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Publications related to Tropical (10,000)
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Ocean acidification (OA) has been identified as one of the major climate-change related threats, mainly due to its significant impacts on marine calcifiers. Among those are the calcareous green algae of the genus Halimeda that are known to be major carbonate producers in shallow tropical and subtropical seas. Hence, any negative OA impacts on these...
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Australia has experienced an astonishing increase in liver cancer over the past few decades and the epidemiological reasons behind this are puzzling. The existing recognized risk factors for liver cancer, viral hepatitis, and alcohol consumption , are inconsistent with the trend in liver cancer. Behind the effects of migration and metabolic disease...
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Attempts to analyze the effect of weather shocks on livestock production have been carried out using integrated assessment models (IAMs) or the cross-sectional (Ricardian) method. However, these methodologies are fraught with obvious shortcomings, such as omitted variable bias, amongst others. This paper, therefore, re-examines the relationship bet...
Preprint
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The predictability and variability of extratropical climate are largely associated with tropical forcing through various teleconnections. The East Asia-Pacific/Pacific-Japan (EAP/PJ) teleconnection is one the most important factors affecting the summer climate in East Asia. In this work, we confirm the weakening relationship between the El Niño-Sou...
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The green macroalga Caulerpa ashmeadii was recently found in the North-eastern Atlantic Ocean, on the southern coast of Porto Santo Island (Madeira archipelago). Caulerpa ashmeadii was detected in a subtidal soft-bottom forming scattered patches, mostly among the green calcareous macroalgae Halimeda incrassata and Penicillus capitatus, within a dep...
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The Rubiaceae family taxonomic classification is complex. Genus Rubia with 70 species belongs to Rubieae tribe of Rubioideae subfamily of the Rubiaceae family. These species have been widely distributed and cultivated around the world, and are mainly concentrated in the tropics. The effects of bioactive metabolites of various parts, particularly ro...
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How atmospheric and oceanic circulations respond to Arctic warming at different timescales are revealed with idealized numerical simulations. Induced by local forcing and feedback, Arctic warming appears and leads to sea-ice melting. Deep-water formation is inhibited, which weakens Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). The flow and te...
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The Indo-western Pacific Ocean capacitor (IPOC) effect induces coherent climate variations over the Indo-western Pacific Ocean with significant sea-surface temperature (SST) anomalies over the South China Sea (SCS). Most IPOC events are related to El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), occurring in the post-ENSO years. The coral δ¹⁸O and Sr/Ca precis...
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There is little known about how understory vegetation affects the soil microbial community assembly, although it exerts strong controls on the soil microbial community composition. We attempted to clarify this question by establishing an experiment in which the understory vegetation was either removed or maintained as controls in a primary tropical...
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Based on the updates of the Climate Prediction Center and International Research Institute for Climate and Society (CPC/IRI) and the China Multi-Model Ensemble (CMME) El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) Outlook issued in April 2022, La Niña is favored to continue through the boreal summer and fall, indicating a high possibility of a three-year La N...
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The development process of a new wheat cultivar requires time between obtaining the base population and selecting the most promising line. Estimating genetic parameters more accurately in early generations with a view to anticipating selection means important advances for wheat breeding programs. Thus, the present study estimated the genetic parame...
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Big chili has the largest fruit size compared to other types of chili. In addition to having a spicy taste, big chilies contain other beneficial biochemicals such as phenolics, flavonoids, antioxidants, and α-glucosidase inhibitors that have the potential to be developed for functional tropical plants. Information on the content is still not widely...
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The Psylloidea, >4000 named species known today, are plant-feeding, sap-sucking insects sleeved under the Sternorrhyncha. Most species of Psylloidea are confined to the tropics. They occur as gall-inducing, free-living, and lerp-forming taxa. Lifecycles and generations of gall-inducing Psylloidea vary in temperate and tropical worlds. The Triozidae...
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Background Because trends in the epidemiology and burden of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) are changing, reinvestigating the geographical differences and trend changes is essential. Here we evaluated the latest epidemiologic patterns and trends for GERD, using data from Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2019....
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Mapping of deforestation, forest degradation, and recovery is essential to characterize country-level forest change and formulate mitigation actions. Previous studies have mainly used a simple forest/non-forest classification after forest disturbance to identify deforestation and forest degradation. However, a more flexible approach that is applica...
