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Please give some application cases and describe basic framework, principle and workflow.
Any supporting documents/articles or links relating to this are highly preferred. Thank you in advance!
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I need to check the similarity of two sets orthophoto from UAV/drone with different location and extent but in the same time frame. The data are in the form of indices (NDVI, LCI, NDRE, and GNDVI). What is recommended method to do it? I consider to use Cohen's d in R. But is it appropriate?
I also consider diffeR package in R as well. But this package is only for comparing two data in the same extent, isn't it?
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The cell size is around 8x8 cm. It was an oil palm plantation. The age of the trees were various, but we divided into two classes based on its planting year: before 2013, and after 2013. These two images are only sample, actually we have several other blocks. To be more specific, we need to monitor the performance of this area after it was burnt by fire at the end of 2013. There are some other approaches, and UAV is one of them.
So we have divided the blocks based on two parameters:
1. Planting year or the age of the plants -> 2 classes
2. Burnt status (whether it is burnt or not) -> 2 classes
From those division, then we get 4 categories:
A. Planted before 2013, burnt
B. Planted before 2013, not burnt
C. Planted after 2013, burnt
D. Planted after 2013, not burnt
In order to have apple-to-apple comparison, we will compare categories with the same condition. Or in this case is the same age. In short, A compared to B, and C compared to D.
The distance between the two images in the attachment was about 1.3 km. But, as I stated above, these are just sample. We have several other images, located at the different places, no overlap between them. Maybe we will merge images in the same categories to become one raster file, then compare it with the correspondent categories.
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Hi, I am working on UAV deployment in a wireless communication scenario to cache. Does anybody know how to simulate/deploy UAVs in Matlab using weighted or simple k-mean clustering? Below I also attached a snapshot.
Thank you
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Thank you for your detailed information.
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I am currently working with a simulation of an UAV. I have designed a volume control plus a box that covers the entire UAV geometry. All the boundaries are defined but the problem is when i start the hybrid initilization because the ten iteratiomn results have a value of zero. I do not know what parameter I have forgotten. I would appreciate any tip to solve this problem.
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Hello everyone. I am going to do research related to estimating AGB and characteristics of trees such as height and canopy cover area by utilizing 3D point cloud of RGB UAV. However, I am not sure what software is better to analyze the aforementioned attributes. I would be appreciated to have your opinion about this issue.
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I am in the preliminary design phase of a heavy-lift octocopter. Is there a systematic approach to selecting the proper propeller, motor, and battery for the given configuration provided that the frame size is still variable, the required payload weight is W and the endurance is T minutes?
All of the above parameters are coupled so I am guessing this will be an interactive solution. Any suggestions?
Thank you in advance for your advice and guidance,
Filippos
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I am looking for research proposal topic in UAV , autonomous robotics & swarm robotics. I would like to have more open discussion about these fields.
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Hi Nadeem Ahmed,
First if you are not familiar with SLAM, I recommend this article:
Or dig a bit into Prof stachniss youtube channel, you will find very good introduction to SLAM and different approaches to solve it: https://www.youtube.com/c/CyrillStachniss/videos
I give you here an excerpt of a paper I wrote on that topic ( )
It is common to separate the SLAM into two stages: the front-end which is
extracting features from the raw data and performs matching (scan-matching,
feature-based matching) between two consecutive maps in order to compute
a relative displacement (odometry) and the back-end which is building the map, detect loop-closures and compute the state estimation. These two stages run at
different rates, the front-end in the 20Hz-40Hz range while the back-end is
in the 5Hz-10Hz range. Lot of research has been done to increase both performance and robust-
ness of SLAM the last two decades and for an depth description of SLAM
algorithms please refer to [28]
Lidar SLAM system
As mention in section 3.2 Lidars have very attractive properties but they are
expensive and heavy, therefore there are not so many SLAM that have been
tested with MAV, among them the most famous are:
- HectorSlam [36] :It combines a robust scan matching approach using
a 2D-LIDAR system with a 3D attitude estimation system based on
inertial sensing. By using a fast approximation of map gradients and
a multi-resolution grid, reliable localization and mapping capabilities
in a variety of challenging environments are realized. The authors
claimed that because HectorSLAM is fast, loop closure is not necessary.
Athough it is true in very structured indoor environments, if there is
not enough ”landmarks” such walls and corners, one can observe drifts
in the computed (x,y, yaw) pose;
- LOAM [65] Which is composed of two algorithms. One algorithm per-
forms odometry at a high frequency but low fidelity to estimate veloc-
ity of the lidar. Another algorithm runs at a frequency of an order of
magnitude lower for fine matching and registration of the point cloud.
Combination of the two algorithms allows the method to map in real-
time
Frame cameras
As the computational resources are limited on a MAV, only sparse visual
SLAM are considered. sparse SLAM systems use only a small selected subset
of the pixels in an image frame. The maps generated from sparse methods
are basically points clouds, which are a coarse representation of the scene
and mainly used to track the camera pose (localization). The most popular
are:
•ORB-SLAM (monocular only) and ORB-SLAM2 (Monocular, stereo
and RGB-D) [49]. ORB-SLAM2 uses ORB features because of the
speed in which these can be extracted from images and their rotational
invariance. ORB-SLAM2 is composed of three threads: Tracking, local
mapping and loop closing (it has embedded a Place Recognition module
based on DBoW2 [17] for relocalization and loop closure).
