Science topic

Ultrasonics - Science topic

A subfield of acoustics dealing in the radio frequency range higher than acoustic SOUND waves (approximately above 20 kilohertz). Ultrasonic radiation is used therapeutically (DIATHERMY and ULTRASONIC THERAPY) to generate HEAT and to selectively destroy tissues. It is also used in diagnostics, for example, ULTRASONOGRAPHY; ECHOENCEPHALOGRAPHY; and ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, to visually display echoes received from irradiated tissues.
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I need 80Hz to ultrasonicate my sample, but the only parameter I can change is Time and Duty cycle. I there any relation between them?
How to manage 80 kHz while Ultransonication?
I am using Branson Sonicator for the process.
Thanks and regdars
Jyotish
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Usually the frequency of the horn and the driving circuit is fixed around the the target resonance. It maybe that you need to have a look round some of the other labs to see if they have a system that runs at 80 KHz. If yours is 20KHz then I doubt it would either driver (instrument) or be driven (transducer) as it will be so far off resonance. The piezo material thickness determines the frequency and the horn acts as a waveguide to focus the energy into your sample.
The circuits at these high energies are very basic with a high voltage oscillation driving the piezo with a number of watts at a sine wave or similar waveform (often a very dirty square wave).
Are you sure that the frequency is so critical to the process. Often it's just a record of what someone used rather than what was needed or even optimised? The wavelength is still pretty huge (17.5 mm) in water at 80 KHz and 70 mm for 20 KHz. I would think that both would work given the scale of the structure that you are disrupting.
uses 20 KHz at 25% duty cycle at 60 amplitude for that instrument.
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I would like to know that ultrasonic structural health monitoring has been developed for many years. At present, in which fields has it been maturely applied? Which companies have launched corresponding products? Now I have read a lot of relevant papers, but I think this direction is still in the stage of laboratory research, and there are many problems to be solved in practical application. What is the research significance of this direction for the industry?
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Boeing has installed patch-type pzt sensors to monitor fatigue failure of the aircraft wing structure. It is not for a long range inspection but a short range inspection where sensors are installed in close proximity to the structurally vulnerable spots. "Long range inspection using guided waves blah blah...", these are all lies to publish papers. Watch out!
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I am trying to calculate the corresponding pressure from the received signal (measured in V) as a function of distance for an ultrasonic transducer.
I wanted to know is there any equation that correlates directly the corresponding pressure when I have the signal(V) measured by transducer. I am aware that the time echo method can be used to measure the delay in time and it is correlated with pressure. I however need to know the magnitude of the pressure.
Thanks in advance.
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Yes, Shadeeb, as Bernard rightly says, the manufacturer of the transducer should supply a calibration curve for the transducer relating the voltage measured into a specified impedance (e.g. 50 ohms) as a function of frequency, e.g. a curve showing for example 1.5 V/kPa at 1 MHz. Ask the manufacturer for this data, which should include accuracy specifications, e.g. +/- 15%.
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I want to model a vibrating solid (ultrasonic horn) in liquid filled structure and observe the acoustic pressure field in the liquid.
I used solid mechanics (frequency domain) and laminar flow (stationary), but it didn't work.
I think it is because solid mechanics is frequency domain but fluid mechanics is not.
If I don't use fluid mechanics, I can't select the properties of the liquid.
please help me.
Can I get some comments or examples?
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Hello ,
I am performing Modal analysis for ultrasonic cylindrical horn at a frequency 20KHz. After performing the linear perturbation analysis to find the natural frequency of the horn the end result shows a distorted meshed figure. I am unable to understand where I am going wrong.
Any help related to this query would be appreciated.
Technical specifications of the horn.
Diameter : case 1: 2 cm , case 2: 6 cm
length :14.3cm
Natural frequency: 20KHz
material: Aluminium
Thank You so much.
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Its because of Hourglass energy effect.
Switch to element formulations with fully-integrated or selectively reduced integration.
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In ultrasonic bath, Other than the over heat, what are the causes of piezo damage?
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Does it mean, that you have applied 2420 W to transducer declared as 60 W transducer and you haven't had a damage?
What impedance has your transducer at 28 kHz?
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Photonic-based or microwave photonic-based Sensors are being used in combination with Ultrasonic, and Camera-based sensors for the smooth operation of Autonomous Vehicles. Many articles have been presented using FMCW techniques along with LiDAR tech to enhance the sensing capabilities of AVs.
What do you think is the future direction in this area of sensor development in a simulative environment?
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Technology Integration via;
1. Joint Sensing and Communication,
2. Dual Function Radar Communication.
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I am looking for a circuit design of a 200 watts ultrasonic homogenizer.
I would appreciate if you share any data about this
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I am looking for a technical guide for ultrasonic homogenizer design and manufacture.
I need a detailed explanation about how to design a transducer, booster and horn system for homogenizing solutions.
I would appreciate if you could please send me such a file or link.
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I want to compare impedance analyzer results with FEM ones.
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Monica La Mura Thanks a lot for your good response.
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I want to build a 100W 20khz ultrasonic transducer.
where or how can I find the dimensions?
my pizeo stack dimensions are: 50 17 6.5 mm
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Can I use ethyl acetate as a solvent in bandelin ultrasonic homogenizer? Are there any dangers to the probe or machine from this solvent?
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As to answer correctly Doufnoune RACHIDA Rachida, there are no fundamental objections to the use of ethyl acetate as a solvent ultrasonic homogenizer. It is only necessary to take into account the safety regulations (especially to avoid inhalation of vapors) and fire safety.
