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text Linguistic Contributions to the development of translation studies
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Please take a look at my work on the poem Tam o' Shanter by Robert Burns, which is very relevant to your question. There is a translation and an article about the translation challenges.
* a new translation of Tam o' Shanter, which you will find on Youtube:
* a monograph on the influence of Old Norse on the poem
* a short article about the translation
* a slide set of the translation
All found here:
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I noticed that some scholars mentioned corpus-assisted method in Cognitive Translation Studies (CTS) or Cognitive Translation and Interpreting Studies (CTIS). However, the dominant method designs in CTIS are eye tracking-based or verbal report-based. I want to know more about how to utilize corpus tools in CTIS but I have not found any comprehensive introduction.
I only read some calls for corpus-assisted cognitive translation studies in Chinese and English academia. Only recently, I read a book chapter by Lang & Li (2020) about the cognitive processing routes of culture-specific linguistic metaphors in simultaneous interpreting. They have discussed many cognitive models but not enough for me as a layman to have a better picture of the whole area.
Thus, I am thinking whether there are any references I can have to help me go further in this regard. I have read some works in Cognitive Linguistics. Yes, some have used a corpus-driven approach to discuss cognitive linguistic issues but the explanations seem not very clear.
However, I am still curious about the comments from translation scholars in CTIS. Do CTIS scholars actually believe that corpus can analyze cognitive aspects of translation as this is not the dominant tool for this group?
Whether yes or no, I am also interested in the reasons.
Thanks for noticing and answering this question :)
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Dear Yufeng,
Translating is not only problem solving. And definitely cognitive experience is not only problem solving. Some product analysis results may lead to some very modest conclusions that can be safely assumed to unequivocally point to cognitive processing and phenomena. Analogically, consider what you can learn about what goes on in the mind of a shoemaker or a luthier by studying his shoes or her violins.
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Reading Nord's Translating as a Purposeful Activity (1997/2018), and earlier works of Reiss and Vermeer in the 1970s and 198s, it came to my mind that issues such as the importance of cultural and social factors in translation, and agency of human actors in translation, where made prominent by the approach, even before the social and cultural turns were around the corner.
The question is, why didn't Skopostheorie and its affiliated approaches gain further ground, and grow outward to focus on sociocultural issues in more details? They expanded our scope of translation one (or more) notch(es), but seems to have failed/been reluctant, to take translation conceptualization beyond the communicative action to introduce it as a social or cultural action.
If further informed by theories of sociology and culture, Skopostheorie could have become the most important TS theory.
Any ideas?
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Dear Ali,
I think what you say is pretty convincing, but maybe the problem with Skopos was inherent in its conceptualisation of the whole process of translation: its greatest strength was its greatest weakness. What I mean is that Skopos offered the huge advantage of making translation do-able, suggesting an approach which reduced the potentially infinite questions any translation poses to a clear goal, and simplifying the means to get there. But this came with a defect: by definition a Skopos approach demands an unequivocal decision as to what the purpose of a particular text is, or will be, but this necessitates making a decision about the social values involved and, most of all, the pragmatics, all of which might well lack the complexity and nuance of the real text and its translations. In other words, by making a Skopos translation we risk producing a version which doesn't seem particularly 'good' to the average user, because it is not subtle enough to allow for the social complexities any speaker or reader will deal with almost instinctively.
I personally think that Skopos is more important than people give it credit for, and is actually a pretty good description of what happens in some translating contexts. It is applicable to many (commercial) contexts.
On another level, maybe a series of rules and simplficiations also risks being rather unattractive to the intelligent community that translators by definition are.
Phew! I hope this makes sense to you: I have just realised that I haven't expressed myself very clearly and I apolgise. I am glad I don't have to translate this answer!
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I have worked on a project that aims at testing the viability of latent semantic analysis in answering research questions in the field of translation studies. I sent the article to 4 or 5 journals but received rejection as they indicate that my paper is out of scope (most of the journals claim they publish interdisciplinary research in the areas I mentioned).
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Hi Mohammed, the International Journal of Humanities and Arts Computing is a great venue for that kind of work. Digital Humanities Quarterly would welcome that kind of submission too. I hope that helps.
Paty
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Challenges Experienced by Pre-Service Teachers in the Post Graduate Certificate in Education Programme at a South African University
ABSTRACT
This study is an attempt to better understand the complex nature of tertiary learning by exploring challenges experienced by a group of students who have enrolled for the Post Graduate Certificate in Education (PGCE) programme as a pathway to a teaching career. This study’s aim is to identify challenges experienced by pre-service teachers in the PGCE programme at a South African University with an attempt to propose and test a research instrument that captures such challenges and to determine how the identified challenges vary among different fields of study. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from 150 pre-service teachers enrolled in the PGCE programme at South African university in 2012. The questionnaire was analysed using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and descriptive statistics. Findings of this study showed that challenges experienced by pre-service teachers can be classified into 3 categories: namely, challenges related to terminologies and learning style used in education, challenges related to the structure of the PGCE programme and challenges associated academic background from undergraduate qualification. This study further revealed that most of the challenges were reported among commerce and science pre-service teachers. Findings of this study are important in understanding flexible educational planning for the PGCE students at the university.
