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Urban Ecology - Science topic

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Questions related to Urban Ecology
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How can the biodiversity of urban green space ecosystems, including urban parks and gardens, be protected and developed?
In the context of ongoing climate change, the ongoing process of global warming, environmental pollution, the health of people living in the city, urban parks and other green spaces have a very important role. Studies show that urban green areas also play an important role in the number of bees and other pollinating insects, in reducing the extinction of these insects that are important for agricultural crop production. Many bees and other pollinating insects die in agricultural fields where too many pesticides and other crop protection chemicals are used. Urban parks, urban gardens and other green areas play an important role in protecting the status of bee populations. Besides, green areas, urban parks significantly reduce the air temperature in summer during hot weather. This makes the air quality better, the temperature lower during hot weather, the air more humid and cleaner. Urban parks and gardens therefore play a key role in terms of shaping the biodiversity level of natural ecosystems of green areas in cities, in conurbations and also in large metropolitan areas. Unfortunately, in some cities, the trend of so-called concreting instead of afforestation still prevails. This has continued to be the case over the last decade or so in the country in which I operate. It is only recently that the local authorities of some cities have started to pay attention to these issues. In order to reduce the scale of the summer drought in cities, they began to reduce the scale and frequency of lawn mowing and in city parks. Flower meadows have finally been created instead of mowing lawns. Bird nesting boxes and insect houses began to be erected in city parks. In some cities, areas of concrete pavements that were too large began to be dismantled and green belts increased, etc. Finally, after many years of appeals to city authorities by ecologists, naturalists, biologists, but also citizens of many other professional specialisations, environmentally and climate-conscious city dwellers, something has started to happen in terms of protecting the biodiversity of natural ecosystems in urban green areas and also increasing green areas in cities and urban metropolises. Rainwater catchment systems are being set up in urban housing estates. Rainwater and/or water from sewage treatment plants is used to water urban lawns, flower meadows, urban parks and other green areas in cities. There is a return of moa to the establishment of home gardens, with residents creating flower gardens but also vegetable and fruit gardens. Nowadays, rising food prices and the developing energy and food crisis can reinforce these positive trends. In addition, more and more environmentally and climate-conscious city dwellers are cycling instead of using combustion cars. There are more and more positive developments. But these are only the beginnings of the above mentioned positive, pro-environmental and pro-climate changes.
In view of the above I address the following questions to the esteemed community of scientists and researchers:
What else can be done in this regard?
What other pro-environmental and/or pro-climate measures can be implemented in cities?
How can the biodiversity of urban green space ecosystems, including urban parks and gardens, be protected and developed?
What do you think?
What do you think about this topic?
Please reply,
I invite you all to discuss,
Thank you very much,
Best regards,
Dariusz Prokopowicz
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Having managed biodiversity of Dublin city, I would say a few things:
- biodiversity should be managed across various land uses within a city, not just parks, to ensure that citizens take responsibility for protecting biodiversity, not just the job of the Parks Department.
- parks and green spaces should be planned to maintain and promote connectivity as much as possible for a wide variety of species, but this can also be challenging in terms of controlling invasive species
- different parks can be managed with greater emphasis on native plant species in more sensitive areas (taking into account above issue on spread of non-native species in vital habitats)
- ensuring minimal disturbance of some areas for wildlife, especially mammals.
Finally I suggest that you look at the Dublin City Biodiversity Action Plan and that each city should try to make a plan with all of the stakeholders and the public - and then give it some resources to be implemented! Biodiversity should be invested in just like the rest of the city's infrastructure.
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There is no doubt that green building envelopes have become a significant role in urban development. Just hesitant to explore policy or potential for green building envelopes.
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Green roof substrates (i.e. growing medium) are the most important aspect for green roofs. Good substrate selection will ensure the longevity of green roof vegetation as well as thermal comfort of residents. The following research article provide great information on green roof substrates:
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Animals in urban areas interact with all plants that are growing outdoors, irrespective of their status as native or alien, spontaneous or cultivated, i.e. the 'total flora'. Plant ecologists, however, tend to keep these categories separate. Chong et al. (attached) compiled a total flora for the city state of Singapore, but this is unusual because Singapore still has protected remnants of hyperdiverse tropical rainforest. In older cities, particularly in the temperate zone, cultivated plants dominate the biomass and the biodiversity, and the spontaneous flora has a large alien component. I'd like to do a global comparison, but I am finding it difficult to find examples. For many cities, a total flora list could be assembled from existing, separate lists for the different categories, but these tend to cover different areas and/or different dates, so I am hoping for total flora lists that have already been assembled by local experts.
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I'm having a hard time literally 'knowing' about the field of Urban Ecology, and my possible future degree options now. I'd like to study urban- , or human related ecology (like not human ecology, but human caused impacts), and also ecology and environments in urban settings. could anyone recommend any programs?
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This topic has been broached in slightly different ways on RG in the past, but I am hoping to get insight from urban ecologists who have deployed different measures of biodiversity (specifically for USV) and the possible tradeoffs/benefits of each.
Previous studies suggest that there is no ideal way to measure biodiversity in any context, and the chosen method should align with the particular aims of the study.The Simpson’s Index of Diversity (SID) (Simpson 1949) has been used in other studies for assessing floral and fungal biodiversity in urban contexts (Luz de la Maza et al. 2002; Pushpa, Purushothama, et al 2012). SID has been suggested to be more robust when calculating the quantitative differences between multiple sampling sites (Morris et al. 2014; Magurran 2013). The SID requires a total count of individual species within the sampling site as well as the number of unique individuals for each of those species.
A related question would be: Should we work toward developing standardized measures to better enable cross-context comparison?
References:
Simpson, E. H. (1949). Measurement of diversity. Nature. https://www.nature.com/articles/163688a0
Luz de la Maza, C., Hernández, J., Bown, H., Rodríguez, M., & Escobedo, F. (2002). VEGETATION DIVERSITY IN THE SANTIAGO DE CHILE URBAN ECOSYSTEM. Arboricultural Journal, 26(4), 347–357.
Pushpa, H., Purushothama, K. B., & Others. (2012). Biodiversity of mushrooms in and around Bangalore (Karnataka), India. American-Eurasian Journal of Agricultural & Environmental Sciences, 12(6), 750–759.
Morris, E. K., Caruso, T., Buscot, F., Fischer, M., Hancock, C., Maier, T. S., Meiners, T., Müller, C., Obermaier, E., Prati, D., Socher, S. A., Sonnemann, I., Wäschke, N., Wubet, T., Wurst, S., & Rillig, M. C. (2014). Choosing and using diversity indices: insights for ecological applications from the German Biodiversity Exploratories. Ecology and Evolution, 4(18), 3514–3524.
Magurran, A. E. (2013). Measuring Biological Diversity. John Wiley & Sons.
