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Tropical - Science topic

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I am trying to predict drought intensity in a wet tropical forest region using Long-term precipitation data.
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The Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) is an extension of the widely used Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI). The SPEI is designed to take into account both precipitation and potential evapotranspiration (PET) in determining drought :)
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Dear Sir,
this is to kindly inquiry a material on tropical agronomy & crop response to environment in the forms of lecture note, text book, article or any forms of document.
with kind regards,
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What are the Methods available for non-destructive biomass estimation of young Miyawaki plantations (young mixed plantations of tree seedlings with DBH less than 5 cm) in tropical condition?
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On the slide is the famous equatorial cyclone "Boffa". Map from the site "Jaxa".
Additional information in the explanations to my questions: 1. Why do cyclones form at the equator, where is there no Coriolis force? What's wrong with the theory? 2. Why do cyclones with a diameter of several thousand km form in the tropical zone? These are not tropical cyclones (there is no "eye of the storm"). 3. It is believed that tropical cyclones are local eddies that form without a system. I think this is a mistake.
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Howdy, Borys,
Excellent! Your data and discussion cover the character of the region well and clear my curiosity about the cyclone energy forcing process there. It fills out the original image and note. The wave heights image even indicates a cyclonic circulation south of Sri Lanka.
I've learned a great deal about tropical cyclones from you and from both articles cited by Janusz Pudykiewicz (and a dozen articles cited therein needed to follow them). Thank you both.
Happy Trails,
Len
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Tropical cyclogenesis is a sequence of random events that transform convection into a vortex. Many people think so. But there are facts of correlation of tropical cyclogenesis activity in different regions of the planet. There are data on the cyclical strengthening and weakening of the global tropical cyclogenesis. But then it is a natural, not a random process. For more details, see the dissertation of my graduate student Vadim Doli. See also my question "It is believed that tropical cyclones are local eddies that form without a system. I think this is a mistake." There is a discussion on this topic.
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Is a tropical cyclone formed randomly from a convective cell? Look at the satellite image. We see a mirror picture relative to the equator. Is the probability of such a coincidence zero? Drawing from open Internet resources.
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what are those appropriate methods? Critique concerning the methods will be appreciated.
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I am a student of international relations, I really don't know,sorry
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It is common that global communities are talking about Food Losses and Food Waste. The Postharvest losses of food are a more severe problem in developing countries particularly those in the tropical and sub-Saharan regions. Is there a connection between these three global Challenges? Can some one share us links and research outputs on these matters? thank you.
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This differences between food loss, food waste, and postharvest loss. According to FAO, in The State of Food Agriculture 2019, stated that food loss is the decrease in the quantity or quality of food resulting from decisions and actions by food suppliers in the chain, excluding retailers, food service providers, and consumers.
Food loss is typically driven by infrastructure limitations, climate and environmental factors, and quality, aesthetic, or safety standards. Food loss most often occurs at the production, post-harvest, and processing stages of the food chain.
Whilst food waste occurs at the end of the food chain. Food waste is food that was originally produced for human consumption but then discarded or was not consumed by humans.
This includes food that was spoiled prior to disposal and food that was still edible when thrown away. Food waste typically occurs at the retail and consumer level and is driven by decisions made by consumers and businesses who consider quality, aesthetics, and/or safety standards.
Food waste as defined here is more directly linked to consumer behavior. Such as expired packaged or canned food from retail wholesale, unfinished meals, or undercooked products.
Remember that reduction of food loss and food waste is part of the sustainable development objectives, so there are several indicators to measure these goals
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Please send or refer me research papers related to management of transition cow in tropical environment
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Ok, let me know if I can help further.
Leo
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The corona virus first developed in Wuhan China (temperet climate). But now it has spread to the tropics (for example Brazil, Indonesia and countries in Africa). Please inform whether climate influences the spread of the corona virus. Thank you
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I think that the climate has a great effect in spreading this virus. On the other hand, please let me ask the following three questions:
  • Is there a lack of interpretability and transparency related to this virus?
  • Did we reach a state with this pandemic that is hard to control and monitor?
  • Is COVID-19 one of nature's secretions or it has been fabricated in the laboratories of one or more countries?
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Dears
Tropical region is the hub of global biodiversity, however nations of this region remained poor.
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You can start with "Guns, germs and steel" by Jared Diamond, and end with "Why nations fail", by Acemoglu & Robinson. The first bring a pre-historically accurate origins of prosperity, and the second goes for the modern roles of institutions, politics and corruption.
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This Benthic invertebrate was found in a brackish water sample from a tropical oceanic island.
Thank you in advance
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Hello Ashan; I can't add to what Abhishek said. Sorry! It's an interesting puzzle.