Keywords: Challenges, pre-service teachers, PGCE programme, university, South Africa
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Dear Paul-Francois Muzindutsi if you still looking for the best tool, please try google translation as it helps you with a basic translation but may contain fatal mistakes, you also need to send it to Arab speaker so he could check and revise it.
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I submitted an article to a journal last year and the editor acknowledged the receipt of my manuscript.
Few months later, I asked about the status of my submission. He replied:
" this is to inform you that I have included your paper in the forthcoming batch of the SKASE JTI intended for the peer-reviewing process.
I will inform you in due time"
Months later, I again asked for updates,
The editor replied:
"
now I wish to be more precise in my estimate as to the publication of the next issue.
It is to be reasonably anticipated that the reviewers would have some comments which have to be incorporated in the relevant papers (the reviewers are allowed 2 months to pass their reviews) and after this is made then they again look if the modifications are correct, if not, the author will receive the paper back ...... and the whole process usually takes a few months.
What is (almost) certain is that the next issue will be published this year.
My estimate would be September - October, but it may come earlier - depending on the number and quality of the papers.
Any estimate is the most difficult part of this editorial mission.
Thank you for understanding my position.
My best regard"
Then:
"
I am planning to send the papers out to the reviewers in early March.
From the date they confirm the acceptance of a paper for review, the two-month period starts to lapse, but even is a reviewer extends it, I can only courteously beg them to submit it .... the work of all of us i "academic charity".
So sending a paper to them does not mean the start of the above 2-month period.
But I have to understand that all of them (us) are extremely busy with their (our) other chores.
Hope this clarifies the issue even better.
Best regards."
I have not heard back from him since then. I checked the journal's website and it seems that they have recently published a new issue.
WE SHOULD STOP THIS!!!!!
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Long review cycles have become a norm in academia. Sometimes, I have to wait for a year to hear back, esp. from top journals. Much has been already said and discussed about this problem, but not much can be actually done - all editorial work (including the AEs) is done by an army of volunteers, and we all have to put the editorial responsibilities in the middle (or even at the bottom) of the to-do list.
My advice - patiently wait and don't bug the editor. If you start annoying them and asking for a quick decision, you will get one - a desk reject. and don't blame them for that. Then go argue... Another option is to withdraw the paper, this is possible to do if it has not been sent to the reviewers yet. Than's why most researchers have multiple pipelines, this somewhat alleviates (but does not solve) the problem. If you have 5-7 papers in progress, some are under review, some are being revised, etc. So work on multiple projects.
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Dear colleagues, I would like to know your considerations about these descriptors, related to our knowledge field. Thank you in advance.
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I can give you an authoritative answer because I’m the person who coined the term ‘translatology’ in English. That was in the early 1970s, nearly 50 years ago. My rationale was that while we had words like ‘phonetics’ for the science of speech sounds and ‘lexicography’ for the science of dictionaries, etc., we lacked a technical term for the science of translating.
About the same time as I coined ‘translatology’, a prominent French translation expert named René Ladmiral invented ‘traductologie’ in French. Terms with the ‘tradu’ stem, like Spanish ‘traductología’, are derived from Ladmiral.
‘Translatology’ never became as popular as ‘traductologie’. Native English writers usually prefer ‘translation studies’.
For more about the early history of ‘translatology’ and ‘traductologie’, please see my article ‘The Origins of Traductologie’ which is available on my Academia page at https://independent.academia.edu/BHARRIS.
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Hi, 
Would like to know if it is common/necessary to translate the qualitative interviews collected in different languages into the language in which the dissertation is written? My Ph.D. dissertation is in English and narrative interviews that I collected for this research project are in German, English, Russian and Azerbaijani. Since I will be graduating from a German University, I guess, there is no need to translate the interview transcripts in the German language, and, naturally those in English, either, because this is the original language of the dissertation. But what to do with the interview transcriptions in Azerbaijani and Russian? Should those be translated into English, too? 
Has anyone had such experience? Grateful for any tips! 
Many thanks!
Aysel 
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I just finished my dissertation in which a few interviews were in foreign language. This is what I did, and it worked like a charm.
1. Code all interviews in their original language - without translation. In this, you will not loose the meaning.
2. Translate only those parts of the foreign-language-interviews, what you would like to it as quotes. This is so much easier.
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Hi! I want to synchronize eye-tracking data and EEG data to investigate translators' cognitive effort in reading and transferring processes but I have little knowledge about EEG. I have read some journal papers in other fields that employ EEG in their experiment but they are vague and unclear so I want specifically more detailed introduction to its application in translation studies. Is there any book that talks about EEG application in translation and interpretation studies like Walker and Federici's (2018) book Eye Tracking and Multidisciplinary Studies on Translation which tells us how to better apply eye-tracking in TIS?
If no, how about some authoritative journal papers?
Thanks so much!😊
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You might also want to have a look at the work of Adolfo M. García, ORCID 0000-0002-6936-0114. Prof García is probably the best specialist on the combination of eyetracking and EEG to study translators ans interpreters at their tasks
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For example, I know of (Stuart) Campbell's "Choice Network Analysis in Translation Research" in Intercultural Faultlines : Research Models in Translation Studies I. Textual and Cognitive Aspects (2000), but does anyone know of other similar models? Thank you!
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Maybe have a look at this article: Sickinger, P., 2017. Aiming for cognitive equivalence: mental models as a tertium comparationis for translation and emperical semantics. Research in Language, 15(2), pp. 213-236.