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Simpson is good
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Hi, we aim to "quantify" cultural ecosystem services from urban forests of our study area (Karlsruhe, Germany). We know that cultural ecosystem services are difficult to quantify as they are often qualitative and have intangible significance. Our approach is to first do a detail survey on public and stakeholders' perception and preferences on selected cultural ecosystem services using questionnaire survey and Likert's scale of response. Then, we want to use our data from the questionnaire survey to develop a scoring systems. Do you know any method which can be helpful to us? Or, do you know how to valuate cultural ecosystem services? In addition to questionnaire survey, we also have data from urban forest plots on forest structure and composition. We followed the guidelines from i-tree-eco software's handbook and UFORE model developed by the US Forest Service (David Nowak). We will really appreciate if you can provide us some literature or provide some suggestions on methods to quantify cultural ecosystem services.
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First of all, there are two different questions to look at. The first is the value and status of the eco-system and the second is the value and the quantity of the service. By focussing on eco-system services and not the capital we tend to miss important aspects. The first is the value of the natural capital. Capital is something which is used in production but not used up. Built capital (like houses) are valued at "market value" that is what someone is prepared to pay for them, rather than their replacement cost, which must form some baseline. The next value and quantity is that of "roof over head" or apartments. Again, unless you have controlled rents (Germany) you have the valuation of what people are prepared to pay. So the quantification is the number of apartments and with number of bedrooms, total potential housing people/year.
Value is tricky. If I have a home I will not want to respond to a "flats to rent" sign. But if homeless and with money I might. Homeless without money I won't.
Now. let us assume that we want our population to have a service. What natural capital is needed to provide that service? Now you have a dimension. What natural capital do we have? Now you have a gap to work with. Do we have the capital and are still not providing the service? Now you have a production gap.
But of course, the difficult thing is what service?
There IS one measure though of ecosystems - maturity. See Odum et al. Easy to measure, mature eco-systems represent capital that can be used to provide services. Mature eco-systems have high mass, absorb sunlight, control rain, provide biodiversity etc etc.
So that brings me to answer that 1) measure the ecological maturity. 2) Dimension the natural capital needed by the geographical region the capital shall serve. 3) identify the services remembering that you need to extract the services without degrading maturity. Clever people(indigenous) increase maturity AND extract services at the same time. Read Odum if you haven't already.
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This question feeds into
1: Ecocities World Summit 2021 which TU Delft Architecture & Built Environment will organise with the EcocityBuilders and city of Rotterdam in May 2021. We are trying to link to the demands in needs in the research community and community of practice. Of course there will also be a call for papers for Ecocities 2021.
2: TU Delft faculty of architecture and built environment will start a research and graduation lab for master students. Called 'Ecocities and Urban Ecology'.
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Hi Nico,
From my perspective I would add:
- historical urban green infrastructures and their (resilient) futures
- urban tree 'histories' and their legacy
- tree architecture/morphology/arrangements and the urban microclimate
- the urban forest as conceptual paradigm
- urban vegetation structure in lowland/delta cities i.r.t. biodiversity
- the urban underground
- urban tree allometry
- circularity and urban greenspace
- systems ecology
- co-creation and urban greenspace
- socio-ecology
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I'm working on a different types of land as targets of conservation. and I realized that there are no set definition to Open Space, or Green Space.
EPA defines open space as 'any open piece of land that is undeveloped (has no buildings or other built structures) and is accessible to the public'. and New York State defines it as 'land that is not intensively developed for residential commercial, industrial, or institutioanl use'.
What's your most preferred definition YOU personally use, or that you came up with, and why??
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Based on your questions, it has to parts to be defined. The first one is on Open space. However, As defined by EPA, it is any open piece of land which is accessible to the public that is not developed yet. While the second part of your questions on Green space, it is piece of land that is partly or completely covered with trees and etc.
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The increased temperatures in urban heat islands have definitely increased the occurrence of heat - related illnesses in humans. However, I am interested in its positive and negative effects to the larger urban ecosystem.
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Urban heat islands are mostly covered by hard pavements such as asphalt and concrete. Water can't seep through soils causing runoff: rainwater ending up in the drainage system. When rain periods are long and/or intensive (now more frequent due to climate change), the drainage system overloads and discharges in natural water bodies such as lakes, rivers or the sea. On top of carrying pollutants, the water is warmer which impacts biodiversity especially wildlife offspring.
To know about possible solutions in neighborhoods, visit or contact us: www.buildinghealth.eu
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When the prominent nitrophile Sunburst Lichen (Xanthoria parietina) is abundant on roadside trees and twigs next to busy main roads in English cities, what is the minimum NO2/NOx levels that make this possible?
In parts of NW England, such as Northenden, roadside trees of major highways are often plastered with bold colonies of Sunburst Lichen, a well-known nitrophile. In some instances, the colonies are large enough to be visible on Google Earth Street View.
The abundance of the nitrophile colonies invariably declines sharply away from the kerbside, and the colonies are generally rare or absent on roadside trees more than 100 metres away from the busy road. The limit of the nitrophile shows quite good spatial relationship to the computed boundaries of the Greater Manchester Air Quality Management Area (AQMA) that have been computed entirely from NO2 static diffusion tubes merged with traffic flow models.
So far, our team has found more than 20 urban shopping centres along busy roads have roadside trees with the Sunburst Lichen, such as Northenden, Wythenshaw, Chorlton, Stockport, Stretford etc. By this means we are achieving a much more detailed fact-based resolution of NOx polluted areas than possible with the AQMA, including in some instances intense hotspots at school gates and congested bus stops.
Therefore we are seeking experimental data on the NO2/NOx limits for abundant Xanthoria parietina as a simple indicator of levels of NO2/NOx. 
Our fast-track method is yeilding good results and we are interested in linking with a) community-based mappers and b) scientists able to conduct experiments on Xanthoria parietina's NOx junkie-like distribution.
Robin Francis Grayson
Northenden, Manchester
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I do not know the answer but this is a very interesting question. Perhaps co-locating passive NO2 samplers would shed some light on this?
Regarding NO2/NOx, until about last decade or so, NOx were mostly emitted as NO, with NO2 forming gradually in the air. Oxidation catalysts in many newer diesel engines cause the share of NO2 in NOx to be in tens of percent. Is the nitrophile abundance a recent observation, possibly correlated with increase in NO2/NOx ratio in emissions?
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I am looking for research and methodology for mapping roof-nesting seabirds in urban environments. This is for a pilot project. Any tips and articles are appreciated! Thanks.
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Dear Sari Christine,
Classic ways to map birds in urban environment are the uses of remote sensing and photographs but you now can (if allowed) use drones to map roof-resting birds and transfer your data into QGIS.
Best regards,
Guy
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I am doing an ecological research paper on the prevalence of ascariasis and its correlation with urban factors such as urban heat islands. I want to know if the factor alone would bring about ascariasis even at good sanitary conditions.
