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I was trying to get an insight into quantum computing (QC) for a research purpose. However, every source was filled with lots of technical terms with less explanation. It becomes very difficult for us those who want to learn QC with no knowledge before.
Is there any source where beginners can learn QC with zero background knowledge?
Thanks in advance.
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You are most welcome dear Anik Islam Abhi . Wish you the best always.
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Will drones evolve as a parcel delivery model or as objects of intelligent logistics networks meaning that they will deliver to distribution centers not to final users?
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May be helpful for your work:
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Monkeypox Virus is recently spreading very fast, which is very alarming. Awareness can assist people in reducing the panic that is caused all over the world.
To do that, Is there any image dataset for monkeypox?
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Medical Datasets
please consider the above links and medical data set
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I was exploring differential privacy (DP) which is an excellent technique to preserve the privacy of the data. However, I am wondering what will be the performance metrics to prove this between schemes with DP and schemes without DP.
Are there any performance metrics in which a comparison can be made between scheme with DP and scheme without DP?
Thanks in advance.
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Dear Anik Islam Abhi,
You may want to review the data below:
What is differential data privacy?
Differential privacy (DP) is a system for publicly sharing information about a dataset by describing the patterns of groups within the dataset while withholding information about individuals in the dataset.
Why is differential privacy so important?
Preventing attackers from access to perfect data This deniability aspect of differential privacy is important in cases like linkage attacks where attackers leverage multiple sources to identify the personal information of a target.
What is privacy budget in differential privacy?
Also known as the privacy parameter or the privacy budget. (i) When ε is small. (ε,0)-differential privacy asserts that for all pairs of adjacent databases x, y and all outputs M, an adversary cannot distinguish which is the true database on the basis of observing the output.
What is differential privacy in machine learning?
Differential privacy is a notion that allows quantifying the degree of privacy protection provided by an algorithm on the underlying (sensitive) data set it operates on. Through the lens of differential privacy, we can design machine learning algorithms that responsibly train models on private data.
How much is enough choosing Epsilon for differential privacy?
... The recommended values for ε vary in a big interval, from as small as 0.01 and 0.1 to as big as 7
Who uses differential privacy?
Apple launched differential privacy for the first time in macOS Sierra and iOS 10. Since then, we have expanded to other use cases such as Safari and Health types.
Differential Privacy: General Survey and Analysis of Practicability in the Context of Machine Learning
Franziska Boenisch
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Within the 3DForEcoTech COST Action, we want to create a workflow database of all solutions for processing detailed point clouds of forest ecosystems. Currently, we are collecting all solutions out there.
So if you are a developer, tester or user do not hesitate to submit the solution/algorithm here: https://forms.gle/xmeKtW3fJJMaa7DXA
You can follow the project here: https://twitter.com/3DForEcoTech
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Dear Martin Mokros,
Got this Project! I‘ll share this with corresponding workmates
Thanks for sharing this info. Kind Regards!
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Both deep learning (DL) and quantum computing (QC) are emerging technologies in the realm of research. Please share your valuable opinion on the following concerns.
  • How DL can be merged with QC?
  • What are the current challenges in the DL-based QC?
  • What are the tentative application areas for DL-based QC?
Thanks for your time.
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Dear Anik Islam Abhi.
Look the link, maybe useful.
Regards,
Shafagat
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In the data preparation phase, we have to divide the dataset into two parts, such as (1) training and (2) testing/validation part. As there is a sufficient amount of resources regarding computational complexity for DL models while doing the training phase. However, I couldn't find any source that discussed complexity while performing testing/validation after finishing the training process.
Is there any good source for that?
Thanks in advance.
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Yes, your are wright. This is one of the main beauty of DL algorithm with complexity in training data, whilst once it trained efficiently and accurately, the testing/validation phase over new data is much simple and much quicker.
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An unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), also called a drone, is the name for any aircraft that can be operated remotely. Presently, there are various small to large models of drones, and these are being utilized for various applications, including pesticide application, disaster damage surveying, logistics, and media. In Japan, the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries has prepared the “UAV Stand Inventory Manual” for use in forest surveys, which summarizes specific procedures and key points for stand inventory methods using UAV, and provides a formula to estimate the diameter at breast height (DBH) of trees. However, do you think that it has highest accuracy level. We have used the same for South Bengal Nursery and Sal plantation.
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I have a very limited knowledge  on control systems. Now my research field is on quadcopters and I want a comprehensive book in this field that can fill all my knowledge gaps on quadcopter sensor fusion techniques and also modeling,system identification and control methods of a quad-copter. 
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Multirotor Aerial Vehicles: Modeling, Estimation, and Control of Quadrotor
Survey of Advances in Guidance, Navigation, and Control of Unmanned Rotorcraft Systems
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1) What exactly is the definition of a control law and what is the difference between control laws and controllers in the context of aerospace vehicles ?
2) Is the use of the term flight control law specific only to aircraft (fixed wing & rotorcraft) and UAVs, for in my experience the term is not actively used in the context of Launch Vehicles or spacecraft ?