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The topic of personality research has recently gained much popularity in Translation and Interpreting Studies, but it still lacks profoundness in many respects. Personality traits, cognitive styles and types - are they decisive in translation performance? Can we claim that translators are who they are and do what they do because they possess a set of certain personality traits that in their turn trigger certain behavioral patterns, i.e. cognitive types? I'd really appreciate your comments. Thank you!
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Dear Olha,
In my PhD dissertation, I worked on the impact of cognitive style on cognitive processes, ranging from low-level perception, to high-level decision making, and finally to language comprehension.
I have to say that yes, the cognitive style works significantly. Yet, I could not predict whether personality would play its significant role in interpreting. Since personality is very much multi-dimensional, and probably we need to focus on some specific dimensions to gradually move forward in this area of research.
Good luck with your research.
Best,
Junying
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I hope somebody may be able to help me - I have just registered with this website, Research Gate, but there is another Kieran O'Driscoll here, some of whose articles in the hard sciences are for some reason being credited to me, and I don't know how to rectify this situation - my own research is in the soft sciences, all linguistics-related e.g. translation studies, language teaching, etc. Any advice in remedying this situation would be really welcome as I wouldn't want anyone to think that I was trying to appropriate a colleague's research and pretend I'd written articles which I haven't - I'd be hugely embarrassed and upset if that were the case, or if I unwittingly caused offence to such colleagues. I am completely new to this website so still have to upload publications and more profile details as an ongoing project (I am already on academia.edu also, and have more information about my work on that site but am now most interested in this current site also). Many thanks. Kieran.
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Hi Kieran,
Does this discussion help?
One useful way might be contacting ResearchGate directly:
I had the same issue and I did the following:
2) Select the option "The wrong author is listed ..."
3) Click "provide details"
4) Then provide:
Profile link or name of wrong claimant: include the link of that wrong co-author
Publications incorrectly claimed: Include the link of your paper
After I submitted the above info., Researchgate fixed all of the issues after 3 days. RG also sent me an email telling me that it has fixed the issue.
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Empiricism in the philosophy of science emphasises evidence, especially as discovered in experiments. It is a fundamental part of the scientific method that all hypotheses and theories must be tested against observations of the natural world rather than resting solely on a priori reasoning, intuition, or revelation.
Empiricism, often used by natural scientists, says that "knowledge is based on experience" and that "knowledge is tentative and probabilistic, subject to continued revision and falsification". Empirical research, including experiments and validated measurement tools, guides the scientific method.
My question is that the research
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Philadelphia, PA
Dear Wang & readers,
How to do empirical research on translation?
I suppose you must first have a conception of the relation of linguistic meaning to evidence. What is the empirical evidence for linguistic meaning and meanings?
One obvious place to start is with the practice of lexicography. The lexicographer collects empirical evidence of linguistic usage and on that basis formulates and distinguishes word meanings --or at least definitions and descriptions which summarize and codify the meanings expressed in usage. It would appear, then, that linguistic usage is the primary empirical evidence for linguistic meanings and the evidence used in arriving at definitions and distinctions of word meanings. The translator in practice must be aware of the common meanings of the words in material to be translated; and obviously, the translator must be aware of the meanings of words in the language translated into. Notice that in any good translating or dual-language dictionary, senses and entries distinguished in relation to a given word in language A will be correlated with differing words and phrases in language B. To pick out the best or proper translating expression, one must first understand the particular senses (distinguished meanings) of expressions in the language to be translated.
The translator must be aware of or able to draw upon many other things, too, of course. But part of what is involved might be viewed as a matter of correlation between the results of lexicographical work conducted in pairs of languages of interest. More indirectly, it is a matter of the correlation between the evidence of usage which the lexicographers draw upon.
One might think of this as a matter of how to go about (empirically) checking or evaluating what we find in translating dictionaries. This may or may not fully agree with the actual practice of translation to be found in examining particular translated works. One might tend to presume that the lexicographic work is more systematic, but on the other hand, languages are always changing, and it is always possible that a good translating dictionary may need to be updated or corrected on occasion. Clearly, this could not be done except in relation to actual usage.
Wittgenstein famously said, "Don't look for the meaning, look for the use;" meanings are not objects to be found in the extra-linguistic world. Instead it is by attending to usage that meanings and definitions may be formulated and arrived at. From this perspective, assigned meanings and definitions are hypotheses which explain, comprehend and codify the actual, empirical uses to which language is put. Translation is then a somewhat derivative use of language--with its derivative dependence on the evidence of usage.
H.G. Callaway
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I am currently investigating the political/ideological implications of the pursuit of a native school of Translation Studies (TS) in the PRC as part - or consequence - of a broader ideological cultural/academic soft power project aimed at repositioning China on the global intellectual stage.
I have found some interesting insight in the existing literature, and most recently in Baumgarten and Cornellà-Detrell (eds.) (2018), Translation and Global Spaces of Power.
However, I am looking for further sources on the following topics, preferably but not necessarily in connection with China:
- the role of academia and the power (or lack thereof) of academics in relation to politics;
- the implications of the pursuit of native academic disciplines, schools, theories etc. in order to assert a nation's global cultural power and relevance;
- the position of TS as a discipline within such an ideologically-charged project.
Thank you!
