Ultrasonics - Science topic
A subfield of acoustics dealing in the radio frequency range higher than acoustic SOUND waves (approximately above 20 kilohertz). Ultrasonic radiation is used therapeutically (DIATHERMY and ULTRASONIC THERAPY) to generate HEAT and to selectively destroy tissues. It is also used in diagnostics, for example, ULTRASONOGRAPHY; ECHOENCEPHALOGRAPHY; and ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, to visually display echoes received from irradiated tissues.
Questions related to Ultrasonics
I need 80Hz to ultrasonicate my sample, but the only parameter I can change is Time and Duty cycle. I there any relation between them?
How to manage 80 kHz while Ultransonication?
I am using Branson Sonicator for the process.
Thanks and regdars
I would like to know that ultrasonic structural health monitoring has been developed for many years. At present, in which fields has it been maturely applied? Which companies have launched corresponding products? Now I have read a lot of relevant papers, but I think this direction is still in the stage of laboratory research, and there are many problems to be solved in practical application. What is the research significance of this direction for the industry?
I am trying to calculate the corresponding pressure from the received signal (measured in V) as a function of distance for an ultrasonic transducer.
I wanted to know is there any equation that correlates directly the corresponding pressure when I have the signal(V) measured by transducer. I am aware that the time echo method can be used to measure the delay in time and it is correlated with pressure. I however need to know the magnitude of the pressure.
Thanks in advance.
I want to model a vibrating solid (ultrasonic horn) in liquid filled structure and observe the acoustic pressure field in the liquid.
I used solid mechanics (frequency domain) and laminar flow (stationary), but it didn't work.
I think it is because solid mechanics is frequency domain but fluid mechanics is not.
If I don't use fluid mechanics, I can't select the properties of the liquid.
please help me.
Can I get some comments or examples?
I am performing Modal analysis for ultrasonic cylindrical horn at a frequency 20KHz. After performing the linear perturbation analysis to find the natural frequency of the horn the end result shows a distorted meshed figure. I am unable to understand where I am going wrong.
Any help related to this query would be appreciated.
Technical specifications of the horn.
Diameter : case 1: 2 cm , case 2: 6 cm
Natural frequency: 20KHz
Thank You so much.
Photonic-based or microwave photonic-based Sensors are being used in combination with Ultrasonic, and Camera-based sensors for the smooth operation of Autonomous Vehicles. Many articles have been presented using FMCW techniques along with LiDAR tech to enhance the sensing capabilities of AVs.
What do you think is the future direction in this area of sensor development in a simulative environment?
I am looking for a technical guide for ultrasonic homogenizer design and manufacture.
I need a detailed explanation about how to design a transducer, booster and horn system for homogenizing solutions.
I would appreciate if you could please send me such a file or link.
Can I use ethyl acetate as a solvent in bandelin ultrasonic homogenizer? Are there any dangers to the probe or machine from this solvent?
Sensor is designed for maximal temperature of 130°C, pipe surface depending on application reaches 200-450°C. The isolation pad must have satisfactory acoustic conductivity of ultrasonic signal in frequency range between 0,2 to 5 MHz. The isolating pad should be several mm thin. Maybe some kind of cooling layers in required dimensions could be used. Contact surface of the sensors is in dimesions up to 40x80 mm.
Mycelium is cultured on PDB medium. Mycelium biomass is extracted by simple filtration with Whatman filter paper but the live biomass contains PDB on its surface. To get clean biomass can I give the biomass an ultrasonic bath? If so, then for how long at what power and temperature?
I wish to isolate phyllosphere bacteria from sample leaf surfaces using a commercial ultrasonic bath. Most sonicators in relevant literature operate at 40kHz for 8-10 minutes, but very little information is provided regarding the needed power to dislodge bacteria from a solid surface.
1) Am I correct to assume that power should really be evaluated in terms of Watts per gallon? If so, what is the minimum recommended Watts/gallon to remove bacteria?
