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Urban and Regional Planning - Science topic

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The article "Ethnographic Knowledge in Urban Planning – Bridging the Gap between the Theories of Knowledge-Based and Communicative Planning”, that was published on November 4th 2021 has serious ethical problems, e.g, plagiarism, authorship and duplication.
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Hello, again, Tal Berman
Like Usama Badawy , I hope that they at least gave you credit for your hard work. Otherwise, I would contact the editor of that journal to inform of the act. How did you even detect this problem?
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Dear Colleagues,
We are currently working on a paper where we discuss how far the planning and interventions in cities nowadays ( masterplans, regeneration plans) include decisions based on the analysis/findings obtained from social media data. There is quite a lot of research that has been done, reports, and so on that concur on the fact that these data are rather helpful for the diagnosis and prediction of numerous urban dynamics and for decision and policy making... but so far we find only very few examples (to our knowledge) where these approaches have been indeed implemented in a master plan and executed. We are wondering if there is a published example/report/study that considers social media data for diagnosis/prediction and has had an impact on actual planning decisions... Thanks in advance for your help!
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Dear Dr. Estrada!
You made a relevant point. I tried to find a tool in Finland the country of residence of mine, still I could not find anything. I only tracked down a new research titled as "Digital Urban Planning Platforms: The Interplay of Digital and Local Embeddedness in Urban Planning" published in the International Journal of E-Planning Research in 2021. Maybe you could contact the author Dr. Ari-Veikko Anttiroiko working for Tampere University::
I am not a specialist of the field, he is...
Hope YOU have a Nice DAY!
Yours sincerely, Bulcsu Szekely
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Dears,
I'm a spatial planning master student, I'm studying the soundscape in Jordan- Amman, the methodology I will use is varied from a questionnaire (Soundwalk) to a binaural recording, and I'm wondering if you have any recommendation for questions to be asked in the Soundwalk?
Thank You
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Hello,
Will you conduct noise level measurements at the soundwalk stops? If so, you could ask about the perceived loudness using a scoring method and then correlate the objective and the subjective results.
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would you please help me to finding some articles about informal settlements on a provincial scale ?
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Hey mobina, informal settlement are results of rapid population growth; huge rural-urban migrants; lack of affordable housing facility; weak governance etc. therefore it is mainly confined with urban area rather than any province.
However attaching some literature hope it might help.
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I asked recommended real-time or nearly real-time data source for any parameters for flood risk on a microscale analysis for urban area cases in developing countries that had agglomeration urban sprawl type
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Salim M. Zaki Thanks for the recommendation. I'll explore it
Wish you good health
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I'm looking for examples of public squares/plazas with a high tree canopy coverage. Places that are classic 'plazas' in architectural meaning, function as places of large gatherings and events, but have substantial amount of trees and high degree of tree canopy coverage. Place de la Republique in Paris is one example.
I'm also interested in any research on trees on urban plazas.
Thanks!
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Krzysztof Herman, I think you need to look at two kinds of cities the historical cities and the new cities. What has been made in these green areas as you can see in
All these greenish areas are highly dependent on water policies, ideologies, religion, mythology, and seasonal/ spatial temperature and precipitation changes.
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Hello,
I am looking to evaluate the quality of a land use plan in my country. However I am limited by availability of criteria to use. Do you know of literature I can review or advice on standards used in the planning profession when conducting a plan quality evaluation?
Your response will be much appreciated.
Regards, Malakia
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Your question helped me too. Thanks for asking here.
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How can property investors/developers benefit from land valuation maps?
Can Local Authorities benefit from land valuation maps?
Is spatial analysis key to property investment and development?
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A mayor información, las decisiones deberían ser más acertadas. Y los mapas son un instrumento de mucha utilidad para obtener información actualizada.
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What kind of dimensions can use to study comprehensive urban form? Most of the scholars have mentioned about the Density, accessibility and Land uses mix dimensions. But these dimensions can not capture well accurate urban form character. Other than that, what kind of dimensions can use to understand characters of the urbanity.
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See for comprehensive overview and http://docs.momepy.org/en/latest/ for the implementation of the large number of measurable indicators.
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a small discussion I want to open on this platform,
What is Humanitarian architecture?
I am not seeking an “ official definition” , I am seeking points of views.
From your opinion as an architect and a researcher, when can we call architecture Humanitarian ?
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Moreover, to all the reasons that you mentioned -and all i agree with-, I think that it became more and more about self realization. It is the moving from the collective cultural thinking to the individual realization. It is the Architect’s ego that controls the marked now. I think the main goal for most young architects in this era is to “Impress” specially with all available visualizing tools they have nowadays. You can see it more in our architectural students right now. I keep telling my students “ Design with people on mind”.
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I'm working on a different types of land as targets of conservation. and I realized that there are no set definition to Open Space, or Green Space.
EPA defines open space as 'any open piece of land that is undeveloped (has no buildings or other built structures) and is accessible to the public'. and New York State defines it as 'land that is not intensively developed for residential commercial, industrial, or institutioanl use'.
What's your most preferred definition YOU personally use, or that you came up with, and why??
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Based on your questions, it has to parts to be defined. The first one is on Open space. However, As defined by EPA, it is any open piece of land which is accessible to the public that is not developed yet. While the second part of your questions on Green space, it is piece of land that is partly or completely covered with trees and etc.
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Which strategies to deal with privately-owned vacant properties are common in your country? Are they effective? Which problems can you indicate?
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A very important problem, which is confirmed, for example, by the negative experience of privatizing unprofitable state mines in Ukraine. Even attempts to sell them for a nominal fee failed. And these are not the objects that can be "locked up". If they do not pump mine water, they pose a threat of flooding of settlements and other adverse effects.
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Is there any existing method, technique, or sensors to control the flow of water in a pipeline?
As i want to automatically stop and open the water pipeline after some fixed time intervals during an indoor experiment.
In other words, i want to control the pipeline valve automatically instead of manual control.
Thank you
Haibat Ali
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Considering that transport is the main component of the logistics system, making domestic production more competitive is basically a strategic decision.
How can increased demand for a city's major roadway make it more competitive?
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Peterson Dayan I am not sure, if I understand your question. If you add demand to your main roadway this usually leads to more congestion. How is that meant to make a city more competitive? By designing the street network you can of course adjust how want to meet this increased demand: walking, cycling, public transport, cars...
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Exactions are payments in one form or another to local governments to get development permission. The payments could be cash, land, or building of public facilities.
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Hi Peter F. Colwell , the purpose of exactions is for fiscal sustainability and economic growth. The notion of fiscal sustainability is a field of analysis and recommendations of international agencies and many scholars. However, fiscal sustainability analyzed in most of the literature refers to the general control of public finances, especially in relation to public indebtedness. The answer to this question is brought by the Territorial Engineering that innovates in this field. It requires evaluating the fiscal sustainability of territorial programs and component projects. On fiscal sustainability, I recommend the following classic titles:
- BLANCHARD, O. J. (1990). Suggestions for a New Set of Fiscal Indicators, OECD Economics Department Working Papers, No. 79, OECD Publishing.