Best regards, Jim Des Lauriers
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I want to conduct a shade tolerance - drought tolerance experiment for tree seedlings from seasonally dry tropical forests of northern Western Ghats
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I agree with Andrew-Pegman and Ryan William Orr. It is important to select the desired sized pot for tree crops as they are having long root systems. Based on the crop species you can select the pot size.
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Is there any metadata analysis for tropical and temperate regions?
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By this increasing trend of temperature due to climate change it has a huge negative impact on soil biodiversity by means of soil Respiration. At the same time soil Respiration is an important factor by which we can determine biological activities in soil. Also the organic matter decomposition and overall carbon storage in soil.
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This plankton species was collected using a 45-micrometer plankton net from tropical freshwater. Want to confirm the species.
I really appreciate any help you can provide.
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I think it is definitely a Keratella, probably Keratella cochlearis. Look up rotifers of the Great Lakes for a good description.
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This plankton sample was collected from tropical coastal water using a 45micrometer plankton net. The species that I want to identify is the one that looks like a slug.
Thank you in advance
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gastrotricha
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This plankton was found in tropical freshwater sources. want to identify the species on the top right (diatom). The sample was collected using a 45micrometer plankton net.
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I believe this resamble Mastoglia family but need acid clean to see the side chambers
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I found a worm that making a sandy mound with circular opening in its peak. The mound laid in intertidal seagrass area in Pari Island, Indonesia. I assumed that it is probably sipuncula, but I don't know the genus a and the species of this organism. Can anyone help me to identify this worm?
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Hi Allsay,
What you have is definitely a sipunculan that could belong to one of 3 genera: 1) Sipunculus, 2) Siphonosoma, or 3) Xenosiphon. I am attaching a paper that has an extensive reference section which can be used to track down some sipunculid taxonomic keys to find out exactly what you may be looking at. Below you can find 3 links that should be useful as well. The easiest is to request assistance from a sipunculid expert! The WORMS web site (see link below) will have them listed when you look at the “Taxonomic edit history” section. Click on their name and you should be able to get their e-mail address. Sorry I can't be of more help, and good luck!
Cheers,
Tom
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Dear researchgate freiends,
I'm doing research for my PhD study regarding rain attenuation for mm-wave based on raindrop size distribution (DSD) in tropical country. Main focus is for terrestrial link and with path length less than 1km. I will considered canting angle as well. Do you think there is any other way to make this research more interesting?
and do you have any suggestions any research that use canting angle as one of the parameter considered in the rain DSD measurement. I found some but it is very few. Maybe some of my friends here have any information that I do not know.
Tq in advance
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thank you Mustafa Sadiq Aljumaily . Really appreciate it @
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Hi everyone!
For a publication on biogeography of Ulmaceae (in a strict sense) I am looking for images from the tropical members of this familiy, especially of the genera Ampelocera, Hemiptelea, Holoptelea and Phyllostylon. Rather looking for live photos than herbarium specimens.
Thanks in advance!
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Please open your RG message box for images of Holoptelea integrifolia (Roxb.) Planch.
Thanks!
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Hello everyone!
I am participating in a conservation project related to the illegal harvesting of species of high commercial value (Granadillo, Tzalam, Hormigo, Mahogany, etc.) in the Mayan Forest on the mexican side.
Illegal logging of high-value species is one of the main threats to forest conservation in southeastern Mexico. It is an ultra-complex subject that surely requires several branches of science to understand. Do any of you know if anyone is actually studying the illegal logging occurring in Mexico's tropical forests?
Thank you all in advance for your answers!
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item 7: the present situation of mexican forestry - Fao.org
Deforestation in Mexico has been a collective misfortune caused by poverty, misconceived government policies, greed of some loggers, tree poaching,
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Ideally recorders that can be left out for weeks at a time, with frogs from tropical forests the target animals.
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AudioMoths - https://www.openacousticdevices.info/audiomoth - great sound quality, relatively inexpensive. Depending on the recording duty schedule and the size of the memory card, they can be left out for a few weeks. Unfortunately, they are very difficult to find right now because of chip shortages.
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Pros and cons of passive acoustic recorders in the Neotropics.
Best brands/models?
Ideally for recorders to be left up for weeks at a time.
Frogs are the target animals.
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The best program I used to record the sounds of different types of amphibians is Avisoft-SASLab Pro
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I discovered mysterious burrows that could affect the height of the sediment while sampling on the tropical sandy beaches in the seagrass habitat.
I'd dug the hole, but there were no organisms in it. I'd asked the locals about it, and they said it was worms, though they weren't sure.
Do you have any idea what kinds of organisms live in these burrows?