(examples of FCLAW's: images 1 and 2) [1]
A few questions regarding the control laws of combat aircraft -
3) The Eurofighter(EF 2000) seems to use an interesting control structure - the Differential PI Algorithm, which is also a controller that is being actively used by the naval version of the Indian LCA. My question is, as the controller seems to be quite advantageous, why has'nt the Differential PI structure been used in other flight controllers ? [2](refer to image 3)
4) The testing of combat flight control laws has made use of test aircraft for in-flight simulation, for example the use of the F-16 VISTA (now X-62 VISTA) to test flight control laws of the Indian LCA. How does this work ? How is useful information to validate & certify the control laws of one aircraft obtained from the flight performance and input responses using these same control laws but on another aircraft ? (refer: VISTA.pdf)
Note: This is not exclusive to aircraft as such, the control laws for the SLS have also been tested on an F/A 18 Hornet.[3]
References:
[1] Balas, Gary J.,"Flight Control Law Design - An industyr perspective", European Journal of Control, Vol. 9, Issues 2–3, 2003,
[2] Osterhuber, R., et.al."Realization of the Eurofighter 2000 Primary Lateral/Directional Flight Control Laws with Differential PI Algorithm", AIAA GNC Conference and Exhibit 16 - 19 August 2004, Providence, Rhode Island
[3] "Flight Testing of the Space Launch System (SLS) Adaptive Augmenting Control (AAC) Algorithm on an F/A-18", NASA/TM-2014-218528
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1) Control laws (or controllers) can be applied to any plant (aircraft, vehicle, spacecraft, missile, etc.).
2) The term of flight control law applies to all air vehicles.
3) The flight control law design concept is diverse. Each control concept has advantages and disadvantages. While the differential PI control you asked about has some advantages, it has the disadvantage of being susceptible to noise due to differential effects. And while the NDI (Nonlinear Dynamic Inversion) control applied to the F-35 is sensitive to model uncertainty, if the model is accurate, it has the advantage that it can be commonly applied to A, B, and C versions with one control structure. This is because only OBM (On-Board Model) needs to be replaced. In addition, sensor-based INDI (Incremental NDI) is a method that is quite robust to model uncertainty, but it is difficult to obtain the measured angular acceleration, and the use of a filter that minimizes noise is essential when the angular velocity is differentiated from the IMU sensor. is. And although it has the characteristic of reducing the stability margin of the system (especially the phase margin), the stability margin is quite robust against uncertainty. Hybrid INDI, which takes advantage of these two control methods, is sometimes used.
4) IFS (In Flight Simulator) is a method that can be safely verified with an aircraft platform that has already been tested when developing a flight control computer or a new flight control rule. In other words, new functions can be efficiently verified while ensuring flight safety by using the already verified flight control system for take-off and landing and verifying the function with the newly developed flight control rule in a specific flight condition.
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In order to developp a DL based model for counting and/or other image processing tasks in relation with Palm trees.. I am wondering if you have an idea about types/references of UAV that can be used in this context?
Thank you in advance.
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The UAV itself is not the vital aspect. The sensors and the cameras are the most important.
As for the UAV, you need to make sure that the battery is enough for your task and the UAV is robust against the environment conditions where it will work (for example high winds, ... etc).
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Unmanned Aerial Vehicles are increasingly used for mapping, crop surveillance and scouting purpose in agriculture. I seek views on following.
1. How effectively Unmanned Aerial Vehicles could be used for pesticide application for plant protection purposes.
2. What are the possible risks involved?
3. What are the expected challenges before regulatory system?
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Unmanned Aerial Vehicles are increasingly used for mapping, crop surveillance and scouting purpose in agriculture. I seek views on the possible risks involved and expected challenges before regulatory system?
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what are possible applications of artificial intelligence on UAV (Unmanned aerial vehicle) ?
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Image processing applications based on UAV can be a prominent research area. Check the following paper.
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I am going to buy an unmanned aerial vehicle for my university for forestry applications. Since there are alot of options,  I realy get confused to choose a proper model and a valid brand. Also, l want to use a 3d laser scanner and a multispectral camera. I would rather that the vehicle have gps and imu and the flight could be programmed.  Please if you have personal experience, share them.
Best regards, 
Hormoz
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How can I estimate the propagation loss between an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) or drone, and user equipment (UE) on the ground? is it safe to assume a line-of-sight scenario? how about the drone's altitude? is there a specific air-to-ground formula I can use?
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There exist several pathless model, depending on the propagation environment. But you can use conventional model such as free space or Rice.
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Recently, UAV attracted a many researcher to apply them in agriculture because of their flexibility, cost and availability. Many published work can be found on application of UAV in various agriculture applications such as disease scouting, crop monitoring, spraying(pesticide and other agronomic inputs), yield estimations, and plant phenotyping. However, there are some challenges associated with UAV, such as standard data processing pipelines, limitation on area coverages and load carrying capacity etc.
In this discussion, I would expect your views regarding future of UAV in agriculture applications and how they will emerge and used in this field.
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Thank you for your kindness.
Always available. :)
Regards,
Wiltgen
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Hi,
I have been through some discussion regarding survey paper writing tips and tricks. However, these are very generic. I want to know how to write a survey paper related to computer science topics (e.g., blockchain,.internet of things, so on). I have some following queries regarding the aforementioned concerns.
  • How to design the flow of the survey paper?
  • What will be the minimum length of the survey paper?
  • How to pick up a reference paper and which criteria should be the first concern while selecting it? What is the minimum number of references that should I pick?
  • Is it necessary to propose an idea in the paper? If yes then is it necessary to show a performance evaluation of the proposed scheme?