- BUITER, W. H. (2004). Fiscal Sustainability. Paper presented at the Egyptian Center for Economic Studies in Cairo on 19 October 2003. Revised in 2004. London: European Bank for Reconstruction and Development.
- BURNSIDE, C. (2005). Fiscal Sustainability in Theory and Practice: A Handbook. Washington: The World Bank.
- CHALK, N, R. HEMMING (2000). Assessing Fiscal Sustainability in Theory and Practice. In: Banca d’Italia (2000): Fiscal Sustainability. Rome: Banca d´Italia. Web Document: http://www.bancaditalia.it/studiricerche/convegni/atti/fiscal_sust;internal&action=_setlanguage.action?LANGUAGE=en
- INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND (2002). Assessing Sustainability, International Monetary Fund, Washington, DC. Also available at: http://www.imf.org/external/np/pdr/sus/2002/eng/052802.pdf.
- POLITO V, M WICKENS (2005). Measuring Fiscal Sustainability. Centre for Dynamic Macroeconomic Analysis Conference Papers 2005. Castlecliffe: University Of St Andrews.
- TER-MINASSIAN T, M ALLEN (2004). Public Investment and Fiscal Policy. Washington: The International Monetary Fund.
- VICKERMAN R (2007). Recent Evolution of Research into the Wider Economic Benefits of Transport Infrastructure Investments. Discussion Paper N. 2007-9. Boston OECD/ITF Joint Transport Research Centre.
On economic growth:
- AGHION P, S N DURLAUF (2005): Handbook of Economic Growth. 2 vols. Amsterdam: Elsevier
- ALESINA A, R PEROTTI (1994): The Political Economy of Growth: A Critical Survey of the Recent Literature. World Bank Economic Review. 8, 3: 351-371
- BARRO R J, SALA-I-MARTIN X (2004): Economic Growth. 2nd Edition. Cambridge (Massachusetts,Estados Unidos): The MIT Press.
- EASTERLY W, R LEVINE (2001): What have we learned from a decade of empirical research on growth? It's Not Factor Accumulation: Stylized Facts and Growth Models. World Bank Economic Review. 15: 177 - 219.
- KLENOW P J, A RODRÍGUEZ-CLARE (1997): Economic growth: A review essay. Journal of Monetary Economics 40,3:597-6
- PRITCHETT L (2000): Understanding Patterns of Economic Growth: Searching for Hills among Plateaus, Mountains, and Plains. World Bank Economic Review. 14: 221 - 250.
- ROMER P M (1990): Endogenous Technological Change. Part 2: The Problem of Development: A Conference of the Institute for the Study of Free Enterprise Systems. The Journal of Political Economy, 98 (5): S71-S102
- VAMVAKIDIS A (1998): Regional Integration and Economic Growth. World Bank Economic Review, May 1998; 12: 251 – 270.
- WONG P K, Y P HO and E AUTIO (2005). Entrepreneurship, Innovation and Economic Growth: Evidence from GEM data. Small Business
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I want to know if there is any study about context-based (urban and regional) planning? how is or should be planning changed in different countries? (It is obvious that planning is not the same in different places but I could not find studies in this field)
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Most countries have adopted statutory planning systems which reflect their political ideologies and priorities, their socio-economic conditions and problems, and land ownership issues etc. ISOCARP has published reviews of the planning systems adopted in over 150 countries. There is less agreement about the nature and role of planning theory, hjowever, which may explain why it does not play a major role in the exercise of day-to-day e control over development?
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For over a decade, the Cornell University, INSEAD, and WIPO, has been publishing Global Innovation Index (GII) Report consisting of a ranking system of world economies’ innovation capabilities and results. Furthermore, these ranking provides the scores based on a set of indicators analysed on national level. It has become a basis and reference for several studies and policy frameworks at national level for developed and developing countries. However, I am looking forward for the studies and projects done at metropolitan level in perspective of Global Innovation Index or studies which examines the indicators of GII at smaller level rather than national level.
I would be grateful for any suggestions/ideas ,
Peace!
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You may want to check these indices:
There are also some other tools focused on smartness and innovation. Not sure if this is exactly what you are looking for, but I hope you find them useful. Do you intend to develop such a tool for the metropolitan scale?
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Dear experts,
I am going to work on a project related to urban green-space planning. I welcome and appreciate your suggestions and comments.
The key purpose of the project is to map and analyze the current green-spaces in the city, then to detect the areas which need optimization (patch size, connectivity, etc). In fact, the output of this project should help to prepare a master plan for future green space construction in the city.
To the best of my knowledge, I should firstly map land cover pattern in the city, then I should analyze the patch size and its connection by FRAGSTATS software. Also , Land Surface Temperature map may help to find the areas which need more greenspace construction.
However, I want to know:
1. What other software do you recommend to use?
2. What kind of innovation I can have in this project so that I could publish good paper from my results?
3. Do you have any suggestion for the methodology?
4. If you know any relevant and helpful paper, please share with me.
5. Any other comment and suggestion is appreciated.
Sincerely,
Majid
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Here you go
- Kabisch, Nadja. "Ecosystem service implementation and governance challenges in urban green space planning—The case of Berlin, Germany." Land Use Policy 42 (2015): 557-567.
- Haaland, Christine, and Cecil Konijnendijk van den Bosch. "Challenges and strategies for urban green-space planning in cities undergoing densification: A review." Urban Forestry & Urban Greening 14, no. 4 (2015): 760-771.
- Caspersen, Ole H., Cecil C. Konijnendijk, and Anton S. Olafsson. "Green space planning and land use: An assessment of urban regional and green structure planning in Greater Copenhagen." Geografisk Tidsskrift-Danish Journal of Geography 106, no. 2 (2006): 7-20.
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Working on the sustainability of the water basins, I focused more on the current approach of Integrated Water Resource Management.
There are two main challenges in the real projects:
1: The definition of "integration" in large scale of water structure is unclear and complex
2: The implementation of the concept in the real project seems difficult
The main question is what criteria should be in priority toward implementing integrated water basin management??
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Here some sources that you are asking about...
The first one: "The paper has been divided into two main parts. The first part puts forward a strong case for applying IWRM globally and defines the IWRM concept and process. The second part provides additional advice and guidance on how IWRM could be implemented in different phases"
The second paper: it has focused in highlighting the lack of addressing the IWRM definitions and concepts, which focus on and influence thinking about sustainability, do not provide us with much indication of how this proposed co-ordination, balancing and integration is to be achieved in practice.
1- Agarwal, Anil, Marian S. delos Angeles, Ramesh Bhatia, Ivan Chéret, Sonia Davila-Poblete, Malin Falkenmark, F. Gonzalez Villarreal et al. Integrated water resources management. Global water partnership, 2000.
2- Stålnacke, Per, and Geoffrey D. Gooch. "Integrated water resources management." Irrigation and Drainage Systems 24, no. 3-4 (2010): 155-159.
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Dear experts,
I am going to work on a project related to urban green-space planning. I welcome and appreciate your suggestions and comments.
The key purpose of the project is to map and analyze the current green-spaces in the city, then to detect the areas which need optimization (patch size, connectivity, etc). In fact, the output of this project should help to prepare a master plan for future green space construction in the city.