2) Does heating the bath have any effect on the efficiency of bacterial removal? Some commercial baths allow you to heat up to 80°C.
Answering these two questions would help me determine which ultrasonic bath to purchase. Thank you!
I need to design and simulate a power supply(generator) to drive 6 transducers. power of each transducer is 50 watts and they work at 40khz frequency.
can you please share a design of such generator with me?
Hello, I have some doubts about DLS measuring the size of the nanoparticles.I hope to get answers from you.
I measure TiO2-NPs(60nm，commercialization ) in 0.01M PBS. But Instrument prompt “sample too polydisperse for cumulant analysis” and “sample too polydisperse for distribution analysis” .Correlation Functions show the picture as followed. Why does this happen and how to avoid it ?
All dispersions were filtered with 0.45um filter. Ultrasonic dispersionwas used.
For better results, many homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts have been investigated; nonetheless, the catalytic aldol process is related to environmental problems. Chemists have used different micellar mediums, microwave irradiation, and ultrasonics as alternate routes for aldol condensation.
Share your views and ideas about another alternative methods for aldol reactions towards green perspectives?
Usually SAFT is applied on shear waves using low frequency transducers. Shear waves provide very clean A-scan when compared with longitudinal waves. Due to large number of mode conversions of ultrasonic wave, multiple echoes can be observed in the A-scan acquired using narrow band longitudinal wave transducers. This makes it difficult for the implementation of SAFT technique.
There are two types of ultrasonic transducers: piezoelectric and magnetostrictive.
My question is:
Can the same power supply(generator) used for piezoelectric ultrasonic transducers be used for magnetostrictive ultrasonic transducers without loosing performance?
I want to make a magnetostrictive ultrasonic transducer for homogenizing applications.
I also want to make its power supply by myself.
I need some references (papers, patents, reports, books videos, etc.) that can help me in this way.
I would appreciate your help
I am using 2 ultrasonic assembly for cleaning purpose and I want to increase cavitation intensity.
(1) a ceramic transducer with a diameter of 30 mm and a horn with a end diameter of 8 mm.
(2) a ceramic transducer with a diameter of 40 mm and a horn with a end diameter of 8 mm.
Since the input power of (2) is higher than that of (1), I expected that the sound pressure of (2) is higher than that of (1), but it was not.
I think it is because the acoustic impedance of (2) is much lower than that of (1) (even though the power is high, sound pressure can be lower since Z=p/v is lower).
1. Am I misunderstanding something??
2. If not, how to increase the acoustic impedance of the ultrasonic assembly??
3. How can I estimate the acoustic impedance of the ultrasonic assembly??
4. What is the best?? the acoustic impedance of the ultrasonic assembly should be equal to the acoustic impedance of the media (water in my case) or as high as possible?
I think if the amplitude is large then the acoustic pressure also high.
I have tried to increase the acoustic pressure and use the ultrasonic booster which is known to increase amplitude.
But it did not work. The acoustic pressre measured by hydrophone was almost same as the acoustic pressure of the transducer without booster.
I am wondering
1. What is the relationship between the acoustic pressure and the amplitude.
2. What is the ultrasonic booster. Does it can increase the acoustic pressure??
Hi all experts;
I`m doing a simulation on crack detection in a steel plate using ultrasonic wave propagation. I am using Abaqus Software/explicit solver to capture ultrasonic waves in a steel plate. My actual problem is, I first run an undamaged plate, then run the plate with a crack; when I compare the result to figure out the crack position, it is approximatively the same and I don't know how to obtain the Time of Flight (ToF).
below details are the data I used.
Plate size 1m x 1m
longitudinal velocity: 5850m/s
Transversal Velocity: 3130.354m/s
mesh size: 1mm
Time period: 0.00035s
time increment: 1e-7
for excitation I used: 0.5×[1-cos((2×2π×f×t)/n)]×sin(2×2π×f×t) with 3.5 cycles.
Thanks in advance, waiting for advisement to solve my issue.
If I want to design an ultrasonic transducer or saw device, then what is the significance of the velocity which propagates through the medium in the form of energy.