  • While writing a survey paper which things should I focus on or care about?
Please share your experience regarding this.
Thanks for your time and input.
Thanks in advance.
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Importance and significance of the topic.
Discuss the background and target audience.
Summarize the surveyed research area and explain why the surveyed area has been studied.
Summarize the classification scheme you used to do the survey.
Summarize the surveyed techniques with the above classification scheme.
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Is there a group of crucial and important UAV's parameters/features regardless of kind of mission (search missing people, disaster, evacuation, emergency deliveries, monitoring, fight a fire, training, saving trapped people, contamination, flying rescue cushion)? Or maybe every kind of mission has their own crucial parameters/features?
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* Are drones following the e-Auto industry technological trajectory or it is following its own?
* Will drones diffuse faster than electrical vehicles?
* Will it depend on the application?, What about delivery of medical supplies?
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Interesting question. Drones and self-driving cars have different market targets and challenges. I see drones being adopted in automation of delivery logistics, surveillance, and warfare. So its diffusion is industry driven rather than retail, where its use seem to be most common in recreation and photography. Self-driving vehicles on the other hand need to diffuse through market adoption by overcoming safety concerns.
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Dear colleagues,
Can you recommend us the equipment to acquire high-resolution LiDAR data, acquired from an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) after the fire?
We are planning to buy LiDAR and an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV).
The idea is using of the LiDAR to measure the remaining tree structures after a fire in a forest stand burned. We are planning to use high-resolution LiDAR data, acquired from an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) after the fire. This information will be crossed with fire severity levels based on the relativized burnt ratio (RBR) derived from Sentinel 2A images acquired a few months before and after fire.
1
Can you recommend us specific equipment based on your experience?
2
What could be budget estimation for such equipment? EUR 20,000?
Looking forward to your advice.
Dr. Sc. Velibor SPALEVIC
1, Novaka Miloseva, 81000 Podgorica, Montenegro
Mobile/Viber/WhatsApp: +382 67 201 222
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I former colleague of mine is developing one sensor that should suit your needs at a German research institution: https://www.ipm.fraunhofer.de/en/about-Fraunhofer-IPM/departments/object-and-shape-detection/airborne-and-underwater-scanning.html I have flown it a couple of times and the results are relatively good. A big pro argument is that it is a multi-return system which is especially valuable in forests.
Another probably pricier, but very interesting solution can be purchased in Austria: http://www.riegl.com/products/unmanned-scanning/new-riegl-vux-120/ I am working every day with a TLS solution from that company which is absolutely outstanding.
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First drone development dates back to 1917. Why just about a century later this technology starts booming?
Does it has do to with the related enabling technologies?
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In my opinion, despite the fact that the history of drone development dates back to 1917, it was only at the beginning of the 21st century, i.e. one hundred years later, that the technology and applications of drones developed, which is related to the ongoing technological progress in various supporting technologies in the field of batteries that store electricity, plastics materials, ICT information technologies in remote control applications, etc. Besides, it is only in recent years that the development of drone applications has occurred. In 2020, the SARS-CoV-2 (Covid-19) coronavirus pandemic also caused an increase in the use of drones. Currently (December 2020), in the context of the pandemic, drones are used to transport medicines for sick people, drugs and food to places with poorly developed road communication, blood plasma of people who have recovered from Covid-19 disease, etc. In the future, drones will find many more applications as equipment for courier companies delivering different products to individuals. Moreover, conceptual technological solutions for the construction of flying cars, which are also drones, are currently being created. Transport flying machines are also built, which with their shape and avionics technology were created as a combination of the concept of a helicopter with a drone. This type of progress in the field of avionics would not be possible without, for example, constantly improved and more efficient batteries that store electricity, more and more perfect electric motors and devices that charge said batteries with electricity. Perhaps in the future, as part of the ongoing technological progress, the growing demand for electricity, the growing demand for drones and the growing importance of environmentally friendly energy sources, drones will be produced powered by photovoltaic panels, which will cover the drones.
Best regards,
Dariusz Prokopowicz
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What UAVs (drones, quadcopters, blimps, etc.) are most cost-effective for monitoring/mapping small areas of emergent and submerged aquatic vegetation ?
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Dear Victor,
You have to specify the required bands, area (how big) and resolution. Then, choose the best available drone or sensor!
Best of luck.
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I am looking for hyperspectral images from UAV that captured forest or forest plantation. Do you know about some source where I can download some examples?
Thank you
Martin
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Martin, check out the GatorEye dataset, they have amazing high-quality UAV-LiDAR, etc. data available for researchers! Please reach out to Dr. Eben to get more details.
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As we have seen that most powerful and expensive quadcopters being swept away by prevailing wind gusts and losing connection with the controller, and even that “fail-safe” GPS-enabled Return To Home feature will struggle and oftentimes fail when flying into a strong headwind.
How to make it reliable and robust for sever weather conditions?
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First basic step is to define "strong wind" speed, and then compare that with the quadcopter's maximum speed. No Return To Home (RTH) feature can be effective as long as wind speed > quadcopter maximum speed so "speed" has to be first defense. Once quadcopter max speed is exceeded, it is just be a matter of time before the quadcopter is out of ground control range; options then are to land, and wait for input, (maybe not a great option in heavily wooded areas, or over water), or switch to an autonomous mode which will attempt return to base GPS location as long as power allows.
