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Urban Geography - Science topic

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Hello, colleagues!
My name is Christiano Piccioni Toralles, I am a professor at the Inst. Fed. of Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil) and student of the Doctoral Program in Spatial Planning at Un. Coimbra (Portugal), under the supervision of prof. Anabela Ribeiro. I'm here inviting volunteers to collaborate as an expert with my Ph.D. research on urban mobility, specially dedicated to walkability, in an inter/multimodal, inclusive, and participatory perspective.
The form link is found below. It starts with a brief explanation of the proposal and the Consent Form, then moving on to the questionnaire itself.
Globally and mandatorily, this questionnaire has 222 questions with multiple choice answers, except for two open-ended questions (one for the name of your city and the last one for optional comments or suggestions), with an estimated duration of 30 minutes.
This research has as its target audience only professionals who work in urban planning, mainly dedicated to the theme of urban mobility, in public or private institutions, including academic-scientific. Planners, designers, researchers, and teachers are invited to respond. There are no restrictions about their professional qualification (for example, in Urban Planning, Architecture, Engineering, Geography, Public Health, Environmental Psychology, Tourism, Sociology, Anthropology, etc.), as long as they have some experience in the subject.
If you have any questions or would like to request further information, feel free to write on this forum. Or you can contact me by email: <christiano.toralles@riogrande.ifrs.edu.br>.
Thank you for your attention.
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Walkabity has to have some real numerical basis, otherwise its just wasted words.
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I am currently working on my research topic on “Safe Urban Mobility”. I mean by “Safe” which ensures no transmission the infections during transport journeys in the time of the pandemic (Covid-19), especially with the poor mobility choices.
After searching the literature, I got a few studies pointing to the topic.
You can view and discuss your perceptions on this topic.
I welcome all opinions.
Ahmed.
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Dear colleagues,
Does anyone know if there is any rainfall threshold (mm/year, month or day, etc.) for a city to be considered "rainy" or "very rainy"? Or the rainfall intensity thresholds (weak, moderate, heavy, etc.)? Are there any international standards, for example from ISO or another institution? If there is a reference to support it, it will help better.
Ditto for wind speed thresholds (m/s or kt) for a place to be considered "windy". Does anyone know any references?
Thank you in advance for your attention.
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Dear Christiano,
The concept of Precipitation Concentration is crucial to understand the spatial and temporal patterns of precipitations. Many authors define thresholds which mostly converge: the most common (you can find in the following open access article) are :
Wet day: >= 1mm/day
Heavy wet day: >= 10mm/day
Extreme wet day: >= 50mm/day
Best regards,
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I need the district and village wise shape file of Kerala for plotting vulnerability of coastal villages.Can any one provide me with .shp/.smz files for further analysis in spss.
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The following link is very helpful. You can download village boundary map of all the Indian States from the following site. Using QGIS I could open the file in the vector shape file mode.
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A clear definition of experience and action could improve our understanding and analysis of agency in general.  In my own research within urban studies, I see that people being able to share experience- and action-based knowledge, are better equipped to phrase their local and social needs.  I've theorized that these types of knowledge exceeds their personal lives, being partially determined by the constraints of the physical and societal constraints of the environments they live in. These constraints being rather stable, one may hypothesize that relevant and area specific knowledge patterns will outlast individual lives.    
Classical american pragmatism and especially John Dewey provide good theoretical arguments for such a claim: long term experience with an environment, establishes specific knowledge patterns that are relevant to both daily live and the formulation of common goals.  My question now is that in the actual renaissance of classical American pragmatism, there is almost no attention to such dynamics of agency.  
Hans Joas and Gary Bridge have insisted on creativity, bodily knowledge and the intentional structure of action, but how do these (or other) authors relate to my understanding of agency?  Does Dewey's theory on experience and action help us in understanding long standing agency patterns bound to specific urban areas? 
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Extract from my PhD
Dewey highlights that experience comprises of the transactions between mind and matter; where thinking individuals interact with a physical world. He states ‘all conduct is interaction between elements of human nature and the environment’ (Dewey, 1922:10). As highlighted by Almeder, whilst there are differences between strands of pragmatism, fundamentally, ‘all pragmatists are united in the belief that human existence inherently involves the active practice of making meaning through interaction with our environment’ (Almeder cited in Stark, 2014:88). It is argued that knowledge is generated through our transactions; our experiences, which occur within an environing context that consists of both social and physical realities. Dewey notes the importance of the physical environment in stating that ‘an experience is always what it is because of a transaction taking place between an individual and what, at the time, constitutes his environment’ (1938:43). The social dimension of the environing context is highlighted by Dewey’s colleague Mead who notes that human action is socially contextualized and human conceptualisation is a social reflection he states ‘we play the roles of all our group […] The inner response to our reaction to others is therefore as varied as is our social environment’ (Mead, 1913:377)
The relationship between the individual and their environment is viewed as two-directional.  Dewey states that ‘Where there is experience, there is a living being. Where there is life, there is a double connexion maintained with the environment’ (Dewey et al., 1917:8). He believes that we are simultaneously ‘of this world’ (shaped by our social environments and history), and ‘in this world’ (part of the world’s physical reality and able to affect the physical environment). Whilst every person’s action (agency) is affected by their environing context, influenced by the physical world, historical events and social constructions (structure), every individual is also regarded as having agency; an ability to make choices and to act on them.