To the best of my knowledge, I should firstly map land cover pattern in the city, then I should analyze the patch size and its connection by FRAGSTATS software. Also , Land Surface Temperature map may help to find the areas which need more greenspace construction.
However, I want to know:
1. What other software do you recommend to use?
2. What kind of innovation I can have in this project so that I could publish good paper from my results?
3. Do you have any suggestion for the methodology?
4. If you know any relevant and helpful paper, please share with me.
5. Any other comment and suggestion is appreciated.
Sincerely,
Majid
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You may use the jQuery library which is available under Open Source GNU General Public Licence and MIT (Licence X11).
JQuery JavaScript creates interactive maps with GIS software. Software is unlimited rights to use, copy, modify and distribute the original or modified programme.
More information:
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If you had a sufficiently large budget to build an Urban and Regional Planning Research Center, what would be your main objectives and which professionalism would you need?
What role would you give to social equity? What role would you give to environmental protection? How would you choose the evaluation criteria?
A research program for urban and regional planning research center: this will be the final theme of my book Paesaggi (Landscapes).
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Perhaps I could add another question or suggestion: what do you think of "Science and the City. Hamburg’s Path to a Built Environment Education Perspectives in Metropolitan Research"? Does anyone know it or work on it? Does it seem different to what I'm trying to suggest? It seems a very interesting perspective.
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Do you have any experiences or case studies to make plan for residential local areas. Do you have any practices to develop residential local areas as commercial developed area. do you have any strategies to develop these kind of cities as commercial cities. most of the people are working out side of the city. therefore, most of the people are going out side daily. Therefore, day time population is low in the city. can we develop these cities as night functioning cities. add your valuable ides. i am waiting for you ideas.
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It seems like you are asking about the creating of commercial centres in existing mostly residential areas? There is quite a lot of good research on this. If you search 'suburban retrofits' or 'sprawl repair' 'commercial intensification' you should get lots of hits, including lots of images of diagrams. There are several important requirements: there must be no regulations (like zoning) preventing commercial uses, there has to be good accessibility and significant numbers of people nearby, and it is important that many or most of the people in the area think that this is a good idea.
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There are more advantages and disadvantages in regional planning. so it should have critiques and make new strategies to over come this disadvantages. Please add your ideas.
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Regional planning has potential to address more of socio-economic and sustainability issues than just physical infrastructure. Most of the regional planning actions are focused on urban regions which in itself is centered around mother cities and its hinterland. Physical planning of regions have taken out people from its ambit of concern. Regional planning should have inclusive strategies, resource sharing abilities and bridge the urban -rural divide. The regional resources and its utilization (not exploitation) must be addressed by focusing on the natural resources. Its not prudent to being more urban centered which looking for expansion beyond cities physical limits. The administration of the regions which largely historical and geographical basis encompasses the security of resources for future. Most of the regions globally have exploited the regions for its resources, and left to fend for themselves while looking for good opportunity somewhere else. The cultural imprints and nature of region must be respected not only for protection of local culture but also to reduce the regional conflict. The national character of planning somewhat disregard the regional aspiration which can be addressed by more participatory and community based planning.
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By making a city's public transportation system completely free of charge for all users, at all times, one can dispense with fare boxes, card readers, turnstiles, and inspectors. For buses or trams, this would enable much faster boarding, and therefore vehicles would spend less time at stops. Further speedups are possible by providing wider doors, and boarding by rear doors.
Less time spent at stops means faster trip times, especially during rush hours. When each bus or tram can make more round trips in a given time period, fewer vehicles will be needed to transport the same number of people. This represents savings in both capital and operating costs.
How much speedup can be anticipated, and how many fewer vehicles would this entail? A related question would be: in going to a free public transportation system, how many more riders would use the system, and how would this vary based on the amount of trip speedup?
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Thank you, Manu! That looks very interesting! I recently discovered that the Urban Planning people at McGill are doing studies in this area, eg Ahmed El-Geneidy. I have yet to contact them, though.
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In my article "When knowledge is power: grassroots participatory initiative as a process of resource development" I claim that residents are initiating informal grassroots participatory initiatives to intervene in planning-related decision making and adjust planning deliverables according to their spatial interests, perspectives, and needs (i.e., local knowledge). In the process of addressing their goals, residents face powerful players, e.g., jurisdictions and private developers. The question arises: which resources could help residents interact with powerholders to obtain their support for incorporating local knowledge into plans? Based on two case studies this paper claims that communal resources – including environmental and civic awareness, social capital, planning knowledge and political capital – are needed to develop residents’ initiative and increase residents’ success in incorporating local knowledge into planning.
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I suggest you look at the concept of community capacity. This can be strengthened and measured and there are a number of publications and tools available-see my RG contributions as a guide.
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In my book "Public Participation as a Tool for Integration Local Knowledge into Spatial Planning" (Springer, 2017) I claim that Local Knowledge in urban and regional planning refers to the knowledge of people who could be affected by plans, and that it is "a large, complex epistemological system related to a broad conceptual scope that includes perceptions, desires, grievances, opinions, ideas, beliefs, thoughts, speculations, preferences, common sense, feelings and sensations; it also addresses needs, cultural codes, spatial conducts, social relations, societal norms, and everyday life scenarios and practices, all of which are rooted in the locals' everyday reality". 
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Local knowledge can be seen from different perspectives and embedded in different discourses. The word 'local' puts it in the immediate space for which plans are drafted. As such a local Urban Planner, who lives since long time in the respective city has such local knowledge, at least more of it than an urban planner who has been hired from far away. However, and some of the contributions argue in this direction, local can also mean people's knowledge in comparison to scientific knowledge.
Other expressions that at times appear in the discourses are 'traditional knowledge' and 'indigenous knowledge'. Of course there are slight, but very meaningful differences between all of these expressions, but what they might have in common is the assumption that beyond the scientific way of conceptualizing things there are also other qualities, which can add perspectives to the scientific view that are essential.
I just came back two week ago from doing research about 'traditional cyclone shelters in Vanuatu'. These shelters, which have survived the strongest cyclones ever are the result of 'local' knowledge. Aren't they? E.G. an important way o9f putting wooden logs together is by tying them together with wild vines instead of using nails. This flexibility provides stability as logs fixed by nails would disconnect soon when the power of heavy winds would slowly but surely loosen the connection.
Indeed I came across a similar principle many years ago in South India, where fishermen built boats by stitching the wooden planks together with coir. Also here the flexibility enhanced the stability when the boat went through the surf of the ocean.
‘Local knowledge’ here might be the knowledge which is built from experience, from being practically attached to something instead of reflecting and researching things.
Stein, D. S. (2002). Creating local knowledge through learning in community: A case study. New directions for adult and continuing education, 2002(95), 27-40.
Bishop, B. W. (2011). Location‐based questions and local knowledge. Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology, 62(8), 1594-1603.
Aveling, E. L. (2011). Mediating between international knowledge and local knowledge: the critical role of local field officers in an HIV prevention intervention. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, 21(2), 95-110.
Mammo, T. (1999). The paradox of Africa's poverty: the role of indigenous knowledge, traditional practices and local institutions--the case of Ethiopia. The Red Sea Press.