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Dear Paolo,
I paid attention to the wording of your message and I see that, such as myself, you are at the verge of moving from traditional TS to a more productive research venue. I encourage you to pursue this research line. Indeed, my experience tells me that the dismissive attitude of some researchers towards unorthodox proposals is a good signal that one is on the right track. In my case, I decided to shift from symbolicity to a more cognitive, semiotic reading of translation which I termed semiosic translation. It will be interesting to see how this framework could eventually inform other translation initiatives in the future.
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I work on data base portuguese -english with phraseological units with zoonyms, so I am interested in papers/researchers that approach the theme.
I appreciate your information!
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Dear Saba
Your topic is interesting and useful but it is more related to terminology so it can not help me by now. But i really appreciate your interest to help.
Thank you
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For a long time Comparative Literature refused to acknowledge its indebtedness to Translation Studies.Is it time to change now?
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I do agree. In my University we are very focused on grammar study and we forget about the culture, literature, etc. It makes language seem something above reality. I guess there should be at least some optatives in both studies that may lead some students to discover other disciplines.
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We are working on a project that seeks to understand why studies of natural products (mainly medicinal plants) are incipient the possibility of translational studies. In Brazil this is especially true and worrying.
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Dear Prof Chukwuebuka Egbuna and Amit Baran Sharangi, I appreciated your comments and interest in this topic. The scientific surveys on studies in basic science with medicinal plants is very extensive. Really there are many good works being done. However, we have tried to do a study about the relation of medicinal plants studied studied and with several basic studies already done. Only in folk medicine we found a lot studies, but with formulations prepared from basic science studies is relatively rare.I my opinion there is a great chasm about it. We must go ahead and test these products in controlled clinical studies (since all safety and toxicity criteria are warranted for patients). Do you think there is not an abyss? Do not think we should have more products based on natural products in the large pharmaceutical market worldwide?
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Any journal has its template to follow but there are some techniques and tools if we use , I think that the article will be accepted for publication. If it is true, would you provide the important and the useful ones.
Many thanks
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Hello,
Indubitably, research provides us with new ways of testing the credibility of theories describing different realities of a given discipline. More notably, a research report is required to document the results of the research. As you have rightly observed, certain requirements must exist for representing a targeted research:
1) The topic should be novel and interesting,
2) The topic should have a rigorous theoretical background,
3) The sources used to serve as evidence for arguments concerning issues and claims addressing the topic must be primary and related to the great scholars of the field,
4) The targeted data must be adequately and truly representative of the nature of the variables under scrutiny,
5) Data collection tools should be both reliable and valid,
6) The methodology should be appropriate and plausible,
7) The writing style must faithfully follow the academic conventions of the descipline.
Best of luck,
R. Biria
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The act of Censorship is obsessed with labeling, deleting and removing; the act of Selection concentrates on advising, educating and adding options. What are social and cultural factors that influence the selection of texts to be translated and published?
What are the relations between censorship and selection in the context of literary translation?
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As regards the relatonship between translation and censorship, you could take a look, first, at the discussion in Translation Studies in 2011 and 2012. The discussion started with the article ‘‘Translation and Censorship’’, by Piotr Kuhiwczak, Translation Studies
4, 2011, no. 3, and was commented on by Brian James Baer, Beate Müller and Paul St-Pierre & Cormac Ó Cuilleanáin in 2012 (attached).
Secondly, you might wish to read Samantha Sherry's (2012) PhD dissertation Censorship in Translation in the Soviet Union in the Stalin and Khrushchev Eras (attached) especially for its references section even if the topic itself is outside your sphere of interests..
Finally, as regards text selection for purposes of translation, you might wish to read a few articles on retranslation as such texts often discuss the issue of selecting texts for (re)translation. See e.g. Paloposki, Outi, and Kaisa Koskinen. "A thousand and one translations: Revisiting retranslation." BENJAMINS TRANSLATION LIBRARY 50 (2004): 27-38, available at http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.468.4623&rep=rep1&type=pdf#page=42.
Hope the above references will help you move forward...
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I hope to find the research paper on appraisal judgement and its relation to translation study.
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Hi,  
Malcom Williams published a book in 2004 entitled "Translation Quality Assessment An Argumentation-Centred Approach".  It is available online at the following link https://press.uottawa.ca/translation-quality-assessment.html.  
I hope it is useful for you. 
Don
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I’m planning to investigate the difficulties and challenges the translators face in translating figures of speech from English into Arabic. I would like some advice about the difference between a theoretical and analytical approach.
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A theoretical approach is what you would use to drive your study, whereas an analytical approach is what drives your methodology. This is a very general distinction, but hopefully it is helpful. Good luck! Adrianne
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i am interested to get some studies about Arabic readability Assessment for Second Arabic language larner . 
Thanks a lot for your help and support.
Best Regards,
Mohammad 
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Please, check stanford nlp website for arabic, english and some other languages. Also, www.gate.ac.uk
 
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In the list of the competences from the Common European Frameworks, there is such a common competence which I find particulary essential, i.e. so-called existential competence (savoir-être). However, I doubt that many English teachers know how to deal with it. In one of the works by Russian author it is prposed to measure it with use of psychometric tests. I wonder if other methods exist and are used. 
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Dear Sophia Polyankina,
There is a book that might give you some clues to answer your question: "The Geography of Time," Robert Levine.
Good luck!