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I was producing vegetation indices in a study area in the tropics with MOD09 product (Land Surface Reflectance, 8-days, 500m) and also with MOD13 (Vegetation index, 16-days, 500m). I got more or less the same result with some small differences due to the fact that the former product is an 8-days composite and the latter is 16-days composite. But I noticed that the quality flag are completely different, the one from MOD09 is very 'permissive', the could masking is almost unnecessary but with MOD13 is the opposite, because I lose a lot of data due to clouds. I think that the QA flag of MOD13 should be the correct one because my study area is in the tropics with high presences of clouds, but I wonder why the QA flag of MOD09 is so different and seems to be unreliable.
Can someone give me a clue?
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Thanks for your reply Prof. Hack. And yes, I have used the quality flag as it says in the guidelines. I will take a look to the paper you just recommended me.
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At the sampling site in different habitats at various forest type like alpine grassland, tropical, subtropical forest. Being a beginner researcher, what should be intial scientific approaches to consider before collection of data in study site interm of highlighted key points such as pre and post sampling options, frames, techniques, heterogeneity, with respect to the way of consistently accuracy of research...
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Stratified random sampling is a good choice
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The standards for cold countries are very strict, like the EU and the ASTM standards, but these actually apply for tropical countries?
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In the case of Cuba, as you know, there is no standard at all. Each country or region should develop or select one standard to be implemented. The selection of the ASTM 6751 or EN 14214 is not possible in our context, If finally, we decide to produce biodiesel for generalization, we have to deal with the development of a national standard, adequate to the technology for its use, the lab tech for its quality control, the transportation technologies to be used but the blending range.
A milestone!!!
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Colleagues,
A point raised during a discussion with colleagues. As you may know, the higher diversity of plants and animals in the (forest) tropics has been tentatively conceptualized by the Museum hypothesis, with older taxa, different mutation rates, lower extinction rates, larger geographic range sizes than in temperate areas (Moreau and Bell 2013).
Would any evidence exist to suggest that this also apply to viruses, bacteria, parasites ?
Comments, references, suggestions welcome !!
Best,
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Hello Benoit; Here is a generalization that might be helpful. The more species there are in a community, the more symbionts there are. The older a community, the more interactions can develop. I bet that there are more KINDS of interactions in the wet tropics as well as more in total. I attached a very old but very interesting paper that might entertain your thinking. Best regards, Jim Des Lauriers
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I am interested in this species found in estuarine environments of the Mexican Pacific and used for food (known as "pata de mula"). It has been possibly confused with A. multicostata, which is smaller in size and has many ribs on the shell.
Let me know if you have records of this species and any publications and/or collections that record this species in the American tropical Pacific? Thanks
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the one in the image measure 14cm but there are specimens that are close to 19cm
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We all the that NUE ie very much lower around 30 to 40% ... So in tropical and temperate which type of losses is more is as important as management point of view...
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In tropical conditions, volatilization loss of N is likely to be more than under temperate environment because of higher temperatures, and rates of reactions such as microbial activity for mineralization. In tropics, nitrogen loss through OUT6 (toilet), and leaching could be more than in temperate areas because of high human population density, activity, and degradation attributed to poor farming practices. Harvest losses of N could similarly be more in tropics because of continuous cultivation to feed the high human population density.
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Carbon offsetting and reforestation projects depend on high quality seeds, yet we lack valuable information about storage and germination rates of many tropical tree species.
At what temperature can I safely dry orthodox tree species seeds, so I can store them for months or years? Afzelia quanzensis, Erythrophleum suaevolens and Albizia gummifera are some of the species I am working on.
Working in a rainforest environment and with very little infrastructures means that a sealed dry-room with a dehumidifier is not an option, and I can dry seeds only using a drying hot-air (that can be set between 30 and 90°C) cabinet and silica gel. I will try to stay as low as possible.
Thanks for any input or first hand experience!
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The information you can access with this link can help you understand the agenda you raised.
Thank you!
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Fisheries resource supplies adequate cheap balanced nutrition to the rural / coastal people. These resources are heavily exploited. New innovations are needed to sustainably exploit these resources. From singly species conservation mangers are moving towards multi-species/ ecosystem based management. World bodies are recommending to manage these dwindling resources by Eco-friendly way and give much emphasis to implement sustainable development goals. Recently, LME and MPA area concepts are evolving. Any innovation in this line shall help to understand and evolve appropriate management principles for the tropical multi-spiecies fisheries resource management.
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eDNA analysis is one innovation, or environmental DNA, all the tiny traces of genetic material that are left behind as living things pass through water or soil :)
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The rising sea levels and mangroves are salt-tolerant trees that line tropical and subtropical coastlines. How does the reforestation of mangroves contribute to regulating the global climate through carbon sequestration and storage? Coastal protection from storms? Reduced flood risk? Habitat for distinct species?
