Science topic

Urea - Science topic

A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.
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Publications related to Urea (10,000)
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Inefficiency in barley production is among the challenges to agricultural transformation in Ethiopia. North Shewa zone of Amhara regional state is not exception in this regard. As such addressing inefficiency is among the crucial efforts for agricultural transformation. The objective of the current study was to analyze the technical efficiency of b...
Article
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Background: After renal trauma, surgical treatment is vital, but sometimes there may be loss of function due to fibrosis. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of autologous omentum flaps on injured renal tissues in a rat model. Methods: A total of 30 Wistar albino rats were included and randomly divided equally into a control group and four i...
Article
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Globally, nitrogen (N) fertilizer demand is expected to reach 112 million tonnes to support food production for about 8 billion people. However, more than half of the N fertilizer is lost to the environment with impacts on air, water and soil quality, and biodiversity. Importantly, N loss to the environment contributes to greenhouse gas emissions a...
Article
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Objectives To evaluate the application value of diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) for monitoring renal function and interstitial fibrosis. Methods Forty-two patients suspected of having primary nephropathy, hypertension or diabetes with impaired renal function were examined with DKI. DKI metrics of renal cortex and medulla on both sides of each pat...
Article
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Urea (Ua) is produced in DNA as the result of oxidative damage to thymine and guanine. It was previously reported that Klenow fragment (Kf) exo ⁻ incorporated dATP opposite Ua, and that DNA polymerase β was blocked by Ua. We report here the following nucleotide incorporations opposite Ua by various DNA polymerases: DNA polymerase α, dATP and dGTP (...
Article
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Background Urinary nitrogen leakage is an environmental concern in dairy cattle. Selection for reduced urinary nitrogen leakage may be done using indicator traits such as milk urea nitrogen (MUN). The result of a previous study indicated that the genetic correlation between MUN in Australia (AUS) and MUN in New Zealand (NZL) was only low to moderat...
Article
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Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) is an indicator trait for urinary nitrogen excretion. Measuring BUN level requires a blood sample, which limits the number of records that can be obtained. Alternatively, BUN can be predicted using mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy of a milk sample and thus records become available on many more cows through routine milk reco...
Article
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Today, exhaust emissions have become a critical issue with the increasing number of vehicles due to greenhouse gas. Engine manufacturers carry out R&D studies due to emission limitations imposed on engines that use fossil fuels. Selective Catalytic Reactor and AdBlue injection systems have been used significantly to reduce NO x emissions in diesel...
Article
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Nutrient recovery from anaerobic digestion systems provides several side streams that are useful as biobased fertilisers (BBFs). A microcosm approach was employed to assess the short-term greenhouse gas emissions from a sandy-loam soil enriched with 18 BBFs in comparison with mineral fertilisers (urea and calcium ammonium nitrate). In total, 20 dif...
Article
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In recent years, agricultural non-point source pollution (ANPSP) has become the biggest threat to Aras River water quality by completing the Mughan irrigation and drainage network. Nutrient pollutants, including nitrate and phosphate , released into the river through drains have created a range of obstacles for locals living around the river. Agric...
Article
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Dry direct-seeded rice (DDSR) is an adaptive practice used in rainfed lowlands of tropical Asia where insufficient rainfall at the onset of the wet season makes it difficult to successfully transplant rice seedlings. However, basic guidelines for nutrient management to support DDSR are lacking. Here, we evaluated crop growth and yield in DDSR with...
Article
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The excessive and inappropriate application of nitrogen (N) fertilizer in open vegetable fields is a major anthropogenic source of gaseous N losses including nitrous oxide (N2O) and ammonia (NH3) emissions in China. A 2-yr Chinese cabbage (Brassica pekinensis L.) experiment was carried out to explore the impacts of optimized N management (reduced N...
Article
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Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) and ionic liquids have been considered as organic solvents and applied in numerous chemical procedures. DESs usually are produced by combining two or three organic components. DES can be formed in a mixture by combining the hydrogen bond donors such as urea, polyols, and carboxylic acids with the hydrogen bond acceptor...
Article
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A bleached softwood kraft pulp was phosphorylated with (NH4)2HPO4 and urea at 150 ℃ for 0‒40 min, and the structures and properties of the resulting phosphorylated pulps were systematically investigated for the first time in terms of reaction time and the amount of (NH4)2HPO4 added. The phosphorous and weak acid group contents, and the weight recov...