Sekhar, N. U. (2004). Local versus expert knowledge in forest management in a semi‐arid part of India. Land Degradation & Development, 15(2), 133-142.
Thomas, D. S. G., & Twyman, C. (2004). Good or bad rangeland? Hybrid knowledge, science, and local understandings of vegetation dynamics in the Kalahari. Land Degradation & Development, 15(3), 215-231.
Gerhardinger, L. C., Godoy, E. A., & Jones, P. J. (2009). Local ecological knowledge and the management of marine protected areas in Brazil. Ocean & Coastal Management, 52(3), 154-165.
Šūmane, S., Kunda, I., Knickel, K., Strauss, A., Tisenkopfs, T., des Ios Rios, I., ... & Ashkenazy, A. (2017). Local and farmers' knowledge matters! How integrating informal and formal knowledge enhances sustainable and resilient agriculture. Journal of Rural Studies.
Benham, C. F. (2017). Aligning public participation with local environmental knowledge in complex marine social-ecological systems. Marine Policy, 82, 16-24.
Shearmur, R., & Doloreux, D. (2008). Urban hierarchy or local buzz? High-order producer service and (or) knowledge-intensive business service location in Canada, 1991–2001. The Professional Geographer, 60(3), 333-355.
Yigitcanlar, T., O’connor, K., & Westerman, C. (2008). The making of knowledge cities: Melbourne’s knowledge-based urban development experience. Cities, 25(2), 63-72.
Yigitcanlar, T., & Velibeyoglu, K. (2008). Knowledge-based urban development: The local economic development path of Brisbane, Australia. Local Economy, 23(3), 195-207.
Skytt-Larsen, C. B., & Winther, L. (2015). Knowledge production, urban locations and the importance of local networks. European Planning Studies, 23(9), 1895-1917.
Pineda-Zumaran, J. (2016). Learning and knowledge generation in local decision making in the South: The case of urban infrastructure provision in Arequipa, Peru. Journal of Planning Education and Research, 36(1), 60-75.
Lau, U., & Seedat, M. (2015). The community story, relationality and process: Bridging tools for researching local knowledge in a peri‐urban township. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, 25(5), 369-383.
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In my book "Public Participation as a Tool for Integrating Local Knowledge into Spatial Planning" (Springer, 2017) I compare between the respective capabilities of different participatory practices - top-down as well as bottom-up - to capture residents' local knowledge (e.g., needs, perceptions, perspectives, opinions) and incorporate it into planning and plans. The comparison is conducted according to dozens parameters such as 'the motivators for participatory processes', 'procedures and tools employed in the participatory processes', 'the interaction between stakeholders', 'exposure of local knowledge', 'characteristics of local knowledge exposed', etc.
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Though there are several methods, depending on the sample size you are assessing, in my perspective face to face interviews/questionnaires are generally feasible to get relevant data, using both focus groups or relevant parts oat the planning level.
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In my book, titled "Public Participation as a Tool for Integrating Local Knowledge into Spatial Planning" (Springer 2017) I claim that the initial practical goals of public participation in planning are "the exposure of residents' local knowledge and the incorporation of that knowledge into the planning and decision-making processes".
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As to the possibility of public participation, I think one important factor is whether or not people are organized.  Many have shown that individuals are less interested in or less likely to participate in planning activities such as public hearings than their organizations such as NGOs or homeowners associations (HOA).  When there are homeowners associations in the local area, they are more active in local planning activities.  Then, a question remains open: how will the renters' interests be represented in public particiaption in planning?  Should they be represented given their much higher mobility?  Should they rely more on "exit" than on "voice"?  Public participation is certainly a method for people to "voice" their preferences or knowledge on local affairs.
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In Italy many service sectors suffer from entry barriers and regulatory constraints. As regards retail trade, Legislative Decree 114/1998 had altered regulations in the direction of liberalization, delegating some powers in this sphere to the regions. Regions were asked to modify their land planning laws to account for commercial distribution that until then was regulated by a specific and separate planning instrument. However, many regions applied zoning to reintroduce quantitative and qualitative limits to the number and the type of stores to be allowed to enter the market. This was done in two main ways, through general planning documents stating how the region expected large retail establishments to develop and be located, and by setting the required standards to allow for their localisation.
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You may be interested in this article as well which is also drawn from the Canadian context:
Webber, S. & Hernandez, T. (2016) Big box battles: the Ontario Municipal Board and large-format retail land-use planning conflicts in the Greater Toronto Area. International Planning Studies 21(2): 117-131.
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1.       A system that places the overall responsibility for deciding policies and applications in the hands of the elected representatives of the relevant Governments (State/Territory and local) with an independent court or tribunal based application appeal body;
2.       A system that places the overall responsibility for deciding policies and applications in the hands of a technically based commission supported by local independent panels to assess and decide applications, and an independent technically based tribunal to review both policy and application decisions.
Please compare and contrast the models from the perspectives of the following:
a)       Developers
b)      The community
c)       Planning practitioners
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I would, in general, beware of giving too much power to unelected bureaucrats. Corruption is rife in this activity. Bureaucrats tend toward inflexibility. They generally hate performance standards and prefer prescriptive standards. Elected representatives tend toward raising donations for their next election campaign. They love to create problems that they can then fix.
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The details of this question are as follows:
what are the key technical and practical issues involved in creating a single national planning system for Australia and discuss the relative merits and demerits of pursuing such a goal in the current constitutional and political environment.
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Dear Salman
Here are some issues to consider:
1. You must first define "planning". In Australian English, it is an ambiguous word. Listed from broadest to narrowest uses, it can refer to strategic policy-making; or more narrowly confined to spatial land use planning (also called urban and regional planning) or even more narrowly, just statutory development control (zoning + development assessment).
2. You must take into account the division of powers between levels of government under Australia's constitution. When the former British colonies federated (1901), The Commonwealth was assigned only those powers that the States were prepared to relinquish – the States came first. The States retained all powers over land, natural resources and development. Since then, the Commonwealth has assumed responsibility for implementing external treaties within Australia's boundaries, including some such as biodiversity which impinge upon state rights. Local government is a creature of the States, so like the Commonwealth, its existence does not reduce the States' responsibility for land use planning. Statutory development control is delegated to local government in all States, with the State governments retaining various reserve powers.
3. You should consider the "vertical fiscal imbalance", meaning that the Commonwealth collects most of the taxes but the States are responsible for most of the services. This is one reason for a general trend in the past 30 years for functions to drift towards the Commonwealth. Example: the planning of major transport infrastructure.
4. You should also consider the neoliberal policy agenda introduced progressively since 1983, with its pressure for economic efficiency, greater central control and greater involvement of commercial firms. Example: once, the Commonwealth simply paid money to the States as a contribution to major national highways. Now it has established a new entity Infrastructure Australia with a commercial board sitting outside the public service and promoting major transport construction projects. A Research Report I wrote recently (see link) explains the damage this is doing to planning.
5. You need to consider the different attitudes towards planning by Coalition (conservative) and Labor (centre-left) governments. Labor governments tend to establish new planning and city renewal programs and conservative governments tend to abolish them. The Council of Australian Governments (COAG) is the main intra-jurisdictional forum for negotiating division of responsibilities between the States and the Commonwealth, and new programs.