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Giant millipedes appear only to occur in the tropics and in locations close to the equator. Does this mean that body size is an evolutionary indication of thermal tolerance in millipede species?
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In Venezuela we have the so-called Scolopendra gigantea * (Wikipedia CC commons article), I really don't know if they are classified as millipedes, but they live in regions with high levels of humidity above 1500 meters altitude. I saw a few ones in the Andean mountains years ago. Scary because they move very fast.
Best Regards.
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Hi,
I'm looking for data (mainly related to management: growth rate, canopy size, soil and climate preferences, etc.) about tropical trees used in tropical agroforestry.
Have you ever heard about a database or a source of technical information available to agroforest managers?
That would really facilitate land management and field experiments.
As always, I am trying to use these questions to centralize information from different sources. RG questions tend to be well indexed in Google for different users. Thank you for your contributions!
Best,
Thomas
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Thomas Fungenzi i guess the attached document might be of your help
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I am trying to get wrf namelist.input physics options that can optimize the output results (wind map) compared to observed meteorological data in east-Africa region. I need the options for tropical region.
Thank you for your contribution.
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Hi Gatoto,
Nothing is rigid in terms of set of parameterizations for any specific location. You have to do hit-and-trial sets of parameterization schemes to compare with your observations during the study period. It's an extensive work; there are no short-cuts.
Although you may get a reasonable comparisons with some set of parameterizations, you have to know that you have just tweaked the model to get the reasonable estimates. However, they are not as good predictions as we think they are because of the nature of the parameterizations included in the models including WRF.
Hope this helps!
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Hey guys! My classmates and I are conducting research on tropical fruit juices consumption. Highly appreciated if you fill in our survey!
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Are we all qualified to respond to the survey? Aren't there any restrictions as to who can or otherwise participate?
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Kindly point out the first-hand signs & how to detect (prior to encounter) of primate species; Trachypithecus pileatus (Capped langur) & Macaca assamensis (Assamese monkey) in tropical forest ? Thank you.
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Demographers estimate that by 2050, the number of people on Earth will reach 10 billion. With such a number of people, the agricultural economy, logistics of food supplies and people's eating habits will have to change. It is likely that economics will force these processes, which will result in the transition of the majority of humanity to nutrition mainly based on vegetable and vegetarian diets. Meat production is many times more expensive than the production of cereals, fruits and vegetables. In addition, according to scientific research and the theory of futurologists, the production of traditional meat, e.g. pork and beef, may be replaced by the production of protein from insect breeding. Research shows that there are more proteins in the bodies of insects than in traditional meat dishes. In addition, the logistics of food supplies, agri-food products will have to improve. Systems for matching agricultural and reptile production to the current needs of the industry and the nutritional needs of people will be improved so as to reduce the scale of food wastage. The biggest threat to the implementation of this plan may be unexpected atmospheric phenomena, natural disasters, droughts, hurricanes, tropical heat in the areas in which agricultural crops have been cultivated so far. In addition, industrial exploitation of arable land and climate change causes soil depletion and the disintegration of areas suitable for agricultural production. Therefore, it will be necessary to continue the technological progress in the production of crops, in biotechnology, in the creation of new plant varieties resistant to pests and adverse climatic changes.
Please, answer, comments. I invite you to the discussion.
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With rising income food consumption patterns also change. Calorie intakes of poor and rich people are surprisingly similar, but rich people consume more protein. This adds about a further 1 percent growth to food demand which means that the world will need to produce approximately two percent more food annually if today’s poor become rich. The growth of supply needed for the future about 2 percent annually has to come mainly from available farmland to avoid an overly negative impact on fragile ecosystems. This requires finance, investments, innovation, and knowledge to improve the yields at existing farmlands. The yield gap between what’s needed and what’s being produced is still very high. On the other hand, reducing food waste can have a significant impact on the availability of food. Reducing food waste can improve the efficiency of food value chains and help to distribute food more evenly to those in need.
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How do one find means or method in field to detect the presence of primates (Macaca, Trachypithecus, Hoolock species) in tropical rain forests ? Valuable comments much appreciated. Thank you so much.
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Camera traps work well for many Macaca, which spend a lot of time on the ground, but will not be efficient for exclusively arboreal primates like gibbons. Vocalizations are the method of choice for gibbons. This can be as simple as morning auditory point counts from stationary listening posts (get up early, sit quietly on a hilltop and record the time, direction and estimated distance to every group heard), or as sophisticated as using automatic recorders and fancy occupancy models. Leaf monkeys may be the hardest. Line transects on well cleared trails, with surveyors trained well to walk very quietly scanning the canopy above and overhead may be your best chance.