I would like to mount ultrasonic transducers on a small cylindrical sample to measure P and S wave velocities (2" diameter and 4" length). Appreciate it If you can provide some references as a starting point on how to design such equipment, sizes, and specifications of ultrasonic transducers, etc.
I have an Bolted Langevin Transducer, resonating at its half wavelength frequency at around 52kHz, and the impedance measurement at resonance shows a 200ohm, and a -22° phase angle.
I check online, there are quite a number of different configurations of impedance matching circuit design proposals. I took the LC configuration, where the inductance L is place between the electrical source and the live wire of the piezoceramics, the capacitance is place between the output inductance and ground. So the circuit is simply a low-pass filter configuration.
The impedance measurement for the LC circuit + ultrasonic transducer demonstrates a 48ohm, -4° phase at around 51kHz.
However, when I powered up the device, with and without the LC matching circuit, using the same applied voltage input, the device without matching demonstrates an almost double vibration output compared to the device with matching.
Am I doing something incorrect? I thought bringing the impedance down to 50ohm will match to the electrical source output impedance, and an almost 0° will ensure a maximal power transfer?
Looking forward to your feedback!
We are using a horn-type ultrasonic transducer for cavitation and cleaning purposes.
We experimentally found that the cavitation effect and cleaning effectiveness were decreased when input power was higher than a certain value.
The sound pressure measured by the hydrophone showed a periodic wave pattern when we applied proper input power, but it showed an irregular wave pattern when the input power is high (maximum value of sound pressure was high, but RMS value was low).
I have two questions
1. Does cavitation is promoted when the acoustic field shows a uniform and periodic pattern?? (even the maximum sound pressure is lower). Why??
2. Does the tip of the ultrasonic horn irregularly vibrate when high power was applied?? If not, why does the measured sound pressure showed an irregular pattern??
I am using a Cole-Parmer 750-Watt Ultrasonic Homogenizer. Is it possible to control the frequency of the ultrasonic oscillation on this machine or do I need other pieces of equipment?
I am attempting to make translucent oil in water nano-emulsions following the protocol in this paper. My oil to water ratio will be significantly more however, it needs to be as high as possible while remaining translucent.
The energy setting of my homogenizer its in Joules.
So how do I convert from Hz to J ??
Here are the numbers form the paper but it doesn't make sense to be me because how can a higher frequency have a lower energy if E=hv?
20 kHz 44W cm^-2 = 440000 J
1.6 MHz 16W cm^-2 = 160000 J
2.4 MHz 7W cm^-2 = 70000 J
Here is their method
0.5 mmol of EDOT was added to 25 mL of aqueous solution containing 1.0 M LiClO4 in glass beaker cell. The 20 kHz ultrasonication to the water/oil mixture was conducted with an ultrasonic stepped horn (13 mm diameter, titanium alloy) connected with a 20 kHz oscillator (44 W cm−2, SONIFIER-250D, Branson Ultrasonics Co.) for 5 min. The sequential ultrasonication with 1.6 MHz treatment after 20 kHz was carried out using an ultrasonic transducer (16 W cm−2, Honda Electric Co.) connected with a Pyrex glass cylindrical tube (diameter, 24 mm; length, 75 mm) for 5 min. The further sequential ultrasonication with 2.4 MHz treatment after 20 kHz and 1.6 MHz was conducted by an ultrasonic transducer (7 W cm−2, Honda Electric Co.) connected with a Pyrex glass cylindrical tube (diameter, 24 mm; length, 75 mm) for 5 min.
I want to find the resonance and anti-resonance frequencies of an ultrasonic transducer by analyzing its impedance.
so I need to buy a impedance analyzer or spectrum analyzer or something like that.
but my budget is limited.
do you recommend any device for my application and limited budget? :D
I want to apply a pulse-echo methodology (by using one single transducer as both transmitter and receiver). Do you know how to connect the transducer to the wave generator and oscilloscope to detect both transmitted pulse and echoes?
