Questions related to Tropical Diseases
I'm trying to review the current situation of schistosomiasis in Equatorial Guinea and only find papers describing cases due S. intercalatum. I think it's a little strange that S. mansoni or S. haematobium are not reported. Does anyone know the epidemiological situation of esquistosomisis in Equatorial Guinea? Do you know where can I find literature?
In the last few months I observed some acute leukemias associated with positive malaria or with history of recurrent malaria manifestations.
I am working on a research to determine the endemicity classes of different regions in a country which means that each region has to have one endemicity class. I am looking for ways of using different classes for each region to come up with my results
I am working on the effect of malaria parasitaemia on cardiac metabolism in adults, the parameters of interest include Lipid profile, Troponin1,Ck Mb, uric acid, Tibc and myoglobin
I have some 2 drugs that I want to determine their nature of interaction against a tropical disease parasite. I need to plot an isobologram to achieve this. How do I go about doing this?
During the last years, Brazil has experienced epidemics by Dengue, Zika, Chikungunya and Yellow fever.
In Brazil has been an increased number of cases of mayaro fever in several Brazilian states and with the increased circulation of chikungunya virus, there is always a question about the ethiopathogenesis due the similarity of both virus (clinically and structural).
What do you think about it? Following some interesting articles.
During off the season/winter season, what should be our best strategies for dengue vector control to prevent from next epidemic season? I think Integrated vector management (IVM) strategies should be used round the year. We should continuously use ovitraps to check for seasonal trends, increase or decrease in vector population so that timely use of conventional control methods could be applied. Ovicides like bleach and some botanical extracts might be beneficial. But kindly share your ideas and experiences?
We do know that Zika virus is causing a pandemic problem that causes microcephaly on newborns. Now upon looking at several websites regarding zika virus, there are certain ways to stop the spread but also dangerous like using Ribavirin which inhibits the synthesis of viral RNA but small dosage can cause birth defects as well as to cause . Will there be a way to find out what other receptors or is there any other receptors it carry other than the E glycoprotein which also carries the function of cell to cell communication on this enveloped virus?
How do you coat an antibody on a nitrocellulose membrane in order to develop immunology parasite antigens diagnostic strips?
If someone have any idea if retroviruses (other than HIV) could be transmitted by mosquitoes, or if mosquitoes support retroviral replication.
Any papers/books etc..
Widal test seem to be the commonest laboratory investigative tool for Typhoid fever and the serology titre for significant result seems different from different laboratory setting in endemic region,even possibly in non clinical subject , how can we measure the effectiveness of widal test for Typhoid fever where water supply is still a problem.
A well person with with no active malaria ,Would they not be positive as well for Rapid Kit testing for Malaria in endemics countries?
In regard to the control / elimination / eradication of malaria, I am wondering if any large bodies of water / swamps are currently being gotten rid of anywhere or if any such thing is planned anywhere, i.e. as an anti-mosquito-breeding measure?
Some body transfect the T. gondii tachyzoites using complicate method/s I am looking for a simple and more applicable method for transfection of siRNA to this protozoa. Is there any experience?
During the influenza A/H7N9 epidemic in China, live bird markets have been sampled extensively to find the virus. Different types of samples were taken, including tracheal/cloacal swabs in live ducks/chickens, faeces samples, drinking water samples, waste samples, feathers, etc.
In most of the literature I could find, the proportion of positive samples of each type is given by aggregating all sample sites, i.e. authors report the proportion of positive samples of type X across all study sites (often dozens of live bird markets, all of which are obviously not infected).
What I am looking for is the proportion of samples (of each type) that tested positive in infected live bird markets. To make things even clearer, I want to get an idea of the probability that a sample of type X will test positive for H7N9 (by rtRT-PCR) in an infected market.
Any suggestion of relevant scientific papers/reports will be highly appreciated!
Thanks a lot for your valuable help.
I wish to carry out a study on pinworm infection among children. I will be thankful for your suggestions on:
1. Features suggestive of pinworm or worm infestation.
2. Features increase the risk of pinworm infection.
3. Knowledge aspects need to be assessed from parents or guardians
4. Sites from which swab should be taken for pinworm eggs in the environment
Please respond to the attached delphi survey.