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Sensor is designed for maximal temperature of 130°C, pipe surface depending on application reaches 200-450°C. The isolation pad must have satisfactory acoustic conductivity of ultrasonic signal in frequency range between 0,2 to 5 MHz. The isolating pad should be several mm thin. Maybe some kind of cooling layers in required dimensions could be used. Contact surface of the sensors is in dimesions up to 40x80 mm.
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Dear colleague Miroslav Rusko, thank you for the information
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Mycelium is cultured on PDB medium. Mycelium biomass is extracted by simple filtration with Whatman filter paper but the live biomass contains PDB on its surface. To get clean biomass can I give the biomass an ultrasonic bath? If so, then for how long at what power and temperature?
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Dear Nihal Shahriyar . See the following useful RG link:
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Hello,
I wish to isolate phyllosphere bacteria from sample leaf surfaces using a commercial ultrasonic bath. Most sonicators in relevant literature operate at 40kHz for 8-10 minutes, but very little information is provided regarding the needed power to dislodge bacteria from a solid surface.
1) Am I correct to assume that power should really be evaluated in terms of Watts per gallon? If so, what is the minimum recommended Watts/gallon to remove bacteria?
2) Does heating the bath have any effect on the efficiency of bacterial removal? Some commercial baths allow you to heat up to 80°C.
Answering these two questions would help me determine which ultrasonic bath to purchase. Thank you!
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The properties of the liquid will also influence the effect of ultrasound: vapor pressure, interfacial tension and viscosity. As with temperature, an increase in the vapor pressure of the liquid facilitates cavitation but reduces the pressures and temperatures reached in the bubble when it implodes.
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I need to design and simulate a power supply(generator) to drive 6 transducers. power of each transducer is 50 watts and they work at 40khz frequency.
can you please share a design of such generator with me?
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If you have never set up or repaired switching power supplies or converters, then I do not advise you to undertake the design and manufacture of a generator for an ultrasonic transducer. Try using ready-made DIY kits. Or, for the beginning, learn the schemotechnics of such ready-made kits.
Try to search "Ultrasonic DIY Generator"
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Hello, I have some doubts about DLS measuring the size of the nanoparticles.I hope to get answers from you.
I measure TiO2-NPs(60nm,commercialization ) in 0.01M PBS. But Instrument prompt “sample too polydisperse for cumulant analysis” and “sample too polydisperse for distribution analysis” .Correlation Functions show the picture as followed. Why does this happen and how to avoid it ?
All dispersions were filtered with 0.45um filter. Ultrasonic dispersionwas used.
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Another reason could be the ionic strength of your PBS solution which may generate "Debye screening effects". This essentially means that electrostatic stabilization of your particles is decreased, leading to agglomeration and the apparent polydispersity.
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For better results, many homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts have been investigated; nonetheless, the catalytic aldol process is related to environmental problems. Chemists have used different micellar mediums, microwave irradiation, and ultrasonics as alternate routes for aldol condensation.
Share your views and ideas about another alternative methods for aldol reactions towards green perspectives?
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Hi;
Biocatalysis and biomimetic catalysis are currently the most promising avenues to pursue for the development of green aldol reactions. Interestingly, proline promoted aldol additions of free or protected hydroxy acids as a donor occur with excellent regioselectivity, diastereoselectivity and enantioselectivity. However, one drawback of the early proline-catalyzed aldol reactions is the need to use aprotic solvents. However, good results can be obtained with the Zn-proline complex which allows its use in water.
My regards
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Usually SAFT is applied on shear waves using low frequency transducers. Shear waves provide very clean A-scan when compared with longitudinal waves. Due to large number of mode conversions of ultrasonic wave, multiple echoes can be observed in the A-scan acquired using narrow band longitudinal wave transducers. This makes it difficult for the implementation of SAFT technique.
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Yes but for implementing SAFT, TOF or arrival time should be known and in case of concrete, deriving TOF is a tedious task using longitudinal waves.
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There are two types of ultrasonic transducers: piezoelectric and magnetostrictive.
My question is:
Can the same power supply(generator) used for piezoelectric ultrasonic transducers be used for magnetostrictive ultrasonic transducers without loosing performance?
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Hello Ju Cheng ,
Perhaps the most direct way to drive the coil surrounding the magnetostrictive material would be to use a high power audio amplifier such as those used to driver moving coil speakers in a stadium. The input to the power amplifier could be a variable frequency sinewave generator.
I also found an interesting European patent that touches on your question, see attached document.
Regards,
Tom Cuff
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I want to make a magnetostrictive ultrasonic transducer for homogenizing applications.
I also want to make its power supply by myself.
I need some references (papers, patents, reports, books videos, etc.) that can help me in this way.
I would appreciate your help
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The ultrasonic piezoelectric transducer operates on the concept of the converse piezoelectric effect. When electricity is supplied to a piezoelectric material, it undergoes physical deformations that are proportional to the applied charge.
However, Magnetostrictive transducers are made up of a large number of nickel (or other magnetostrictive material) plates or laminations that are placed in parallel, with one edge of each laminate affixed to the bottom of a process tank or other vibrating surface. A wire coil is wrapped around the magnetostrictive material.
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I am using 2 ultrasonic assembly for cleaning purpose and I want to increase cavitation intensity.
(1) a ceramic transducer with a diameter of 30 mm and a horn with a end diameter of 8 mm.