I have been trying to use the burst feature in manual mode by pressing the trigger button in the wave generator. However, when I do that, the oscilloscope is only capable of reading the wave generated instead of receiving as well the back-wall echo.
I am also using these types of transducers from Stemininc: Piezo Ceramic Plate 20x15x2.1mm 1 MHz, Piezo Ceramic Plate 7x7x0.2mm 250 KHz, and Piezo Ceramic Plate 20x15x3mm 710 KHz. Thus, I'm not sure if they are indicated to use this pulse-echo methodology.
I have two alligator cables connected to the oscillator and to the transducer: 1 to work as the transmitter and one to work as the receiver; and they are both connected in the same wires of the transducer. However, so far, it seems that these alligator cables connected to the same transducer are giving me the same wave.
Do you know if this equipment as it is is capable of doing these readings:
- reading of the transmitted and received waves (of amplitude vs. time), separately, by using this setup as is (when using two different cables), or
- reading of the transmitted and received waves combined in the same curve: maximum peak sent and resultant received echoes (back-end wall or cracks, for example)?
I am using a manually triggered pulse sine wave of amplitudes of either 10Vpp or 24Vpp, but the outcome is always identical. Should I be using a higher amplitude to make sure I receive the echoes?
Any help would be much appreciated.
I am currently using ultrasonic convertors and horn for cleaning perpose. I want to increase cavitation intensity and i found that ultrasonic booster help to increase the intensity.
But I still cannot understand how it works and the working mechanism of ultrasonic boosters.
And how ultrasonic booster is different from ultrasonic horn??
is it possible to make a DIY impedance analyzer for checking the resonance frequency of high power ultrasonic transducers? for example a face mask welding ultrasonic transducer
Dear UT Experts,
I am currently trying to get a better picture of how UT NDT Inspectors determine the noise level. This is why I have started this survey and I would like to ask you to provide YOUR personal view on this subject.
My question: Looking at the signal in the attached figure - which level would you report as the noise level? 0.3; 0.4; 0.5; 0.6; 0.7; 0.8; 0.9; 1.0? Or something in-between?
Thank you ...
I want to simulate a sono-reactor.
Can anyone share a reliable simulation file for simulation of a power ultrasonic transducer and horn in ANSYS or COMSOL with me please?
I've included two pulse-echo plots: One is zoomed out far enough to see the exponential decrease in the "reverberations" following immediately after the pulse is sent out; the other is a close-up of the actual first echo where you can see the first frontside and backside reflections off of the PLA puck.
I've also included a chart showing my immersion transducer setup.
What is causing these undesired reverberations in the beginning? Is my transducer faulty somehow?
I am doing a sonication study to dissolve Extracellular matrix proteins in PBS to induce gelation. I came up with a strategy to reduce heat produced by sonication and cavitation affecting proteins but I was wondering if anyone knows if cavitation itself can lead to ECM protein denaturation. Besides, ultrasonic frequencies (20kHz) can neither damage ECM proteins right?
I want develop a code for a water dispenser such that at first instance when the sensor detects a cup valve opens for a certain delay and closed. It remains closed until the cup is redetected for the second instance, it then open for another delay. Just for two instances different delay.
Hi, I want to make analysis for powerfull ultrasonic transducer. But if I definate a support like "fixed support" it doesnt correct responce because I want to see natural resonance frequency and I don't know nodal point yet (I hope, the nodal point will detected after analysis). Therefore I think, I shouldn't definate any support. But if I didn't add a support, this time Ansys giving a pivot error. As a summary I want to multibody modal analysis and I dont want to definate any support ,fixed or etc. There is a way for it or other advice? Thanks.
3D printing of high-strength aluminium alloys
In this paper, the authors mentioned using electrostatic assembly technique to coat Al alloy micro powder with ZrH2 nanoparticles. How do they implement this technique? What kind of equipment do they use?
And what is the advantages of this technique compared to mixing particles via ball milling, ultrasonic/magnetic stir, etc.?
