Using the method of characteristics and fixed point arguments, we prove the existence of a unique positive solution to our proposed nonlinear model. We use a suitable objective functional and prove the existence of optimal control variables. Depe...
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Introducción Hace unos meses, cuando el confinamiento más estricto por la pandemia del COVID-19 concluyó y se avanzaba lentamente con la vacunación, tuvimos la oportunidad de identificar las distintas reacciones de las personas asociadas a la vuelta a la oficina en tiempos de pandemia. La mayoría de los informes de cómo se avanzaba en este eventual...
Article
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Currently, health authorities around the world are struggling to limit the spread of COVID-19. Since the beginning of the pandemic, social distancing has been the most important strategy used by most countries to control disease spread by flattening and elongating the epidemic curve. Another strategy, herd immunity, was also applied by some countri...
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Purpose of Review Screening for hepatitis B viral infection in the USA is currently recommended for high-risk individuals and pregnant persons. Effective vaccines for hepatitis B have been available since the early 1980s, and have been recommended as part of the universal childhood immunization series since the 1990s. Recent Findings Vaccination r...
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The initial period of vaccination shows strong heterogeneity between countries’ vaccinations rollout, both in the terms of the start of the vaccination process and in the dynamics of the number of people that are vaccinated. A predominant thesis for this observation is that a key determinant of the swift and extensive vaccine rollout is state capac...
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Since the first case in November 2019, COVID-19 has spread fast, infected many people, and taken many lives. Once COVID-19 cases are confirmed, and hospital treatments are required, they will need high costs yet still be at risk of death. Therefore, insurance companies and social service providers need a reliable model to estimate the expenses and...
Preprint
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The increase in the daily numbers of new COVID-19 cases registered in Japan in summer 2020, 2021 and 2022 forced to talk about the influence of seasonal factors on the course of the epidemic. Very different vaccinations levels in these three years allow estimating their impact on the numbers of new infections, death, and mortality rates. The accumu...
Preprint
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Given the emergence of the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron BA.1 and BA.2 variants and the roll-out of booster COVID-19 vaccination, evidence is needed on protection conferred by primary vaccination, booster vaccination and previous SARS-CoV-2 infection by variant.
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Rapid recognition of SARS-CoV-2–infected cells by resident T cells in the upper airway might provide an important layer of protection against COVID-19. Whether parenteral SARS-CoV-2 vaccination or infection induces nasal-resident T cells specific for distinct SARS-CoV-2 proteins is unknown. We isolated T cells from the nasal mucosa of COVID-19 vacc...
Preprint
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In statistics, we have precise methods to measure the effectiveness of the Covid-19 massive vaccination. Vaccinated people should be healthier, and should have a lower death rate than nonvaccinated people. Vaccinated people should have fewer sick days than nonvaccinated people. We are encouraging medical doctors to apply the proposed methods and pr...
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The novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) infection has become a global public health issue, and it has been a cause for morbidity and mortality of more people throughout the world. In this paper, we investigated the impacts of vaccination, other protection measures, home quarantine with treatment, and hospital quarantine with treatment strategies simultane...
Preprint
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Omicron sub-lineages such as BA2.12.1 and BA5 have breached prior infection-induced immunity and vaccine-induced immunity. This capacity of Omicron to reinfect patients calls for a characterization of vaccination, infection, and reinfection patterns. We analyzed de-identified longitudinal electronic health records for 389,746 individuals (88,679 fu...
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Since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, a large number of epidemiological models have been developed. The principal objective of the present study is to provide a new six-compartment model for the COVID-19 pandemic, which takes into account both the possibility of re-infection and the differentiation between asymptomatic and symptomatic infec...
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Background: By 16 May 2022, 12,186,798,032 people had been vaccinated with COVID-19 vaccines. Our study found that myocarditis/pericarditis may occur in adolescents after COVID-19 vaccination. Methods: In this regard, we conducted a meta-analysis of seven groups of adolescents aged 12–19 years to compare the incidence of myocarditis/pericarditis af...
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In the recent issue of The Journal of Rheumatology , Chung et al ¹ reported the associations of perifollicular hypopigmentation with disease subtypes and organ involvement in a systemic sclerosis (SSc) cohort in the United States. Perifollicular hypopigmentation, also termed salt-and-pepper appearance , is a typical manifestation in SSc.
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Background Significant immune escape by the Omicron variant, along with the emergence of widespread worry fatigue, have called into question the robustness of the previously observed relation between population mobility and COVID-19 incidence. Methods We employed principal component analysis to construct a one-dimensional summary indicator of six...