(2) a ceramic transducer with a diameter of 40 mm and a horn with a end diameter of 8 mm.
Since the input power of (2) is higher than that of (1), I expected that the sound pressure of (2) is higher than that of (1), but it was not.
I think it is because the acoustic impedance of (2) is much lower than that of (1) (even though the power is high, sound pressure can be lower since Z=p/v is lower).
1. Am I misunderstanding something??
2. If not, how to increase the acoustic impedance of the ultrasonic assembly??
3. How can I estimate the acoustic impedance of the ultrasonic assembly??
4. What is the best?? the acoustic impedance of the ultrasonic assembly should be equal to the acoustic impedance of the media (water in my case) or as high as possible?
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However, If you look up matching layers in general, you will find that they are quarter wave (in the matching layer material) thick and of impedance (Zh*Zw)^.5, where Zh is the acoustic impedance of the horn material and Zw the acoustic impedance of the water (1.5 MRayls). Ideally, you should also have a matching layer from the transducer into the horn as well, same formula but using the impedances of the ceramic and horn material. The matching layer is designed for one frequency (where the matching layer is a quarter-wave thick) so will not help a lot for high bandwidth (very short) pulses.
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I think if the amplitude is large then the acoustic pressure also high.
I have tried to increase the acoustic pressure and use the ultrasonic booster which is known to increase amplitude.
But it did not work. The acoustic pressre measured by hydrophone was almost same as the acoustic pressure of the transducer without booster.
I am wondering
1. What is the relationship between the acoustic pressure and the amplitude.
2. What is the ultrasonic booster. Does it can increase the acoustic pressure??
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I think you may find what you need on the website of the transducer manufacturer, who may have application notes about the use of transducers, or the website of the horn manufacturer. They may all be optimised for water, or IPA or MEBK.
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Hi all experts;
I`m doing a simulation on crack detection in a steel plate using ultrasonic wave propagation. I am using Abaqus Software/explicit solver to capture ultrasonic waves in a steel plate. My actual problem is, I first run an undamaged plate, then run the plate with a crack; when I compare the result to figure out the crack position, it is approximatively the same and I don't know how to obtain the Time of Flight (ToF).
below details are the data I used.
Plate size 1m x 1m
Thickness: 4mm
Frequency:250KHz
longitudinal velocity: 5850m/s
Transversal Velocity: 3130.354m/s
Wavelength: 0.0125m
mesh size: 1mm
Time period: 0.00035s
time increment: 1e-7
for excitation I used: 0.5×[1-cos((2×2π×f×t)/n)]×sin(2×2π×f×t) with 3.5 cycles.
Thanks in advance, waiting for advisement to solve my issue.
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Khan Hamza Saeed, thanks, I have already gone through this paper.
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If I want to design an ultrasonic transducer or saw device, then what is the significance of the velocity which propagates through the medium in the form of energy.
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The design of ultrasonic transducer using piezoelectric material is related to wavelength and so ultrasonic propagation velocity.
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Hello Everyone,
I would like to mount ultrasonic transducers on a small cylindrical sample to measure P and S wave velocities (2" diameter and 4" length). Appreciate it If you can provide some references as a starting point on how to design such equipment, sizes, and specifications of ultrasonic transducers, etc.
Thank you
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Thank you very much, Dr. Ibrahim.
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I have an Bolted Langevin Transducer, resonating at its half wavelength frequency at around 52kHz, and the impedance measurement at resonance shows a 200ohm, and a -22° phase angle.
I check online, there are quite a number of different configurations of impedance matching circuit design proposals. I took the LC configuration, where the inductance L is place between the electrical source and the live wire of the piezoceramics, the capacitance is place between the output inductance and ground. So the circuit is simply a low-pass filter configuration.
The impedance measurement for the LC circuit + ultrasonic transducer demonstrates a 48ohm, -4° phase at around 51kHz.
However, when I powered up the device, with and without the LC matching circuit, using the same applied voltage input, the device without matching demonstrates an almost double vibration output compared to the device with matching.
Am I doing something incorrect? I thought bringing the impedance down to 50ohm will match to the electrical source output impedance, and an almost will ensure a maximal power transfer?
Looking forward to your feedback!
Thanks,
Xuan Li
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Hello Mr X. Li, I'm trying to design a matching network for a piezo transducer, it's easy to find a lot on informations for choosing a topology and calculating the value of the components, but my problem is: althought it's possible to build its own inductor, what kind of capacitor choosing for such a use? this information is never mentionned in papers, and I think that the frequency and also the power of the transducer should play a key role on the size of the device? thanks for your answer!
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We are using a horn-type ultrasonic transducer for cavitation and cleaning purposes.
We experimentally found that the cavitation effect and cleaning effectiveness were decreased when input power was higher than a certain value.
The sound pressure measured by the hydrophone showed a periodic wave pattern when we applied proper input power, but it showed an irregular wave pattern when the input power is high (maximum value of sound pressure was high, but RMS value was low).
I have two questions
1. Does cavitation is promoted when the acoustic field shows a uniform and periodic pattern?? (even the maximum sound pressure is lower). Why??
2. Does the tip of the ultrasonic horn irregularly vibrate when high power was applied?? If not, why does the measured sound pressure showed an irregular pattern??
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Please read carefully the discussion https://www.researchgate.net/post/What_is_the_relationship_between_the_acoustic_pressure_and_the_amplitude_of_ultrasound as your question on the loss of cleaning efficiency when you exceed some intensity levels is largely similar...