6.You should consider the groundbreaking role played by the Whitlam governments (1972-1975) in land use planning such as its regional growth centres program and the Department of Urban and Regional Development.
7. You should give some thought to theoretical arguments for and against centralisation. On the one hand, there are economies of scale by centralising; on the other hand there are diseconomies of scale caused by separation of strategic planners from on-ground functionaries with in-depth knowledge of local problems. You should also consider the significance of coordination. Coordination is a central function of government and becomes more difficult as the geographic scope of the activity widens and as the number of other arms of government widen.
Hope these suggestions help.
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I want to investigate how local governments will appropriate PSS within their routine planning processes.  The PSS are new and I will introduce them to local governments during my study/research.
 
Help me know which are the best approaches (Design and data collection methods)  to carry out such a study?
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A basic, non-theoretical method, Benson:
Consider a number of interviewing local government councillors and retired councillors - from more than one municipal area. You will get useful qualitative insights. If you ask some set questions, rating their answers on a scale of 1 - 5, you may be able to generate some numerical stats from them.
Regards
GE
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It seams to me that  autonomous vehicles/mobility impacts are ignored by Urban Designers and Planners. The scenario of waking up in automobile dominated cities has realized worldwide in the last century. Still there are places not taken by cars but are they resistant to automation? What about rurbanization, antiwalkability, efficiency paradox, Lewis-Morgridge law, Downs-Thomson paradox, Ponzi scheme from the viewpoint of Urban Designers and Planners?
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Here are two additional sources that deal with the topic - a report from the Florida State University and Florida DOT & presentations from a TRB webinar series:
Best, Eva
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Would like to seek for your opinion on the above question. As observed apparently, prefabrication construction in residential housing only takes place, successfully, in those developed countries; while traditional cast in-site construction is still prevalent in those developing countries. Does it mean that prefabrication construction is viable in a country only when that country achieved certain degree of development?   
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In the US, movement toward the use of prefabrication has been stymied by building codes that are really intended to protect the employment of certain trades (e.g., electricians and plumbers).
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The research will be based in the context of the island of Mauritius, found in the southern hemisphere. 
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I think this is a very intersting question Azagen, but sadly for you not for the reasons I suspect behind your enquiry.  Chee Hung is quite right though I wouldnt even call Feng Sui a pseudoscience.  It is quite simply a different way of knowing.  Quite a bit has been doen in recent years in my department mainly supervised by Professor Peter Blundell Jones and you might try contacting him.  However he is an historian and hereby lies the problem for you.
You need to disentangle several aspects of Feng Sui and other similar folk lore systems.  For your purposes think about the content of Feng Sui and seprately about its style.  Taking the latter first you need to see that the way Feng Sui is described is through myths and fables and other fabulous devices to create strories that can be told so the knowledge can be passed down by people who have no specific knowledge.  Obviously these aspects are of no interest other than for historical purposes and ways of understanding how early knowledge was communicated.  You also need to set aside all the modern fashionable application of Feng Sui which much of which has little more value than Astrology.
However The work done by Peter and his students and by some of my students is quite interesting.  I know Peters students have uncovered more old documents and been able to chart earlier periods of the way Feng Sui develped and was told.
Some of my students have compared what Feng Sui actually receommends with what modern architectural psychology and environmental pyscholoy (my fields) would say.  There does seem to be quite a bit of correspondence.  In other words Feng Sui makes quite a bit of sense in part at least.  However it is no more useful than an understanding of modern environmental psychology whcih is evidence based and empirical.
So there are interesting areas of research here but if you wnat action and applied knowledge try environmental psychology rather than Feng Sui.
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i want to identify any impact for development in areas arround airport which caused by existence of the airport near it or middle it? 
please help to answer my Question! 
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Well, you can identify the impacts brought by the airport by looking from the perspective of sustainability: economy, social, and environment.
In terms of economic and social, you may examine whether there is any impact on the local employment, business opportunity, infrastructure development etc. In terms of environmental, you may need to know whether the existence of the airport will cause air pollution, noise pollution, degradation of the surrounding ecosystem etc.
Hope that the following document are of useful to you:
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I'm interest to know what the strategic to build the city. The city is a capital city, center of the region, but the city hasn't a node of transportation. Development of nodes a transportation instead around the city. Fortunately , the city has turned tourist attraction for the city. Nodes of transportation consists of a airport , a port and a station.
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From a theoretical point of view, I would look at the Johann von Thunen (Thunen ring model - early 1800's) as a starting point. Nobel prize winner Paul Krugman also wrote about this (sorry, don’t know of the name of the book – mid 90’s I think) and how transit stations create mini-Thunen rings around these nodes. Thus the transit station inevitability creates gentrification based on proximity to the transport node. 
Cheers,
DC
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There is a ITE trip generation manual for developed countries like the US, in which trip rates are given based on land use. Is the same applicable for developing countries? or any reference?
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Use OTISS (Online Traffic Impact Study Software) https://otisstraffic.com. This software is capable of converting US ITE TGM vehicle trips data into total baseline person trips data and then into study site modal trips. It works for any geographic context and help you to generate trips by any local modes. Try it out. It is free to try.
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I am interested in theory and case studies on distances and safety of pathways  to primary school and playgrounds in the neighbourhood.
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Estimado Pedro,
Gracias por el gran consejo.
I also downloaded some of your papers I itend to read. I am greatly interested in topic trees in a city.
Gracias.
Višnja
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I am a PhD student 
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Try calculating the standard deviation of blue, green, and red wavebands on a per-pixel basis.  In ERDAS Imagine this function is called "Stack Standard Deviation."  I have generated this in portions of Accra using high-resolution satellite images (e.g., 2 m) and it seemed to provide higher values in slum areas.  You might want to run a focal mean (3x3 window) to smooth the result a little.
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Is there any alternative to zoning? Can they be used in Indian context? What is nuisance based zoning approach and it's significance in Indian context??
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System dynamics being a quantitative approach I'm not sure whether the social aspects can be included. But if there is an option please suggest me.
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If your goal is to build a model that includes both (1) climate changes over time, as well as (2) adaptation due to social aspects, then either (A) a multi-paradigm approach of both SD and ABM could be helpful or (B) an ABM model only could accomplish this. Some general comments for either approach follow. Selecting the type of model that you want to build will likely depend on the temporal granularity that you want to capture for both the climate and the social adaptation responses. If the climate needs to be captured continuously but the adaptation only needs to occur following certain events, then (A) is the approach that I would probably take. Otherwise, I would go with (B) and explore the interactions of climate (as agents) and people (as agents) that contribute to adaptation. The attached paper provides a framework for identifying which paradigms can be used to address a problem within a multi-paradigm modeling approach.
(A) For a multi-paradigm approach:
On the SD side, you can model the pieces of the climate that you want to capture over time.
On the ABM side, you can model the social aspects that you want and how this affects the decisions that pertain to agents adapting to the environment.