Article
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Introduction Early oxygen debt repayment is predictive of successful weaning from veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (V-A ECMO). However, studies are limited by the patient cohort’s heterogeneity. This study aimed to understand the early state of oxygen debt repayment and its association with end-organ failure and 30-day survival usi...
Article
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Crop specific fertilizer recommendation is necessary for sustainable crop production. Accordingly, a field experiment was conducted in Debub Ari district, Southern Ethiopia, to evaluate blended fertilizer types and rates effect on improving the production of wheat during the main rainy season of 2018 and 2019. The experiment was laid out in Randomi...
Article
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Large-scale use of chemical fertilizers has resulted in the contamination of agricultural runoff waters by soil macronutrients NPK, whose detection is of significant interest. This work reports the determination of macronutrients in the form of urea (N), orthophosphate PO4³⁻ (P), and potassium K⁺ (K) in simulated agricultural runoff waters. Their s...
Conference Paper
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The study was conducted in three of Tehuldre, Jabitehnan, and West Dembia for two consecutive years (2018 and 2019) to evaluate the yield and chemical composition of nine brachiaria grass cultivars/species. The experiment was designed in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Nitrogen, phosphate & sulfur (NPS) at 100kg/ha was a...
Article
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The present investigation entitled 'Feeding management practices of buffalo followed in Purandar tahsil of Pune district' was undertaken in Purandar tahsil, Dist. Pune, Maharashtra (India). For this study 150 buffalo owners were chosen randomly as respondents from 15 selected villages. The data was collected through pretested questionnaire. The own...
Article
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To treat high-salt urea wastewater by microbial hydrolysis, it is necessary to overcome the dual problems of incomplete removal of nitrogen (N) from mixed strains and inhibition of microbial activity by high salt (NaCl) concentrations. In this paper, the mechanism of NaCl tolerance of Halomonas sp. H36 was investigated. Using molecular biology and...
Article
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Ocean alkalinity enhancement (OAE) is a proposed method for removing carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere by the accelerated weathering of (ultra-)basic minerals to increase alkalinity – the chemical capacity of seawater to store CO2. During the weathering of OAE-relevant minerals relatively large amounts of trace metals will be released and ma...
Article
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The time delay in receiving conventional tissue nutrient analysis results caused red raspberry ( Rubus idaeus L.) growers to be interested in rapid sap tests to provide real-time results to guide immediate nutrient management practices. However, sap analysis has never been conducted in raspberry. The present work aimed to evaluate the relationship...
Article
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Purpose: We aimed to evaluate the relationship between serum endocan levels and diabetic retinopathy (DR) severity in diabetic patients. Material and Method: The study included 72 patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) and 28 volunteer control patients without any systemic disease. Patients with no systemic disease were the 1st group (n=28), diabetic...
Article
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Purpose To investigate the association of hepatic and renal parameters with the development of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in premature infants with a gestational age ≤ 32 weeks. Methods Medical records of 240 preterm infants were reviewed retrospectively, 85 of them were grouped as type 1, type 2 ROP, and control group. The 4th week hepatic...
Article
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4,6-dimethoxypyrimidin-2-amine condensed with trichloro s-triazine. Finally various urea derivatives were allowed to react and the product were characterized by conventional and instrumental methods. Their structures were determined and important biological properties were studied.
Article
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High nitrogen input is important to guarantee higher production and essential oil yield. Ecologically, it is necessary to determine whether reduced nitrogen levels have an impact on the medicinal herbs' productions. In the recent research, the influences of reduced nitrogen supply on the agronomic traits and essential oil productivity of chamomi...
Presentation
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There are numbers of Fertilizers are used for improve productivity of grain, N; P &K are important fertilizers among them. Commercially Urea is more produced because the Nitrogen percentage is higher than all fertilizers. These three NPK are primary nutrient. There are some question arises about these industries, present paper intended to attempt t...
Article
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Objective: To estimate the percentage of Leucaena in the diet of heifers fed with Taiwan grass, in order to maximize the efficiency of the ruminal supply of microbial Nitrogen (ERSMN). Design/Methodology/Approach: Five heifers were randomly selected for each of the five treatments (0, 20, 40, 60, and 80% supplementation with Leucaena), according to...