At high level, the ultrasonic generator becomes largely non-linear meaning widening the frequency spectrum, including low frequency components able to induce unstable horn vibration, but also large fluctuations of pressure in the fluid and unstable cavitation bubbles size.
The only way to remain under control is to stay in the quasi-linear electric power/piezo-electric conversion/fluid coupling domain...
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I am trying to crystallize vitamin B12, the recipe is
40 mg/mL vit B12 in water
spin down
Heat to 50°, ultrasonic bath
Mix 1:1 with 0.8 M NaPhosphat pH 6.8
But unfortunately it does not work. I changed some parameters like the cool down and temperature.
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I am trying to crystallize vitamin B12, the recipe is
40 mg/mL vit B12 in water
spin down
Heat to 50°, ultrasonic bath
Mix 1:1 with 0.8 M NaPhosphat pH 6.8
But unfortunately it does not work. I changed some parameters like the cool down and temperature.
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Hi Karol Bustos,
Please check the following documents.
With my best regards
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I am using a Cole-Parmer 750-Watt Ultrasonic Homogenizer. Is it possible to control the frequency of the ultrasonic oscillation on this machine or do I need other pieces of equipment?
I am attempting to make translucent oil in water nano-emulsions following the protocol in this paper. My oil to water ratio will be significantly more however, it needs to be as high as possible while remaining translucent.
The energy setting of my homogenizer its in Joules.
So how do I convert from Hz to J ??
Here are the numbers form the paper but it doesn't make sense to be me because how can a higher frequency have a lower energy if E=hv?
20 kHz 44W cm^-2 = 440000 J
1.6 MHz 16W cm^-2 = 160000 J
2.4 MHz 7W cm^-2 = 70000 J
Here is their method
0.5 mmol of EDOT was added to 25 mL of aqueous solution containing 1.0 M LiClO4 in glass beaker cell. The 20 kHz ultrasonication to the water/oil mixture was conducted with an ultrasonic stepped horn (13 mm diameter, titanium alloy) connected with a 20 kHz oscillator (44 W cm−2, SONIFIER-250D, Branson Ultrasonics Co.) for 5 min. The sequential ultrasonication with 1.6 MHz treatment after 20 kHz was carried out using an ultrasonic transducer (16 W cm−2, Honda Electric Co.) connected with a Pyrex glass cylindrical tube (diameter, 24 mm; length, 75 mm) for 5 min. The further sequential ultrasonication with 2.4 MHz treatment after 20 kHz and 1.6 MHz was conducted by an ultrasonic transducer (7 W cm−2, Honda Electric Co.) connected with a Pyrex glass cylindrical tube (diameter, 24 mm; length, 75 mm) for 5 min.
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how can I calculate the power in watts from amplitude Bernard Garnier ier
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I want to find the resonance and anti-resonance frequencies of an ultrasonic transducer by analyzing its impedance.
so I need to buy a impedance analyzer or spectrum analyzer or something like that.
but my budget is limited.
do you recommend any device for my application and limited budget? :D
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If you want to measure impedance in a low cost way, get yourself
1) Suitable signal generator
2) An appropriately sized current sense transformer
3) a two-channel oscilloscope.
Measure the voltage and current as you vary frequency. Oscilloscope will give you the phase relationship between current and voltage across transducer. You can then calculate the real and imaginary components of impedance. I leave it as an exercise how you might calibrate this setup. Cheers!
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I want to apply a pulse-echo methodology (by using one single transducer as both transmitter and receiver). Do you know how to connect the transducer to the wave generator and oscilloscope to detect both transmitted pulse and echoes?
I have been trying to use the burst feature in manual mode by pressing the trigger button in the wave generator. However, when I do that, the oscilloscope is only capable of reading the wave generated instead of receiving as well the back-wall echo.
I am also using these types of transducers from Stemininc: Piezo Ceramic Plate 20x15x2.1mm 1 MHz, Piezo Ceramic Plate 7x7x0.2mm 250 KHz, and Piezo Ceramic Plate 20x15x3mm 710 KHz. Thus, I'm not sure if they are indicated to use this pulse-echo methodology.
I have two alligator cables connected to the oscillator and to the transducer: 1 to work as the transmitter and one to work as the receiver; and they are both connected in the same wires of the transducer. However, so far, it seems that these alligator cables connected to the same transducer are giving me the same wave. 
Do you know if this equipment as it is is capable of doing these readings:
  • reading of the transmitted and received waves (of amplitude vs. time), separately, by using this setup as is (when using two different cables), or
  • reading of the transmitted and received waves combined in the same curve: maximum peak sent and resultant received echoes (back-end wall or cracks, for example)?
I am using a manually triggered pulse sine wave of amplitudes of either 10Vpp or 24Vpp, but the outcome is always identical. Should I be using a higher amplitude to make sure I receive the echoes?
Any help would be much appreciated.
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You basically need a T/R (Transmit/Receive) switch between your signal generator and your transducer, and your oscilloscope and your transducer. When your signal generator is producing the outgoing periodic pulses used to drive your transducer, the T/R switch disconnects the oscilloscope from the transducer. While your transducer is receiving the reflected signal between the periodically generated pulses from the signal generator, the T/R switch connects the oscilloscope to the transducer, but disconnects the signal generator from the transducer. Note, be aware of the concept of range ambiguity, i.e., if the reflecting surface is further away than the round trip time between two of the signal generator's pulses, then the incoming reflected signal may fall between the next two pulses of the signal generator making the reflecting surface's distance appear shorter than it actually is.