Dionéia Monte-Serrat
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I have gathered some data in terms of my Master thesis and I am not quite sure whether I need to assign 1 point for a fully correct sentence  and 0 for any other mistakes.
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Thank you very much for all the answers. I'll take everything into consideration.
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Are there any impacts on the translation from English into Arabic if the students of translation study collocations as an extra courses.
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To my mind, cohesion and coherence are less related to collocation than to aspects such as the following:  text organization, discourse markers and other types of signposting, move patterns in texts, lexical chains, use of topic and supporting sentences, and  reference words and phrases. Of course a number of these areas do include collocations and fixed phrases, but collocations are not the main part of what needs to be learnt in relation to cohesion and coherence. 
Having said that, collocations permeate virtually all the text types that one would need to translate. If we see texts as being on a continuum from conventional to creative, the texts that are closer to the conventional end of the continuum are likely to contain more collocations than texts at the creative end. However, unless a writer is self-consciously avoiding standardized expressions and word combinations, set phrases and collocations will continue to play a role.
The challenge for the teacher is to pick out collocations which a student is likely to need to use a lot and to anticipate the problems that he/ she will have with these collocations. I have seen many well-meaning collocation lists for Spanish learners of English that contain collocations that the student can already produce perfectly. 
Another issue when translating is to recognize when the writer is being more "conventional" and falling back on standard collocations and when (s)he is trying to be more creative, perhaps by combining words with one type of semantic prosody, with words that have another in order to produce particular rhetorical effects, such as shocking people or signalling irony. For example, "he has committed a number of good acts", where the standard association of  commit with nouns like murder or suicide, immediately signals to the observant, proficient reader that the writer is not completely at one with the actions that have been performed. A good translator would have to be aware of this in order to find a translation that produces the same effect. For a Spanish translator, this would be easy on the face of it, as (s)he could translate literally with "ha cometido" in order to produce a similar  "prosodic clash". However, if (s)he is not aware of the effect that the writer is trying to create, (s)he may opt for a more usual verb collocation of "acto", such as "hacer" o "realizar", and the rhetorical effect would be lost in translation.
Learners could benefit from courses which raise issues related to the role of semantic prosody in collocation. Dominic Stewart's book "Semantic Prosody a Critical Evaluation", with its healthy doses of scepticism, would not be a bad place to start, along with works by Stubbs, Sinclair and Louw among others. Louw's work, particularly "Irony in the text or insincerity in the Writer. The diagnostic potential of semantic prosodies " and "Contextual Prosodic Theory: bringing prosodies to life",provides a refreshing counter to Stewart's scepticism. I disagree with some of his arguments, but we need people like Bill Louw with their unflagging passion and enthusiasm to get things moving.
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while translating any text, in India,most of the translators take liberty in inserting their own ideas according to the contemporary situation. Classical Sanskrit texts of times immemorial still are being translated into regional languages in India.one text like Ramayana is being translated into Telugu, a regional language in India by 200 translators. I want to know in western countries do they accept if any translator make any change in the theme of the Source Language while adopting it into Target Language. 
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I would like to comment on both questions. Since there still is no unified standard of "good" or "quality" translation in the vast field of Translation Studies and the individual scholars and their theories often contradict each other, there is no definite answer to the "healthy" extent of adjustments or shifts employed by the translator (with literary texts in mind, of course). I personally quite like the notion of Popovič and his shifts on the micro- and macro- stylistic level of the text, but see those still as a sort of guide to my personal decision-making. When dealing with the texts from more distant history, you have always have to account for the effect this very translation is to achieve - whether to stay true to the original as much as possible to convey the maximum of the source text features, or make the meaning and message come through to the target audience and make them enjoy reading the ancient text in a language they can understand without feeling inadequately educated - that means a lot of additions, editorial remarks, adaptation etc.
The second part is a logical continuation - every translation is an original piece of writing, especially when the translator has no chance whatsoever to discuss the issues that are opaque in the original with the author of the source text. In a very strict meaning, if all we have is fragments of the translations, there is no original that we might speak of. Whether these translations are being trusted to be true to their source and to be a reliable ground you may base your historical or literary argument upon is up to the individual parties of the debate to decide upon.
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Can you recommend current work that deals with the production of multimodal content, including the translation of content produced originally in Arabic, by activist groups?
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I'm not sure whether you mean just the production of multimodal content or also the translation of multimodal content; if the latter, then Mona Baker's recent work on activist subtitling in the Egyptian Revolution would be relevant. See e.g. the link below, or her book Translating Dissent.
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People today pronounce and refer to Israel as though it has always been one word.What can we deduce from the change in the spelling of the word Is-ra-el
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Is-Ra-El
An 1859 semi-accurate etymology of the “Is-Ra-El”, showing that the ‘Is-’ prefix is short of the Egyptian goddess Isis. [6] The middle term "Ra", such as is found in Ab-Ra-ham (and B-Ra-hma) is code for Ra the main Egyptian sun god. The suffix "El' refers to the offspring of a Canaanite creator god god.
In etymology, Is-Ra-El, the parts of the name Israel, e.g. the Israelites, i.e. the followers of the Judaic religion, refers to root meaning of the compound parts as referring to the Egyptian gods Isis and Ra, and the Canaanite god El.