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pragmatism is an approach that asserts that all experience is situated within an environing context that consists of material and social realities. When Dewey talks of transactions between mind and matter, aka experience, he is not just referring to ‘the totality of transactions between sentient organisms and their environing situation’ (Webb, 2007:1070). Thus, the concept of experience encompasses historical and collective experience that changes and informs our current and future transactions; our physical world, our personal and collective histories, as well as the actions of other individuals, are all acknowledged in shaping future experiences.
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What is the most practical micro-climate model for examining the relationship between urban design parameters and outdoor thermal comfort (considering the effect of wind, mean radiant temperature and air temperature in calculating PET). I have found many softwares, I am not sure which would be the best for my research question. (Envi-met, Rayman, SOLWEIG, Townscope, Urbawind). Please share your experiences. Thank you.
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The answer to your question is not straightforward. Firstly the suitability of the software depends on you goals and abilities. RayMan is an accurate, user friendly, quick and well documented software. You can estimate lot of biometeorological parameters with RayMan such as PET, PMV, Tmrt etc. The calculations refers to a point.
Another reasonable choice is  ENVImet. Using ENVImet you can calculate the spatial distribution of several parameters such as PMN, Ta, RH% etc. ENVImet requires high computer power and physical memory (RAM). The learning curve of this model is steep and the crash of the model is an everyday situation. But I think worth a chance.
SOLWEIG is a model based on MATLAB. It is steady and user friendly. It is accurate on radiation calculations. 
To cut a long story short, my first choice is RayMan, after that is ENVImet and after that is SOLWEIG.
Best Regards
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For doing solar potential rooftop assessment in urban area using GIS and RS techniques 3D building models are wanted to generated with orthophotos and high resolution satellite image stereo pairs. And for exclude casting shadow areas ArcGIS hill shading tool is proposed to be used.
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You can use r.sun, a GRASS module that computes solar irradiation from a digital elevation model. By default it takes shadowing effects into account, but it can even be switched off with the -p flag.
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I am interested to study the role of capital and capitalism in shaping our Urban. specially I  want to know how the capital flow can influence urban spatial, urban traffic, urban pollution , etc.
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I suggest to you: Edward Glaeser
Triumph of the City: How Our Greatest Invention Makes Us Richer, Smarter, Greener, Healthier, and Happier
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Which methods and techniques I can use for comparing two neighbourhoods on the basis of satisfaction of residents and facilities provided?
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Hi, I have done the similar study, in which I used questionnaire survey to obtain some primary data from the target group. Then, I used the inferential statistical analysis to compare the level of perceived quality of life of respondents' from two different residential areas. If you are intending to do the same thing that I did, you can refer to the attached document for designing your life satisfaction questionnaire. With regard to the types of statistical analysis, you may use T-test or Mann-Whitney test, depending on the types of collected data.
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I'm doing research on the field of traditional permanent markets. I would like to get in touch with papers with similar research field
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Hello Pedro
See these papers/link:
- 9TH INTERNATIONAL PUBLIC MARKETS CONFERENCE, Barcelona, March 2015: view PowerPoint presentations from the conference sessions on SlideShare:
I hope you find it helpful.
Regards
Luca Tamini
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Economics, Sociology, Commerce, Geography
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Beware of buzzwords as policy. "Smart" is one of these buzzwords that substitute for thought. In allocating funds, always have an overview of what your priorities are: providing potable water, collecting garbage, treating sewage, transportation improvements, education, policing, and so on. In acquiring funds, one should develop a sense of what various taxes do to the local economy: user charges, sales taxes, income taxes, etc. What revenue devices contribute to allocating scarce public capital? Is parking priced appropriately? What about water, is it priced appropriately?
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Dear All, please kindly let me about maximum runoff calculation methods and software which are used in this regard. I just calculate the maximum runoff by rational method. Thanks and advance.
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Thanks my dear colleagues for comments.
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I want to analyze impact of ISA on the Urban surface teperature. Anyone telling me detail process of estimation ISA from landsat imagery with references and video tutorials will be highly acknowledge. Thanks in advance.
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Thank you @Eric expecting tutorial 
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zipf ( 1949) introduce rank-size rule model . is there a better alternative model for analyzing population size of cities?