Zika virus (ZIKV) has attained worldwide attention due to its global concern and rapid pandemic potential. The World Health Organization (WHO) has declared it as a “Public Health Emergency of International Concern”. Though this virus was first isolated in 1947, its pandemic threat arises recently. The main mode of virus transmission is through mosquito (Aedes) vector. There are also other modes of virus transmission such as intrauterine, sexual and blood transfusion. Its linkage reflected for fetal anomalies and possible association with neurological disorders has crearted an alarming situation. Complete information on many aspects of this virus is yet to be available to the scientific community, which will help in designing better and effective prevention and control strategies to tackle this emergency. At present priority should be given to the mosquito control.
The whole world researchers are searching for a solution to stop its spread. Since the pathogenic potential of ZIKV is comparatively new, not much information is available regarding their genetic characterization which is most important in understanding - why the virus became virulent? What kind of mutation involved for its virulence? What are molecular differences between mosquito, mice and human adopted viruses?. The other area of interest is host-pathogen interaction studies which will provide the answers to how the viruses are crossing the placental barrier? Why it is causing microcephaly and or neurological disorders? Currently, there is no vaccine is available and scientists should focus on isolation and development of vaccine on war foot basis.
We need to find out in details about its emergence and evolution, genetic and molecular characterization, epidemiology and timeline, current scenario, transmission and spread, clinical signs and pathology, pathogenesis, advances in diagnosis, surveillance and monitoring, vaccine development, prevention and control strategies, treatment and focus for exploring novel/emerging therapeutic regimens.
Our group of researchers recently reviewed its all salient literature available available in pubmed and compiled a very comprehensive review which is being published as a rapid communication , will be available by this March month end online (Information attached pl..)
Zika Virus – Emergence, Evolution, Pathology, Diagnosis and Control: Current Global Scenario and Future Perspectives – A Comprehensive Review
Hence just thought to share some good information and updates with you all and also enrich myself with your knowledge and views / opinions.
The topic is now open for discussions by experts and public health officials for finding out a viable solution to save humanity from a big pandemiic?
Besides apparent differences in prognosis (which cannot really be objectivated nowadays) and "more" necrosis in histology samples, is there any objective clinical or pathological difference?
Hello, i am researching about Plasmodium knowlesi. i have read this paper
The paper still using Pmk8 and Pmkr9 to detect P. knowlesi.
But i still wondering if P. knowlesi could have a co-infection with another malaria parasit for example P. vivax.
Can someone provide me a study that confirm a P. knowlesi co-infection using Primer used by Imwong et al 2009? http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19812279
The FDA and our federal health authority among many others have recently asked for a four weeks deferral period for blood donors coming back from regions infested by the vector and the virus.
However, since infections may be asymptomatic in blood donors, how is it guaranteed that infected donors do not harbour the virus in third spaces and in danger of a long lasting viraemia?
Do you have any specific thoughts regarding this topic?
Thank you very much in advance!
How likely is it that a young person who received the MMR vaccine as a child and later developed leukemia and bone marrow aplasia will catch measles from close proximity with a sick person and develop disease? What about other vaccine-preventable diseases?
why do certain species of mosquito has affinity towards particular parasite or virus? Why don't anopheles mosquito transmit viral diseases?
As ZIKV RNA can be detected in the saliva, can the saliva be used as an alternative sample for routine ZIKV RNA detection. And what are the disadvantages?
Zikka virus is spreading across south america and the US and this is not a good sign for global public health. During the ebola outbreak in 2014 people coming from countries where the ebola outbreak occurred were isolated until cleared for the virus. should people from Zikka virus affected countries be initially quarantine??
Zika virus is considered to be more or less restricted to tropical countries. However, transmission might be possible when a competent vector (Aedes species) is present. But, the presence of a vector is not sufficient. Warm summer periods might bring favourable conditions for transmission via ektothermal insects also outside of the tropics. With climate warming, these regions are likely to increase in extent. As far as I know, there is no knowledge on the EIP (extrinsic incubation period), which would be needed to assess whether regions and periods with the risk for transmission will evolve. Are there any hard facts, data, exeriments that can be used or applied to this virus.