Overview
In 1858, Samuel Dunlap, in his Vestiges of the Spirit of Man, citing Franz Movers (1841), stated that the Hebrews were the first to turn the ancient sun gods into patriarchs, therein mediating a de-deification or god reduction: [1]
“In this way antiquity disposes of its sun-gods. The Hebrews turned [the sun gods] into Patriarchs. Adam, Abraham, Israel, were names of Saturn. Edom is Adam; and the ancient usage was to name the nation, the land or city after the chief god. The Greeks made these deities founders of tribes.”
In 1884, Helena Blavatsky, in volume two of her Isis Unveiled, citing Dutch Egyptologist Willem Pleyte (1836-1903) (Ѻ), on El, and Hodder Westropp and Wake Staniland on Phallism, stated the following view: [7]
“El, the sun-god of the Syrians, the Egyptians, and the Semites, is declared by Pleyte to be no other than Set or Seth, and El is the primeval Saturn—Israel. Siva is an AEthiopian god, the same as the Chaldean Baal–Bel; thus he is also Saturn. Saturn, El, Seth and Kiyun, or the biblical Chiun of Amos, are all one and the same deity, and may be all regarded in their worst aspect as Typhon [Set] the Destroyer. When the religious pantheon assumed a more definite expression, Typhon was separated from his androgyne—the good deity, and fell into degradation as a brutal unintellectual power.”
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Hi,
I'm writing about acquistion of the German writing system in refugee classes by teenagers coming in our school system. To describe their competences in handling with writing systems I want to compare some spellings of languages in my refugee classe. Could you help me and name some literature for Tigrinya?
Thanks a lot and have a great Eastern-Weekend
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Thanks, Natalie
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hi,
I am working on the semantic development of bilingual children. I have collected data using Word Association Task, Picture story writing, parental and teachers' rating and Oral Proficiency Interviews, getting help from the articles of Dr Sheng, Dr Pena and Dr Bedore. Need to know what other techniques or activities can be administered to collect data from English and Urdu Bilinguals. Regards,
Uzma
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Dear Uzma Shuakat,
Generally speaking,  different tasks may be used for gauging semantic development in bilingual children which all try to create and activate a code-switching operation.A  number of classic tasks in bilingualism research  have been proved be valid and reliable measures of semantic development in  bilingual children; namely,  picture naming,word translation, word recognition, passage reading, cross-linguistic priming, Stroop and Simon tasks, and more recently eye-tracking have all been used to study bilingual language representation and processing. Alternatively, modifications  on classic monolingual tasks are also employed in research targeting bilingual children. For instance,  priming tasks are frequently used with monolinguals to study lexical and semantic activation. A s a case in point,  presenting a participant with a particular  prime  and examining his/ her speed-of recognition in a lexical decision task .For more information, I  refer you to the following links, which hopefully satisfy what you are looking for.
Best regards, 
 R. Biria
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Just as LFG, GPSG, DG and TAG ETC.
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The book _Natural Language Processing: A Paninian Perspective_ by Bharati et al. has a good overview of the issues.  You can find a review of it in the CL journal, Sept. 1995.
For languages with complex inflections and a relatively free word order, dependency grammars are usually better than methods designed for English. You might search for "Hindi dependency grammar".
For the "word hash" that Google translate generates from Latin, see slide 27 of htp://www.jfsowa.com/talks/nlu.pdf .
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I am from Pakistan, with an interest in medical student mental health. I am interested in studying validity and reliability of a few scales among Pakistani medical students. How important is it to translate these scales into native language? Considering, these students are fluent in English language and easy readability of these scales, do we have to translate these scales at all before undertaking reliability and factor analyses? 
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A good question, indeed. I would like to add that to establish validity (and there are multiple types) and reliability of a research instrument not only linguistic matters have to be attended to.
What is often overlooked is the issue of cultural appropriateness of research instruments. Respondents may have no difficulty to understand and answer the questions in a foreign/second language but not all of the questions may make a good sense culturally.
I think a researcher would do a wise thing if he or she decides to translate a questionnaire just to see how the items/questions appear in the native language of the respondents and whether all of the questions would make a good sense to the respondents and are really appropriate in this particular cultural context.  
Actually, many studies in psychology assess validity and reliability of the translated research instruments. Good insights for future research can be gained if the translated questionnaires are intended for a wider use (not only for one study's research aims). 
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To asses quality in abstracts written from Spanish to English.  In this study I must identify and classify errors in translation.
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Thank you for the information. I will check  Grammarly for Chrome.
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I am trying to measure the english language anxiety of ELL students attending a university where english is the main language of instruction. 
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Hello! I find  Woodrow (2006) and Yim and Yu (2011) which were among the texts recommended by Reza Biara useful. Both publications developed scales which you can adopt but you may also adapt the scales by   selecting  variables  which may be suitable for your purpose. All the best.
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Lesosn study is a Japanese approach to teachers' professional development.
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Dear Sarah, 
Take a look at the attachment. Hope it helps,
Best,
Laura
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I am interested in translators' education in the USA.
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You probably already have this one checked for your research, but just in case, it really helped me with my research on translator and interpreting training: https://benjamins.com/#catalog/books/btl.47/main
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Translation study, in most cases, is based on the idea that a translator translates to his native language from his second/third language. But what happens when a translator translates from his native language to his second language? Do we have some good works that discuss issues such as construction of identity, power relations and inter-cultural negotiations that happens in such situations? Any suggested reads are highly appreciated.