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Forests are important habitats that harbor high biodiversity and have great economic value to humans. These ecosystems depend on saproxylic organisms, which play a crucial role in the decomposition of the main substrate of forests – wood. The highly important group of saproxylic organisms are beetles, with numerous species that are either of conser...
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Background The α-thalassemia is a highly prevalent disease in tropical and subtropical regions, including southern China, and is mainly caused by deletion in α-globin genes (HBA1 and HBA2). The clinical manifestation of α-thalassemia is highly correlated with the copy number of α-globin genes. The decrease in copy number results in α-thalassemia, w...
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Rapid urbanization trends and urban lifestyles challenge urban populations to recognize ecosystems’ contributions to their well-being, and urban planners to integrate nature at the core of urban development. This study assesses the relationships between ecosystems and people in the rapidly expanding Barranquilla Metropolitan Area (BMA) and extracts...
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This article explores how energy systems, if reconceptualized and reordered to deliver greater equity, could exponentially improve livelihoods and livelihood pathways of Panama’s Ngäbe and Buglé communities which currently lack energy access. Inevitably, the choice of energy systems and related infrastructures will not only bring benefits, but also...
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Africa has seen an upsurge in diagnostic imaging utilization, with benefits of efficient and accurate diagnosis, but these could easily be offset by undesirable effects attributed to unjustified, unoptimized imaging and poor quality examinations. This paper aims to present Africa’s position regarding quality and safety in imaging, give reasons for...
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The effect of Cl⁻ concentration on the corrosion behavior of Cr-containing steel in tropical marine atmospheric environment is systematically studied. Cl⁻ ions affect the adsorption amount of water film and then affected O2 diffusion. They reduce the generation of NiFeO4 and Cr(OH)3 and destroy the electronegativity of inner film, further weakening...
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Arctic oscillation (AO), which is the most dominant atmospheric variability in the Northern Hemisphere (NH) during the boreal winter, significantly affects the weather and climate at mid-to-high latitudes in the NH. Although a climate community has focused on a negative trend of AO in recent decades, the significant positive trend of AO over the la...
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By modulating the distribution of heat, precipitation and moisture, the Hadley cell holds large climate impacts at low and subtropical latitudes. Here we show that the interannual variability of the annual mean Hadley cell strength is ~ 30% less in the Northern Hemisphere than in the Southern Hemisphere. Using a hierarchy of ocean coupling experime...
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Tropical wetland resources have high ecological value to flood storage, greenhouse gas emissions, and biodiversity, with diverse types and widespread distribution. However, cloud pollution, inundation fluctuations, and spectral similarity pose unique challenges in the monitoring of tropical wetland using remote sensing. In this study, we proposed a...
Article
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The Mediterranean region has been declared a climate change hotspot due, among other reasons, to an expected increase in the torrential rains that frequently affect this densely populated area. However, the extent to which these torrential rains are connected to other regions outside the Mediterranean remains uncertain. Here we simulate 160 extreme...
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Background Fire is recognized as an important factor in determining the distribution and composition of Southern Cape Afrotemperate Forest in South Africa, although comprehensive understanding of the resilience of these forests to fire is lacking. We investigated effects of fire severity and tree size on post-fire survival of Afrotemperate forest t...
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Background Phyllosphere microbes play important roles in host plant performance and fitness. Recent studies have suggested that tropical and temperate forests harbor diverse phyllosphere bacterial and fungal communities and their assembly is driven by host species identity and plant traits. However, no study has yet examined how seasonality (e.g. d...
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Interspecies interactions deserve more attention in biodiversity conservation since the elimination of only one species can indirectly impede the dependent species through ecological networks. Phorophytes, which provide physical support, constitute the basis for the occurrence of epiphytes. Epiphytes and their host phorophytes thus form a typical c...
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Some members of Chaetothyriales, an order containing potential agents of opportunistic infections in humans, have a natural habitat in nests of tropical arboreal ants. In these black fungi, two types of ant symbiosis are known, i.e. occurrence in domatia inside living plants, or as components of carton constructions made of ant-chewed plant tissue....
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In recent years, scientists have focused their attention in developing sustainable materials that can boost the construction industry without causing damage to the environment. In South and Central American forests grows a tropical species of bamboo known as Guadua angustifolia Kunth, which has been widely used for construction purposes since ancie...