(B) For a ABM only approach:
Climate components can be modeled as events to cause triggers within the population that require adaptation. Alternatively, climate components could be modeled as agents that interact with agents based on co-location with the population within the environment (assuming that the climate components don't just cover 100% of the environment).
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Exploratory data analysis (Tukley, 1977) is a solution. But did someone experience any other solution to indentify the link beetwen land use changes and urban mobility ?
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Do you know depthmapX tool??
maybe it' coukd be a good solution for your question
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On the one side, multicriteria analysis is widely used to combine different phenomena, indicators, and stakeholders' perspectives.
On the other one, multivariate analysis seems quite underdeveloped in the current scenario.
Since the road to sustainability is populated by complex and heterogeneous phenomena, could multivariate techniques support decision-making processes within urban and regional planning?
Thank you for your suggestions.
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Energy efficiency is just one of the many criteria that could be used, as 'footprints' are being adapted to measure the impacts of buildings in terms of carbon emissions, water and energy consumption.
In other words, how distant we are from considering all the aspects related to the consumption of resources in the 'sustainability' equation of our building stock? Could this be delivered through a unified indicator?
Are you aware of cases where these techniques have been applied in real urban and regional planning policies, plans, and programs?
Thank you for your suggestions.
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I am afraid that I may not be able to contribute completely in this matter but I feel like I could add a suggestion or another way of thinking on the topic.
Something else to consider would be the relation to decay. Materials off gas and fall apart or they combine with the conditions of the area to speed up the process or to create a poison. Sometimes the materials actually used in the architecture, although great for long lasting built environments, are actually toxic to the people living on the located site.
I also feel that the "footprint" could be measured by usage. Was every part of the space utilized to the fullest? If the building changed functions, how has it coped with the new usage despite the original purpose? Was the "footprint" economical in design? Would it be worth it in the long run to upkeep a building because it works so well or is it necessary to upkeep it to modify? (I hope this made sense).
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Depending on national institutional framework and planning tradition, can 'footprints' be better implemented:
- directly in the urban and regional planning schemes (policies, plans, programs), or
- in Sustainability Assessments used to measure the sustainability of the aforementioned planing schemes?
Could you provide some evidence referring to relevant case studies or publications?
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Please check out the GPC - Greenhouse Gas Protocol for community based GHG accounting and reporting.
For spatial information on water risk you may find the following site helpful:
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Has anyone defined environmental regulations specifically with reference to the built form or built environment?
Most of the research while explaining environment regulations refer to the the general guidelines, legislation, laws and acts, etc. for the preservation and conservation of the environment at national, regional and city levels. Other researches at building level generally define the built environment and its guidelines with respect to indoor environmental quality.
My concern here is if there are some studies which specifically deal with the quality of micro-climate and environmental quality at neighbourhood and suburban level.
What could be the parameters and variables for the study to ensure a desired quality of environment in and around the buildings especially in tropical composite climate or may be any climatic conditions?
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Dear Jawaid,
Once again you identified a key challenge for both researchers and policy/lawmakers. As I said elsewhere, we should have an evidence-based regulation and, as researchers, we ought to produce these evidences.
It is well known that neighborhood is a major determinate of built environment quality, also in terms of health (https://www.researchgate.net/publication/230895728_Neighborhood_Effects_on_the_Long-Term_Well-Being_of_Low-Income_Adults). Because of the complexity of modern cities we need to take into account a lot of parameters, for some of them exists a large body of evidence, as for the effects of green spaces (https://www.researchgate.net/publication/283213915_Green_areas_and_public_health_improving_wellbeing_and_physical_activity_in_the_urban_context), but this is not true for a lot of others. As Chloe has already said, to define  environmental quality of built environment we need to put together different professionals. Research should be approached in a transdisciplinary way, meaning that we need to organize the knowledge around a complex, heterogeneous domain rather than around our specific disciplines and subjects into which we commonly organize the knowledge (https://www.researchgate.net/publication/247150092_Lawrence_Roderick_J_Housing_and_health_from_interdisciplinary_principles_to_transdisciplinary_research_and_practiceFutures).
Your concern was to find some studies dealing with micro-climate and environmental quality at neighbourhood and suburban level, you can find some interesting knowledge here:
As Professor Kumar remembered, there are different systems as LEED, some of them are summarized in this study, but their mainly focused on indoor environment:
Anyway thank you for the question.
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Could anyone identify case sudies or publications discussing how 'provisioning' ES could be implemented in urban and regional planning?
In this scenario, what are the main factors that are preventing a complete and successful transition towards ES-based forms of sustainable planning?
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The benefits humans and society can derive from biophysical processes cannot be viewed as objectively existing “out there”, but as entangled in social and political processes. This is unpacked through the analytical moments of generation, distribution and articulation of ecosystem services. Social practice moderates the generation of benefits from biophysical processes (through urban development patterns and day-to-day management of urban ecosystems), but also who in society that benefits from them, i.e. the distribution of ecosystem services ( as the temporal and spatial scales at which it is possible for humans to benefit from biophysical processes). Moreover, for biophysical processes to attain value in decision-making, a social practice of value articulation is needed. The framework then moves between two levels of analysis.
At the city-wide level, an ecological network translates how urban ‘green’ areas, viewed as nodes, are interconnected by ecological flows (water, species movement, etc.) where nodes have different protective and management capacities. The network captures spatial complexity—what happens in one location, can have effects elsewhere.
At the local level, urban struggles over land-use are studied to trace how actors utilize artifacts and social arenas to articulate how certain biophysical processes are of value. Competing networks of value articulation strive to influence land-use, and multiple local studies bring understanding of how power operates locally, informing city-wide analyses.
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Building bye-laws  or building codes are the basic planning tool to regulate the overall form of the buildings and we all are aware of the fact that buildings consume a huge amount of energy and it can be reduced with proper design consideration..... for that some of the performance based evaluation mechanism is also there designed by LEED and other organization. But my concern is by just designing one or few platinum rated building we can not solve all the problems on the contrary if are able to reduce the energy consumption and increase the environment responsiveness of the whole neighbourhood and the city as a whole.  
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Dear Md. Fuzail Jawaid,
This a key issue I would say for entire world development and global health!! It would be really really nice to cooperate in this direction, matching experiences from both economically developed and developing countries. That would be really exciting. I think we might use this platform to discuss the basis of a collaboration.
Thank you very much!!
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What is the best classification of land use planning methodologies or approaches? any suggested good articles regarding this?
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Rabab Ali, regarding your comment on Oct 22; I think it takes us all "Back To Square One ".  In modeling you either start with your needs (goals), or you start with one actual piece of land and find "best uses". You can plan your "community", small or large on a paper, and then look for a suitable piece of land. Vice versa, you start with a piece of land, "empty" or not, and you will through different analyses find best uses for the future. Is this comment of any help?
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According to recent changes in the Italian Law, several cities must face off their metropolitan dimension and provide a new plan for this area. I am interested in recent experiences and examples which started form another point of view, based on local cooperation and voluntary actions for setting up scope-based associations, as well as multi-puropose associations of municipalities, that can became a forum and/or a strategic table in which discuss the management of wider areas and work on a common vision/strategy for a large territory. Especially I would like to know samples related with tourism, transportation, urban sustainability and metabolism experiences, but also other kinds of focuses are warm welcome.