Regards,
Gouranga
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In Irish, this is the rule because the number of highly literate native speakers is small. Learners outnumber native speakers and are likely to have higher levels of education. Results are mixed. Some second language translators into Irish achieve excellent results. Others, frequently motivated by financial imperatives rather than by high standards of translation, are less successful, because either they do not possess the requisite linguistic command of Irish, or because they do not spend the time necessary to achieve the standard. 
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I am using translation approach B Czarniawska, & Joerges but I couldn't find any analytical framework especially  for translation studies 
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Yes I think thematic analysis works, but you may be right that narrative analysis works better for processual data. You would then end up with some form of combination of thematic and narrative analysis. I am interested in reading your paper once it is completed.
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Hi,
we are comparing translations of film titles from and into English, German and (Serbo-)Croatian and are trying to determine patterns.
We are looking for any kind of reference directly or indirectly linked to our immediate research topic.
References studying the effect of the political and economic system on (title) production and (title) translation are also helpful, e. g. choice of words, number of words (depending on the design of the film poster) etc.
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Thank you all very much! You have been most helpful!
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Hi, I have to begin to work for a lawyer. I have to translate legal documents from Italian into English. Would you mind to tell me the name of a very good bilingual dictionary of legal English, please? Thank you very much. Bye
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Hi Antonella,
I'm not an expert in translation sciences. BUT: At the university of Heidelberg there is a famous institute for translation and interpretation. One of the directors is Italian: Prof, Rovere. You shoulsd contact him. I'm sure he will be ready to help aou. His e-mail: giovanni.rovere@iued.uni-heidelberg.de .I know hin well and you can refer to my suggestion.
Best wishes!
Rainer
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I believe that information flow translation (曹志希.信息流翻译观) helps solve translation skills problems!
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I am not so sure about what you are saying. It seems to me that you talk about measuring how much information flows in the text for some reason and then see if you get the same graph for the translated version of the text or something. Is that correct?
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I want to understand the convergence between translation theories and ELT, as well as the impact of multilingualism on translation. I would be grateful if you provide me with some sources. Thanks in advance!
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hello Lydia,
Today, it  is strongly suggested that translation and foreign language teaching are no longer wrong bed fellows. For instance, the translation technique is the most suitable technique for teaching discursive markers to intermediate and upper intermediate learners. As for your second part of the question, it is claimed that bilinguals and multilinguals possess a more robust cognitive system since they have an elaborate cognitive academic language proficiency which helps their basic  interpersonal communicative skills enormously.
Best regards,
R. Biria
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Suggest some background literature.
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Howdy, all,
   No one has mentioned the old Italian pun, "traductore, tradittore" (translator, traitor). I recall a comment by an interpreter at the UN on interpreting a speech by Kruschev. When he told a traditional Russian story to illustrate a point, the interpreter realized that the story would make no sense to English hearers, so he quickly realized this and substituted a completely different story which would be familiar and make the same point. 
  Research has shown that, even at a literal level, different languages "pack" different kinds of information in, for example, verbs. Both English and Spanish have a general verb of motion, "go"/"ir", but Spanish has a verb "salir", which would be translated by the Verb + Particle combination "go out", which separates the motion and direction. Translations of novels from English to Spanish and vice-versa show differences in the amount of information omitted or added. 
  Even in technical translation, people working in a field have standard expressions which a translator unfamiliar with the field would be unfamiliar with. A professional translator hired by an archeology journal to translate article summaries into Spanish produced odd literal translations because she was unfamiliar with the field. Literary translation, of course, is vastly more complex because it includes a great deal of cultural and emotional content, and poetry in particular requires a complete re-casting. I have heard it said that the English translation of the Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam is better than the original. 
  Pedagogically, translation provides an important "boot-strapping" which speeds access into the target language. Learning a second language in a school setting can be likened to gaining familiarity with another country and its culture by looking at pictures in a book, or reading descriptions. Only by gradual steps does one gain greater sociolinguistic and cultural knowledge, but only living in the other country gives one the experiential and existential sensibility for deeper knowledge. (Even then, of course, no one can ever become a complete native of a second culture.) All second language learners necessarily begin with translation, overt or covert, until their linguistic competence reaches the point at which they can use the L2 without conscious awareness, but even then, psycholinguistic research shows that the L1 is being activated, suggesting that translation is still taking place subliminally.
   Rudy Troike
   University of Arizona
   Tucson, Arizona, USA
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Several factors certainly contribute to making a translated work eternal but so far  little research has covered these factors. Posing this question and sharing the answers might open new insights regarding this topic.
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George, your observation confirms translation theory - it is more common for translations of scientific and technical texts to be produced in a creative way than those of literature. 
Intuitively it makes sense because literature is already emotionally charged, therefore it is more difficult to render the emotions retaining the nuances because every language is different, and more so if you try to compete with the original writer in terms of creativity. It would be easier to play with technical fields (technical is used broadly) because first you would find the corresponding term and then you could play with the rest - how to translate the explanations and the accompanying information. For instance, I am finding it easier to understand math in English than in Bulgarian. I can give you several reasons but I am still not sure. I suspect that we relate to a language in a specific field in a specific way - I mean that there is some psychology as well.