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The urban heat island effect is caused by (1) the relative absence of moisture-containing soil and vegetation and (2) waste heat from concentrated energy consumption. These are attributes of modern (i.e.built up and paved) high-density population centers. Ascariasis is acquired from soil, and there is much less opportunity for people to contact soil in modern urban areas. So it would seem that the incidence rate of ascariasis would be less in modern urban areas than in undeveloped population centers.
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Also searching for the effects of human coexistence as an effect to the biodiversity of such flora and fauna in these city landscapes.
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for determination biodiversity ( flora or fauna ) use the following index
Simpson's Diversity Index= 1- D
D= ∑n (n-1) / N (N-1)
n = the total number of individual of a species N = the total number of organisms of all species
best regard
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I need the district and village wise shape file of Kerala for plotting vulnerability of coastal villages.Can any one provide me with .shp/.smz files for further analysis in spss.
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The following link is very helpful. You can download village boundary map of all the Indian States from the following site. Using QGIS I could open the file in the vector shape file mode.
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On returning from a visit trip collecting stories and making college class visits at Purdue University and Indiana University regional campuses in northwest Indiana, I have been weighing the state of publishing and whether writers from the "Rust Belt" "Flyover Zone" have a hope of being read outside their local region. This is not only applicable to the United States "Rust Belt" and "Flyover Zone" but analogous zones across the planet.
A key to Thorstein Veblen's theory of "conspicuous consumption" in his study _The Theory of the Leisure Class_ is social emulation. Each narrow band of socially-stratified society looks up to a slightly higher band and embarks on a furious program of "emulation" or mimicking their "betters." And when this is accomplished the active agent moves on to emulate a higher rung. Veblen helpfully supplies comparisons to bird behavior and the rituals of pre-industrial society, such as the Inuit "potlatch" as analogous to the upper-class debutante's "coming out" ball.
So, in the United States instance, any editor in New York or on the East Coast will see a less-status-y setting and instantly know "Sorry. This is not for us. Good luck elsewhere." Yes, taste matters. As Veblen writes, "a beautiful article which is not expensive is not accounted as beautiful" ("Theory" 132). With a slight shift, we might add that "a beautiful text not placed in an expensive setting is not beautiful."
What effect upon cognitive development and the mental evolution of creative writers does this process entail? The embodied subject so often enthusiastically dissected in pages of the Modern Language Association journal says little about the bodies and Foucaultian embodiment in the "Flyover Zone" or "Rust Belt," although I have addressed the issue by starting a "Rust Belt Literature" group in the MLA online commons. The same "emulative" avoidance seems to be at work since our new "Rust Belt Literature" MLA group is relatively low-traffic. Seven members at last count. MLA groups for the lesser poets of the Scottish Hebrides of the late 18th Century often boast more members than this.
Some creative writing students have devised work-arounds such as (1) pretending to have lived in Paris or (2) writing in a vacuum where characters walk in a vague setting like dry ice fog in a low-budget film to disguise the less-status-y real setting. These texts show some initiative and focus in CW students. However, perhaps, creative writing classes could find a more accurate name in flyover country such as Evasive Writing? Does Veblen fit?
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Novelists didn't need to be told about conspicuous consumption and waste and the leisure class by the wonderful Veblen. Certainly he formulated them in a systematic way, but Dickens, Thackeray, Zola, didn't require his orderly exposition to make the point about patterns of wealth.
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Dear Experts,
it Is it possible to simulate micro-climate in a site with dimension of 5km * 5km, using ENVI-MET?
I ask this question since in the papers that have studied, researchers have focused on small scale areas.
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The free version has a limited domain, i.e. 250*250 cells max. So if you want to cover a rather large area, your cell sizes will be huge. decreasing the accuracy.
You are welcome
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Hey everyone, in my thesis one of my goals is to address the current knowledge on solitary bees (group of species). So i made a multiple choice survey covering the basic information about this subject. Which is the best way to analyze data ?
Questions example:
1. What are solitary bees?
A) Bees that do not form Beehive
B) Bees that have separate themselves from the Beehive
C) Bees responsible for collecting food
D) Non-fertile bees
Kind Regards,
Miguel
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Solitary bees are those species which are not eusocial.
That says they have 3 traits together: 1- division of labot /caste system involving sterile individuals that assist those that reproduce. 2- cooperation among colony member in tending the youngs. 3- overlap of generations capable of contributing to colony functioning. This is a basic definition from Gullan & Cranston "The insects - an outline of entomology, all the editions. So your responses (A,B,C and D) are not relevant and not true. Their is a problem with A: what do you call a Bee hive? if it is the "house of the bees" do you call "hive" the hole in the soil or in wood that a solitary bee does to lay her eggs and put food for the future youngs?
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Dear RG Community, I have the need to estimate the PBL height for the area of Milan (Italy) in two years (2011, 2014) as 12-hours values more or less. These data will be necessary to run a model for the estimation of airborne pollutants, removed by vegetation.
Searching in the web I found this database
but I don't know how and if it is "easily" possible to calculate PBL from them. I will be very gratefull if some collegue can help me to better deepen the problem. Thanks in advance.
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Hi Valerio,
I am sure you must have figured out a solution by now (since you posted the question 2 years back). However, here is what I found useful for calculating PBLH using the sounding data from the above mentioned website. Observed Diurnal Cycle Climatology of Planetary Boundary Layer Height, Liu, Shuyan; Liang, Xin-Zhong, Journal of Climate, vol. 23, issue 21, pp. 5790-5809. The authors have used a FORTRAN code that they developed for calculating PBLH using the sounding data.
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How would an increase in building heights (say from 50m to 80m0 will effect the wind speed and wind ventilation? I did not find any significant difference in an analysis of wind speed of two 3D building models (one is current and the other with increased heights of few buildings). How increase in building height effect the urban micro-climate ?
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According to engineering information I had read before Whenever the wind is quick and the building is high, the architect is required to use light materials such as the metal and choose a building design that facilitates the passage of wind
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Which school have good master's degree program for Urban Ecology in the United States? any recommendations, help?
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Approach to designed greenery has changed drastically in the last few decades. There have been fruitful discussions on urban designer/architects’ role in morphing urban greenery, however, much remains unexamined regarding particular relationship between users, technology and the evolution of urban greenery. How did (/does) technology shape urban greenery? I would appreciate ideas on place specific users feedback/involvement from dense city fabrics. Thanks.
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Indeed an interesting topic. Our project GIAGEM on Green Innovation Areas, linking urban green spaces and bioeconomic uses might be of interest to you.
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Dear Research Gate Colleagues,
Comments please.
I saw some very emotionally moving videos of the tremendous damage in Gary, Indiana, a consequence of the massive withdrawal of industrial investment as the steel mill has downsized.
Thousands of houses, schools, public buildings, are sitting vacant and falling into ruins. How can all the industrial "ruins porn" videographers increase the impact of their films?