Regarding monocular camera, the only possibility to extract a depth map
and compute the state estimation of MAV is to implement a Visual-inertial
Odometry (VIO) algorithm. Lot of research has been done in the recent
years and the field has reached a level of maturity such that many commercial
products now utilize proprietary VIO algorithms, and there are several open-
source software packages available that offer off-the-shelf visual pipelines that
can be deployed on an end-user’s system of choice. Here are the main VIO
pipeline which can be implemented :
•MSCKF - an extended Kalman Filter (EKF) orginally proposed in [48],
but with many subsequent variations;
•OKVIS [38] - a keyframe- and optimization-based sliding window esti-
mator using landmark reprojection errors;
•ROVIO [1] - an extended Kalman Filter with tracking of both 3D land-
marks and image patch features;
•VINS-Mono [53] - a nonlinear-optimization-based sliding window esti-
mator using pre-integrated IMU factors;
•SVO [15] + MSF [46] - a loosely-coupled configuration of a visual odom-
etry pose estimator and an extended Kalman Filter for fusing the visual
pose estimate with the inertial sensor data, as proposed in [9];
•SVO+GTSAM [14] - a lightweight visual odometry frontend with a
full-smoothing backend provided by iSAM2 [30]
[28] Baichuan Huang, Jun Zhao, and Jingbin Liu. A survey of simultaneous
localization and mapping. ArXiv, abs/1909.05214, 2019.
[36] Stefan Kohlbrecher, Oskar von Stryk, Johannes Meyer, and Uwe Klingauf. A flexible and scalable slam system with full 3d motion estimation.
2011 IEEE International Symposium on Safety, Security, and Rescue
Robotics, pages 155–160, 2011
[65] Ji Zhang and Sanjiv Singh. Loam: Lidar odometry and mapping in
real-time. In Robotics: Science and Systems, 2014
[49] Ra´ul Mur-Artal and Juan D. Tard´os. ORB-SLAM2: an open-source
SLAM system for monocular, stereo and RGB-D cameras. IEEE Trans-
actions on Robotics, 33(5):1255–1262, 2017
[17] Dorian G´alvez-L´opez and J. D. Tard´os. Bags of binary words for fast
place recognition in image sequences. IEEE Transactions on Robotics,
28(5):1188–1197, October 2012
[48] Anastasios I. Mourikis and Stergios I. Roumeliotis. A multi-state con-
straint kalman filter for vision-aided inertial navigation. Proceedings
2007 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, pages
3565–3572, 2007
[38] Stefan Leutenegger, Paul Timothy Furgale, Vincent Rabaud, Margarita
Chli, Kurt Konolige, and Roland Siegwart. Keyframe-based visual-
inertial slam using nonlinear optimization. In Robotics: Science and
Systems, 2013.
[1] Michael Bloesch, Sammy Omari, Marco Hutter, and Roland Siegwart.
Robust visual inertial odometry using a direct ekf-based approach. In
IROS 2015, 2015
[53] Tong Qin, Peiliang Li, and Shaojie Shen. Vins-mono: A robust and
versatile monocular visual-inertial state estimator. IEEE Transactions
on Robotics, 34:1004–1020, 2018
[15] Christian Forster, Zichao Zhang, Michael Gassner, Manuel Werlberger,
and Davide Scaramuzza. Svo: Semidirect visual odometry for monocular
and multicamera systems. IEEE Transactions on Robotics, 33:249–265,
2017
[14] Christian Forster, Luca Carlone, Frank Dellaert, and Davide Scara-
muzza. On-manifold preintegration for real-time visual–inertial odome-
try. IEEE Transactions on Robotics, 33:1–21, 2017.
[46] Simon Lynen, Markus Achtelik, Stephan Weiss, Margarita Chli, and
Roland Siegwart. A robust and modular multi-sensor fusion approach
applied to mav navigation. 2013 IEEE/RSJ International Conference
on Intelligent Robots and Systems, pages 3923–3929, 2013
Hope that help
Fabrice
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This is a discussion that I wish to go on and remain helpful for all the Drone researchers, manufacturers, designers, operators and users and sort of a buyers guide.
"What are the right materials for a Fixed Wing Drone?"
This question pertains to any type of material that one finds good to be used for various different kinds of practical applications. This is understandable that will applications, materials used will be different. Also, Long Range/Short Range and High Altitude/Low Altitude applications are a considerable parameters.
Few materials and applications are mentioned here. However, we are not limited to that.
MATERIALS
  • Expanded Polyolefin Foam (EPO)
  • Expanded Polypropylene Foam (EPP)
  • Expanded and Extruded Polystyrene (EPS/XPS)
  • Balsa Wood (Balsa + Plywood)
  • Glass Fiber Composite
  • Carbon Fiber Composite
  • Carbon Fiber + Glass Fiber + Kevlar
APPLICATIONS
Civil/Forest
  • Mapping
  • Inspection
  • Surveillance
  • Payload Delivery
Military
  • Surveillance
  • Payload Delivery
  • Warfare
Your input in the right material for the right application will be well appreciated.
Thank You for your contribution.
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Carbon fiber is typically used, and carbon UD is used in some major primary structures. The solar drone applied in this paper used carbon fiber and UD together. In addition, certified materials (B-Basis, DB) must be used when using these drones for commercial purposes, such as sales, rather than for experimental purposes.
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I am using a nonlinear disturbance observer (NDO) to estimate disturbance to be incorporated in a control law for UAV control. I am looking for help on the simulation of the NDO using Simulink.