Next consideration would be turbulent response; in strong winds, particularly in urban areas, where wind gusting around buildings will make control response times critical.
Note also that GPS-enabled RTH features will struggle with tall obstacles, be they trees or high rise buildings, that block the (most direct) return path.
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What are (other than listed below) guidance materials, operational manuals, standards and recommended practices about public safety drone usage? Include such important for pilots of drone/UAV issues as: training, operational procedures, ConOps, testing UAV, maintenance, etc.
See:
- NFPA 2400, Standard for Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems (sUAS) Used for Public Safety Operations, https://www.nfpa.org/codes-and-standards/all-codes-and-standards/list-of-codes-and-standards/detail?code=2400
- Public Safety and Law Enforcement Toolkit, https://www.faa.gov/uas/public_safety_gov/public_safety_toolkit/
- Code of Conduct, Humanitarian UAV Network http://uaviators.org/docs
- ISO 21384-3:2019 Unmanned aircraft systems — Part 3: Operational procedures https://www.iso.org/standard/70853.html?browse=tc
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Has anyone used drogues, quadcopters, blimps and balloons/kitoons for mapping coastal  features and processes e.g. SAV, emergent vegetation, pollutants, oil slicks, bathymetry, currents, etc.?
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I used a quadcopter for scanning areas and develop a new map for the area to use it for civil engineering in new projects
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Is UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle) for pesticide application and how much is its efficency of depostion compared to conventional spraying?
In India, Where mainly water based pesticides are used and the farmers residence are within or nearby the pesticide application zone.Is it safe to use drones for pesticides application.
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Very good discussion, and very useful information from Zeashan Khan , Abhishek Dixit and Anju Baroth .
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I want to estimate glacier surface lowering using UAV data acquired on glacier frontal areas where it is too difficult and dangerous to measure GCPs.
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Jorge, you may be interested in this article by Cook and Dietze (2019)
They propose a system to compare UAV derived point clouds without ground control essentially by using the sparse point cloud from Survey 1 as control for Survey 2. As photogrammetric datasets can be subject to distortion, this essential would give the same distortion to both datasets, so change detection results are more representative of process than reconstruction error.
As mentioned by Edgar, automated or pick-point registration can be a nice approach too, but since you are working with a glacier where surfaces could potentially retreat at a similar rate, you might overfit your data and estimate lower retreats than actually happened. To get around that, you could focus on bounding rocky sections of the valley to get your translation matrix (the geometric matrix used to move your data to the best fit in CloudCompare) and apply the best translation to your entire dataset for change detection.
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Hello,
Nowadays, urban population is witnessing an unprecedented sharp increase, as cities are the centers of education, innovation, culture and opportunities.
Smart measures should be taken to guarantee a good quality-of-life for the dwellers.
In the transportation domain, do you think that the Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) have a role in these measures? and when do you expect such a role?
Thanks for sharing your ideas.
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Md Masuduzzaman Please check this question. This can be your research topic.
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hello In principle, commercial software is nowadays used to produce orthophones from drones. What do you think is the major difference between these commercial software? Do they have significant advantages and disadvantages in addition to the algorithm used? Which of the following commercial software do you recommend for the UAV?
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thank you Reuben Reyes
what is your think of about software such as visual SFM or ....
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hello
Located in two zones of the UTM system. How to triangulate in inpho software ?
How will overlap problems be resolved between zones?
Should each zone be triangulated separately? Or will it be triangulated together?
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thank you Marco Baldo
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hello
Why is Match AT suited better for planes compared to UASMaster?
WHat about fixed-wing UAVs?
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Smaller UAV images in general (fixed-wing and multi copters) are quite different from classic aerial cameras in big planes.
Orientation angles are larger and their changes are more extreme .
Furthermore, UAV imagery often shows more motion blur .
and of course the ground resolution is much higher .
All this needs different strategies and matching techniques to be applied to successfully match tie points.
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In the literature many researchers proved their communication schemes/protocols using assumptions or theorem, here I mean is any software tool(s) available to practically prove that the protocol is robust and resists all known attacks?
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Maybe you can refer to NS-3. Verifying your protocol by implementing it on the simulator.
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can you suggest any paper regarding this..
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Abdullatif Baba thank you
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I was going through mac protocols and wondering what will be a suitable MAC protocol for UAV swarm while conducting a mission.
Any idea?
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Dear Anik,
I suggest you to see links and attached files on topic.
Paper Title (use style: paper title) - laccei
Survey on Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Networks: A Cyber ... - arXiv
Survey of Important Issues in UAV Communications Networks - arXiv
Best regards
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I'm looking for a simulink model that will implement control algorithms.
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Hi,
I don't know what do you mean exactly by ground effect, it could be aerodynamically or other ones. however, take look to the attached pdf, it maybe helpful.
Best,
Sajad
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Hello,
I am working in UAV detection using RF. I want to know what are the methods and techniques through which we can detect UAV with RF technique.
And how we can differentiate Wifi signal with drone signal during detection. Please share some useful papers related to this method.
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Thanks William for your help. I will at this competition.