I was impressed but I wonder if many people know about all these videos in places like YouTube.  I sent links out to friends of a couple videos about Gary, Indiana.  I gave these videos descriptions and ratings.  I also wonder how we can start some award for industrial ruins videos named something like The Steel Phoenix.
BELOW: PLANET GARY’S Thousands of abandoned buildings. (Videos)
(Some wobbly camerawork but goes right around town. It’s got heart. You can click on individual buildings that the film maker entered.  The Memorial Auditorium is one I recommend.)
Gloria’s rating ***
LINK: More professionally-shot footage, longer, with historic photos mixed in
Gloria’s rating ***1/2
Projects are mentioned: Stewart House Urban Farms and Gardens Project.
“Gary’s time” house renovating project using ex-offender labor.  Some good references to social justice and self-help projects at end of film.
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Three suggestions to increase the impact of industrial urban decay videos in Gary Indiana.
1. Timeliness is important -  invent time machine and start filming in the 1970s.
2. Have a celebrity (preferably from the performing arts) narrate the video.
3. A dramatic musical score.
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Modelling pollutant dispersion in urban centers need street level meteorological data. Whereas much of the research in this field is carriedout using met data from stations far away from study area or with general meteorological details.
Are there any urban air pollutant studies conducted using street level met data by considering the canyon effects of buildings.
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Both US EPA and the US Army (Dugway Proving Ground in Utah) have conducted extensive urban dispersion modelling studies with both real and modelled buildings. 
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I have analyzed land cover of forest landscape to prepare landscape management planning document. Now, I have to delineate the boundary of other landscape around forest landscape. The area study covered four regencies. There are protected forest, nature reverse, production forest, and other artificial land use inside. I have spatial data may can be used to analyze the wide landscape delineation like forest landscape boundary, land cover, watershed, river, etc. Thank you...
Afi
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There are many types of landscape analysis: based on landscape ecology, based on visual landscape analysis, based on integrated landscape analysis, etc.
At present, I am working on a study (planning project) of landscape impact of a large industrial zone on a landscape listed in World Heritage Sites (UNESCO). In my project, I combine overlay analysis, visual analysis, cluster analysis... but finally I delineate the landscape structure based on my expert knowledge, and integrating criteria.
I think that a integrated landscape analysis is much more than a simple overlay analysis because of this landscape analysis involves a series of subjective judgments in relation to study area, the impact of human activity, and the environmental legislation at a regional level (in accordance with the laws of the State, European Directives, Unesco rules).
In your case, I suppose it is a landscape ecology analysis or an ecogeographical analysis, but I am not sure. What is the aim of your planning project?
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Can anyone highlight some measure or policy guidelines adopted by various cities for conservation or preservation of the Environment and ecology in the urban centres especially in the residential developments?
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You're welcome dear Md. Fuzail
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What in your opinion are the key reasons why so many locations are hard to navigate? Why does wayfinding design so often fail to work effectively?
This is an open ended question as I am keen on any and all opinions.
If you are in an airport why did you get lost and how could it have been solved? In a urban area, on a bay trail, in a sports stadium/ What wayfinding problems did you experience?
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There are many signage dialects other than Anglo-Saxon mainstream. For example, neighbouring countries on the European continent may differ in horizontal and vertical location as well as arrow direction of freeway sign posts for going straight (up versus down) or taking a turn to the left or right. Also the order of consecutive destinations differs from the nearest placed above/below/mixed. Directions like North/South are mainly found in the Commonwealth and very helpful for the topographically astute. 
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I am asking this question in the context of evaluating solar beam irradiation on buildings at city scale. 
I am wondering if those variations impact the amount of energy perceived by building, and therefor should be taken into account while evaluating how buildings are warmed up by the sun. 
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Let me clarify a few things here.
- The "solar constant" (SC) is the average Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) over many solar cycles and for the mean sun-earth distance. It is really a constant within 0.2%.
- The extraterrestrial irradiance is the value of TSI (or for all practical purposes, SC) for that moment corrected for the actual sun-earth distance, which varies seasonally within about +/-3%.
- The irradiance incident on a building is a function of a lot of things: surface's tilt and azimuth, sun position, atmospheric conditions of the moment (clouds, aerosols, water vapor, etc.), site's elevation, ground albedo and shading. That's where you can spend a lifetime improving the modeling methods...
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Since January 2014 I am investigating how different abiotic factors correlates with the butterfly species richness in Dhaka, a city of more than 20 million inhabitants. The pollution level is increasing rapidly with time, hence I thought there might be any relationship between butterfly species richness with various harmful elements of air! Could anyone of you please tell me, which variables should I consider here? 
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Please check these useful PDF attachments.
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Is there any bird repellent Implements using solar power or batteries ( in agricultural sector to protect agricultural crops from the danger of birds) .
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Yes, there are a lot of products that can allow you to repel birds and other animals if you want. One example is this product, that repels birds and rodents.
Here is the link (in Spanish):
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I do intend to carry out a pilot test on the efficiency of barn owl Tyto alba to reduce rodent infestation in urban affected tropical zones. I would like to know the most challenging factors faced by anyone who ever had done such project.  Give advice and share the results, please. Many thanks. 
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Hi Pierre. Barn owls frequently prey on several different species of rodents including some species not frequently sampled by traditional trapping methods. In this sense, if you want to publicize your results with the local people living in the area  keep in mind that the perception of the population size of rodents by the general public (based on sightings or captures for instance) could be different from the "real" composition and population size of rodents in the area. 
Please see 
Also, since barn owls hunt in open areas (as Motti Charter nicely tells above) they could be susceptible to be killed by cars in roads. This is unfortunately frequent in my region here in Brazil. Have this is mind when you will think about the placement location of the nest boxes. 
All the best!
Alexander
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I'm wondering is it possible to determine thermophile plants by following urban heat islands? There is an argue about Hordeum murinum L. is thermophilous. This idea based on occurrence of this species on urban heat islands in urban areas. Is this reasonable enough or should there be something else?
I also wonder if there is any specific studies about this topic?
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Thank you Mr. Towe and Mr. Singh for information.
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It has been established that more dimension leads to more environmental complexity which ultimately leads to more diversity. In an urban setting, aside from buildings, what may be factors that affect an urban center's complexity?
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Credo sinceramente che il nostro pianeta, quello che io chiamo il piccolo P3 (terzo in orbita attorno al sole) ha un'immensa capacità di rigenerazione, che non si verifica nell'uomo e nel tempo della natura. L'uomo è un predatore di raccolta. Quando alimentare impianto distrugge la natura. Quando la caccia per mangiare proprio con la specie. Quando si sceglie una posizione per risolve risiedono trasforma la natura, cioè, incapace di vivere in armonia con la natura e quindi con la P3. Tutti ambientale e sostenibilità accordi volti a guidare le azioni del "uomo", in modo che le conseguenze delle tue azioni sono il minor impatto possibile.