Thank you.
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Dear Researchers,
I am searching for the material properties of EPO (Expanded Polyolefin) Foam to use it in the manufacturing of Fixed Wing Unmanned Aerial Aircrafts.
Requesting for your help with links and documents.
Thank You
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Hello Dears
My goal is to classify dense forest tree species using drone images. Is it possible to classify dense cloud points? If yes, in what way and in what software?
Thankful
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I'm pre-processing a UAV Magnetic data where the flight path is parallel to each other in N-S direction (heading N and S one after another). The magnetic values seems to be vertically shifted and flipped when going in different headings. The only way I could solve this is by compensating the values by exporting the difference in median (constant median) in Magdrone Data Tool but these compensated values would be insufficient for magnetic susceptibility calculation later. I've tried doing heading correction in Oasis Montaj but to no avail. Is there a way I could solve this heading error?
The first image shows a profile of 6 tracks. The arrow corresponds to the UAV turning. This data have been low pass filtered. Profile 2 shows the data after removal of the turning errors.
I've also attached a scatterplot of the raw data and grid (minimum curvature) of Profile 2.
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Dear Mr Pavlov Nikolay Pavlov
Thanks for your your input and explanation. Really appreciate it.
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Hello,
Does anyone have the source code of "Two-Step System Identification and Trajectory Tracking Control of a Small Fixed-Wing UAV" paper? It would be a great help.if anyone has.
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The recent UAV like DJI enterprise includes a thermal sensor which is useful to understand the thermal variation and behaviour in a given place. However, plenty of work has been done with UAV RGB images which cannot be told about thermal images. It would be really helpful if you can give an example of existing work that used Thermal images from UAV. Both article or GitHub repository information would do. Thanks.
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I think you can find many cases on the DJI website (https://enterprise.dji.com). As I know, they have some UAVs installed with both RGB and thermal cameras, which can be used for electronic checking (high resolution locating and temperature detection), forest checking (evaluating the risk of forest fire), public security (searching people, like finding the survivor of the airplane accident MU5735).
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I set up a number of control experiments indoors, placing soil samples in a number of boxes with openings above them according to different treatments. I would like to use this multispectral sensor to take pictures of these soil samples indoors, but it seems that it must be used in conjunction with a GPS tool? Is it possible to use it without GPS? It is like a digital camera that can take pictures manually.
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I think you can use it. If it has been installed on a UAV, I suggest you use the UAV to take pictures and avoid damage during the uninstallation. But one trouble you may face, the camera focus distance is set for UAV flying, so when you try to take a picture at a short distance, the image may not be clear enough. Also, the distance between different camera sensors will make the picture shift. I only test the P4M (DJI), it's hard to fix these problems.
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Can you suggest the best microcontroller to drive motors of an UAV? Now we are designing a control board and have to select the micom. Can you share your experience and considerations?
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Anton Dianov However development time, simplicity of programming and total material cost are still important factors.
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Plant leaf disease detection at early stage
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Hi Varsha,
Yes there is an article with a database of hyperspectral images for normal wheat and salt stress phenotyping of wheat
Also, you can request spectral signatures for different crops collected using HI RES ASD Field Spec 4 spectroradiometer
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Hi everyone, I am trying to simulate Px4 controller, however I wanna change the drone dynamics. Is there any straightforward tool I can work with? The Matlab UAV toolbox's attitude controller is not the same as the quaternion based one we have in PX4. I am working to simply implement it in Matlab, however after around 3 weeks I was not successful. I have some issues in mimicing the px4 controller. I would appreciate it if anyone can help me. I need this tool to verify my experiments and I have to do it ASAP since I have a qualifying exam in the following month.
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I recommend that you use Simulink. First, start by mimicking the PX4 attitude dynamics and the feedback control that the PX4 uses. Then, you can proceed in the same manner by completing the loop with the position control. Once you understand the dynamics and control well, you can propose other modeling and control approaches such as SO(3), quaternions, etc. For that, you must study the code, and you need time since, in the beginning, it is not an easy task.
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Doing a project on comparing the best method for referencing an UAV Orthophoto.
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Hello
Georeferencing is best when the cloud points are prepared (pre_GCP).
Because after ortho formation, georeferencing may cause parts to stretch.
Cheers
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Hello friends
I work on the drying up of forest trees. My data source is RGB images of drones. I processed the images in Agisoft software. Unfortunately, the drought of the trees in the digital model of the canopy surface is not well made.
I did not produce textures in image processing. Is this step necessary to prepare DSM or DEM?
Do you have any comments or suggestions for improving the digital level model?
(The altitude of the drone is 100 meters and the overlap is 80%).
Cheers
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Thank you bro
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5G networks assisted by drones is a major challenge to improve coverage. I am looking for an article that deals with the coordination between two UAV?
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The relative humidity is a key factor to estimate vapor pressure deficit (VPD) for crops. We can measure the relative humidity for crops at several sites, but we cannot get a VPD map.
I was thinking if there are any research results showing that there is a good (concrete) relationship between the relative humidity and the information gathered by the unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) platform?
Or if there is a good relationship between the VPD and the information gathered by the UAV platform? This is a shortcut.
Comments, references, and suggestions are much appreciated :)
Rui
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Thank you so much for your recommendations :)
Rui
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As UAV datasets (Orthomosaics and DTMs) have a very good spatial resolution but a big challenge is the file size of this data. This big size makes some hassles when you're working on certain computer applications or you want to transfer this data.