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b) start from mobile platform - in Poland: http://s4t.com.pl/#
about other:
c) Delivery of medicines, blood, defibrillators - in Poland: https://www.airvein.io/, https://www.linkedin.com/company/airvein-sp.-z-o.o.?originalSubdomain=pl,
d) Delivery of life jacket, pod, raft
f) spraying anti fire chemical compounds
h) New Futuristic Massive Firefighting Drones, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GL8L2Y2RtWY
j) Detecting Wifi signals from smartphones of trapped people, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7ysg-m7kV14
k) Dropping a fire-blanket???
l) Fire ignitions
FlamethrowersTF-19 WASP Flamethrower Drone Attachment , https://throwflame.com/products/flamethrower-drone-kit/
n) Launches Autonomous Drone,
o) Charging Pad
p) Wireless charging
PS.
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Surveying burn areas, fire movement, damage/impact. Looking for survivors.
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Unmanned aerial systems and other remote sensing equipments have gained much popularity among agriculturists, especially plant breeders. The remote sensing techniques, especially the use of drones have shown a positive impact in field-phenotyping and plant breeding. But, is there any disadvantage of using such techniques in plant breeding/agricultural research? If so, what are they and how other method(s) can replace the use of drones?
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Yesterday I read and recommend a very good review, published recently about this topic, including pros and cons:
Field Phenotyping for the Future July 2018 DOI: · 10.1002/9781119312994.apr0651 In book: Annual Plant Reviews Online Jonathan A. Atkinson · Robert J. Jackson · Alison R. Bentley · Show all 5 authors · Darren Mark WellsDarren Mark Wells
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Is it correct to use a term "drone/UAV special for fire service/fire brigades"? Or are there only a adaptations/modifications of available models (like adaptations of Matrice - see https://www.dslrpros.com/inspire-1-first-responder-thermal-kit.html https://www.rmus.com/collections/police-fire-search-and-rescue-drones)?
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It depends a bit on what aspect of the fire-fighting you focus:
- For the assessment phase, typically quite standard UAV's are used. These are typically sturdier models that feature a short deployment time and are often also used by civil protection, police, ...
- For the fire-extinguishing phase, purpose-built solutions do exist, e.g.: https://www.aerones.com/eng/firefighting_drone/
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With the advent of drones, research on UAVs has gained a lot of importance. What are the recent research topics in this area?
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Dear Adwitiya Mukhopadhyay,
the following "Call for Papers" contain lists of current research topics in FANETs:
  • Call for Papers: Journal „IEEE Access“, Special Issue in 2019: Network Resource Management in FANETs: Challenges, Potentials, Future Applications, and Wayforward
There is a long list of current topics - especially:
  • Dynamic traffic load balancing for congestion avoidance through routing in FANETs
  • Performance investigation of 5G systems with FANETs
  • An optimal data collection and dissemination technique for balanced traffic utilization in FANETs
  • Distributed congestion-aware position oriented MAC/Routing protocols for FANETs
  • Opportunistic routing for distributed video traffic dissemination over FANETs
  • A cross layer design for distributed information dissemination over FANETs
  • Agricultural environment monitoring system based on UAV in FANETs
  • Distributed clustering approach for FANETs
  • Enhanced connectivity for robust multimedia transmission in UAV networks
  • Active Queue Management for resource sharing in FANETs
  • Multi-hop and relay-based communications for distributed traffic load balancing
  • Smart solutions to reduce congestion in FANETs
  • Interaction of FANET with IoT
  • Distributed Emergency Message Dissemination in FANETs
Call for Papers: Journal „Computers & Electrical Engineering“, Special Issue in 2019 on Recent Advancements in Flying Ad hoc Networks
There, among other things, the following topics of interest:
  • Mobility, traffic models, and network management for FANETs
  • Security, privacy, and trust in FANETs
  • UAV-assisted Services (UAV-based Security Services, UAV-based Delivery Service, …)
  • Emerging Internet of Things (IoT) and cloud applications with FANETs
  • Routing Strategies for FANETs
  • Application of Future Internet Architectures in FANETs
The following articles can also supply some ideas:
Much success and best regards
Anatol Badach
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For simulating various networking protocols, which network simulator would be best for Flying Ad-Hoc Network?
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i am working on NS3
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It took me quit significant amount of time searching for this. I figure out how to do it. Thought it might be use full for you as well.
Resolution chart is a chart that you need to lay in the field while you are doing the imagery session. Better to put it in the middle of the field where it can be seen in several images.
Here is what we designed for the resolution chart: You need to print it in 1.0*1.2 m if you are usually flying 80 to 150 meters. I also attached the powerpoint format so you can change the size or targeted resolutions as you wish (remember to change the names 📷😉). If you fly higher you need a larger and you fly lower you need a smaller chart.I also added the powerpoint format so you can change it as you wish. The standards of USAF is: The length of each element should be 5 times larger than the width. Three horizontal and three vertical rectangular elements make a group. If you can see the element of a group, the width of the element is the true resolution. In the attached figure, if you only can separate the elements of the largest group, the true resolution of your imagery is 8 cm. If you can see the elements of the smallest group, the true resolution will be 1 cm. Also, horizontal and vertical elements of the groups can show if your horizontal or vertical resolution on the camera in the mission is different or not.
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Dear it is easy to use the size of captured object with its real size to get the resolution!
regards
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Informations related with a issues on question. Any information
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Dear Maykon,
Its another drones application:
Water sampling
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What are the latest restrictions by the FAA on using UAVs ( fixed wing and rotary wing, e.g quadcopters) for purely scientific investigations?