I wanna get ultrasonic vibrations using a screen generator of 300 watts and 33kHz frequency.
Is it possible to use that generator to study ultrasonic vibrations effect on tribological behavior of materials?
Or I need other materials for this purpose? like piezo actuators, amplifiers, ultrasonic generators?
We want to use 293T cell line to make ChIP-seq of H3K9me3. Could anyone help to provide an optimized ultrasonic crushing conditions？
Although there are some attenuation theory about frequency-depent ultrasonic shear wave attenuation, few of which has been verified by experiments. Actually, it is difficult to conduct shear wave attenuation experiment since there are many factors which can affect the measurement results.
Dear scientific community,
Can anybody guide me about the testing of ultrasonic flow sensor(1Mhz freq)? As I have tested those sensors in the range of 1.5v to 3.6V many times with the help of function generator and oscilloscope but I did not get any output. however, when I tested simple ultrasonic 40kHz ranging sensor, I got the output as I was expecting. kindly help me to figure out this as soon as possible. thank you
I am working on the design of an auto-adjustable 25khz 2000W ultrasonic generator(power supply).
I will use that to generate the ultrasonic power of a welding system.
"auto-adjustable" means that it can find the right working frequency of the transducer by getting feedback from piezo stacks.
I am looking for books or websites or papers that can help me in my work.
If you have a circuit design designed for this purpose, I would be grateful if you could share it with me.
Hello, I', planning to dissolve the chemical compound in a high concentration in DMSO.
According to medchemexpress.com, they say to use an ultrasonic to dissolve at high concentrations. (DMSO : 50mg/ml ; Need ultrasonic)But I have no idea about Amplification and the pulse of the sonicator. Can anybody give me some advice?
And, Do I need to measure the concentration after sonicator? If yes, How? using Nanodrop?
Lamb wave is useful for solid structure health monitoring, and it consists many modes. Unlike ultrasonic bulk wave, when given a pulse excitation (for example, 5-cycle sinusoidal pulse), only boundary or damage can reflect a signal back, so it can be easily reconstructed or simulated by MATLAB. How to reconstruct a Lamb wave like this? Start from a simple aluminum plate, and give it a 5-cycle sinusoidal pulse, how to predict the signal received at another spot?
I'm a graduate student currently conceptualizing my master's thesis project, which includes recording and analyzing ultrasonic vocalizations from rat pups. All methods/technology I have looked into is extremely expensive (Avisoft, DeepSqueak via MATLAB, med-associates, etc). Does anyone have any cheaper alternatives (preferably no more than a few hundred dollars) to recording and analyzing USVs?
We are planning to procure a tubular furnace for our lab. Our main activities will be ultrasonic spray pyrolysis and chemical vapour deposition. What furnace would be suitable for the above mentioned activities?
In addition the values exceed the maximum possible value of flow rate that the pipe size can provide.
Hello and thanks for taking the time to read my question.
I am researching the possibility of life after death. The first step is to determine if there is life after death through interaction with a spirit. In order to do so, we have to provide spirits with energy to allow them to interact with us.
It is suggested that spirits draw energy from DC batteries when people are "hunting" as shown on numerous television shows. The batteries of the equipment will drain. It seems the spirits are trying to materialize using this harvested energy. The question then becomes how to create energy for the spirits to harvest without draining the tools that are detecting the spirits.
I'm no electrical genius but it seems that a low or high-frequency sound can be converted to energy for the spirits to harvest. I don't know which but I'm thinking low or ultrasonic sound wave below the threshold of human hearing would work. I'm guessing but it would be great if someone could add to this with more knowledge than I have.
I'm thinking a standard 8-ohm speaker with a particular frequency signal being pumped through from a sound generator as the straight forward approach.
Thoughts, ideas, or even a homemade device would be great. If you have sound engineering knowledge with a solid mathematics background to figure out the correct frequency and formula to reach 9 to 12 VDC energy to feed into the environment consistently it would be a great help.