Is there any procedure to reduce the size of data without compromising the data quality?
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Dear Syed,
What do you mean by 'data quality'? Because if you mean visual quality, there is no problem to reduce its size. You have to differentiate the data obtained by a drone depending on the type of sensor used. If this sensor is a conventional camera (visible range), and you only need the images for visual support (not for SfM photogrammetry), you can reduce them without any visual loss (jpg2000, ecw, or other compression formats).
A different matter is if you are working with data obtained by a multispectral sensor, and you need the image information for digital processing. In this case, you will have to work with uncompressed data. So a good solution is as Dorian Gaboriau has told you, which is to use smaller parts.
Regards
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Hi, I have approx. 300 radiometric thermal images. I used a DJI's Mavic 2 Enterprise Advanced UAV. I was able to get an orthophoto using the visual light images but I cannot get an orthophoto using the thermal images. I try using Agisoft Metashape Pro, ArcGIS Pro, and WebODM. Any recommendation? A video tutorial or paper will be greatly appreciated. Happy holidays!
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Jhony Benavides Orthomosaic maps are formed up of a sequence of discrete photographs that have been linked together using drone software to generate a new composite image that includes all of the smaller ones. 2. Topographic relief, lens distortion, and camera tilt have all been corrected in these photographs.
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Hello dear researchers
How to do the watershed algorithm in eCognition developer software?
Do I need to add a plugin to watershed segmentation? How? There is no watershed segmentation plugin in my software.
Thank you all
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The algorithm works on a gray scale image. During the successive flooding of the grey value relief, watersheds with adjacent catchment basins are constructed. ... A set of markers, pixels where the flooding shall start, are chosen. Each is given a different label.
Regards,
Shafagat
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Hello, I am considering to by a LIDAR + drone for vegetation studies. I am not an expert in active remote senisng/LIDAR sensors, but I do optical remote sensing.
I had a look to the DJI Matrice 300 with the Zemuse L1 LIDAR, but I cannot find any information regarding the number of points per square metre. I asked the supplier for my country, but he could not asnswer either.
Does anyone know this information, or any other dron portable lidar sensor suitable for forestry/agriculture studies?
Thanks
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the points per sqm is a function of flight elevation above and will also be affected by the attitude of the drone. Specific to the question you asked, look at
they state Over 30 minutes, at a speed of 10m/s, a flight altitude of 100 m, with a side overlap rate of 20%, point cloud density > 200 points/m2.
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An unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), also called a drone, is the name for any aircraft that can be operated remotely. Presently, there are various small to large models of drones, and these are being utilized for various applications, including pesticide application, disaster damage surveying, logistics, and media. In Japan, the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries has prepared the “UAV Stand Inventory Manual” for use in forest surveys, which summarizes specific procedures and key points for stand inventory methods using UAV, and provides a formula to estimate the diameter at breast height (DBH) of trees. However, do you think that it has highest accuracy level. We have used the same for South Bengal Nursery and Sal plantation.
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Hi
I recently took pictures at a height of 100 meters above the ground. But when processing with Agisoft software, part of my study area is lower than other areas (the study area is flat). What could be the reason?
Thanks
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The determination of flight conditions varies based on the UAV model, flight application, and the
size of the imaging area; thus, preparing a manual for flight conditions is extremely dicult. There
are many issues to consider for UAV utilization, such as various flight conditions and di erences in
tree species. Therefore, in order to utilize UAV in forest management, it is important to accumulate
basic data related to estimates of tree height and volume using UAV, for verification of accuracy.
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Dear All,
Recently, I have looked into the Web in search for some works on Search And Rescue or guarding strategies. I have found some works related to UAV exploration in urban environment or SAR disaster site exploration. But, it was not what I really meant.
I wonder if there is any up-to-date literature (analytical, mathematical, physical, simulations maybe?) devoted to search and rescue or guarding, e.g., on the sea. I recall the stories from the time of WWII when allied vessels, after loosing contact with the submarine, started to move in circles with increasing radius. Also, there were special books prepared by mathematicians describing sequences of random turns to avoid being hit by a torpedo.
Do you know if there were any advances in the topic since then? Where the strategies using by modern SAR service are taken from?
Regards,
Michal
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Hi Michał,
In general, the entire SAR action conducted at sea and especially a selection of the search pattern depends (obviously) on a specific situation. Many factors are affecting the course of the action, such as search area (proximity of the shoreline and nearest rescue center), distance to the commence search point, number of the vessels involved, availability of support for the air (helicopters, aircraft), environmental conditions (usually unfavorable), etc.
When looking from the merchant ship's viewpoint, we have an official manual prepared jointly by IMO and ICAO, the so-called IAMSAR Manual (International Aeronautical and Maritime Search and Rescue Manual) where some procedures to be followed are presented. Among these, there are also search patterns introduced. Their application differs mainly depending on the aforementioned factors (especially the number of the searching vessels or possible cooperation with an aircraft). One of the most common patterns for a single ship is "expanded square", which is very similar to the example of allies vessels action recalled in your question. Other popular patterns used are, among others, sector search (also called a "flower-pattern") - usually with the support of a helicopter, as well as various modifications of parallel track searches - usually in cooperation with aircraft or other ships involved in the SAR action. For more practical information please refer to:
IAMSAR, 2007. International Aeronautical and Maritime Rescue Manual. Volume II, Mission Coordination. IMO/ICAO publications, London/Montreal; or any newer IAMSAR version.