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Relationships between growth increments of internal shell and age was studied in three neritic decapod cephalopods cultured in laboratory through their entire life cycles. The studied cephalopods were the nektic Sepioteuthis lessoniana d’Orbigny, 1826, Sepia pharaonis Ehrenberg, 1831 and Sepiella inermis Van Hasselt, 1835. Most of the relationship...
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An inter-decadal increase (1990–2009) in the western North Pacific (WNP) tropical cyclone (TC) genesis frequency in May has recently been reported. The TC decadal changes was attributed to an advanced monsoon onset over the Asian Summer Monsoon region, particularly over the South China Sea (SCS) in May. In the present study, we used 60 years (1961–...
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China has accumulated multiple practices and experiences in building and enhancing malaria surveillance and response system. As China’s engagement into global health has gathered stronger momentum than ever, China together with the Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute and WHO has organised five sessions of the International Forum on Surveilla...
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The Madden–Julian Oscillation (MJO) is the dominant mode of intraseasonal variability in the tropics and has a documented influence on extratropical extreme weather through modulation of synoptic atmospheric conditions. MJO phase has been correlated with anomalous tornado and severe hail frequency in the United States (US). However, the robustness...
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To accommodate an ever-increasing human population, agriculture is rapidly intensifying at the expense of natural habitat, with negative and widely reported effects on biodiversity in general and on wild bee abundance and diversity in particular. Cities are similarly increasing in area, though the impact of urbanisation on wild bees is more equivoc...
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All tropical savannahs are experiencing extensive transformation and degradation, yet conservation strategies do not adequately address threats to savannahs. Here, using a recently published ecosystem intactness metric, we assess the current condition of tropical savannahs across Earth, finding that <3 % remain highly intact. Moreover, their overal...
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Reservoir inflow (Qflow) forecasting is one of the crucial processes in achieving the best water resources management in a particular catchment area. Although physical models have taken place in solving this problem, those models showed a noticeable limitation due to their requirements for huge efforts, hydrology and climate data, and time-consumin...
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Correlation between rainfall and short period GPS-TEC (total electron content) variations are investigated by using the precipitation data obtained on the ground and estimated from satellite observations (JAXA/GSMaP) as a proxy of lower atmospheric wave activity. The GPS-TEC data obtained at a tropical station, PHIM, in Phimai, Thailand, for 2014–2...
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Background Forest succession is an important ecological process and has been studied for more than a century. However, changes in nitrogen (N) availability during succession remain unclear as they may lead to either N saturation or N limitation. Here, we propose a conceptual model to illustrate changes in N availability during four stages of second...
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Wind energy is a renewable source of energy which has a definite place in the future of the generation of electricity. To harness the energy from the wind, a wind turbine is employed. Wind turbines assist in the production of power to compensate for the moderate intensity of the breeze to drive a generator. With the use of wind turbines, the energy...
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Spirobranchus tetraceros (Schmarda, 1861) originally briefly described from New South Wales, Australia was later reported as a widely distributed species of Indo-Pacific origin. The species was assumed to be a highly successful invasive Lessepsian migrant to the Mediterranean via the Suez Canal. However, recently, such wide distributions have been...
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Diatoms are widely used as bioindicators of water quality because of their short life cycle and sensitivity to changes of environmental conditions in waters. One type of diatom that is used as a bioindicator is an epilithic diatom. Epilithic diatoms are one of the diatom microalgae communities attached to rock, so they are difcult to be carried awa...
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O poeta Leonardo Fróes, tradutor de clássicos como Goethe, Swift e Defoe, conta aproximadamente uma centena de textos vertidos, utilizando-se principalmente dos idiomas inglês, francês, espanhol e alemão. Portador de prêmios de literatura e tradução (Jabuti, Paulo Ronai etc.), exibe uma carreira poética sólida iniciada nos anos sessenta. O autor de...
Preprint
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Palm is the largest monocot group widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions. The importance of palm species ranges from food sources to landscape. Therefore, the identification and characterization of pathogens associated with these hosts have economic and ecological significance. During surveys in 2020 to 2021, leaf spots on diseased...
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Brazil is a tropical country with remarkably diverse marine habitats that harbour a rich diversity of fish. Only a small portion of this fish diversity has been investigated for parasites, and thus the diversity of their trematode parasites remains unexplored. Moreover, only 5 out of 184 known digenean trematode species of marine fish in Brazil hav...