But please do not use nets or canopy fogging!
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Major sources of DIC (dissolved inorganic carbon) in coastal rivers? (especially tropical)
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Anthropogenic factors like tourism wastes, Fish landing wastes, Domestic and municipal wastes and also industrial wastes
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Usually, how many sampling should of bycatch for use in catch and species composition in tropical studies?
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At least n = 10 or even greater
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Dear all,
How to obtain information on species-specific life history parameters for trees in tropical forests? The parameters of interest are longevity, sexual maturity, shade tolerance, seed dispersal distance, resprouting age and resprouting probability. Any help in this regard is greatly appreciated.
Thanks,
Subashree Kothandaraman
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Thanks for your suggestion Andrew Paul McKenzie Pegman !
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Kindly, name some reliable/popular field survey technique employed for amphibians (frogs) & terrestrial skinks (scincidae) in tropical forests. Thanks a ton.
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Hello,
besides the previous answers, and integrating some of them, I list some survey techniques used for amphibians and most terrestrial reptiles, inclusive of skinks, in tropical forests, but also in more general contexts.
Active methods
· Visual detection along fixed transects (not the best in tropical environments, but applicable in some context)
· Visual detection without fixed transect, freely scouting a specific area
· Acoustic encounter along fixed transects (amphibians)
· Acoustic encounter scouting a specific area (amphibians)
· Sporadical-opportunistic observations and acoustic records
Other active methods (captures):
Amphibians
· Hand-capture
· Dip-nets
Skinks
· Hand-capture
· Grabber
· Noose
The use of binoculars can be applied in some environmental contexts and cameras are often essential, as photographs of detected or captured animals are an evidence for verifying species identifications.
Obviously, a general knowledge of the potential presence of some species in the investigated area must lead to examine the zone keeping into consideration the general ecology of each taxon:
- specific forest type (e.g., zones where small areas of primary-secondary dry forest, transitional dry to moist, moist forest, human altered forest are close to each other)
- specific habitat (e.g., trees, poles, tree holes, small rivers, and waterfalls, breeding sites)
- best season
Naturally, each point should be examined regardless of the knowledge of the potential presence of some species in the investigated area (hiding places for some amphibians and skinks, poles for tadpoles, etc.).
Other similar, obvious considerations are as follows.
In all cases, the above mentioned techniques are employed in different ways based on:
- forest type
- season and/or the weather conditions
- hour of the day
(e.g., clearly, for amphibians these techniques aren’t employed in tropical dry forests, during the dry season and in full daylight).
To maximize the success of a survey, some artificial environmentscan be used, such as:
· Artificial covers (amphibians)
· Shelters (amphibians and skinks)
· Basking substrates (skinks)
If the transect techniques is used, each transect can be settled basing on the presence of one of these artificial environments.
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Passive methods (amphibians)
· Pitfall traps (eventually with drift nets)
· Funnel traps
· Bottle traps
· Artificial cover traps
· Microphones (vocalizations ;-)
· Camera-traps (very rarely)
Passive methods (skinks)
· Pit-fall traps
· Pipe-trap
· Camera-traps (very rarely)
Here again cameras are essential, as photos of captured animals are an evidence for verifying species identifications.
A general, again obvious, remark is to record the location, date, time, and micro-habitat of each record.
A conclusive short remark is as follows.
There aren’t fixed rules to plan a survey, even though sometimes it’s recommended to involve, if possible, 3 to 6 people for 3-5 days in each survey. The number of surveys and their temporal distance depending on the specificity of the study.
Last but not least, if aiming at creating an erpethological checklist of an area:
Op­portunistic records by local people
Finally, op­portunistic records of various species encountered by local people are useful to create a more exhaustive checklist of the species of an area.
General references
Bennett, D. (1999). Expedition Field Techniques - Reptiles and Amphibians. Geography Outdoors.
Heyer, W. R., M. A. Donnelly, R. W. McDiarmid, L.-A. C. Hayek, and M. S. Foster (1994). Measuring and monitoring biological diversity. Standard methods for amphibians. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington DC.
Rödel, M.O, Ernst, R. (2004). Measuring and monitoring amphibian diver­sity in tropical forests. I. An evaluation of methods with recommen­dations for standardization. Ecotropica 10: 1–14.
Wilkinson, J. W. (2015). Amphibian Survey and Monitoring Handbook. Pelagic Publishing, Exeter.