However, in the mentioned IAMSAR Manual, you will find mainly simply operational procedures for the crewmembers of the merchant ships. If you are looking for algorithms or mathematic explanations of the most effective search methods/patterns you have to check scientific sources. There are a few, quite recently published papers about modern solutions in this field. You can see, for instance, the following papers:
Ai, B., Jia, M., Xu, H., Xu, J., Wen, Z., Li, B., & Zhang, D. (2021). Coverage path planning for maritime search and rescue using reinforcement learning. Ocean Engineering, 241, 110098. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.oceaneng.2021.110098
Ai, B., Li, B., Gao, S., Xu, J., & Shang, H. (2019). An Intelligent Decision Algorithm for the Generation of Maritime Search and Rescue Emergency Response Plans. IEEE Access, 7, 155835–155850. https://doi.org/10.1109/ACCESS.2019.2949366
Xiong, W., van Gelder, P. H. A. J. M., & Yang, K. (2020). A decision support method for design and operationalization of search and rescue in maritime emergency. Ocean Engineering, 207, 107399. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.oceaneng.2020.107399
Especially the first publication seems to be suitable for you. When you check the reference list, you can find there the older papers/books from the math domain, like:
Koopman, B. O. (1957). The Theory of Search. Operations Research, 5(5), 613–626. https://doi.org/10.1287/opre.5.5.613
Good luck,
Mateusz
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Hi, I flew a DJI's Mavic 2 Enterprise Advanced with a radiometric thermal sensor. I took some photos and I do not if it is possible to extract the temperature data (metadata) from the photos. Can anyone provide a suggestion? Thanks.
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I have a very limited knowledge  on control systems. Now my research field is on quadcopters and I want a comprehensive book in this field that can fill all my knowledge gaps on quadcopter sensor fusion techniques and also modeling,system identification and control methods of a quad-copter. 
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Multirotor Aerial Vehicles: Modeling, Estimation, and Control of Quadrotor
Survey of Advances in Guidance, Navigation, and Control of Unmanned Rotorcraft Systems
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1) What exactly is the definition of a control law and what is the difference between control laws and controllers in the context of aerospace vehicles ?
2) Is the use of the term flight control law specific only to aircraft (fixed wing & rotorcraft) and UAVs, for in my experience the term is not actively used in the context of Launch Vehicles or spacecraft ?
(examples of FCLAW's: images 1 and 2) [1]
A few questions regarding the control laws of combat aircraft -
3) The Eurofighter(EF 2000) seems to use an interesting control structure - the Differential PI Algorithm, which is also a controller that is being actively used by the naval version of the Indian LCA. My question is, as the controller seems to be quite advantageous, why has'nt the Differential PI structure been used in other flight controllers ? [2](refer to image 3)
4) The testing of combat flight control laws has made use of test aircraft for in-flight simulation, for example the use of the F-16 VISTA (now X-62 VISTA) to test flight control laws of the Indian LCA. How does this work ? How is useful information to validate & certify the control laws of one aircraft obtained from the flight performance and input responses using these same control laws but on another aircraft ? (refer: VISTA.pdf)
Note: This is not exclusive to aircraft as such, the control laws for the SLS have also been tested on an F/A 18 Hornet.[3]
References:
[1] Balas, Gary J.,"Flight Control Law Design - An industyr perspective", European Journal of Control, Vol. 9, Issues 2–3, 2003,
[2] Osterhuber, R., et.al."Realization of the Eurofighter 2000 Primary Lateral/Directional Flight Control Laws with Differential PI Algorithm", AIAA GNC Conference and Exhibit 16 - 19 August 2004, Providence, Rhode Island
[3] "Flight Testing of the Space Launch System (SLS) Adaptive Augmenting Control (AAC) Algorithm on an F/A-18", NASA/TM-2014-218528
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1) Control laws (or controllers) can be applied to any plant (aircraft, vehicle, spacecraft, missile, etc.).
2) The term of flight control law applies to all air vehicles.
3) The flight control law design concept is diverse. Each control concept has advantages and disadvantages. While the differential PI control you asked about has some advantages, it has the disadvantage of being susceptible to noise due to differential effects. And while the NDI (Nonlinear Dynamic Inversion) control applied to the F-35 is sensitive to model uncertainty, if the model is accurate, it has the advantage that it can be commonly applied to A, B, and C versions with one control structure. This is because only OBM (On-Board Model) needs to be replaced. In addition, sensor-based INDI (Incremental NDI) is a method that is quite robust to model uncertainty, but it is difficult to obtain the measured angular acceleration, and the use of a filter that minimizes noise is essential when the angular velocity is differentiated from the IMU sensor. is. And although it has the characteristic of reducing the stability margin of the system (especially the phase margin), the stability margin is quite robust against uncertainty. Hybrid INDI, which takes advantage of these two control methods, is sometimes used.
4) IFS (In Flight Simulator) is a method that can be safely verified with an aircraft platform that has already been tested when developing a flight control computer or a new flight control rule. In other words, new functions can be efficiently verified while ensuring flight safety by using the already verified flight control system for take-off and landing and verifying the function with the newly developed flight control rule in a specific flight condition.
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In order to developp a DL based model for counting and/or other image processing tasks in relation with Palm trees.. I am wondering if you have an idea about types/references of UAV that can be used in this context?
Thank you in advance.
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The UAV itself is not the vital aspect. The sensors and the cameras are the most important.