Max.altitude, line-of-sight, permits, coastal and urban areas, etc.
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You can take a look at: A survey on position-based routing protocols for Flying Ad hoc Networks (FANETs) in which different restrictions about the use of UAVs have been referenced.
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What are the methods and procedures to create variable rate nitrogen fertilizer map from UAV remote sensing data.
1) Which data (green band, red band, red-edge, NDVI, RGB) is most suitable?
2) How can we do this?
3) How effective is using UAV data for this purpose?
Thanks in advance for sharing your knowledge?
Best regards,
Muharrem Keskin
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Technology in farming is constantly evolving. Collecting accurate, reliable geo referenced (location in terms of GPS coordinates) data is essential to capitalise on technologies such as variable rate application of chemicals and fertiliser and aid in crop monitoring at a level once not imagined.
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Hello.
Could you please share your experience on the interpretation of red edge data in UAV remote sensing.
We recently used a drone with a camera with green, red, NIR, red edge and RGB spectrums.
I am confused about the meaning of red edge data: That is to say;
Is the data from the red edge spectrum/ band a kind of reflectance at a specific band? If so what is the wavelength range?
Or Is it the wavelength at which the reflectance curve sharply rises from red band to NIR band?
And also how to interpret the data?
Thanks in advance.
Muharrem Keskin, Mustafa Kemal University
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The red edge refers to the wavelengths between approx. 0.7 and 0.8 µm, the region between the red, where reflectance from green vegetation is very low and the near infrared where the reflectance is very high.
Now, there are sensors which record wavelenghts within this spectrum like e.g. Sentinel-2 which has bands at 0.705 and at 0.74 µm. The information gives deeper insights in the biochemistry of the leafs as the reflectance in this spectrum is sensitive e.g. to the chlorophyl content. See for example this poster for getting an impression what can be done with this information: http://old.esaconferencebureau.com/docs/12c04_docs2/poster1_18_clevers.pdf
If your drone camera records in this spectrum, you can use this information for example as proxy for the chlorophyl content of the leaves. But the interpretation depends of course also on the scope of your study.
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Hello all, I am a PhD student and I work on the Quadrotors UAV, I would like to ask you about new subjects and ideas about the control and the trajectory planning for the UAV, thanks
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I found a few articles that may be useful for you. 
Lee, T., Leoky, M., & McClamroch, N. H. (2010, December). Geometric tracking control of a quadrotor UAV on SE (3). In Decision and Control (CDC), 2010 49th IEEE Conference on (pp. 5420-5425). IEEE.
Dierks, T., & Jagannathan, S. (2010). Output feedback control of a quadrotor UAV using neural networks. IEEE transactions on neural networks, 21(1), 50-66.
Sharifi, F., Mirzaei, M., Gordon, B. W., & Zhang, Y. (2010, October). Fault tolerant control of a quadrotor UAV using sliding mode control. In Control and Fault-Tolerant Systems (SysTol), 2010 Conference on (pp. 239-244). IEEE.
Ryll, M., Bülthoff, H. H., & Giordano, P. R. (2012, May). Modeling and control of a quadrotor UAV with tilting propellers. In Robotics and Automation (ICRA), 2012 IEEE International Conference on (pp. 4606-4613). IEEE.
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I would need this information to know what are the key planning and design considerations to look out for and what are the technical parameters to consider while planning a High Speed Rail track routing.
Any form of help is much appreciated, thank you.
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I need for my research about outdoor positioning system/gis to extract coordinate pointing become map sketch. It will be useful with map scale when extract this coordinate become map sketch. Can anyone suggest me some paper or research about this? thanks in advance.
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Thank you, Mr. @Yaron Ogen: Yes, I succeeded to collect GPS point from the Google map, now need to extract coordinate pointing become map sketch. Can I do that? any method to do that?
Thank you, Mr. @Ayad Ali, "- press on placemark icon move the mark  to the required position the read the E, N coordinates from the windows, by this procedure select at least 4 control points and use them in the registration of your map on GIS software." -> thank you for your advice. Can we export the polygon line too?
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If yes what the characteristics of the UAV you will use? I am asking you because we are going to mount some systems, during a second part of our project, for outdoor experiments.
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Last year I designed a UAV (as shown in the attached picture, without its winglets), which I intend to use to test my hybrid setup. I designed it to have a large cargo bay, so that there is plenty of room for experimental payload.
To obtain the most accurate aerodynamic model of the aircraft I plan to perform full-scale wind tunnel experiments later this summer. 
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Is it required to have an FAA certification to operate a UAV or Drone) if its for research purpose only. I know for educational and recreational purpose if UAV is less that .55lb, it's not required but does research come under education?
Also, what if I want to fly it indoors in a big lab environment, do you still need to be certified?
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@Jusoff: Yeah I meant in the United States.
@Arthur. Thanks
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I need to perform observation for land 1X1 Km? So what is the best specification of the UAV  and  camera and other equipment that need to do this work?
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Dear ED thank you so much for your answer
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what are the necessary things i have to take into account, while concentrating 1/2+ kg load...?
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I agree with Naceur's input on specifics - looking, for example, at HALE type fixed wing UAV, 1/2kg seems no challenge at all...