Simply three case studies in tropical forest environments
Costa-Campos CE, Freire EMX (2019). Richness and composition of anuran assemblages from an Amazonian savanna. ZooKeys 843: 149–169. https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.843.33365
Mira-Mendes CB, Ruas DS, Oliveira RM, Castro IM, Dias IR, Baumgarten JE, Juncá FA, Solé M (2018). Amphibians of the Reserva Ecológica Michelin: a high diversity site in the lowland Atlantic Forest of southern Bahia, Brazil. ZooKeys 753: 1–21. https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.753.21438
Rödel MO, Glos J (2019). Herpetological surveys in two proposed protected areas in Liberia, West Africa. Zoosyst. Evol. 95: 15-35. https://doi.org/10.3897/zse.95.31726
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Leaves are a great resource in tropical countries that are grossly under utilized. Many wild animals live only on these, can't domesticated animals live on them too?
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Leaves are effectively used by animal in particular goats and camel. The tree leaves are good source for animals and gut flora of these animals.
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Pls give some highlights on Integrated Aquaculture
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Under IMTA production, the uneaten feed and wastes of one species are recaptured and converted into feed, fertilizers, and energy to another species. IMTA can promote aquaculture sustainability, with environmental, economic, and social advantages. https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmars.2020.00156/full
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Need to know methods and conditions needed to grow c.lentillifera in a monoculture system in land-based raceways, in a tropical country.
Thank you
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I'm looking for in situ soil moisture data sets in dense tropical forests (Amazon & Congo basins, etc.), preferably during the 2010-present period
Do you know any papers referring to such data sets? Any PI? I would then contact PI of the sites to check data availability
Thanks
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The trouble is that 'borrowed' data can be analysed identically by different researchers and produce conflicting published results, becoming embarrassing for authors and potentially resulting in litigation. At the very least, make sure you obtain copyright before using other people's data, otherwise stay away from it :)
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Scientists present a method for measuring the opportunity cost of sequestering carbon on tropical farms. They derive the rates of carbon sequestration for timber and agroforestry systems and compute incentive compatible compensating payment schedules for farmers who sequester carbon.
Zelek, C. A., & Shively, G. E. (2003). Measuring the opportunity cost of carbon sequestration in tropical agriculture. Land Economics, 79(3), 342-354.
1. Are there any modern methods to calculate or evaluate the Carbon sequestration ?
2. How it apply to tropical lands?
3. how to evaluate the contribution of carbon income to the country's or the globe economy?
Open for the discussion,
Highly value your kind response
Thank you
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Interesting discussion !
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I’m looking for literature/advice regarding how to implement a bird survey (abundance/density estimation) in areas/habitats with dense vegetation and rough terrain, like tropical rain forest. It seems to me, that point-counts are the method that best fits such conditions. However, what kind of sampling designs should I implement in order to meet the statistical requirements? That is, in very mountainous areas locating the points randomly or systematically (neither there is apperent stratification) seems almost impossible because of the logistical difficulties of accessing and locating the selected sites. The only viable alternative seems to be to follow trails already present in the area and to locate the plots (with a first random point) along the paths, every 250 m or so. Additionally, I think that some points can be located at both sides of the trails (walking 250 m on either side of the trails may be feasible at some points). However, this “design” seems to violate the assumption of randomness in selecting the sample units. Any comments or suggestion of alternative design will be welcomed.
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One of the challenges in onion breeding under tropical condition is flowering. Our first step is to develop onion lines capable of flowering all throughout the year.
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Dear Ace Agustin Yes; please find herewith a pdf of a published paper, which reveals that FLC has a key role in the timing of the initiation of flowering in Arabidopsis.
My best wishes, AKC
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The average lightning strike contains about 1 million joules, enough energy to fry the founding father in his boots. The problem is that the energy in lightning is contained in a very short period of time, only a few microseconds. Further, to obtain that 1 million joules, one would have to handle a voltage of several million volts. Absorbing lightning and converting it to useful energy would be an extraordinary challenge indeed. But robust and dependable safety mechanisms would also need to be built to immediately contain the huge burst of energy and prevent the entire facility from being blown to bits. In addition, determining the most practical locations for capture facilities would present a huge host of problems. According to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, lightning strikes somewhere on the earth approximately 44 times every second, but most of those strikes occur in the tropics and remote mountain regions. Constructing a state-of-the-art energy conversion and storage facility in such conditions would be enormously difficult. Distributing that energy to more populous areas would add even more logistic and economic challenges.
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To add to the debate, the IEC 60071 standard gives guidance for insulation coordination. The design of an electrical installation must comply with an adequate insulation coordination, since it is not practical to disconnect the loads every time there is a thunderstorm. Regards
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leaf low quality is inherent to the tropical grasses ?
as physiology and physicochemical features could justify this?
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In deed, leaf of grasses have less energy concentration, both in tropical and temperate places if you compare with legumes.