As for the UAV, you need to make sure that the battery is enough for your task and the UAV is robust against the environment conditions where it will work (for example high winds, ... etc).
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Respected Sir /Madam
Kindly let me know Is it possible to simulate UAV networks with Mininet Wi-fi using reinforcement Learning Algorithm , The task is to mitigate network Layer Attacks (DDOS) in UAV based networks using reinforcement Learning and Software Defined Networks.
Is is possible to use Mininet Wifi using Python 3?
Can anyone please provide some relevant link or material that could be useful for my above mentioned Project?
Thanks and regards
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I want to get a complete course, learn, and practice for modelling and simulation of UAV systems at famous place (university / institute / center/ company / .. etc.). Moreover, real time implementation of the flight control algorithm.
What are the famous places for modelling and simulation of UAV systems?
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I am review security requirements frameworks for UAV security. I want to cover UAV security with CIA principles with authentication and non-repudation. Can I add these into the CIA triad?
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Hi,
Integrity means your data/content remains intact and no unauthorized modification hasn't done on it. With authentication, you can filter out the attacker. However, you cannot make sure that any unauthorized person has accessed it or not. Anyone has modified it or not. To cover CIA traid, You can merge with blockchain which you assist you to meet your goal. I have some papers which might give you hints.
Thanks.
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I am looking for a programmable quad-rotor UAV for academic application (control). I want to test attitude and position controller in this quadrotor. Do you have any good suggestion?
Thanks.
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please have a look at the ANT-X Drone Lab, a ready-to-fly and open platform for research and education on UAV control:
you might be interested in the 2DoF Drone as well:
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Colleagues,
do you know some UAV-dedicated Special Issues that are open for submission now? Both Magazines and Journals SIs will be highly appreciated! No discrimination on the publishers (IEEE, Frontiers, MDPI, Elsevier, River....)!
Thank you :)
PS: I think following this discussion will be useful. both to find Special Issues and/or to advertise them
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Please see this one:
Special Issue "Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Communication and Networking" A special issue of Electronics (ISSN 2079-9292) (IF: 2.397)
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Greetings,
I plan to test the horizontal and vertical accuracy of photogrammetric products generated by direct georeferencing (DG) process (without ground control points - GCP) using a UAV system (Matrix 210 RTK V2, DRTK-2 Mobile Station, Zenmus X7 16 mm).
The official DJI website states that Matrix 210 RTK V2 + Zenmus X7 at a GSD of 2 cm, the produced orthoimages can achieve absolute horizontal accuracy of less than 5 cm using DJI Terra as the mapping software.
If you have used this or a similar UAV system I would appreciate hearing your experiences with the DG process. Respectively, can the RTK option for the above-mentioned UAV system lead to sufficient results (total (XYZ) error < 5 cm) if none of the GCP is introduced?
Also, feel free to suggest papers about this or a similar UAV system (assessment of DG accuracy in a specific case study).
Thank you in advance.
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Dear Ivan Marić,
Please check my Researchgate and you will find a paper that I published with my students using DJI phantom-4 for 3D mapping for part of the railway station at Khartoum-Sudan. We used the RTK-GPS to provide the ground control points. And we do have a case study in the paper.
Regards,
Gamal
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I am currently dessigning a small UAV and was wondering how I can size the main landing gear frame in order to be as efficient as possible. Any ideas?
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Good evening. Ideas are not particularly needed here. For an airplane, these are three supports with a bow steerable support. Helicopter - skid landing gear with 4 springs (instead of springs, elastic carbon). The springs will absorb shock a little. After all, there is a lot of literature about chassis. Best regards, Matijczyk.
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Drones, being speedy equipment, is the first choice to implement for the detection of cracks on railway tracks.
I am aware of the method of image capturing and then post-processing of the data.
However, I am looking for a sensor apart from a normal RGB camera, that can be mounted on a drone and can detect the cracks.
Thank You for all the possible help.
Regards,
Garvit
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Md Anowar Hossain, I agree with your input.
Thank you
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Dear research community
I asked if there is a specific simulation model or library for UAV Node in network simulators like NS2 or NS3. further, if there is a new simulation tool or method to study the performance of the UAV Network. it would be better to support valuable answers by research papers and/or source code.
Best regrads
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I have created a 2 dimensional mathematical model for a UAV in matlab. I also created a programmatic GUI for the UAV flight simulation. However, i now need to create a clock which displays the time for the flight of the UAV. How can i do this
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what are possible applications of artificial intelligence on UAV (Unmanned aerial vehicle) ?
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Image processing applications based on UAV can be a prominent research area. Check the following paper.
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In the literature, I have seen path-loss models, e.g., air-to-ground (ATG). Such models obtain received power by using: Pr=Pt-PL. However, none of these models provide the method to obtain 'H'.
I am interested to obtain 'H' using UAV communication environment. For instance, 'H' must be the combination of line-of-sight (LoS) and non-LoS (NLoS) components.
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Muhammad Karam Shehzad
I suggest you check the paper attached on this topic (Zeng, Fanhui, et al. "UAV-assisted data dissemination scheduling in VANETs." -- Eq(3), Eq(4), and Eq(5)). Specifically, the average path loss can of the UAV link can be modeled by combining the LoS and NLoS links, which is: L=P_{LoS}/d^a+\epsilon*P_{NLoS}d^a (Eq(5)), where P_{L}=1/(1+Eexp(-D[\theta-E])) (Eq(5))denotes the probability of the LoS link.