How you actually realize your T/R switch will depend on your drive signal amplitude, and the input impedance of your oscilloscope.
Regards,
Tom Cuff
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I am currently using ultrasonic convertors and horn for cleaning perpose. I want to increase cavitation intensity and i found that ultrasonic booster help to increase the intensity.
But I still cannot understand how it works and the working mechanism of ultrasonic boosters.
And how ultrasonic booster is different from ultrasonic horn??
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The range of ultrasonic sensor while using in fieldwork.
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Hoping more answers
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Especially for Agriculture Field which one is better?
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Surely ultrasonic sensors have definitive edge over IR sensors..
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is it possible to make a DIY impedance analyzer for checking the resonance frequency of high power ultrasonic transducers? for example a face mask welding ultrasonic transducer
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Yes, it is possible.
The most straightforward way is through Ohm’s Law. By using a voltage sensor to measure the test signal's voltage across the transducer and using a current sensor to measure the test signal's current flowing through the transducer, together with various signal processing algorithms, the impedance over the frequency range of interest can be obtained. The test signal can be produced by a signal generator. As an alternative, you also can use the Inductive Coupling Method for the measurement of the impedance of the transducer. More information about these methods have been detailed in my following papers/monograph:
[1] Z. Zhao, "Measurement setup consideration and implementation for inductively coupled online impedance extraction," Ph.D. thesis, Nanyang Technological University, Mar. 2021, doi: 10.32657/10356/146738.
[2] Z. Zhao, A. Weerasinghe, Q. Sun, F. Fan, K. Y. See, "Improved calibration technique for two-probe setup to enhance its in-circuit impedance measurement accuracy," Measurement, 2021, vol. 185, Art no. 110007.
[3] A. Weerasinghe, Z. Zhao, N. Narampanawe, Z. Yang, T. Svimonishvili, K. Y. See, "Single-probe inductively coupled in-circuit impedance measurement," IEEE Trans. Electromagn. Compat., 2021, doi: 10.1109/TEMC.2021.3091761.
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Dear UT Experts,
I am currently trying to get a better picture of how UT NDT Inspectors determine the noise level. This is why I have started this survey and I would like to ask you to provide YOUR personal view on this subject.
My question: Looking at the signal in the attached figure - which level would you report as the noise level? 0.3; 0.4; 0.5; 0.6; 0.7; 0.8; 0.9; 1.0? Or something in-between?
Thank you ...
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It's common to talk about the noise power, which would be the RMS of that curve. That will tend to bias it towards the higher linear levels, so you can figure something closer to the 0.6 level instead of the 0.45 level or so where the linear average would appear to be. This directly relates to the accuracy of a power measurement of a signal (averaged over time) that will be the sum of the signal power and the noise power.
Now, the other side of this equation is talking about signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and it's impact on a voltage measurement. In communication, they typically talk about EVM (error vector magnitude) which is a voltage related (linear) error term caused by the vector sum of the signal + noise. The error in a voltage measurement (in dB) follows a 20 log relationship rather than the 10 log relationship for power.
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I want to simulate a sono-reactor.
Can anyone share a reliable simulation file for simulation of a power ultrasonic transducer and horn in ANSYS or COMSOL with me please?
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dear Hakan Kandemir they doesn't include some analysis like modal and harmonic analysis
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I've included two pulse-echo plots: One is zoomed out far enough to see the exponential decrease in the "reverberations" following immediately after the pulse is sent out; the other is a close-up of the actual first echo where you can see the first frontside and backside reflections off of the PLA puck.
I've also included a chart showing my immersion transducer setup.
What is causing these undesired reverberations in the beginning? Is my transducer faulty somehow?
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"I am sending a single +350 V spike pulse ~20 ns duration. I don't know why I am getting the exponentially decaying constant 4.5 us periodic reverberations."
If you look into the data sheet you will find a delay (acoustic standoff) of 4.25µs for this transducer. Your transmit signal is not a bidirectional full wave signal but only a half wave of 20ns (40ns full wave). The 30MHz transducer expects 30MHz --> 33,33ns full wavelength duration. In summary of a very high voltage, unmatched center frequency and slightly different matching layer to your water (e.g. depends on temperature) you will get bounced back signals within the transducer housing.
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Hi,
I am doing a sonication study to dissolve Extracellular matrix proteins in PBS to induce gelation. I came up with a strategy to reduce heat produced by sonication and cavitation affecting proteins but I was wondering if anyone knows if cavitation itself can lead to ECM protein denaturation. Besides, ultrasonic frequencies (20kHz) can neither damage ECM proteins right?
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Dear Gabriela Sanchez,
Please see the link below.
With my best regards
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I want develop a code for a water dispenser such that at first instance when the sensor detects a cup valve opens for a certain delay and closed. It remains closed until the cup is redetected for the second instance, it then open for another delay. Just for two instances different delay.
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@Oliver, please can you give me the code for the hint you provided, I really appreciate your idea, I want get more.
Thank you
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Can we drive ultrasonic transducer using function generator?
Means can we connect ultrasonic transducer to output of function generator?
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Yes sure!
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Hi, I want to make analysis for powerfull ultrasonic transducer. But if I definate a support like "fixed support" it doesnt correct responce because I want to see natural resonance frequency and I don't know nodal point yet (I hope, the nodal point will detected after analysis). Therefore I think, I shouldn't definate any support. But if I didn't add a support, this time Ansys giving a pivot error. As a summary I want to multibody modal analysis and I dont want to definate any support ,fixed or etc. There is a way for it or other advice? Thanks.