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O objetivo deste artigo é analisar a visão dos militares sobre o meio ambiente no Brasil, verificando possíveis mudanças e continuidades no entendimento do tema. O objeto, por tratar do meio ambiente, relaciona-se diretamente com a questão amazônica e as concepções da geopolítica sobre a floresta tropical. Será visto que as discussões ambientais le...
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The New Guinea Coastal Undercurrent (NGCUC) is considered a bottleneck in the western tropical Pacific (WTP), carrying upper-to-intermediate waters from the south to the northwestern Pacific, thereby playing a fundamen tal role in the interhemispheric water mass exchange. However, how the NGCUC links to the circulation in the WTP was insufficiently...
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Mycetoma is a chronic, disabling infection caused by fungi or actinomycetes that affects the disadvantaged rural populations of arid tropical regions. The identification of etiological agents is long, difficult, and often imprecise or unsuccessful. Recently developed molecular methods can be used to identify causal agents at the species level. Howe...
Preprint
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8 Long-term stratospheric water vapor (SWV) trends above Boulder, CO, (40°N, 255°E) are 9 generally positive and slightly larger than those for zonal average SWV. Time series of SWV 10 data at 30 hPa are analyzed herein for 1993 through 2005, based on frost-point hygrometer 11 (FPH) measurements at Boulder and on sets of HALOE scans above that regi...
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Navua sedge (Cyperus aromaticus), a perennial monocot plant native to tropical Africa, is a major weed in pasture and cropping areas in the wet tropical regions of Australia and South Pacific countries. In grazing pasture lands, rapid growth and reproduction of unpalatable Navua sedge leads to displacement of co-occurring pasture species and deplet...
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In this study, temperature characteristics and heat load in the city of Dubrovnik are investigated by using temperature data observed at the local meteorological station in Dubrovnik for the period 1961-2019, satellite data collected by LANDSAT5 satellite for the period 2001-2010, and climate indices data obtained from simulations of an urban clima...
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Furuncular myiasis is a parasitosis of the skin that is commonly reported in the tropical areas and is caused by various agents including Dermatobia hominis. Knowledge of myiasis is limited in Italy, resulting in difficulties in its diagnosis and treatment. We report a case of imported furuncular myiasis in a 48 year old Italian patient who returne...
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An unparalleled rise in peak electricity demand across the tropics over recent decades signals the need for conscious planning of investment in power infrastructure and a boosting of demand-side management measures. This paper estimates the extremes in daily peak electricity demand across eight Indian states from 2010 to 2018 by using the extreme v...
Chapter
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The history of the discipline of geography in Brazil and its professionalisation is told as one of an exclusive products, inserted into the country’s project of modernisation, which would be achieved only with the knowledge and integration of the Brazilian territory. Aziz Nacib Ab’Sáber, along with João José Bigarella, Fernando Flávio Marques de Al...
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Resumen Los insectos formaron parte de los estudios de la ciencia ilustrada durante el siglo xviii e inicios del xix. Tomando al ámbito del virreinato de la Nueva Granada, y desde la óptica de la historia cultural de los ani-males, se analizarán en este artículo algunos aspectos de los contenidos y de los significados inmateriales sobre la entomofa...
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The improvement of probabilistic assessments of extreme air temperature events is a major goal for agrometeorological studies. The regional frequency analysis based on L-moments (RFA-Lmom) has been successfully used to improve the study of hydrometeorological variables such as extreme rainfall events. This study investigated the hypothesis that the...
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The West-Palearctic region is a diversity hotspot for the ant genus Aphaenogaster. Species in this region are characterized by high morphological variation, which has led to their subdivision into different infrageneric groups. The very first classification in three subgenera, dated 1915, was gradually replaced by eight species-groups. To probe the...
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Plain Language Summary Estimations of effective path length (LE) for an Earth‐space path from Ku‐band rain attenuation and rain rate measurements at a tropical location Kolkata reveal that the variation of LE is controlled by the type of rain namely, stratiform and convective precipitation. Low rain rate events mostly associated with stratiform rai...
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Temperature and substrate availability are important variables controlling marine heterotrophic bacterial activity. However, particularly in tropical regions it remains to be determined how these variables jointly affect bacterial activity. In this study we show how bacterial carbon cycling in two tropical coastal ecosystems (the Great Barrier Reef...