Lavoro nel settore ambientale dal 1983, tra cui dopo aver eseguito numerose attività volte a ridurre l'inquinamento atmosferico nella città di São Paulo, che è stato uno dei più inquinati del paese, con i bambini Nato senza cervello – l'anencefalia. A quel tempo il paese era sotto il regime della "dittatura". Era molto difficile per le aziende a cambiare loro processi industriali. La mia performance è stata dedicata alla gestione del rischio nelle compagnie di assicurazione, come underwriter sull'accettazione dell'improvviso inquinamento assicurazione (responsabilità civile). Da allora quel volta realizzato che sarà molto difficile cambiare il comportamento umano.
Nel 2002, in un master ricerca nella zona di salute e ambiente "realizzato una nuova polarizzazione del problema, con chi è abituato a vivere con il rischio, perché non avevano nessun posto dove vivere. Queste distinzioni mi fanno vedere che pochi accordi globali tenderà a lavorare, dato che i principali artisti di questo pezzo non vuole agire insieme. Quindi, questo grande gioco, perde, come artisti principali non vogliono partecipare a questo insieme.
Mi scusi se non scrivo bene nella tua lingua.
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Urban Centers lately have been going green and have been trying to make parks a bigger part of their architecture and in line with that are trees that bring different organisms with them that can affect the overall biodiversity of a city.
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Thank you Firoz!!
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There has been a growing trend of studies about urban ecology. Most have noticed that biodiversity in urban areas is actually significant. Won't that imply that building more urban sectors won't affect the overall biodiversity of the ecosystems as much, since biodiversity in urban cities are high anyways? Might it cause people to be more lenient than they already are in terms of caring for habitat loss?  
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I would say there are two key points to make here:
1) In some (in fact many) cases urban areas coincide with important biodiversity areas.
2) Cities are where the majority of the people become acquainted with biodiversity.
So my answer to your question would be yes, very much so.
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Since urban cities house different species and can have different local temperature due to changing climate. I'm interested if it will be considered as a new Biome or just will it just be considered as a habitat?
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Even though urban cities are a man-made environment, they foster their own kind of ecosystem. I see no reason for why this question of city biomes shouldn't be addressed with good sense.
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I am currently working on a project that focuses on the growth of tropical Hibiscus in urban vs. rural soils and was wondering which method would be most effective and would ideally show the effects of the two different kinds of soils on its growth.
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Thank you for all your responses! I will be sure to take note of all of these as I'm conducting the project.
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If, it is possible, can you share some of your insights and paper about this kind of topic? Thank you. :)
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Of course yes...
You can see for example some of the projects developed for the area of Estremoz and Vila Viçosa in Portugal...
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I am developing a thesis project. I am trying to improve the ways in which we make sense of spaces. I am interested in knowing if it has been classified the types of wayfinders. The way in which they navigate, survey spaces and create landmark knowledge. E. g.  Luisa when arriving to a new city first tries to remember each main street along a cue in the environment, while John walks memories the names of each street.
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Nine wayfinding strategies are discussed on page 113 of the attached paper.
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Research showed that most of the roof gardens are intensive green roofs, and that there are very few extensive green roofs in Australia. Just wondering why this is, and how we might solve this problem.
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Dear Wang,
There might be a more basic reason relating to the practicalities of keeping green roofs alive without irrigation in a hot, dry summer climate?
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Cause of Slums rapidly increases day by day.
Empects of Slums on urban areas.?
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i have read what other researcher's view on this topic. i think the area where we failed to look at is the non-conformity with the planning rules and regulations, space standards and zoning principles. Apart from the fact that rural-urban migration brings a lot of people to the urban centres. when these people get to the urban area, they do not conform with the planning rules and regulations guiding city development. they build houses anyhow without planning approval.
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Increased urbanization is claiming green spaces in one hand and its air, water, soil is polluted more day by day. Wastes generated are mounting at an exponential rate. Practically some cities have turned into concrete jungles,heat islands and pollution hot spot leaving little room for biodiversity. It is not an ecologically sustainable development! But we can reverse the trend by tackling pollution    problem  through urban forestry with selected plant species that would be home to hoard of biodiversity. Green urban areas would be more biodiversity-rich, aesthetically pleasing and comfortable to live in and it would be ecologically smart too.
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Aegle marmelos (Rutaceae), Albizia lebbeck (Fabaceae), Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae), Cassia fistula (Fabaceae), Dalbergia sissoo (Fabaceae)Delonix regia (Fabaceae), Ficus lacor (Moraceae), Ficus benghalensis (Moraceae), Ficus religiosa (Moraceae), Gmelina arborea (Lamiaceae), Millettia pinnata (Fabaceae), Polyalthia longifolia (Annonaceae) and Tamarindus indicus (Fabaceae).
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Local samples from public park
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Dear G M N
The second and the third samples may be Colysis wrightii Ching.
Best wishes
Yannis
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Or a detailed design and principles related to air fryers.
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If your have oil and containers to boil it, you can use a can of tuna. First, you must put a paper on the top of the Tin of tuna oil. Then, burn the paper. Place the bowl over, a few centimetres. Thus, you can FRY anything, and also your can eat tuna.
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Implement pervious pavement in areas of urban expansion.
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I think it should considering the long run
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I would like to perform an urban heat island project. iButtons might do the trick, but the ones with a clock appear to cost about $40 per unit. Anything cheaper out there? 
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we used this to collect temp and humidity in the amazon. you can program them to collect as often as you like easy to handle.. not water proof though...
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I am especially looking for initiatives employed by outdoor recreation agencies (in any sector) to encourage LNT in areas of high population density. These initiatives may serve as the subjects of a case study for San Francisco's parks.
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Dear Karean, 
I think its   relevant to the topic 
 1-The heritage management experience of Manx National Heritage (MNH) in the Isle of Man offers a practical case study
2- The Green State Parks Initiative: Utilizing Pennsylvania State Parks as a Case Study
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I'm interested in identifying the most relevant literature (academic or otherwise) on the topic of smart urban farms (indoor or vertical farms).
Of particular interest are papers that focus on (i) technologies and how its evolving (LEDs etc) (ii) business model (RoI etc) for scale up (iii) case studies ...
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While smart cities have so far mostly focused on building more efficient and sustainable infrastructures, including in terms of energy usage and means of transportation, urban farming is yet to be fully integrated in the urban ecosystem.   In pair with meeting our growing food needs comes reducing our impact on the environment, and smart urban farming might just be the way to do so.
Enclosed attachment can be useful for pursuing your research intent.
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I am interested in the mainstreaming of ecosystem thinking in relation to spatial planning. I analyzed the case of Birmingham and I would like to compare it with other significant cases. Thank you
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If you can read french the keyword is "trame verte et bleue" for regional and urban policies aiming at creating blue and green corridors in urban spaces. I found two relevant sources, but only in French. One discusses the role of ecologic corridors in urban policies, while the second analysis the Angers case.