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You are strongly recommended to read the following paper:
If it doesn't help, please let us know here again!
Good luck
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Ref.
3D printing of high-strength aluminium alloys
In this paper, the authors mentioned using electrostatic assembly technique to coat Al alloy micro powder with ZrH2 nanoparticles. How do they implement this technique? What kind of equipment do they use?
And what is the advantages of this technique compared to mixing particles via ball milling, ultrasonic/magnetic stir, etc.?
Thanks,
Xing
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Why not directly send an email to the authors? /Kai
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Hello,
I wanna get ultrasonic vibrations using a screen generator of 300 watts and 33kHz frequency.
Is it possible to use that generator to study ultrasonic vibrations effect on tribological behavior of materials?
Or I need other materials for this purpose? like piezo actuators, amplifiers, ultrasonic generators?
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You have to explain some more about your questions.
For example, you said your current generator has the frequency of 33 kHz and the power of 300 watts. So the question is if such a generator is acceptable for your study? If so, it is ok. If not, you will need to a generator with suitable power/amplitude/frequency. For heavy applications, your will need more power.
You would need a higher level power if you are studying those tribological applications wherein the applied forces or frictions are considerable. Lower ultrasonic energy is usually damped/disappeared in heavy applications.
Let me know should you have still question.
Massoud
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We want to use 293T cell line to make ChIP-seq of H3K9me3. Could anyone help to provide an optimized ultrasonic crushing conditions?
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I remember one quesiton about the frequency of the Sonicator and you can find the link for the question where few experts have answerd and i feel either you can gt an idea directly or get in touch with the expert who was working/ the one who rasied the question.
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Although there are some attenuation theory about frequency-depent ultrasonic shear wave attenuation, few of which has been verified by experiments. Actually, it is difficult to conduct shear wave attenuation experiment since there are many factors which can affect the measurement results.
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The method depends on the specimen material and frequency range of interest. What are those in your case?
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Dear scientific community,
Can anybody guide me about the testing of ultrasonic flow sensor(1Mhz freq)? As I have tested those sensors in the range of 1.5v to 3.6V many times with the help of function generator and oscilloscope but I did not get any output. however, when I tested simple ultrasonic 40kHz ranging sensor, I got the output as I was expecting. kindly help me to figure out this as soon as possible. thank you
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I guess exciting it with other transducer with known frequency under static fluid might, I have 2.5 and 3.5 MHz transducers.
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I am working on the design of an auto-adjustable 25khz 2000W ultrasonic generator(power supply).
I will use that to generate the ultrasonic power of a welding system.
"auto-adjustable" means that it can find the right working frequency of the transducer by getting feedback from piezo stacks.
I am looking for books or websites or papers that can help me in my work.
If you have a circuit design designed for this purpose, I would be grateful if you could share it with me.
thanks
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To form nanocapsules, how does ultrasonication affect on PDI?
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What is your system and the mode of producing it? Have you got an emulsion, a suspension, or something else?
By definition sonication will only disturb/disperse agglomerates and not aggregates. Agglomerates are typically > 1 micron or so and thus I suspect laser diffraction will be your preferred light scattering technique rather than DLS, but we need more specific details as to what you're doing and the end application.
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Hello, I', planning to dissolve the chemical compound in a high concentration in DMSO.
According to medchemexpress.com, they say to use an ultrasonic to dissolve at high concentrations. (DMSO : 50mg/ml ; Need ultrasonic)But I have no idea about Amplification and the pulse of the sonicator. Can anybody give me some advice?
And, Do I need to measure the concentration after sonicator? If yes, How? using Nanodrop?
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Lamb wave is useful for solid structure health monitoring, and it consists many modes. Unlike ultrasonic bulk wave, when given a pulse excitation (for example, 5-cycle sinusoidal pulse), only boundary or damage can reflect a signal back, so it can be easily reconstructed or simulated by MATLAB. How to reconstruct a Lamb wave like this? Start from a simple aluminum plate, and give it a 5-cycle sinusoidal pulse, how to predict the signal received at another spot?
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In addition to my above answer, Lamb wave signals can be simulated in the Dispersion Calculator v1.10 also for multilayered anisotropic specimen. The MATLAB code is included in the download (check out my RG profile) so that you have access to the algorithms. Check out the attached screenshot of the Signal simulator inside the DC.
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I'm a graduate student currently conceptualizing my master's thesis project, which includes recording and analyzing ultrasonic vocalizations from rat pups. All methods/technology I have looked into is extremely expensive (Avisoft, DeepSqueak via MATLAB, med-associates, etc). Does anyone have any cheaper alternatives (preferably no more than a few hundred dollars) to recording and analyzing USVs?
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You could run an external USB (ASIO) sound card with PamGuard https://www.pamguard.org/ (which is freeware) form your laptop. You should choose an ASIO sound card with a sampling rate of at least (!) 192kHz but you can get some of these cards for less 100$. Beh­ringer U-Phoria UMC202HD seems to be cheap but there is plenty of choice. The biggest challenge will be to find a microphone with a decent frequency response up to ~100kHz. This is where it could get expensive but you might be able to find a cheap measuremet microphone for human applications that happens to go up into the ultrasonic range (even though such a microphone is likely to have a poor response and needs to be tested). The resulting recordings will probably not be suitable for detailed spectral analysis but you may be able to detect all call types and do some basic call classification. PamGuard has some useful features for analysis including automatic classifiers, detectors and contour extraction but you could also use other freeware such as Rave lite or Praat etc.