Article
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Disparities in the substrate affinity and tolerance threshold for ammonia have been believed to play a key role in driving niche differentiation between ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB); however, recent surveys argue that direct competition between AOA and AOB is also important in this phenomenon. Accordingly, it is reasonable to...
Article
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Although significant progress has been made with surgical methods, the incidence of complications after minimally invasive surgery in patients with cervical cancer remains high. Established as a standardized system, Clavien–Dindo classification (CDC) has been applied in a variety of surgical fields. This study is designed to evaluate the complicati...
Article
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Introduction The immune checkpoint inhibitor-associated pneumonitis (CIP) is a particularly worrisome and potentially lethal form of immune-related adverse events. An objective and evidence-based assessment tool for evaluating the severity of CIP is in urgent need. CURB65 (consciousness, urea nitrogen, respiratory rate, blood pressure, and age) is...
Article
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In this study, three rhenium(I) complexes functionalized with amide (1a), urea (1b), and thiourea (1c) moieties appended to bipyridine ligand were used as model systems to investigate the structural and spectroscopic behavior in the presence of fluoride ion. These rhenium(I) complexes were capable of detecting fluoride ion, although the structural...
Conference Paper
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Introduction: Elective surgery induces skeletal muscle wasting driven by an imbalance between muscle protein synthesis and muscle protein breakdown. From examination of diverse stable isotope tracer techniques, the dynamic processes driving this imbalance are unclear. This meta-analysis aimed to investigate the mechanistic driver(s) of postoperativ...
Article
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Cumin is a flowering plant and the second Ethiopian export spice crop next to ginger. The area coverage, as well as the production of white cumin, is increasing year to year. However, there is a growing gap between white cumin demand and supply in Ethiopia due to its low production and productivity of white cumin. Therefore, this study was aimed to...
Article
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Green synthesis of urea under ambient conditions by electrochemical co‐reduction of N2 and CO2 gases using effective electrocatalyst essentially pushes the conventional two steps (N2 + H2 = NH3 and NH3 + CO2 = CO(NH2)2) industrial process at high temperature and high pressure, to the brink. The single step electrochemical green urea synthesis proce...
Article
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Oligourea foldamers fold into 2.5‐helices. Most of the known modifications of the backbone, such as NH or CO group substitutions or incorporations of non‐canonical residues, do not change the conformational properties of the resulting oligourea oligomers. In this study, we examined the structural influence of the methyl group, substituting NH proto...
Article
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With the aim to utilize the waste biomass of mulberry branches, an injection-moulded wood-based composite was produced by a two-step physical method. Firstly, the thermoplastic wood flour was prepared by kneading wood flour in NaOH/urea solution. Secondly, the injection-moulded wood-based composite was produced by extruding kneaded wood flour with...
Article
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The nitrogen-rich pyrolysis is a significant technique to improve the utilization and value addition of biomass. The bio-oil derived from the biomass nitrogen-rich pyrolysis is abundant in high-value nitrogenous compounds. Carbamide-pretreated pine powder was used to produce bio-oil through fast pyrolysis in this paper. Effects of pyrolysis tempera...
Article
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We report a facile low-cost thermal polymerization method of urea to produce 2D carbon nitride nanosheets (GCN) as confirmed via a plethora of morphological and structural characterization techniques. The GCN electrodes showed excellent electrochemical performance with a very wide operating voltage window upon their use as positive and negative pol...
Article
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Human health depends on the correct folding of proteins, for misfolding and aggregation lead to diseases. An unfolded (denatured) protein can refold to its original folded state. How does this occur is known as the protein folding problem. One of several related questions to this problem is that how much more stable is the folded state than the unf...
Article
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Vine shoots and surplus grape must were assessed as feedstocks for succinic acid production with Actinobacillus succinogenes and Basfia succiniproducens. After acidic and enzymatic hydrolysis, vine shoots released 35–40 g/L total sugars. Both bacterial species produced 18–21 g/L succinic acid from this hydrolysate in 120 h. Regarding grape must fer...