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How should we account for urban tree mortality within a city, if we do not have field data available? Case study area: Berlin, Germany.
We can apply a range of mortality rates across the city in terms of a sensitivity analysis. But should we address site-specific conditions, though it can also add uncertainty and bias results? For example,
(1) street trees, (2) park-like and (3) residential/commercial/mix areas are three major fractions, which are likely to show differences in tree mortality due to multiples reasons. So, no matter which mortality we assign to each fraction, differences between those classes will remain prevalent and need to be considered for city-wide assessments like a life cycle of carbon offset. Assumed annual mortality rates:
  1. street trees: highest
  2. mixed areas (residential, commercial): moderate
  3. park-like: lowest
Thx for your answers. Open for your questions.
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A pretty good inventory and analysis over time may be with aerial photos, new high definition photos and LiDAR, and perhaps even high definition satellite imagery.  There are GIS tools, like change detection that can find changes for closer inspection or analysis, or prioritize field stops.  During growing season, dead trees often show up, and we have used this to assess southern pine beetle and spruce budworm mortality.
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Can someone please point me towards some literature in this regard ?
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Readiness and preparedness of the process will determine the safeness and dangerousness thereof. The notion is about having a system of putting resilience measures in place so as to ensure sustainability of urbanisation. This looks at all aspects of sustainable development e.g. resource use and management, availability of suitable land for development, enabling economic environment, infrastructure plannin g and maintenance,etc. 
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I saw it for the first time that a pigeon nests on a tree which I think is alistonia.
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In Algeria too we find this kind of sights, i'm working on Columbidae's family, the collared dove (Streptopelia decaocto) and the feral pigeon (Columba livia) are full of surprises.
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I want to measure these variables. How can i measure urbanization?
 By health risks I mean observing diarrhea and TB among slum dwellers. I want to know how to measure it.
 I'm observing ecological deterioration of these slum territories and around territories, how could i measure environmental degradation of these areas? 
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Your research question is quite interesting. However, putting in too many ideas together may lead to complication that hinder you to see the whole picture.
What I can understand from your question is that you would like to measure three variables: urbanization, health risk caused by diarrheal, and environmental degradation.
In terms of urbanization, it is the number of population living in urban area. This figure can be obtained from most of the statistics department. The slum population can be obtained by identifying all the slum areas in or surrounding the cities and the percentage of population living in those areas.
To study how the rate of urbanization contributes to the increasing of slum, you may need to obtain the time series of urban population in one area, let say 10 years, and compare how the urban population has been growing within this 10 years period. By doing so, you can also know how many percent of population living in those slum areas located within and surrounding the city.
In terms of health risk caused by diarrheal, the access to clean water supply is a good indication. Since the most common cause of diarrheal is an infection of the intestines due to either a virus, bacteria, or parasite, as a result of accessing food or water that has been contaminated, people living in areas without water supply may have high tendency to be infected. In this case, you may get the proxy of diarrheal health risk by knowing the percentage of urban population with no access to water supply.
In terms of environmental degradation in slum area, you may need to obtain the water quality data from the environmental department. You may need to identify where the water resources of this slum population are, and to check whether these resources fall under Class A, Class B, or Class C with regard to World Heath Organization drinking water quality standard.    
As a conclusion, when you try to analyse your research question separately, you can easily obtain the data that you want from published document. Otherwise, you may need to conduct primary data collection by your own, in which is costly and time consuming.    
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tropical cities need to have tree lined streets for have social and environmental benefits. Social benefits like creating walk ability which would result in neighborliness and security. environmental like lessening of pollution like sound,air and also cut the glare. 
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Revathi
1. Before answering your question, it is really necessary to know what land use you wish to promote at each particular site; and what are the environmental conditions there. The trees should be chosen from a list of those that will naturally do well in that location without excessive degrees of maintenance such as watering or fertilising or shelter from winds.
2. A guide published by the Royal Australian Institute of Architects in 2000 (with amendments in a 2005 update) is attached. This explains the overriding importance of deciding what land use is to be served.
3. In the 1980s the United Nations published a very good book identifying a number of trees suitable for the dry tropics. Your library may be able to track it down.
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A debate is still open; we are compiling the community contributions on the Follow-up report on “Health and Quality of Life in urban areas” in the framework of the URBAN-NEXUS project.
In the following link there are published the Synthesis Report, the Dialogue Café presentations, and soon (by the end of February) will be published the Follow-up Report.
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Pollution accident and stress management 
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World over there are tree plantations being made.In the changing urban scenario the transformations of built environment has denuded the cities . Adding trees in  the streets which were earlier part of the house has become the norm.Much as we know the advantages of street trees in promoting the environmental quality climatologically and socially there are difficulties encoutered in growwing streets for the nusaince they create. in this context what are the parameters to be considered in the selection of street trees?
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I appreciate the concerns that have been raised about roots needs, and wind resistance. There are surely technical concerns to take into account, but I deeply believe we have to move forward from this way of thinking and move towards a completely different urbanism (less manicured, more 'agroecological'). I claim that we should grow edible, and fruit-bearing trees within our cities (from nuts to citrus - not only soft fruits), on a number of grounds:
1) they will expose people to food - most urbanites have lost knowledge of what is seasonal, therefore don't know anymore how to make sustainable consumer choices;
2) a wider variety of trees is important for biodiversity. many birds and bees are at risks because of the amount of pesticides used in conventional agriculture in rural and peri-urban areas. perhaps they could have some chances in cities?!
3) there is growing urban malnutrition everywhere. It is absurd to grow exclusively ornamental species when we could have edible species.
4) aesthetic criteria are socially constructed. In Portugal is pretty much common to see orange trees in public space. The taste and social expectations for flowering trees can be shaped.
Obviously, I wouldn't put a bench below a plum tree....but most of the concerns I have heard from policy makers on why not to grow edibles are misplaced (like: if you put an apple tree, kids will start breaking windows by through apples. The same kind of rationale for removing benches from public space.
Why not exploring ways to create resourceful urban environments that prioritize social learning, environmental education, food sovereignty against the limits of modernist urban design?
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Hello!!! I would like to have your views and thoughts on what to include in a climate change resilience assessment framework for urban environments. Thank you
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Thank you all!!!
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What are the current researches on environmental responsiveness with respect to urban form and/or urban built environment?
What are/could be the parameters of environmental responsiveness in and around buildings/ built form? especially at community/neighbourhood level.
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Dear  Fuzail Jawaid ,
I would like to recommend you my conference paper entitled Various Aspects of Ecotourism Concept and Their Impact on Shape of The World Ecotourist Actions .
I hope it would be useful.