Hello! Has anyone experience in storing field collected insects (mosquitoes in tropical climates) for insect and included parasites RNA/DNA extraction (using TRIzol/TRIreagent method) and qPCR analysis? No cold chain involved and as cheap as possible. Reviewing the literature I thought about comparing the effect of RNAlater, RNAfix (homemade RNAlater), methylated ethanol or FTA cards. I was wondering whether there are other methods that more cost-effective as possible? Many thanks!
Have a patient currently being managed for both, Dengue fever, and Typhoid fever. Wanted to know if either one of the two reports could be a false positive. Kindly cite references for the same, if possible. Thank you !
24 year pregnant lady presented with high grade fever with altered sensorium, diagnosed to be a case of complicated falcipaum malaria, but with very high level of uric acid (17.4 mg/dl), she responded to Inj Artisunate plus Clindamycin and her uric acid level also gradually becoming normal without any hypouricemic drugs. A second patient with long standing history of gouty arthritis with multiple tophi presented with acute severe pain and high grade fever, malarial test was positive and he responded to antimalarial and there also respond to his arthritis (he was also on colchicine)....now, my question is whether antimalarial has any effect on hyperuricemia?
Recently, I have concluded a preliminary study on Habitat Diversity Index for Aedes albopictus and its relevance in comparing endemicity to Dengue and also in planning control strategies. Now I need to elaborate the study to reach a precise conclusion. I will share the protocol with those who are interested. I am also open to modify the protocol based on their inputs.
for example polio and RCH has been given enough emphasis for social mobilization and development communication. Tropical diseases and especially leprosy have rarely been addressed with such vitality. can mass level mobilization and awareness creation about the disease be helpful in eradicating?
It is often the case that researchers who work on topics unique to the tropical regions of the world try to publish their work in journals based in the developed temperate countries. This frequently leads to their papers being rejected on grounds that they are only of regional interest. Hence, its best if we support our own regional journals so that these journals will become better known and of high quality by having good papers submitted and published in them.
We are seeing lot of viral thrombocytopenic fevers which test negative for Dengue serology and even PCR but have a clinical picture similar to Dengue.
I'm having a problem with this model because the virus isn't causing plaque lysis in the cell monolayer. To titrate, I'm using a semi-solid medium (carboxymethyl cellulose 1,5% plus 1,5% of FBS) over 5 days of incubation. Could be something wrong with the cells or maybe with the semi-solid medium?
Since ending 2013 I have read that there was a discovery of a new (the fifth) serotype of dengue in Asia, however, no published specific paper on it has become public. In fact many short notes, comments and letters discuss that finding, but the original research or the study has not yet been published.
Apparently Nikos Vasilakis has made the discovery, but has not yet shown in any scientific journal.
I was in the field in S America when two team members got dengue, one for the first time. The professor had had another serotype in Africa and had severe hemorrhagic fever and the sheets were soaked in blood and the fever of 106 didn't break for over 5 days.
May any one tell me what's the best method to purify and quantify Leishmania amastigotes from spleen and or liver. We've tried parasite burden by limit dilution and it didn't work well.thank's
Hello! Some days ago a sample from a patient possibly infected with schistosoma was sent to our laboratory for molecular analysis. The diagnostic was done by a rectal biopsy and staining with Ziehl-Neelsen. Some of my colleagues claim that only could be S. mansoni and S. intercalatum because only eggs from these spieces stain. However, in my opinion, eggs are not stained and it could be S. haematobium. Please, can anyone help with this question?
(I attach photographs of the rectal biopsy. The last 2 photography is the rectal biopsy of other patient with confirmed S. mansoni infection)
A similar pattern in Brazil, but with better dengue data. See http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/tmi.12227/abstract?deniedAccessCustomisedMessage=&userIsAuthenticated=false
Has anyone recent information (> 2004) on the antifeedant and/or repellent activity of neem limonoids (other than azadirachtin) on insects?
Please send or mention.