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Dear Mario,
My thesis was a comparison between Metropolitan cooperation and planning in Marseille and Montreal. Maybe you can find some ideas.
Here is an article in English :
If you can read French I can send you some other links.
Good luck with your research!
Nicolas
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kindly help me with the methods and tools for the assessments of the urban form - existing as well as the forecast for the future form. what can be the different parameters for the assessment?
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Urban form has 3 elements- i) Street system ii) Building system and iii) Land use pattern (Conzen). For the first one, 'Space Syntax' is the most widely used method for measuring street network configuration. The 'spacematrix' method contributes to co-present building density and building types at the same time. 'The mixed use index (MXI)' can be used to measure various degrees of multi-functionality of land use. 
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A lot many studies point out that the compact urban form has a high (or higher) urban density especially at core or centre or CBD of the cities.... is it just the urban density that make a city compact or there are some important factors that shall also be considered to call a city Compact? Is compact city just a relative notion or a referral concept with respect to the sprawling cities? Because the concept of high density in itself is relative.... as a high density in US & Europe may be normal or low density in developing countries like India.
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Thank You Ruben!
The links are quiet useful! 
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I am trying to attempt a critique of different plan evaluation techniques as contained in the existing literature....thank you very much
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Mert Cubukcu's answer is correct, but plan evaluation techniques involves much more than Cost-Benefit Analysis (COBA). I would like to refer you to a comprehensive treatise of this all important subject  in urban planning, and that is: Oliveira, Vitor and Pinho, Paulo (2010) 'Evaluation in Urban Planning' Journal of Planning Literature, Vol. 24, No. 4, pp. 343-361.
The work diciphers three typologies or perspectives of evaluation theory and approaches, viz.: policy programme, planning theory, and welfare economics perspectives (ex ante methods and classification scheme). Under this framework, COBA, along with planning balance sheet analysis, goals-achievement analysis, mult-criteria analysis, and environmental impace assessment are part and parcel of ex ante subgroup of welfare economics perspective.
The also went ahead to distinguish between conformance-based and performance-based approaches to plan evaluation in contemporrary literature. I do believe the article addresses your question, and so try to source a copy for yourself. I only have a hard copy, otherwise I could have sent you a soft copy. All the best in your research endeavours, Damilola!
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The Compact cities are generally attributed with high density urban development having increased socio-economic diversity and improved public realm providing ample opportunities for social interactions and exchanges with pedestrian friendly and closed knit urban form having equitable access to goods, services and facilities thereby minimizing environmental degradation, thus sustainable. But at the same time there are the literatures which point out that high density development have poor quality of life. so my question is "what could be the attributes of a Compact Cities & are they really sustainable? if not then can they be sustainable? and how?"
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Md. Fuzail,
Compact city is the opposite of diffuse city. It is not necessarily high density. What is important is the diversity of activities in every part of the city. Economic, social, cultural, housing, government and so on. It is sustainable because it reduces mobility, reduces energy consumption and reduces carbon footprint.
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In the regression model ,our empirical results show that building replacement is affected by change in households,income level(the elements of macroeconomics),building ages (the elements of individual buildings),access to metro stations and government-led land development projects (the elements of location).
But the result of adj-R square only shows about 0.35,are there any dominant elements we ignore? anyone can point it out?
Thank you in advance!
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Thank you both for your answers!
I'm applying to a localised case which is in the Asia Taipei(Taiwan) city,not the international case.and i'm talking of the time within a period  in the past (2001-2009)
Another way to ask ,what elements could affect the supply of the urban land?(except the elements above)
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In the new POR-FESR of Veneto (I), turism founds will focus only in those territories (municipalities and associated municipalities) where it exist a destination management plan. There are some interesting example available? I am really interested in methodology and strategic parts.
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Dear Mario,
You might be interested in the research activities of SiTi (Politecnico di Torino) on this subject:
See also their publication:
Visitor Management: Turismo, Territorio, Innovazione
 a cura di Sara Levi Sacerdotti, Stefania Mauro, Emanuela Gasca (Turin, Celid)
Best
d.
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there has been numerous evidences which categorically accounts the reactionary remarks of anarchism towards the practice of reductionist planning principles in modern era. however such criticism confined to the passive expression for bringing reversal from the utopian project of capitalist planning mechanism. later, the formulation ofpost modern theorieswhich brought a new revelation interms of redefining the conceptual logic of place and space synthesised from neo marxism and radicalism.hence, what role anarchism played in defining the  order of life,function and place in city space?
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Hello Vishal,
I would say that social anarchism is not a political ontology, but rather, a political philosophy. Political ontology has a place in the overall ontology of human life and some ontologies are bound to include political concepts. I have been out of that business for several years so I cannot direct you toward current events.
Best regards,
Marion
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I would like to know the parameters that would help in analyzing whether an area is safe (especially for women and children) and how these parameters can be incorporated in the spatial planning process.
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Hi
I think you could find very interesting information in this two publications. 
the first documento would give you an idea of standards for crime prevention through urban design and planning and if you want to go deeper the second document has selected bibliography regarding this subject.  
Regards
Daniela
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Recently, the increasing number of disasters has shook the world. Be it the cloud burst in Uttrakhand, India or cyclone Katrina in USA or Typhoon Haiyan in Phillipins. What is the exact amount of setback that happens because of this in this technologically advanced world? and what are some measures to mitigate natural disasters, rather than just being a policy?
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'The Causal Effect of Environmental Catastrophe on Long-Run Economic Growth' is a good paper on this subject.  See at:  http://www.nber.org/papers/w20352
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Currently researching a topic on the current if the current standard set by the World Health Organization is an acceptable standard to lower income groups living in a hyperdense urban environment.
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sorry I do not have the expertise to answer this question.
Regards
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Looking for arguments for and against using area-based responses in Urban crisis, if any one knows of any research or project examples, this would be extremely useful.
Furthermore any insight into why an area-based response would be more effective than a community-based response? 
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Hi Stephanie, great question, and like everything else: "it depends" is the answer. In the US, where I've done some research on this it can stimulate some business development, but the big questions that are hard to answer - were these effects really the result of policy. Despite some methodological improvements at answering this, I think that there has been consensus that the effects are limited. Peters and someone else wrote a book on this, reviewing the scholarly lit - I believe in the early 2000s. My paper with Paul Ong on the Los Angeles Revitalization Zone finds that they easily become political opportunities, even though they might show some positive effects. What i think is a more appropriate approach is HOW do area-based (place-based) incentives coordinate with non-area based ones (or not, as is the case in the US). I think this is woefully understudied and tried to shed some light on this in 2005 and 2007 papers, when I examined the spatial impact of a working poor tax credit, the EITC. Found that way more money went into the Enterprise Zone through the EITC than through the EZ itself. Also found that this income had a job creation effect. Since then, i don't believe that others have asked this kind of question, but it does seem to me to be a very important one that can help get beyond a dichotomy that is quite limiting for policy makers. Hope that is helpful...
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A couple of you have offered me some great suggestions about where to find articles that focus on the idea of density in urban planning. Just wondering if anyone had any other papers that I could have a look at on this topic?