Kind regards
Barbara
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As part of a research project on the impact of feeder road development on productive employment I am searching for experiences and recommendation related to roadside planting for environmental mitigation + employment generation.
Thank you!
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Government funded project such as 'Work for the Dole', 'Green Corps' and 'Green Army' have operated in Australia for a number of years. These projects involve unemployed people who generally get paid for their work and in some cases receive formal training in horticulture. Some of the projects completed have included roadside plantings. for example along the road adjacent to my own property where they planted on both our land and council land. These projects usually rely on some in-kind support from the land owner, for example watering and weeding to help establish the plants.
Local governments here also plant trees along the road, where they own the land. They use their own staff, but can claim to be off-setting their greenhouse gas emissions if they do enough of it.
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I am just planning for my master thesis. my Idea is to do research on urban flood modeling of Kabul City. 
I have DEM with resolution of 1 meter and rainfall data with 1 day resolution, 
Kabul has no underground sewer system. water drains in the open, concrete lined ditches alongside the roads. i also have the data about land use. 
Kindly give me suggestions which model i should use for urban flood simulation in this case. 
thanks for your attention 
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Dear Fazli Rahim Shinwari ,
In early December, 2015, at Chennai, India there was an incidence of heavy rains in the flood plain, with upstream over flows and the lakes got over filled, and the channels not able to permit the outflow of rain floods caused heavy inundation in the city. Chennai being on the coast had the effects of high tide,,and low tides for allowing outflows of rain water. This had a  very devastating effects. Some data and study are emerging  if you are keen, pl remain in touch on email - seshadri.ajit@gmail.com  -
well wishes, Ajit Seshadri
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The literature on urban space usually deals with the subject through the lens of the opposition between "space(s) of oppression," such as space produced by capitalistic forces, and "space(s) of resistance," such as the spaces of (racial, sexual, religious) minorities. Is it possible to go beyond that dichotomy when dealing with urban space?
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Hi Nadege,
I think you can have a look at Foucault's heterotopia,  Henri Lefebvre's spatial trialectics, and Edward Soja's Thirdspace. in all their conceptions, they argue that human-being create and modify (produce and reproduce) spaces which are not either place of oppressor or place of oppression. It means that the oppressor or just simply everyone who is influenced by power-relations creates a space within place of power through his/her everyday life experience. An example is Kubane where Kurdish people create their own spaces which is located in within the place of power, but governed and modified by themselves through their everyday life practices. Another example is West Bank or Gaza in occupied land of Palestine, in which Palestinians create their own living places through their everyday life experiences, through their resistance. Certainly this is a place of resistance, but it does not mean that resistance as its classic meaning is presented in the space, but as its influencing process through everyday life experiences of people who are living the oppression.
I hope it helps.
Roja
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Many commensal birds, such as pigeons, sea gulls, starlings etc., are on record as perching and roosting on buildings, statues and other heritage items. Their droppings not only create unsightly deposits, but also have deleterious effects on the fabric by aiding its decay. There are a large number of bird deterrent systems available on the market, but very few have been tested for their effectiveness.
A research project is under way to examine the issue of bird droppings on buildings. We are keen to hear of recent case studies that examine the impact of birds on buildings and outdoor statuary, as well as case studies that examine the effectiveness of deterrent systems.
We are keen to hear your experiences.
Thank you
Dirk
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Selection of building materials and use of protective coatings can also be cost-effective and aid in cleansing.
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Many commensal birds, such as pigeons, sea gulls, starlings etc., are on record as perching and roosting on buildings, statues and other heritage items. Their droppings not only create unsightly deposits, but also have deleterious effects on the fabric by aiding its decay. There are a large number of bird deterrent systems available on the market, but very few have been tested for their effectiveness.
A research project is under way to examine the issue of bird droppings on buildings. The study has a number of components (field observation, experiment, survey). One of these is this on-line survey. We are seeking to gain an understanding of how heritage practitioners perceive bird behaviour in relation to heritage building conservation, to gauge what deterrence methods you have employed, and to what degree you perceive bird deterrent techniques to be effective when used. We would like to enlist your help as a heritage practitioner and will be asking you about your experiences
• What kinds of birds are the problem?
• What techniques have you used (if any)?
• What technique does, in your experience, work
We need 10 minutes of your time. While we cannot promise you any immediate benefit from participating in this research, we assume that the outcomes of the study may well inform your professional practice.
The study is being conducted by Melissa Pike (Honours Student) from the School of Environmental Sciences at Charles Sturt University and supervised by A/Prof Dr Dirk HR Spennemann and Dr Maggie Watson.
You are invited to participate in the research study by filling out an online survey which should take about 10 minutes of your time to complete. Be assured that the survey is fully ANONYMOUS. Participation is voluntary. By participating, you give your consent for your information being used for the research study.
Please support this research. The Questionnaire can be found at this web address
The fine print:
Charles Sturt University’s Faculty of Science Human Ethics Committee has approved this study. A formal Participant Information Sheet can be downloaded from this site:
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True. Commensal birds have adopted and adapted to our created environments and carved out their own ecological niches. The issue we have from a heritage management / historic preservation perspective is that the effects of bird excrement are deleterious to the stone fabric. Hence the question, how can we deter birds from perching and nesting on some structures.
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The Compact cities are generally attributed with high density urban development having increased socio-economic diversity and improved public realm providing ample opportunities for social interactions and exchanges with pedestrian friendly and closed knit urban form having equitable access to goods, services and facilities thereby minimizing environmental degradation, thus sustainable. But at the same time there are the literatures which point out that high density development have poor quality of life. so my question is "what could be the attributes of a Compact Cities & are they really sustainable? if not then can they be sustainable? and how?"
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Md. Fuzail,
Compact city is the opposite of diffuse city. It is not necessarily high density. What is important is the diversity of activities in every part of the city. Economic, social, cultural, housing, government and so on. It is sustainable because it reduces mobility, reduces energy consumption and reduces carbon footprint.
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Anyone knows any references or projects about types of green and hybrid roofs in meditteranean countries (Portugal would be the best option)? Their applications, potentials for energy saving and other externalities, their costs, efficiency etc.?
Also which plants are best suited for green roofs in such meditteranean areas? How easily can such green roofs be managed, and what is their strong as well as weak aspects?
Thanks, Lea
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Dear Lea (and Valerio)
just to add to references and for specific question, please feel free to contact dr. Sergio Andri, a green roof engineer who collaborate with our research team about this highly stimulating topic, and have a look to the papers on his RG profile here after linked .
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Palm trees are extensively used in urban areas in central Mexico. They certainly are not native (not adapted to semidesertic climate), do not provide shade, and I think the do not provide many environmental services. But, does any one have measured this? so we can regulate and prevent their use?