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Dear Hossein Sadlounia 
Please see the following
The city size distribution debate: Resolution for US urban regions and megalopolitan areas
Brian J.L. Berry ⇑, Adam Okulicz-Kozaryn
School of Economic, Political and Policy Sciences, The University of Texas at Dallas, 800 W. Campbell Road, GR31, Richardson, TX 75080-3021, United States
The case might seem to be closed, but at this juncture the recent literature has taken two critical turns. One group of scholars argues that an economic theory is not required because skewed distribution functions of the city size type are uniquely stochastic steady states. Another group has engaged in a confrontational debate about whether Gibrat’s Law describes urban growth and whether the size distribution is better classified as lognormal or Pareto. In the first group, Axtell and Florida (2001) have produced Zipfian steady states via agent-based modeling.10 Numerical solutions yield empirically-accurate firm characteristics: a right-skewed distribution of firm sizes, a double-exponential distribution of growth rates and variance in growth rates that decrease with size according to a power law, which in turn yield city-level macro behavior that satisfies Gibrat’s Law and produce the Zipf rank-size distribution as a steady state. In other words the result is self-organized complexity characterized by power law frequency-size scaling (Turcotte and Rundle, 2002). In the same vein, Semboloni (2001) has modeled multi-agent interactions via a probabilistic law to obtain opposing goals that conform to the Zipfian processes of unification and dispersion and used numerical analysis to reveal the circumstances under which the system converges on rank-size as a steady state. Gan et al. (2006) show via Monte Carlo simulation that the law is a statistical phenomenon that does not require an economic theory. Batty (2006) describes the rank-size distribution as emerging as the self-organized steady-state of a complex adaptive system (Batty, 2006), and Corominas-Murtra and Solé (2010) describe the law as a common statistical distribution displaying scaling behavior, an inevitable outcome of a general class of stochastic systems that evolve to a stable state somewhere between order and disorder.
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Sonis and Grossman (1984) introduced a semilogarithmic model for rank-size rule for explaining rural settlements. Does any one know are there any other models? 
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I would recommend Paul Cloke's (1974) index of rurality. Also, Defra have a useful rank model. 
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The literature on urban space usually deals with the subject through the lens of the opposition between "space(s) of oppression," such as space produced by capitalistic forces, and "space(s) of resistance," such as the spaces of (racial, sexual, religious) minorities. Is it possible to go beyond that dichotomy when dealing with urban space?
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Hi Nadege,
I think you can have a look at Foucault's heterotopia,  Henri Lefebvre's spatial trialectics, and Edward Soja's Thirdspace. in all their conceptions, they argue that human-being create and modify (produce and reproduce) spaces which are not either place of oppressor or place of oppression. It means that the oppressor or just simply everyone who is influenced by power-relations creates a space within place of power through his/her everyday life experience. An example is Kubane where Kurdish people create their own spaces which is located in within the place of power, but governed and modified by themselves through their everyday life practices. Another example is West Bank or Gaza in occupied land of Palestine, in which Palestinians create their own living places through their everyday life experiences, through their resistance. Certainly this is a place of resistance, but it does not mean that resistance as its classic meaning is presented in the space, but as its influencing process through everyday life experiences of people who are living the oppression.
I hope it helps.
Roja
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i am working on the spatial analysis of urban green space development in ibadan region
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You could calculate NDVI from Landsat images in ArcGis (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GwwXhMKo-yM) and then extract surfaces having 0,3 < NDVI < 0,8. In that way you'll get all the "vegetated surfaces": unfortunately, permeable surfaces and unsealed soils not covered by trees, bushes and shrubs won't be identified as green spaces. 
Another option is to extract green space polygon from openstreetmap (osm) using a GIS software, even though this operation will be successful only if your case study area has been well drafted by osm users. These polygons identify, generally, urban green public spaces, parks, pitches and their perimeters are not dependent on the availability of trees, grass and other vegetated surfaces. 
Once you have built a good green spaces database, you could perform some extra 2D analysis: landscape ecology indicators calculation, for istance, is a good way to describe spatial distribution and configuration of urban green spaces.
If you had a Digital Surface Model and a Digital Terrain Model too, you should perform many other spatial analysis to understand the 3D configuration of urban green areas.
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I am collecting theoretical, methodological and empirical papers concerned on this issue. Thanks in advance!
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Dear Jaroslav,
in march distinguished members of the Instituto Universitario de Urbanìstica (Valladolid University) took part in a event in Paris about "les ruins de la patrimonialización" and the review about this event should be interesting for you and your research as well as the profile of participants
Best regards
M.
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I am currently working on 'ethnic/migrant entrepreneurship, ethnocultural diversity and innovation in cities'.