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Trust in science and scientists, satisfaction with the national government, and endorsement of conspiracy theories are important factors in the decision to be vaccinated. In this study, we investigated whether there are different profiles of individuals depending on the above factors and whether they differ in their sociodemographic composition. We...
Article
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The COVID-19 pandemic has brought with it an expansive set of new rules and limitations that were initially set to limit or control the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, such as masks and social distancing. Vaccines were eventually developed, providing individual immunity and protection against the virus, that personal protection also offering protec...
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The Rejection of childhood vaccination is still a major issue in many countries. The aim of the study was to assess prevalence of Turkish parent refusal and hesitance rate and its associated factors in Childhood vaccination. A cross-sectional study was carried out at the General Pediatric Poly Clinic of Ankara Keçören Training and Research Hospital...
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Background. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic created unprecedented challenges for solid organ transplant centers worldwide. We sought to assess an international perspective on COVID-19 vaccine mandates and rationales for or against mandate policies. Methods. We administered an electronic survey to staff at transplant centers outside...
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Reaching population immunity against COVID‐19 is proving difficult even in countries with high vaccination levels. Thus, it is critical to identify limits of control and effective measures against future outbreaks. The effects of nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) and vaccination strategies are analyzed with a detailed community‐specific agent‐...
Preprint
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Vaccination prevents acute severe COVID but only slightly reduces the chances of contracting long COVID. The inability of a vaccine to provide long-term immunity against persistent symptoms suggests a strong need for additional preventive measures.
Article
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Background: Several coronavirus disease (COVID-19) vaccines have already been authorized and distributed in different countries all over the world, including Bangladesh. Understanding public acceptance of such a novel vaccine is vital, but little is known about the topic.
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Background: As of 5 August 2022, the ongoing battle against COVID-19 pandemic has resulted 579 million confirmed cases and more than 6.4 million deaths worldwide [1]. With emergence of new variants, the pandemic continues to haunt individuals as well as societies. We expect many new anti-viral treatments in the year three of the pandemic, however,...
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We investigated thrombocytopenic, thromboembolic and hemorrhagic events following a second dose of ChAdOx1 and BNT162b2 using a self-controlled case series analysis. We used a national prospective cohort with 2.0 million(m) adults vaccinated with two doses of ChAdOx or 1.6 m with BNT162b2. The incidence rate ratio (IRR) for idiopathic thrombocytope...
Article
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To contain a pandemic, access to an effective and safe vaccine is a global public health necessity. However, an effective and safe vaccine will not protect against a disease, unless it is given to susceptible persons in the proper dosage and in a timely manner. Since the commencement of the Coronavirus pandemic, every country has been attempting to...
Preprint
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We analyze mathematical models for COVID-19 with discrete time delays and vaccination. Sufficient conditions for the local stability of the endemic and disease-free equilibrium points are proved for any positive time delay. The stability results are illustrated through numerical simulations performed in MATLAB.
Article
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La inmunización durante el embarazo brinda protección a la madre, feto y recién nacido contra ciertos patógenos. Las vacunas durante el embarazo se dividen en inmunizaciones de rutina recomendadas para todas las mujeres embarazadas, inmunizaciones para ciertas indicaciones médicas y vacunas que deben evitarse. La vacuna Tdpa y las vacunas inactivad...
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We analyze mathematical models for COVID-19 with discrete time delays and vaccination. Sufficient conditions for the local stability of the endemic and disease-free equilibrium points are proved for any positive time delay. The stability results are illustrated through numerical simulations performed in MATLAB.
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We explored antibody response after first and second BNT162b2 vaccinations, to predict the need for subsequent injections in nursing home (NH) residents. 369 NH residents were tested for IgG against SARS-CoV-2 Receptor-Binding Domain (RBD-IgG) and nucleoprotein-IgG (SARS-CoV-2 IgG II Quant and SARS-CoV-2 IgG Alinity assays, Abbott Diagnostics). In...
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Purpose We aim to compare the severity of infections between omicron and delta variants in 609,352 SARS-CoV-2 positive cases using local hospitalization, vaccination, and variants data from the Catalan Health Care System (which covers around 7. 8 million people). Methods We performed a substitution model to establish the increase in transmissibili...
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The COVID-19 pandemic has presented significant public health and economic challenges worldwide. Various health and non-pharmaceutical policies have been adopted by different countries to control the spread of the virus. To shed light on the impact of vaccination and social mobilization policies during this wide-ranging crisis, this paper applies a...