And you thought this would be easy... Thanks
Hello everyone,I was using the method from Nair(DOI: 10.1038/NPHYS2183) to ultrasonic HOPG in an organic solvent(NMP).after 8h sonication,unlike usual graphite which change into graphene suspension,It remains blocks and solvent were still transparent.I don't understand why, can you give me some advise?
to detect and segment breast lesion for breast cancer in ultrasonic breast imgae
I want to know the empirical fitting formula between Partial discharge and ultrasonic sound pressure , Could I check it through the literature, please
I'm looking for a miniature titanium ultrasonic probe (The diameter of the probe is less than 1 mm) for A-scanning of metals such as cooper or brass
this probe must be inserted into a hole with a diameter of less than one millimetre, which the material of the bottom surface of this hole is metal with a thickness of a few centimetres.
Can anyone introduce me to a product or article on this topic?
The scan direction is perpendicular to the direction of movement of the probe, that is, in contrast to the direction of scanning conventional probes, which is in the same direction of the probe movement.
i want to apply this transducer with horn for Electrospray investigation
thanks for sharing your ideas
I use a piezoelectric sensor, a humidifier electronic circuit and a 32-volt power supply to generate high-frequency ultrasound waves. I use these waves to atomize the liquid.
the problem is that the viscosity of the liquid is high, so the generated ultrasonic waves cannot atomize the liquid well.
any idea for this problem?
for example, can i use two circuit with two supply power and connect their output to the sensor to higher the sensor power? or ...
Hello everyone, I am doing a simulation of an electromagnetic ultrasonic transducer(EMAT) in COMSOL, but the simulation results are not quite right. The voltage in the detection coil appears to contain only eddy current components, not ultrasonic components. In other words, it seems that B×v is not calculated. I suspect that the reason is that the magnetic field module and the solid mechanics module in the simulation are not bidirectionally coupled. Therefore, how to make them bidirectionally coupled?
I want to suspense and mix my micro/nano-particles inside a solution. What are the differences between an ultrasonic homogenizer and a vortex mixture?
I'm working with an application where I'd like to detect a short sound from a distance up to 100 m. An ultrasonic chirp has been unreliable so far. I was contemplating the use of the snap of an electrical arc spark (like a gas stove lighter), which ostensibly would produce a small shock wave that would not attenuate as quickly as a normal sound wave in air. Does anyone have experience with this and is there a reliable way to recognize this "snap" over other background sound?
In ultrasonic assisted machining, ultrasonic welding etc. systems, transducers are required to vibrate in eigenfrequency . If we vibrate a system at its natural frequency ( eigenfrequency ), won't there be resonance? Why do we want to vibrate in mode shapes ( eigenfrequency )?
I think it is not good news for a faithful author of US.
The journal quality will descend or not?
The IF will descend or not?
I am using this ultrasound model to identify the appearance of pathologies in a concrete beam and the sensitivity of the equipment is important to differentiate what is variation of the signal due to random effects (experiment) from a variation due to the appearance of a crack, properly said.
The principle is that High frequency electrical energy is converted into ultrasound waves by means of ultrasonic Tranducers, which are bonded on the base of S. S. Water Tank. These high frequency sound waves create in the liquid countless, Microscopic Vacuum Bubbles, which repidly expand and collapse.
The question is not so trivial. I mean not only the variable to measure and how to measure. But also I am asking which type of sensor, which sensibility, etc.
For example if a wasp is flying in this forest on the trees and comes next to my sensor how will I detect which kind of insect is it ? I can use an acoustic detector ? An ultrasonic sound detector ? And what about its shape ? Can I use a low cost image sensor ? Which one ?
Hi, a couple of years ago a saw an ultrasonic anemometer for liquids. When I search now I only find ones for air. Does anyone know where I can buy one?
I fixed my ultra-sonication duration on my samples. If I prepare my samples by batch, the previous batch might start agglomerating. The maximum quantity on 1 preparation is 500 ml and few hours. Need few liters of it and takes almost a week for 1 sample testing in test rig.