Within the process of the transformation of ethnic neighbourhoods into places of leisure, tourism and consumption (for example, Aytar and Rath, 2012; Hiebert, Rath and Vertovec, 2015; Rath, 2007), the commodification of ethnocultural diversity by ethnic/migrant entrepreneurs, amongst others, is crucial. However, I found no references on how such a diversity commodification takes part in the transformation of the - whole - city.
Thus, I would infer that the transformation of ethnic neighbourhoods is actually - a kind of "proxy" of - the transformation of the city itself. What you do think? Is that the only way ethnic/migrant entrepreneurship may contribute to the transformation of the city?
Thanks for sharing your thoughts!
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There's a projet in curse that studies simmilar questions for different european cities, it could worth to see their website: http://www.urbandivercities.eu/ 
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In a study we relate spatial similarity of neighbourhoods with socio-economic aspects. Any suggestion on past research?
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For my research, I need to know the average area of a city in 1950 or 1960. I am particularly interested in Latin American cities, but data from another region would also be nice.
Thank you very much.
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Hi,
In this link you will find spatial data sets for 5 Latin American cities.
Regards,
Luis
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Scientists have come to observe that the hexagon is the optimal geometric shape for packing within limited spaces. Has there been work done in a likewise manner on urban agglomeration?
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As Benjamin Casper very relevant indications focus on some detailed description of the form and of the networks, the discussion is going a bit away from your initial question more focussing on the external envelop of the urban form.
I would simply add to the discussion at this stage the idea of fractals that are a way to describe some rather complex forms as large cities are. As I understand your interest is on geometry, this is worth considering, and also fractals come with measurements and comparison between forms, so they can indicate some elements for discussing optimality.
In France we have a specialist of these issues, Pierre Frankhauser, I attach one of his numerous papers.
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There is a growing need for the evaluation, assessment, or even measurment of urban resilience. In contrast to the complexity of urban processes, the physical layout of cities (that is, patterns in this case) may, to a certain extent, be measured easier. Therefore a morphological approach to urban resilience may contribute to the development and improvement of resilience assessment tools. Did anyone find spatial indicators that may be directly related to resilience? Are there any morphological studies or tools that explicitly refer to resilience?
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Dear Claudiu ,
As indicators I emphasize the relationships:
- economic development vs. pollution;
- social housing vs. property speculation;
-demographic growth vs. health and education
Some studies in Brazil (in portuguese):
Urban and commercial resilience in central areas:
Resilience of urban systems:
Urban sustainability indicators for urban resilience:
Building resilient cities:
I hope it helps.
Best Regards,
Vanessa
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Since there are lots of products in MODIS for urban heat island can anyone suggest me which is the best one? and why? I need to start working on urban heat island of some city in Asia but before that I need to know which product is best for that.
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I think MOD11A2 is a good product. It Includes Land Surface Temperature/Emissivity 8-Day L3 Global 1km (day and night), so you can evaluate the differences between diurnal and nocturnal LST in urban areas (as a proxy for UHI effect). You can check some of my publication added in ResearchGate for methodology and further references. Good luck.  
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I read one interesting paper from the following url: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0034425711003427
And I have an interest in technically reproducing Figure 18 in the paper. I attached the paragraph that explains the algorithm, however I could not reproduce the same figure for my study area.
Should I extract the pixel value of "urban" and convert into xyz table first? Then convert into MS. Excel to produce the graph?
Any technical assistance is welcome and really appreciated.
Thank you.
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Hi Jose,
Thank you, I will try it
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The new spanish population census (2011) was a sample-based one, so, at intraurban level the information available is nearly zero. As this is not the only case (argentinian census would be another example), in this context, do you think we will be able to carry on studies on this matter, or, due to the lack of information, is a "dead" line of research?
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I also noticed that one of your topics of interest is segregation - the methodology outlined in the paper below should be helpful for modelling the degree of segregation with a sample survey
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In other words is there in GE a tool that creates maps of change?
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Change detection is an specific quantitative analysis based on raster an available for several softwares (like ERDAS for instance). This analysis is based on the spectral features of pixels. Is very accurate. It is possible to make using google images, but you will need vectorization, as Daniele suggests. Another method you can find it here:
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In a spatial context, if both have the same role and influence? Whether the development of the area affected or affect a transformation? How to characterize and measure it?
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Well, I am not sure if my answer is directly in accordance with your question but I would like to point out a very Important aspect of Transformation (in spatial terms).. I am trying to write a paper on this topic..
A complete or "absolute" change doesn’t qualify as transformation. The past and the future (i.e. the state or product before and after the change) are always related; hence ‘partial change’ is transformation. Urban Transformation is not just the catalyst, nor does it comprise of only methods of change, by-products or evolution story, but is the synthesis of all of these. Hence, Urban Transformation is a process of developing this synthesis between the history, idea, impetus, factors, methods and by-products of development.... This is my hypothesis, from where I am trying to proceed forward...