Nevertheless, in general, I would focus on three main aspects to derrive at load carrying capabilities:
- size (larger lifting surfaces whether as wing or rotor usually translate into more lifting capability)
- speed (higher speeds allow higher lift production, all other parameters considered fixed; again, in general, it doesn't matter whether fwd speed of a wing or rotational speed of a rotor)
- propulsion (the two points above directly will affect drag which in turn will require excess thrust to overcome)
Hope that helps at the conceptual level
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There are free databases for several satellite images. However, I cannot find a free resource for UAV images. 
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I am looking for a programmable quad-rotor UAV for academic application (Control). Do you have any good suggestion?
PS: The ability to be controlled  with MATLAB/SIMULINK would be an asset.
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I need to write a code regarding this ascept in matlab code. please help me
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Also contact Dr. Yu Gu of West Virginia University, he has an extensive experience on UAV for agriculture
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I have conducted a survey of ground control points with a Trimble RTK system relative to a base station at an unknown location. I need to correct the base station position using the Natural Resources Canada CSRS-PPP application (I am trying to compare to another dataset which has used this same correction). The output of the CSRS-PPP is a .csv file with the corrected base station position for each time stamp during the survey. I don't know how to integrate that with the raw rover and base station files from the survey.
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Very good. This is one of my primary programs. If you need assistance we can make arrangements off-line for you to contact me.. One thing to watch for when seeding points in TBC is that it is useful to disable the base global coordinates prior to recalculation of all points.
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Anybody having UAV(Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) implementation reports or documents?
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I guess that will depend the country you are looking for. All countries have their own laws and rules about UAV.
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I want to use the nonlinear model of the "Ultra Stick 25E RC" aircraft. there is a missing parameter which is the thrust Tm. Several works have been developed above, I want to know where they found it.
Thanks
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yes, 
thank you
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Please suggest the books from the basic to an advanced level. Specially focussing on Artificially Intelligent control of UAV's.
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If you can read portuguese or use google translator, there is a simple and straightforward paper about modelling a UAV, focused on the usage of fuzzy logic, easy to use other artificial intelligence techniques: http://sbesc.lisha.ufsc.br/sbesc2014/dl201
There isn't too many books with development tips on this field, they are, usually, abstract. You will have better ideas and directions with papers.
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Thank you!
We got a small UAV and equipped it with an camera to monitor the wheat growth status.
Could anybody please give me some tips on how to introduce these remote sensing images into GIS analysis, such like add coordinate systems or something?
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Hi, you could install additional sensors, to get georeferenced images. At first you will need the position X, Y, Z (longitude, latitude, height) which is mostly done by GPS or DGPS sensors. Sometimes a pressure sensor in combination with the barometric height formula is used to get height infos. Additionally an inertial movement unit (IMU) or a fluxgate sensor should be used, to get attitude data for the projection (or angle of view) of the camera.
But I think if you use an UAV, all these sensors are present. You will also need some camera parameters to describe the inner orientation (sensor pixel sizes, focal length, distortion of the optics). Usually these data are given by the manifacturer (aerial cameras).  If not available, you have to make some calibrations experiments with your camera (for example openCV).
For the projection equation the dynamic parameter focal length is important. Sometimes (if the focus is variable) it is logged by the cam self in the EXIF data. Sometimes a fixed focus system with a defined focal length can be used.
Next step is to ortho-rectify the image frame, but at least there will be more than one image and you have to stitch these frames together. Normally this is done if the material is geo-rectified but sometimes gaps will occur (accuracy of the sensors). So in at least both rectification and 'inter' image adjustment have to be done.
To describe all the material more systematicly - photogrammetry is the buzzword. I've attached some links (software, how to, literature, open source solution).
Regards Alex
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Like sensors Thank You in Advance.
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A design of a path planning from scratch (not just giving GPS waypoints) depends essentially on the dynamics of the system, in the case of UAV (quadcopters or other) the dynamic model has to be well known, with the most parameters that you can get (weight, dimension, interias, different forces, etc...).
Then for sensors, it depends on the navigation area, if it's open, you mostly need a GPS and IMU combined for refining the measurements. If you're in an indoor area, IMU is needed as well, but GPS is inefficient, and in this case you'll need a visual odometry (this can be used outside as well) to estimate the travelling distance of your UAV, and an obstacle avoidance system (sonars, lidars and so on).
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The glow plug engines are used in unmanned aerial vehicle power plant application, methane as fuel.
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I have experiences with methanol and patrol engines, but do not use them in our campaigns. What do you want to know exactly?
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Parameters like Trajectory
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weight,shape and body dimensions,length the blades,wings extend,range at which moves,speed, location of sensors, obstacle distance,shape and movement details(if moving,even its velocity), planning algorithm,even the kind of control system in the uav is responsible.
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UAVs  and autonomous aerials
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Dear Ajmal
Mary Cummings, MIT, Human Automation Laboratory HAL, is an expert in supervisory control of UAV.
Perhaps you could find some interesting research work related to US Forces in this field.
Salvador Lorite and I have a contribution to supervisory control interface design of UAV
page 253
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What are the simulation tools or software that can be used for testing the algorithms of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle path planning,speed, efficiency, collision avoidance?
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If you do need aerodynamic simulation, X-Plane works quite well. We used that along with matlab to simulate a few rotorcraft uavs. X-plane has a simple network based API that you can use to provide inputs to controls and get back pretty much any variable used in the aerodynamic simulation.