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Hi
I am working with eCognition Developer software. resently, I used it for UAV imagery segmentation. This image is for the fall season and it has 4 bands( Green, Red, Reg and NIR).
My purpos is classify trees speces of forest dense. But, classification does not done well. becuse, each tree is classified into several classes. My openion is segmentation does not done well. I tried lots of for improved segmentation, But I did not achieve acceptable results.
Do you have an opinion on this?
Thank you all dear ones
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Can you post a sample image to see resolution, contrast, etc. and look at image quality?
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I am going to buy an unmanned aerial vehicle for my university for forestry applications. Since there are alot of options,  I realy get confused to choose a proper model and a valid brand. Also, l want to use a 3d laser scanner and a multispectral camera. I would rather that the vehicle have gps and imu and the flight could be programmed.  Please if you have personal experience, share them.
Best regards, 
Hormoz
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How can I estimate the propagation loss between an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) or drone, and user equipment (UE) on the ground? is it safe to assume a line-of-sight scenario? how about the drone's altitude? is there a specific air-to-ground formula I can use?
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There exist several pathless model, depending on the propagation environment. But you can use conventional model such as free space or Rice.
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As we know, crop yield estimation has been done traditionally with farmer's expert knowledge, deductive sampling in representative areas, and remote sensing with satellite imagery. Farmer's Expert knowledge might be biased and not data driven. Deductive sampling are limited to spatial variability, cost-intensive and laborious. Similarly, satellite imagery has many challenges such as limited spatial and temporal resolution and has limited accuracy in field level yield estimation. Other way of yield estimation is using previous years yield distribution to generate yield map for current years but it can't represent current growing conditions. So how UAV can be useful in such situation for better yield estimation.
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In the case of crop yield estimation, UAV has been shown to be valuable tool to acquire high spatio-temporal resolution imagery on a regional scale, which enhance the estimation performance.
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Full-time, benefited position with the Department of Viticulture & Enology/Viticulture and Enology Research Center through the California State University, Fresno Foundation. The Department of Viticulture & Enology/Viticulture and Enology Research Center is seeking a PostDoctoral Scholar who is experienced in computer vision or remote sensing and is passionate about Machine learning/Deep learning, automated and digital agriculture, and chemometrics. We are interested in working with a motivated scholar who can think creatively and practically about production-oriented remote sensing and “big data” applications in agriculture. Strong quantitative background is preferred (as demonstrated by publications), experience with unmanned aerial vehicle and hands-on electronic ability is a plus. This position is based within the Department of Viticulture & Enology/Viticulture and Enology Research Center, through the California State University, Fresno Foundation. The selected candidate will also have the opportunity to collaborate nationwide with scholars from other universities (Cornell, UC ANR) within multi-institution projects funded from USDA, CDFA and CSU-ARI. Within overarching project goals, the candidate will have intellectual freedom to develop and pursue the research directions they find most interesting. Mentorship will focus on helping the candidate meet their professional development goals, whether in academia or elsewhere. The position is 100% time (40 hours per week), benefited, and funded for 12 months initially, may be renewed based on funding and contingent on satisfactory progress.
PLEASE FIND THE FULL CALL AT THIS LINK:
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Hi, Dear Luca
I suggest you join the below website:
and also you can search on Twitter!
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Recently, UAV attracted a many researcher to apply them in agriculture because of their flexibility, cost and availability. Many published work can be found on application of UAV in various agriculture applications such as disease scouting, crop monitoring, spraying(pesticide and other agronomic inputs), yield estimations, and plant phenotyping. However, there are some challenges associated with UAV, such as standard data processing pipelines, limitation on area coverages and load carrying capacity etc.
In this discussion, I would expect your views regarding future of UAV in agriculture applications and how they will emerge and used in this field.
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Thank you for your kindness.
Always available. :)
Regards,
Wiltgen
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I am trying to design a propeller using Blade Element Moment Teory. In the article below, chord and twist formula is given ( https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/abstract/document/7884538 ). can i use the same the equations for chord and twist calculation of UAV propeller?
While it is easy to find the info related to tip speed ratio for turbines, i could not find the detailed info for UAV propeller.
I used the same formulas for calculations of my design. After printing, amount of the obtained thrust is not sufficient. while the original propeller's thrust is around 100 g, my propeller's is 10 g. The difference should not be as huge like that.
Can anyone enlighten me?
Detail information about my design.
R=14 in, AoA=7, lambda=7 (taken according to literature for two blades for low reynolds)
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Hi there,
I apologize for being late.
Yes, of course you can use.
regards
novinzadeh
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Hi
My goal is to distinguish forest tree species (in dense forests) with drone images. I did not get acceptable results using spectral features. Because the pictures were taken in the fall and the trees have taken on a lot of colors. I have decided to do this using the texture features in thee Cognition software. There are about five tree species in the area. Can you guide and explain the steps?
If you have another method, please?
Thanks a lot.
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Hi .tanks for answered the quiestion.
bless you.
MohammadHassan
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Hello,
I have a reference input and measured output, r and y in the figure. (Data has been acquired in closed loop)
I'm interested in identifying the whole closed loop dynamics (not just the plant), the reference is excited with a PRBS and y is the lateral acceleration of a UAV.
Any ideas on how to do this?
Thank you
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Mohamed-Mourad Lafifi Michael Short Thank you for your answers I edited the question since it was not clear what I was trying to do
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Apart from Ant Colony Optimization, Can anyone suggest any other Swarm based method for Edge Detection of Imagery?