Regards
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I'm looking studies on the association between forest primary productivity and alpha diversity specially to the tropical and subtropical forests.
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You'll find it in the paper by
Liang et al. 2016. Positive biodiversity-productivity relationship predominant in global forests. Science 354: 196-207. DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf8957
This paper deals with global patterns but tropics are of course part of it.
Bogdan
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Pineapple is a climacteric tropical fruit. There is a saying that pineapple is very useful for preventing fever. What would be the scientific reasons for it?
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All fruits have important nutritional value for the body
It contains most of the vitamins, minerals, zinc, and some are antioxidants
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Is there any special behaviour or welfare traits of great interest to study in tropical fish species?
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There is a large body of knowledge already available for farmed tropical freshwater species (namely tilapias), which include many behavioural traits as indicators of welfare. However many gaps still exist. I suggest www.fishethobase.net as a good place to start digging on this issue.
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I am interested in the Cenozoic history of surface circulation in the Atlantic Ocean, particularly in the subtropical and tropical regions. However, most information I have found so far is related to the North Atlantic.
In particular, I would like to know if the main currents and countercurrents have changed their intensity, in response to climatic and tectonic dynamics during the last 66 million years. What are the evidences for these changes? What literature would you recomend for solving questions on this topic?
Many thanks in advance.
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There are a few papers dealing with the effects of climate change on the pollination of European orchids, but I wonder if similar studies have been carried out in the Tropics.
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Dear all,
I am analyzing networks of very different size (tropical forests vs temperate ones). In particular, I am interested in their connectance, nestedness, linkage density, eveness of links and partner diviersity. Some of these parameters are sensitive to network size. In order to compare these networks, should I standarize them by using null models? This is, (Real parameter - Mean null models)/ Mean null models. If this was the case, using the shuffle algortihm that controls dimension and connectance is correct?
I have been reading reviews and articles and I can't find a standarized protocol to compare networks with different sizes.
Thanks in advance
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Hi Teresa!
I'm looking to do a similar comparison for two pollination networks (past and present). The sampling effort is much larger for the historical network (the network contains about 10 times more interactions). Did you ever find an answer to your question re: comparing networks of different sizes?
-Val
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I would like to have a general picture of methods to count flowers in tropical (or neotropical) trees. The context if difficult access to the individual trees and and a short flowering period ( ~ 1 month)
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Some trees have different flowers called andromonoecious that contain male and completely flowers per a plant.
It seems that counting flowers by taking photos doesn't work in these cases. For example, in olive.
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Dear all,
I am looking for a quick and rapid method for Measuring Soil Microbial Biomass in acidic tropical soil amended with biochar and vermicompost.
Thanks!
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Are there any cyclical animal populations in the tropic?
I've been writing an evolutionary biology hypothesis, that claims that cyclical animal populations are actually a population-wide multi-year hormone cycles; not that different from menstrual cycles: https://www.researchgate.net/project/80-year-generational-hypothalamic-hormone-cycle-spanning-across-4-generations
The current assumption is that the annual changes in daylight enables the "counting" of years for biology, but since the amount of daylight is quite stable in the tropic, the "counting" of years wouldn't be possible there. This is why I'm asking: are there any cyclical animal populations in the tropic? The requirements are that the cycle is multi-year and has similar characteristics compared to the other cyclical populations (of lemmings, voles, hares, etc.)
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Of couse, there is cyclical animal population variantoin in hole planet due periodic elleven years variation in solar irradiation
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This is a question that emerges frequently in seminars around ape and early hominin evolution. Why don't we have (non-human) apes at early hominin fossil sites and why don't we have earlier fossil records in the tropical forests of Africa, the main habitat for extant African apes? I am very interested in the question - and I am trying to understand what other researchers think about this. Any comments will be welcome, thanks!
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Following what I heard from my colleague paleoanthropologists, four main reasons are commonly raised:
- Sedimentological context: bones do not conserve well in dense tropical sediments, due to the high pH coming from tree roots.
- Epistemological context: research attention was much more focus on East and South Africa since the discovery of the first fossils.
- Geographical context: it is always more difficult to organized expedition, especially archaeological investigations, in tropical forest.
- Geopolitical context: areas of geopolitical tension often discourage scientific projects and decreased the chance to obtain financial support.
I hope the answer will help.
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Compared with the well-managed condition of the developed world, exotic chicken breeds are not higher yielders in tropical environments of developing countries. Yet, most developing countries have been importing several exotic chicken breeds to their country to meet the growing demand for high-quality protein. At the same time, these countries have several limitations to design and implement breeding programs capable of developing breeds adapted to their specific conditions. The question remains important in these countries is that which of the options are worthwhile: continue to import or developing their own breed?