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Basically I am looking to map the institutional framework and arrangements  for rooftops for city level implementation.My focus is only on German cities.My first task is to  zero in on a city that has successful programs .Munich or Freibourg could be an option for success stories.But I am unable to actually find literature or case studies in this context.Would appreciate it if somebody can point me in that direction.
Also if I want to extend it into a comparative study..it would be helpful to have some examples of German cities where  rooftop program did not work ......
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Try talking to someone at flat roof manufacturers like Sarnafil, Soprema and Bauder.
Good luck!
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Sustainable urban planning resources
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Dear Heath,
I suggest the book:
Sustainable Urban Planning: Tipping the Balance-  Paperback,
by Robert Riddell.
Regards,
Vanessa
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I have classified satellite image for time points 1991 and 2011 and found the change in urban area and also arrived the demography change for the same period. (Results are considered as urban parameters for stat analysis). I have also analyzed the transportation network indices using graph theory. I have to find the relationship between transportation network and urban expansion using suitable statistical analysis using SPSS or any other softwares.
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Hallo,
this could be one of answers to your question:
Geographic Information System Models of 40-Year Spatial Development of Towns
in the Czech Republic
Lena Halounová, Karel Vepřek, Martin Řehák
Dept. of Mapping and Cartography
Faculty of Civil Engineering, CTU in Prague
Prague, Czech Republic
Abstract—There are many indicators of sustainable
development of towns defined by urban specialists, sociologists,
economists, etc. The paper presents the first part of a project
whose goal is to find indicators of harmonic development of
towns based on analysis of forty years development of fifty
Czech towns. The indicators are studied in land use spatial
changes, demography and road traffic intensity changes. First
ten towns were processed for the period between 1970 and
2009 being mapped in general urban land use classes and
related to the measured road density. City land use class areas
were derived from combination of actual and historical city
plans and remote sensing data using GIS tools. It was found
that the traffic intensity within towns and to and from towns is
more dependent on existence of close highways and by-pass
roads unlike number of inhabitants, e.g. Political changes from
the communist regime to the democratic one was also an
important breakpoint in the city developments. Increase of the
road traffic intensity and enlarging of residential areas are
features proving the fact. The paper presents a methodology of
spatial mapping of land use classes utilized for determination
of town development. The town developments and their
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Kevin R. Cox
Jean-Paul Addie
Harvey Miller
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(1) understand who owns the land: public, private, informal, and how it is used;(2) use the strength of law to the extent possible to plan; (3) create a public/community group with land owners, residents and other stakeholders, including local/national government; (4) involve private architects and developers to come up with a solution; 5) create public-private partnerships to enhance / a develop the block (where profits are fairly and equally shared by all original land owners and residents - for example a land owner with a single house will get a flat in a block, the rest sold for profit.  et al. 
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I would like to know the methods used for land suitability analysis of an eco-sensitive zones.
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There are some wonderful new tools for doing this.  But just a caution not to get so caught up in the data that you forget the theory you want to apply.  For example, you might identify several great habitat areas in the region you are analyzing, but you need to grapple with the classic "one large vs. several small areas" issue that is fundamental in the conservation biology literature.  Also, questions of corridors, edge vs. interior habitat (the latter a function of area size), crops or trees that act as barriers to movement of target species vs. ones that are permeable.  Even if you are only looking at agriculture or forestry, you have to consider minimum sizes of fields/plantation areas and length and location of haul roads.  For some applications, you might want to go back to the 50 year old ur-source for suitability analysis, Ian McHarg's Design with Nature for a general framework.  The idea of overlays and assigning suitability points to given areas has much to commend it.  I'm encountering some of these issues in trying to analyze the suitability for development of a 40 acre suburban parcel where more than 200 townhouses have been proposed. The area contains a stream floodway (and floodway fringe) and large trees.  Among the constraints are locating a long distance trail through the property and the demands of neighbors on one side for as large a vegetated buffer as possible.  Computer mapping can be helpful, but it doesn't give a single correct answer.  One has to run through various scenarios, with some constraints absolute (no building in the floodway) and others involving tradeoffs (saving big trees away from the neighbors vs. buffering the neighbors from the new building).
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Coastal regulation zones are decided on the HTL and I would like to know the authority that prepares the HTL map and how I can avail it.
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I believe this website can be useful:
Best regards.
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Growing small towns and peri-urban towns have distinctive change patterns from those evident in larger cities and suburbs.  Rapid growth in a short period can influence identity through changing demographics, the changing history of a town, the manner and style of growth, impacts on agricultural hinterlands or new housing/building styles (among other things).  Finding empirical ways to measure these trends can be elusive; however, finding a better way to understand how growth influences the identity of towns might enable policy makers and communities to better plan for the future.
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the most important factors are changing land-use and the structural transformation of the worker groups in the small towns. in-fact , there could be empirical investigations featuring the commuter movements and interactions to indicate the transition happening in the fringes towns. 
in particular the consumption pattern and changing behaviorism of the people in such settlement can be the direct evidence to exhibit the changing identity in the settlements.
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Currently, I am working on a studio project with a group of undergraduate students of the urban planning department of the University of Moratuwa who are studying ‘Anuradhapura’, Sri Lanka. Anuradhapura city has been identified as a World Heritage site by the UNESCO. Also, it is famous as one of the most prestigious places among the Buddhist pilgrims over time. However, in the contemporary planning practice, the typical way to conserve a heritage site is isolate that place or separate it from the people and prohibit all the activities including construction, modification, etc in the particular location. Anuradhapura also has not escaped from this reality. However, we need to propose some strategies to conserve this place without isolate it from the inhabitants. Not only that, but we also expect to make those inhabitants the agents of conservation of the city. Therefore, please mention if you know any relevant case study or literatures to develop our planning strategies to Anuradhapura.
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I think you could take the Recommendation on the Historic Urban Landscape (UNESCO, 2011) as starting point. there are some case studies done and published (papers / conference papers) by our team, one also in Sri Lanka  http://purl.tue.nl/58494520021879. You can find more publications on my page or the page by  dr. Pereira Roders: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Ana_Pereira_Roders
Also the work of https://www.dur.ac.uk/archaeology/staff/?id=2880 could be interesting as its on another famous Buddhist site (on http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/666) and the impact of pilgrims on the living heritage
success and looking forward to the results!
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I am using Envi-met 3.1. This version just gives me T mrt ,not PET.
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Hi. May i know how to get the password? I have already subscribe to the newsletter but there is no password sent to me or something so i cant run the setup
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Australian cities have large urban footprints due to our auto-dependant societies. By adapting our disused industrial precincts into inner city residential space can we reduce urban sprawl?
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Dear Alexandria
Very interesting as a matter of fact that this problem is not specific to Australian cities. In my opinion it would not integrate these industrial enclosures that are usually found in peri-urban areas in green frame that is our very updated daily. These green frames are not only an urban facility where people can recreate but they can become a real greening its biological corridor between the urban and the biodiversity that will settle in these industrial enclosures.
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water system is a important factor to form Hongcun village as a famous traditional ancient village, the question is how the water system run in the village, and does any design ideas come from the water system?
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