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Is there a group of crucial and important UAV's parameters/features regardless of kind of mission (search missing people, disaster, evacuation, emergency deliveries, monitoring, fight a fire, training, saving trapped people, contamination, flying rescue cushion)? Or maybe every kind of mission has their own crucial parameters/features?
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Please, I need to know if there are any bio-inspired routing protocols other than:
APAR (An ant colony optimization based Polymorphism Aware Routing algorithm),
BeeAdhoc (Bee colony algorithm for FANET routing)
and POSANT (Position Based Ant Colony Routing Algorithm).
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How UAV technology can provide agriculture related problem solutions?
How it can help the farmer to increase the crop productivity, especially in developing countries? Because farmer is illiterate and have no knowledge to use advanced technologies?
Reply with logic ?
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😷😷
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My goal is to use the short-range remote sensing technique (drone) to study tree species in deciduous forests. Overlap and flight altitude play a key role in this. Do you have the right overlap and height to improve the results?
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Muhammadhassan,
This depends on many factors, including the required spatial resolution, the time that the drone can fly, and the area that should be covered. Mostly, the altitude of the drone is calculated by the software based on the inputs.
Best wishes,
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Dear colleagues,
Can you recommend us the equipment to acquire high-resolution LiDAR data, acquired from an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) after the fire?
We are planning to buy LiDAR and an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV).
The idea is using of the LiDAR to measure the remaining tree structures after a fire in a forest stand burned. We are planning to use high-resolution LiDAR data, acquired from an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) after the fire. This information will be crossed with fire severity levels based on the relativized burnt ratio (RBR) derived from Sentinel 2A images acquired a few months before and after fire.
1
Can you recommend us specific equipment based on your experience?
2
What could be budget estimation for such equipment? EUR 20,000?
Looking forward to your advice.
Dr. Sc. Velibor SPALEVIC
1, Novaka Miloseva, 81000 Podgorica, Montenegro
Mobile/Viber/WhatsApp: +382 67 201 222
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I former colleague of mine is developing one sensor that should suit your needs at a German research institution: https://www.ipm.fraunhofer.de/en/about-Fraunhofer-IPM/departments/object-and-shape-detection/airborne-and-underwater-scanning.html I have flown it a couple of times and the results are relatively good. A big pro argument is that it is a multi-return system which is especially valuable in forests.
Another probably pricier, but very interesting solution can be purchased in Austria: http://www.riegl.com/products/unmanned-scanning/new-riegl-vux-120/ I am working every day with a TLS solution from that company which is absolutely outstanding.
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Hello beloveds.
I am classifying dense deciduous trees with eCognition software. In fact, it is the separation of tree species with drone images.
The image has a near infrared band, red, red and green edges. Their resolution is 5 cm. I will be happy to help so that I can classify better. Thankful
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Have a look at this study, it explains the "how".
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I need a co-author for a scopus article to participate in ІСSF 2021, Innovative Approaches for Solving Environmental Issues Workshop (IASEI-WS'2021), Kyiv. The article has already been written and is ready for publication. I am the main athor of this article. It is is an overview article about means of remote monitoring of air quality, and the possibility of their use for operational monitoring in Ukraine. I place a discreet emphasis on using the UAV.
link to the conference website: https://icsf.ccjournals.eu/2021/index2.html
Requirements for a co-author: student, PhD student, or any other researcher who works in a scientific institution at a given time. The institution should not be located in Ukraine or in the Russian Federation (such co-authors already exist).
If you are interested, please contact me as soon as possible.
Deadline of this offer - 28.12.2020
Anastasiia Turevych,
Thank you!
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I am interested and from Kenya. I have PhD in environmental studies. Please count me in.
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Hello dear researchers. I wanted to know your thoughts on the strengths and weaknesses of fixed-wing and multi-rotor drones in the forest and forest-related research. *Thank you*
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Peter Dambach Abdullah Al-Oshoush Thank you for your kindness.
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Hi there,
I am looking to purchase an UAV with an attached multi-spectral camera to use its images in delineate the shoreline. I need to take a vertical geo-referenced image (if possible) and corrected thereafter with ground controlling points. Any suggestion would be highly appreciate it.
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Hi Mansour,
Shorelines, even for lakes tend to be variable. Even when you dispose of a hyperspectral UAV, you will have to take into account variations in shoreline, in oceans and seas due to tidal changes and in lakes due to dams or changes in local hydrology. Hence, how will you define your shoreline in this context? As the lowest shoreline level, the highest, or a kind of mean level over time? If you want to have a good idea of the shoreline dynamics you will have to monitor the shoreline over a few months on a three hourly basis especially in estuaries of rivers.
Cheers,
Frank
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What is the reason for the low orthophoto quality and complexity in processing UAV images?
Hello dear researchers
I have a number of drone images that I processed several times with Agisoft photoscan software (in different qualities). But when I take an orthophoto and zoom in, the crowns of the trees get complicated.
I also picked up the control points with a DGPS. But the problem was not solved.
The images were taken with ebee drone(fixed wing) and at a height of 110 meters with 70% overlap. The study area is also a broadleaf forest.
Thank you for your help
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Dear Mohammadhassan Naseri,
One of the main causes of the low quality of orthophotographs and the complexity of processing UAV images are the metrological conditions and mainly the wind and its speed ... To be able to overcome these disturbances, i suggest you to see links and attached files on topic.
Best regards