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Dear Hector
I don't know of any research that has measured environmental services of palm trees in urban areas where they are not native, but that is a very good research problem that needs to be addressed. I agree that they provide little shade (unless they can be planted in a grove) or other micro-climate benefit. Their fronds can be problematic when dropped in streets - they don't just 'blow away' and have to be collected by the municipal authority. If not mulched they take decades to break down in landfill.
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Seeking to link urban trees with attenuation of pollutants and noise. I want to know what tree or shrub mass begin to have a positive effect on this mitigation.
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The David Nowak article, listed by Valerio Silli, is a highly referenced work on this body of knowledge. The tool i-Tree <https://www.itreetools.org/>, developed by the USDA Forest Service, David Nowak, and other collaborators,  has worked to more accurately quantify these effects, and others, on a per-tree basis. 
It is important to take note, as Mr. Ruiter and Mr. Nowak do, not all trees are equal in their ability to capture pollution, or noise. Selection of choice spices of vegetation can greatly change the affects you will have. Additionally, depending on how intensive a role you wish them to play in reducing air pollution, the plants will need to be resilient to heavy layers of particulate matter on leaves. Plants best for dealing with high air pollution would likely be medium tall, high leaf area, evergreen shrubs, combined with full size trees. It can be useful to utilize plant databases when searching for plant species based on special criteria. Here are four particularly good plant databases, though you will usually want to work with one specific to your climate or region. 
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I am looking at temporal changes in the vegetation cover in an area and aiming to examine these changes against several potential drivers. I have 6 points in time for my temporal studies and am now wondering if the outcome of correlation analysis of 6 points would be meaningful. 
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If the actual change is large relative to the unexplained variance, then you will need fewer data to declare "significance".  If the actual change is tiny compared to unexplained variance then you will need a lot more data.  Although two points is all you need to connect a line, you still won't be able to tell there is real change or just random fluctuation.  Typically, a power analysis is done to inform the amount of data you should collect.
The sensitivity of your conclusions about change to the sample size you happen to have should cause some contemplation.  See Johnson's (1999) classic paper on "The insignificance of statistical significance testing" (Journal of Wildlife Management) and the recent special edition of Ecology vol 94, 2014 on the use of P-values.  
I think a key thing to note is that null hypothesis testing of "change" isn't very meaningful until it is placed in a broader context (most things in nature are inter-dependent, so just get enough data!).  To this end, see Dixon's (2005) paper in Ecology on "A statistical test to show negligible trend" or consider a Bayesian analysis that yields the probability density of different magnitudes of change supported by your data, given your prior belief about change.  Ideally, you would have multiple competing models of what is driving change in veg cover, and then use AIC or it's variants to evaluate the relative strengths of these models (see Burnham and Anderson 2002 book titled; Model Selection and Mulltimodel Inference).
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Anyone with experience in regression models of land surface temperature (LST) who can suggest literature?
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Dear Luis,
I think you are addressing a very complex question. At the same time, there has been a lot of work done in that area already. A quick search of the web with the keywords "city structure temperature landsat" yielded 561,000 results, so I'm sure you'll find a few references of interest. For example:
Good luck. Michel.
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i need better definition of this increasingly popular vernacular demographic...
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It may be related to glocal studies and the perception of the local community within complex social environments, as in Weiss, Brad (2012). "Configuring the authentic value of real food: Farm-to-fork, snout-to-tail, and local food movements". American Ethnologist, v. 39, issue 3, pp. 614-626.
And Agriculture related researchs, as Thilmany, D. et al (2008). "Going Local: Exploring Consumer Behavior and Motivations for Direct Food Purchases". American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 90, issue 5, pp. 1303-1309.
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So far I mostly know urban climatology books from my own country (Brazil) or the great classics (such as Oke and Landsberg). I have read many papers recently, but I would like to know your suggestion of a relatively recent book on this topic which covers most of the urban climate-related phenomena such as the UHI, floods, air pollution, etc. (such as "Urban Climatology" from Brazel & Quatrocchi, 2005). Thank you.
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Urban climatology has got renewed interest for two main reasons. First, to analyse impacts of urbanisation on the global climate change as centres of industrial production and therefore atmospheric pollution at local, regional and global scale. Secondly, in view of perceived climate change to find out adaptation and mitigation measures in urban areas. The latter concern is expressed in a voluminous and growing literature on urban heat island (UHI), thermal comfort as well as environmental ergonomics and architectural design in built environment.
After, first work on urban climatology Luke Howard, The Climate of London, which contained continuous daily observations from 1801 to 1841, recently a number of books are published on the topic and the number is growing. An International Association for Urban Climate is also founded lately:
A few of titlels on the topic are listed below:
The Urban Climate by Helmut E. Landsberg
Energy and Climate in the Urban Built Environment (BEST (Buildings Energy and Solar Technology)) by M. Santamouris (Editor)
Constructed Climates: A Primer on Urban Environments by Will Wilson, Sr., William G Wilson
Urban Climate Change Crossroads by Richard Plunz
Urban Aerodynamics: Wind Engineering for Urban Planners and Designers by American Society of Civil Engineers
Cooling Our Communities: A Guidebook on Tree Planting and Light-Colored Surfacing by Hashem Akbari
Energy and Climate in the Urban Built Environ… (Kindle Edition)
by M. Santamouris
The Urban Atmosphere by Terry A Ferrar
The Urban Costs of Climate Modification by Bruce Wilson Atkinson
Urbanization and the atmospheric environment in the low tropics : experiences from the Kelang Valley Region, Malaysia by Sham Sani
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There are several sites around Geelong and around Australia that have the annual rainfall amounts.
here we don't talk about the drought tolerant plants.
The question is that pond is or is not a viable option to make the sites looks refreshing rather than dryness. 
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Dear Raymond
I do not think that the pond is a viable option in landscaping to cool in the physical sense. against by any body of water in arid sites (very low rainfall) will have some impact on the viewer or observer not only aesthetically but psychically generating well being giving a cooling sensation. To illustrate I will say, the mirage of an oasis in the desert.  
 Best regards
FADEL
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In some current Urban Forest  Strategies, the urban heat island effect is being a challenge and issue to the forest. Is it possible to improve it by landscape design of the forest?
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Hi Jing: To quantify the impacts, we use the following methods:
  • preference for landscapes with varying levels of green infrastructure
  • human reactions beyond preference to these same landscapes (e.g., stress reactions measured by self-reports, physiological tools like the ProComp Infinity 5, and hormonal measures for cortisol.
  • measures of attention (this grows from Kaplan's Attention Restoration Theory).
Hope this helps.
William
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What are some of the impacts of floating structures/ buildings to the marine environment and how can design seek to prevent the damages to its coastal surroundings?
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The disposals and discharges of these floating buildings can damage the marine environment.  Ultimately that will affect the fishery resources and fishing community. The floating structures should be away from the coastal regions, the discharges should be treated before releasing in the marine waters. The impacts can be reduced by discharging in the seafloor of deeper part. The excess organic load  will lead to toxic plankton blooms.
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