Recent field tests with human-derived odorants for mosquito attractants to traps did not include consideration of L-lactic acid as part of the human-produced odor blend plus CO2 (Acree et al., Science, 161:1346-1347,1968). Since lactic acid does not elute from a GC column, conventional GC-MS does not see or record it.
Is there a better direct analytical method?
Gastropods and other molluscs are often obligate hosts for trematode parasites, many of which are important pathogens. I am interested in developing a list of such molluscs that show the potential for invasion of new habitats around the world, and argue that there is a need for more biomonitoring for such situations as potential emerging disease threats of humans and/or animals.
I wish to identify/characterize marine fungi associated with various marine organisms found on tropical reefs. I have found numerous papers on sampling of sediments and wood fragments but need protocol for live substrate sampling.I would also love to establish a line of communication with a marine mycologist.
What do you think about your lab safety rules? Do you respect them? Do you remember to use a "one glove rule"? How safety may be improved in your work spaces? I enclosed a very well prepared Laboratory Checklist, maybe someone would like to use it.
Rodents are reservoirs of many zoonotic diseases to human and their infested fleas,mites,ticks and lice act as vehicles transmitters of infections to man.What is best apply ant-ratting or insecticide first?
I want to be able to tell when a gene reassortment event (observed after DNA sequencing of genes of pathogens) occured.
I consider that in the current setting we are facing in some countries, measure this is highly important. Then, I would like to know if there exists questionnaires for that.
I have lots of sequences to align and I used to use MEGA6 but it takes forever to finish one multiple alignment session. I need a faster and a more accurate way of obtaining my multiple alignments.
If you consider Msp2 as a marker for genotyping a sample containing multiple infections infected with 2 or more clones, is there any formula for calculating MOI ? If yes, how can we calculate using a formula?
Biomphalaria glabrata is the intermediate host for the important human blood fluke, Schistosoma mansoni, present in parts of the Caribbean. Establishment of this species in suitable habitats in southern Florida could lead to a potential for establishment of this disease on the U.S. mainland, in areas where substandad human waste treatment and/or zoonotic connections might occur. I am just seeking to determine whether anyone is looking intentionally at this through ongoing targeted surveillance.
I have infected macrophage cell line (THP-1) with Leishmania parasite and now I want entrapped parasite to be used for culturing. How do I let the parasite free from macrophages without harming parasite's viability.
We are probing primers designed for TNF-alpha, IL-6, IL-17, IL-23, IL-10 and IL1b, in order to determine expression levels of these cytokines in heart of mice infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. The paper that we got the primers sequences reported a PCR product between 100-300 bp, but we obtained pcr products of 50 bp in heart. We did a positive control with spleen of infected mice, but in that case the products are quite different, higher to 300 bp. If anyone has experience in this topic and can help me, I would be very thankful.
I found that [Artesunate plus sulfadoxine–pyrimethamine] is now being used as first-line treatment for Malaria in India, since 2010.
What is the second-line of treatment for Malaria at present?
Or information on the progress in the development of its vaccine? The vector is the Aedes mosquito; and the DENV (dengue fever virus) is an RNA virus.
There are several pheromones/oviposition attractants identified and reported in publications of prestigious journals since 1980's, for some blood sucking insects that are highly promising for use in vector management. However, I would like to know about the commercialization of such effective semiochemicals (if any) that will be helpful for managing especially vectors that transmit malaria, dengue, encephalitis, leishmaniasis etc.
I would like to perform IHC to target specifically on brain cysts of Toxoplasma ME49 found in balb/C mouse's brain. Is it possible to do that? Is there any commercially available kits to perform this task?
I am looking for live L3 larvae of Anisakis simplex, Pseudoterranova decipiens, Contracaecum sp. and Hysterothylacium sp. for serological investigation. Would anyone be kind to help me get these parasites?
I've been running indirect ELISAs using Apical Membrane Antigen-1 and Merozoite Surface Protein-1 to test serum samples from a low transmission region for previous exposure to malaria. A majority of our sample are under the age of 18, however the literature is unclear as to what the window for detecting malaria antibodies are using these antigens. Does concordance between antigens suggest a more recent exposure? If someone could elaborate or recommend literature explaining detection thresholds and windows for these two antigens I would greatly appreciate it.