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We are planning to procure a tubular furnace for our lab. Our main activities will be ultrasonic spray pyrolysis and chemical vapour deposition. What furnace would be suitable for the above mentioned activities?
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since you are procuring for research purpose you should go vertical furnace as these have major advantages over horizontal ones. Few things that vertical furnace have and horizontal do not have
a)High temperature using LGO is about 1200 degree
b)uniform temperature
c)can be used for certain atmospheric condition such as for inert condition as air tight chamber is available
d)cross contamination is not there and good particle data you can get
but both cost almost same so chose as per your requirements
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In addition the values exceed the maximum possible value of flow rate that the pipe size can provide.
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It is important case
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Hello and thanks for taking the time to read my question.
I am researching the possibility of life after death. The first step is to determine if there is life after death through interaction with a spirit. In order to do so, we have to provide spirits with energy to allow them to interact with us.
It is suggested that spirits draw energy from DC batteries when people are "hunting" as shown on numerous television shows. The batteries of the equipment will drain. It seems the spirits are trying to materialize using this harvested energy. The question then becomes how to create energy for the spirits to harvest without draining the tools that are detecting the spirits.
I'm no electrical genius but it seems that a low or high-frequency sound can be converted to energy for the spirits to harvest. I don't know which but I'm thinking low or ultrasonic sound wave below the threshold of human hearing would work. I'm guessing but it would be great if someone could add to this with more knowledge than I have.
I'm thinking a standard 8-ohm speaker with a particular frequency signal being pumped through from a sound generator as the straight forward approach.
Thoughts, ideas, or even a homemade device would be great. If you have sound engineering knowledge with a solid mathematics background to figure out the correct frequency and formula to reach 9 to 12 VDC energy to feed into the environment consistently it would be a great help.
And you thought this would be easy... Thanks
Mike
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Dr. Ijaz Durrani,
Thank you for this information. This isn't my field. Your assistance is greatly appreciated.
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Hello everyone,I was using the method from Nair(DOI: 10.1038/NPHYS2183) to ultrasonic HOPG in an organic solvent(NMP).after 8h sonication,unlike usual graphite which change into graphene suspension,It remains blocks and solvent were still transparent.I don't understand why, can you give me some advise?
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thanks for answer the question. The problem was solved,I was using a juicer,HOPG blocks quickly became small flakes(a few minites)
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to detect and segment breast lesion for breast cancer in ultrasonic breast imgae
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How to get it easily?
also, I want it.
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I want to know the empirical fitting formula between Partial discharge and ultrasonic sound pressure , Could I check it through the literature, please
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I'm looking for a miniature titanium ultrasonic probe (The diameter of the probe is less than 1 mm) for A-scanning of metals such as cooper or brass
this probe must be inserted into a hole with a diameter of less than one millimetre, which the material of the bottom surface of this hole is metal with a thickness of a few centimetres.
Can anyone introduce me to a product or article on this topic?
The scan direction is perpendicular to the direction of movement of the probe, that is, in contrast to the direction of scanning conventional probes, which is in the same direction of the probe movement.
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It will be probably not possible to find a ready made probe, that is suitable for your application, but it can be made. We are specialized in such projects, if you are interested, please contact me.
W. Bicz
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i want to apply this transducer with horn for Electrospray investigation
thanks for sharing your ideas
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I think it is possible and will be effective in the spraying
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I use a piezoelectric sensor, a humidifier electronic circuit and a 32-volt power supply to generate high-frequency ultrasound waves. I use these waves to atomize the liquid.
the problem is that the viscosity of the liquid is high, so the generated ultrasonic waves cannot atomize the liquid well.
any idea for this problem?
for example, can i use two circuit with two supply power and connect their output to the sensor to higher the sensor power? or ...
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welcome!
I think the problem is not only in the power of the ultrasound waves.
As the ultrasound generator invokes harmonic waves then
P= pm sin wt where p is the pressure, Pm is the peak value of the pressure w is the angular frequency.
Assume that the speed of the pressure waves is v,
Then the wavelength lambda= v/f,
The division of the material is the matter of lambda.
You have to decrease lambda to the about double the interatomic distance.
So you have to concentrate your effort to see t5he effect of decreasing lambda oo your liquid.
Best wishes
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Hello everyone, I am doing a simulation of an electromagnetic ultrasonic transducer(EMAT) in COMSOL, but the simulation results are not quite right. The voltage in the detection coil appears to contain only eddy current components, not ultrasonic components. In other words, it seems that B×v is not calculated. I suspect that the reason is that the magnetic field module and the solid mechanics module in the simulation are not bidirectionally coupled. Therefore, how to make them bidirectionally coupled?
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How did you solve this?
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I want to suspense and mix my micro/nano-particles inside a solution. What are the differences between an ultrasonic homogenizer and a vortex mixture?
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Micro and nano particles tend to aggregate in aqueous media, particularly when zeta potential is low. Thus, the particles may lose functions. Thus, hemogenizing is needed before use of the suspension. But I do not think vortex is strong enough to break such aggregates. Use ultrasound.
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I added 1 g Ti3AlC2 to 1g LiF and 20mL 9 M HCl and stirred it at 450 rpm at room temperature for 48 h.After deionized water washing and ultrasonic treatment, the product was obtained, but its XRD pattern showed that it contained LiF.How do I wash LiF?