Article
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Background Since the outbreak of COVID-19 pandemic the interindividual variability in the course of the disease has been reported, indicating a wide range of factors influencing it. Factors which were the most often associated with increased COVID-19 severity include higher age, obesity and diabetes. The influence of cytokine storm is complex, refl...
Article
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Trimetallic selenides as bifunctional electrocatalysts for oxygen evolution reaction (OER) and urea oxidation reaction (UOR) have rarely been reported. Herein, we successfully synthesized nickel-iron-cobalt diselenides on the nickel foam (NiFeCoSe2) by a one-step electrodeposition method. The as-prepared NiFeCoSe2 nanosheets on nickel foam (NF) exh...
Article
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One way to estimate ammonia emission rates from naturally ventilated housing systems is to scale-up mechanistic modeling results. However, obtaining the relevant data to set initial and boundary conditions adequately is usually very challenging and for a whole barn barely possible. This study has investigated the potential of coupling different mec...
Article
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The pretreatment or disruption of a cellulose I β\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$\beta $$\end{document} crystallite by four deep eutectic solvents (DES)...
Article
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Polyurethane (PUR) is a soil and aquatic contaminant throughout the world. Towards bioremediation, in a previous study, a soil bacterium, Pseudomonas sp. AKS31, capable of efficiently degrading PUR was isolated. Polyurethanase (PURase) enzyme is capable of cleaving the ester bond of PUR and is considered as a key regulator of PUR biodegradation. He...
Article
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Due to its porous texture and heterogeneous surface chemistry, activated carbon (AC) gained interest in the removal of pollutants. The present work aims at investigating granular activated carbon selectivity for nitrogen oxides (NOx) removal from diesel engine flue gases. Two samples of AC are investigated, namely, (1) raw-AC, named AC0, and (2) ur...
Article
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Urea-assisted hydrogen evolution is a promising alternative to conventional water splitting for producing hydrogen with reduced energy consumption. Therefore, the development of bifunctional electrocatalysts to be used in urine-mediated electrolyzers for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and urea oxidation reaction (UOR) is required. In this wo...
Article
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The field experiment was conducted in 2018 and 2019 cropping season to determine the effects of urea stable and urea on nitrogen use efficiency and maize performance in highland Nitisol of Midakegn and Toke Kutaye districts. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Nine treatments of urea stable and...
Article
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Beta-glucosidase (Bgl) is an enzyme with considerable food, beverage, and biofuel processing potential. However, as many Bgls are inhibited by their reaction end product glucose, their industrial applications are greatly limited. In this study, a novel Bgl gene (Bgl1973) was cloned from Leifsonia sp. ZF2019 and heterologously expressed in E. coli....
Article
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Blocking the main replicating enzyme, 3 Chymotrypsin-like protease (3CLpro) is the most promising drug development strategy against the SARS-CoV-2 virus, responsible for the current COVID-19 pandemic. In the present work, 9101 drugs obtained from the drug bank database were screened against SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro prosing deep learning, molecular docking...
Article
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The filling mining method is an effective method for controlling ground stress and preventing surface subsidence in the mining field during exploitation of underground resources. Tailings can be utilized as the filling material, so as to realize the reuse of industrial waste. However, utilization of the traditional Portland cement as the cementing...
Article
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Although many studies have assessed the impact of extension, most treat the presence or absence of extension as a binary variable to test treatment effects, and fewer investigate how the type of provider (e.g., govt./private) and the frequency of the contact (number of extension visits) impact farm household welfare. To address this knowledge gap,...
Preprint
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Using the concept of three-electron bond one can represent the actual electron structure of benzene, explain specificity of the aromatic bond and calculate the delocalization energy. It was shown, that functional relation y = a + b/x + c/x² fully describes dependence of energy and multiplicity of chemical bond on bond distance. In this article carb...
Article
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In the scientific context, the environmental and healthy impact of polymers is more related to the residual monomer content rather than their macromolecular structure, due to the monomer capability to interact with membrane cells. For this a novel method to stabilize and quantify residual monomeric isocyanates in high thermal resistance polyamide r...
Article
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A growing body of evidence supports the concept of a systemic response to non-severe thermal trauma. This provokes an immunosuppressed state that predisposes paediatric patients to poor recovery and increased risk of secondary morbidity. In this study, to understand the long-term systemic effects of non-severe burns in children, targeted mass spect...