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Thank you very much Gregoire Leroy
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Monocultures of exotic tree species can be poor for native biodiversity and have negative impacts on hydrology as well as other environmental characters. But is the inclusion of some exotics in a (tropical) forest restoration always measurably bad for biodiversity and environment? Does anyone know any review of this question from which to draw guidance about impacts of mixing exotics with native species. Thank you.
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Dear Jeremy, your question is very relevant. There is always a risk when planting exotic species in areas under restoration because them can become invasive and compromise the restoration process. However, there are some examples where exotic species do not negatively impact the native biodiversity and other ecosystem functions. Indeed, some exotic species can provide a suitable environment for the development of native species. I would like to recommend you two recent papers addressing this issue. The first is entitled " Monitoring of forest components reveals that exotic tree species are not always invasive in areas under ecological restoration", and the second is "Exotic eucalypts: From demonized trees to allies of tropical forest restoration?". Kind regards.
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can anyone suggest any sources (data) for the same?
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The NO2 column varies greatly between background/pristine conditions (very low NO2) to very polluted urban/industrial areas (high NO2).
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We have worked on this topic in three types of forests in the ecuadorian Amazon along altitudinal gradients and we want to link these data and projects to global and regional networks of tropical forests.
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Thank you very much to everyone for your responses and information! hope to publish our results about this topic soon and in case someone is interested in work this topic with us in the Ecuadorian Amazon, we are very open to collaborate. All the best to everyone, Ximena
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What is the possible range of Runoff Coefficient (Runoff / Rainfall ratio) of tropical rain-forests with sloping terrain and experience over 2000 mm average annual rainfall? What are the theoretical methods of estimation of average values of Runoff Ratio for ungauged catchments with different land uses and soil types?
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There are many papers on the Budyko curve/framework, so a simple search should turn up a suite of papers. Even if you don't have subscriptions, there will be open access papers you can read. For catchments that are wet throughout the year (these will be energy limited rather than water limited), you can assume that the actual evaporation is approximately the PET, and ignoring deep drainage as a starting point. It should be noted that the "runoff" coefficient will be appropriate at a large enough scale so that shallow subsurface flows are also captured.
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Generally it is said that it is permanent problem and with no solution as we have no control on weather,we know very well that nutrient is blood of land and due to this loss directly the quality of agricultural soil get destroyed and we are facing this every year.
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In this case basal does is totally wastage specially n case of rice cultivation how will it effect if we planted little earlier so that it will grow well during time of heavy monsoon as we all now that nutrient is blood of land but early it is wasting and farmer are buying fertilizer at high cost.🙄🙄
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There is the belief that the rates of infection and fatalities of COVID-19 are lower in the tropics than in the temperate regions of the world. This explains why the disease does not have a devastating impacts on the African continent as some have expected.
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Following.
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What the best center in the world for the study of soil chemical, specifically cationic micronutrients (Fe, Mn, Zn e Cu)?
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Raimundo De Oliveira Cruz Neto imundo De Oliveira Cruz Neto - you are welcome
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Temperate country is more vulnerable to COVID-19 infection compare to tropical country?
Please check the map, attached.
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Low temperature in temperate countries favours the rapid multiplication of SARS-CoV-2, while high temperature in tropical countries slows the multiplication of the virus. This is the main reason for temperate countries being more vulnerable to COVID-19 compared to tropical countries.
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I have several soil samples from tropical agricultural soils that i want analysed for Phospholipid Fatty Acid (PLFA) to help study the fungi to bacteria ratio. (It is proposed that PLFA is better for studying the fungi:bacteria ratio compared to next generation sequencing techniques..i hold a contrary opinion). The results of the PLFA will be used alongside those from next gen sequencing (Illumina).
Can anyone reccommend one lab for PLFA in Europe, and preferably Germany?
Also, is it true PLFA gives the best indication for studying fungi to bacteria ratio compared to next generation sequencing techniques?
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Hi Varela,
We often extract DNA from soil samples and send for sequencing. it is a bit cheaper that way. The cost of analysing one sample varies depending on the total number of samples you want analysed. It takes approximately three weeks (at most) to get the sequencing results. We often get the service from MR DNA lab in USA. My email is peterboloh@gmail.com,, probably i can introduce you to these guys through an email so that you can ride on the rates we often get (this way, i think it might be way cheaper, my though though) . Currently, I do not know of any lab in Europe.
Thanks
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physic and engineering properties of sub tropic peat because i want to compare with tropical peat
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Dear Dr. Faisal,
The following pdf file of a research paper published in Agricultural and Forest Meteorology (Kandel et al., 2018) may be of some use for your reference on temperate peat soil.
With best regards
P.S. Brahmanand
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