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Currently Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) are heavily researched in computer vision and photogrammetry for several interesting and exciting applications, but security restrictions may hamper their practical use in the near future. Is there any line of technological thinking that may help to mitigate and address the security restrictions without compromising the safety of the public?
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Hi Gamal, the technology is there, that is not the issue. Many devices have safety features programmed on their IMUs like no flight zones, limited altitude and radius, self-landing if loosing power and back to home if loosing contact with the transmitter, etc. Others even have an in-built parachute and most have prop guards accessories as well. They are reliable as long as their users follow the directions of the manufacturer. Like taking off only after the position has been fixed by the internal GPS and so on. So, safety features are already being included in prosumer models  by modern technology (e.g. DJI). I do not think there is a limit there. Manufacturers are already addressing it. In my opinion the problem of "security restrictions" is not on how many safety features technology can provide in an UAV but on the "simplistic" way these regulations are being made.
These devices are not "cheap toys" neither (unless thinking in toys like Cheerson CX10 - like) nor the cameras we use on them (gopro or DSLR) and so, UAV pilots are of course people willing to do everything to prevent their devices from having accidents and there are basic rules that common sense can provide to avoid accidents. As an example, I have read on RC forums from the very same pilots to propose rules like only people with enough experience, insurance, using only plastic props (not CF), with limited altitude and for specific purposes should be allowed to fly over populated areas. Newbies should fly only on open areas and dedicated sites until acquiring more experience. General public no flight zones are obvious (populated, military, airports, etc). There are several RC forums where this subject is addressed extensively by way more experienced people than me.
The problem you site is relevant because the actual direction the U.S. FAA or law makers are taking is in my opinion creating not desired negative effects. As you mentioned the restrictions are threatening the use of this technology on several important and useful fields because of few irresponsible customers. Think about a portable defibrillator (those simple to use models with vocal instructions) could be sent by your local hospital to your house in case of an emergency in seconds, saving critical time while the ambulance arrives through the traffic. That technology is feasible and safe, but today FAA's regulations make it very difficult to implement.
In my country I use UAVs for aerial surveys of sea lion colonies, cetaceans and even nesting sites, as well as to produce low altitude geographic seasonal information in remote areas. I do not even need to approach anymore with a boat to these sensitive sites. The effects of the boat were way more significant than the small DJI Phantom. I am writing a paper about the use of this device in ecology since with few simple modifications, I have seen it tolerated by wildlife so well that it can become an important tool for field scientists and protected areas managers. Of course, there too are some common sense rules to be adopted like the altitude, distance to the animals and time of exposure. Using 3-blade props the noise from props is significantly diminished and the LEDs can be disconnected as well adjusting these devices to work with wildlife. Modern cameras have such a great image quality that allow us to stay far and produce good data anyway. FPV technology allows us to confirm the images are right, check in real time the effects of the presence of the UAV and get out without further delay. I also use a modified version to transport devices like a hydrophone and data logger to sites I cannot reach or I do not want to disturb with my presence. In minutes I can collect data that otherwise would take me several hours or even days without ever be as sure as with the UAVs of producing the same quality due to my presence at the field. To do this in the USA, it would be quite complex with the actual FAA restrictions (FPV seems that will not be even allowed)
In my opinion the problem of these "quick" regulations is that they do not accomplish their main goal and instead produce unwanted effects. They do not stop irresponsible people from buying and misuse these devices. Instead they make harder their use by responsible pilots, limiting the many positive uses of this technology because the problem is not on the technology itself but on the user of it. This is a fundamental fact that regulators have not addressed properly. A guy taking not allowed photos of the girl next door, can use a drone, a telescope, a photocamera or even his cellphone. The wrong doing is on the action itself of taking photos of the girl without her permission, rather than the use of some specific device to accomplish his goal. Are we going to ban DSLRs? telephoto lenses will need an expensive license as well?
UAV can have many safety features provided by modern technology, that in fact have already been included in prosumer and professional models, but it has not been properly recognized by regulators. Instead the focus has been against the device itself rather than the irresponsible use of this technology.
As in many other cases of technology produced by and for military purposes, as soon as it is used outside of that field, the initial response is driven by fear and thus the intention to ban its general public use, or to limit it as much as possible regardless of the limitations that these "quick" regulations pose to positive applications of this technology. Then the regulations are modified due to public pressure and becomes something more reasonable after some time. Just think about the GPS technology... Now we have it on our cellphones and we are not more at risk than before. I guess with UAVs it will happen the same but it is going to take some time for lawmakers to learn about this technology and address it properly.
The use of small but highly technological UAVs has provided me of a great tool for wildlife research on remote areas minimizing significantly the impacts and costs of the projects. Since many regulators follow what the USA do, I do not know for how long I will be able to use it in my country and actually I cannot even think about using it in the USA... Your question is about how to handle these regulations... Well, we have just to abide to them until they are replaced by something more reasonable. Experiences overseas with UAVs applied on field research can provide valuable information to regulation makers.
This is highly controversial in some forums perhaps due to the idea of "expensive toys" or "dangerous devices" (due to few irresponsible customers and the associated image to the word "drone") that general public may have about UAVs. But certainly this is a technology that depending on the purpose, it can have many positive positive and needed effects in environmental sciences and management.
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Who has done that recently?
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Hi Victor,
There are some solutions with directive lasers. High communication bandwidth van be achieved, but the positionnement precision , and stability of the station keeping requirements are important.