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Dear Yunfa Si I fully agree with John Reye in that repeated washing with (warm) water is the method of choice to remove the remaining LiF from your sample. Unfortunately, the solubility of lithium fluoride in water is rather low (1,3 g·l−1 at 25 °C) due to its high lattice energy. For more information please also see the closely related RG thread cited below. Ethanol is not advisable as LiF in insoluble in this solvent.
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I'm working with an application where I'd like to detect a short sound from a distance up to 100 m. An ultrasonic chirp has been unreliable so far. I was contemplating the use of the snap of an electrical arc spark (like a gas stove lighter), which ostensibly would produce a small shock wave that would not attenuate as quickly as a normal sound wave in air. Does anyone have experience with this and is there a reliable way to recognize this "snap" over other background sound?
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I do have a lightning app on my phone using data for lightenings registered in a central or several around the country and possibly globe. I think these work on the electromagnetic (EMP) pulses generated. Sparks are plasma which generates light, but also radiowaves, long wavelength EM waves. I think it is easier to design something based on EM waves than sound for sparks.
There are systems used in weaponry for detection of positions of snipers and other shooting Based on acoustic detection. These algortims are probably not easy to get a hand on. They probaly rely on a rather strong signals, including knowledge of the time history of a shot from weapons. There is more than one incident.
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In ultrasonic assisted machining, ultrasonic welding etc. systems, transducers are required to vibrate in eigenfrequency . If we vibrate a system at its natural frequency ( eigenfrequency ), won't there be resonance? Why do we want to vibrate in mode shapes ( eigenfrequency )?
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Likely to be desired to use the tranducers at resonance to emit maximal amounts of energy.
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I think it is not good news for a faithful author of US.
The journal quality will descend or not?
The IF will descend or not?
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It may be beneficial to scientists working in European countries as they get funding for publishing in open access journals, but what about researchers working in Asian, Africa, and South American countries? even they hardly get funding for research. Being working in India, I do not support open access policy.
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I am using this ultrasound model to identify the appearance of pathologies in a concrete beam and the sensitivity of the equipment is important to differentiate what is variation of the signal due to random effects (experiment) from a variation due to the appearance of a crack, properly said.
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I would suggest that only 0.1 micro second variation should always be avoided. This could be because of various other factors than the structural variations in the concrete. First thing is that the instrument itself having resolution of 0.1 order should not be considered as it is the limitation of the measurement device. So, this much variation is obviously expected. Another point is the variation due to ultrasonic transducers placement, couplant application and the amount of pressure applied. Also the precise location of testing matters. If all above such factors are considered and precisely maintained which is extremely difficult to achieve and variation observed is definitely due to the property of the concrete. But if only quality is to be assessed for bad, poor or good it really does not matter because the ultrasonic path generally considered will be higher.
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The principle is that High frequency electrical energy is converted into ultrasound waves by means of ultrasonic Tranducers, which are bonded on the base of S. S. Water Tank. These high frequency sound waves create in the liquid countless, Microscopic Vacuum Bubbles, which repidly expand and collapse.
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Ultrasounds baths are used for several different applications of analytical chemistry as a new approach for optimization conditions, such as extractions of inorganic and organic compounds, slurry dispersion, homogenisation, and other applications
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The question is not so trivial. I mean not only the variable to measure and how to measure. But also I am asking which type of sensor, which sensibility, etc.
For example if a wasp is flying in this forest on the trees and comes next to my sensor how will I detect which kind of insect is it ? I can use an acoustic detector ? An ultrasonic sound detector ? And what about its shape ? Can I use a low cost image sensor ? Which one ?
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The ultrasonic sensor can be used for the presence of an object in air. But the size of objects are limited due to wavelength and also the distance from sensor.
In my opinion a fast high resolution camera could be utilised. The image processing may be used with reference to the previous image of that particular insect. The shape and colour may used as the base for the detection.
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Hi, a couple of years ago a saw an ultrasonic anemometer for liquids. When I search now I only find ones for air. Does anyone know where I can buy one?
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Try to find in amazon
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I fixed my ultra-sonication duration on my samples. If I prepare my samples by batch, the previous batch might start agglomerating. The maximum quantity on 1 preparation is 500 ml and few hours. Need few liters of it and takes almost a week for 1 sample testing in test rig.
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In either case, and as Suhaib Umer Ilyas explained, you need to think about your 'intended application' for preparing the nanofluid.
If your nanofluid is unstable upon ambient storage for few days, it will be even less stable upon exposure to whatever destabilizers your application entails (e.g., thermal cycling).
As for preparing a concentrate, keep in mind that a higher particle concentration means shorter interparticle separations and a higher particle number density per unit volume of the dispersion. This leads to more frequent particle–particle collisions taking place and a greater likelihood of clustering. So in itself, increasing the particle concentration can be a destabilizer as long as your nanoparticles are not protected against clustering.
Ultrasonication to restore your primary particles can only work with soft agglomerates. It is useless against hard aggregates. Breaking particle clusters by ultrasonication increases the surface area at the solid–liquid interface, which causes reclustering if the interface is not stabilized. This seems to be what is happening in your case. In fact, ultrasonication can simultaneously result in declustering and reclustering of particles. It can also lead to contamination and phase transformations, under some conditions.
Bottom line here is that, to realize a long-term-stable nanofluid, you need to 'protect' your particles against clustering using an appropriate method (charge and/or steric stabilization) rather than try to repeatedly 'decluster' them after the (often irreversible) damage has happened.
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Ultrasonic sensor design parameters, materials etc.
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