Knowing what the source and target language audience is another factor. Works translated into English have gained success because there are many readers, it is more difficult to establish trust and gain a market niche if you translate into less popular languages.   
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Is it possible to capture the details on areal and vertical sweep efficiency at the laboratory-scale??
Is there any specific laboratory / pilot-scale study in deducing the microscopic-displacement and macroscopic-volumetric sweep efficiency?
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For contact angle measurement, we must polish the surface because surface roughness adds to uncertainty and creates issues with contact angle measurement. This way, we will have fluid and rock interaction. Some people may say with polishing we are exposing fresh cut minerals which is true. But, we try to age the rock slabs and let the rock and fluids reach to chemical and surface charge equilibrium. In the pores however, we have sharp angle pore edges which is different from polished rocks. Thus, I prefer wettability measurement on cores and have contact angle measurement as a proof. As I said, contact angle measurement will give us information about rock-fluid interaction and it is very valuable. But the angle is not necessarily the same in the pores. 
If you crush the cores you will definitely change the pore geometry, and if you have unconsolidated rocks you may not be able to maintain pore geometry. But, rocks which are well consolidated such as carbonates will maintain their pore geometry after drilling. I worked with carbonates and tight unconventional rocks and they are hard enough to stay tight even under high confined pressure and under huge centrifugal forces.  
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loss is inevitable during translation.but which level of language is more liable for loss (morphological , syntactic or semantic?
in morphological level: what type / category of words
in Syntactic : what sentence pattern/ structure
in Semantic: what type of meaning/domain
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Dear Muhammad,
Indubitably, translation loss is inevitable even in the translation of the simplest texts. The main culprit may be said to be related to  the message planned for the source language, original readership. Very often, the message intended by the SL author  may be radically different for the recipients in the target context. Consequently, translator's attempt to create equivalence may miss the original and something may go amiss during the process. In point of fact, translation loss may occur by different causes such as change of register, cultural protection, literal translation of puns, lexical translation leading to ambiguity, use of words lacking direct translation.
Best regards,
R. Biria
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I am trying to know what are the main factors which can make a good translator, the practice or the education? 
Any one who masters languages can be a good translator, just by practice or he has to take a degree in translation?
Books, articles or any source .
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And my personal opinion, based on my experience as a professional translator and a student of translation: you need an excellent command of the language into which you are translating (your native tongue, normally), as well as an excellent understanding of the language you are translating from and the cultural context. The more experience and knowledge you have of things other than languages and translation, the better. As your own knowledge increases (knowledge of the world, business, the subject area that you choose as your specialisation, translation strategies and how to handle translation problems, and generally of Everything), so will your ability to translate will improve, i.e. to understand your source and the needs of your client, and to restate them in your target language in an appropriate (and maybe even inspired) fashion.
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I am looking for books , articles , or any supporting materiel where we can know how translation be considered as a facilitator in the political and economic exchange.  
 
 
 
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Dear Abou Oussama Mohammed Chouchani,
It is logical to assume that translation opens an aperture into unpredictable horizons where  foreign cultural and ideological differences can be introduced to specific target recipients with clearly different sociocultural norms. The whole issue has been extensively portrayed by professor Lawrence Venuti the founder of domestication and foreignization strategies in translation.
Best regards,
R. Biria
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I need to find good parameters for writing text and coding to make translation of software easier. 
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Thank you very much Vincent this is very useful, just what I was looking for. 
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I am trying to find the Pashto/Dari/Uzbek/Turkmen equivalent(s) for the 'warlord' concept, assigned by Western scholars to various regional military commanders from Afghanistan, such as Abdul Rashid Dostum, Abdul Malik Pahlawan, Abdul Ali Mazari, etc
It would be amazing if you can help me with the English transliterations for these concepts and, eventually, some local sources (newspapers, journals, etc covering the issue).
P.S. Is there a pejorative dimension when someone uses the concept to refer to another person? Thank you in advance.
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From what I was able to extract from somebody who works in the field: warlords are referred to as "comandan" at least in Afghanistan. Whether there is a pejorative connotation to the word depends largely on the social context. Among mujahidin, the word bears a largely positive and heroic nuance while among the more enlightened afghan civil society it tends to be more negative... There are several organizations that among others also do research on the subjects such as: afghanistan analysts network, cooperation for peace and unity, afghanistan research and evaluation unit, the liaison office, christian michelson institute, US institute of peace and many others.
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Dear researchers, could anyone advise a software program (if there is one) that could be used during the interview for the interpretation/translation purposes? My qualitative research project is in English, but some interviews will happen in German, and due to my limited knowledge of the language, I am torned between two possibilities: a) hiring a translator that will participate at the interviews ( a risky option), or b) to find a specific software programme (much less risky option). Have you had experiences with such dilemmas, too? Any tips or ideas will be much appreciated!
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I understand your concerns, Aysel, you are dealing with a sensitive personal area; so the person being interviewed has to trust the interviewer and the interpreter; the interviewer also has to trust the interpreter; and the interpreter really has to have experience dealing with personally sensitive issues, since how you ask a question in one language may need not translating but localising, i.e. rephrasing to be acceptable to the target, without losing the import of the question. That is of course where getting a truly experienced and quality interpreter comes in.
An alternative may be to use written surveys? You write the survey in your language, get it translated (professionally, again by a social sciences etc. translation expert), respondents complete it, and you get their answers translated back into your language (by a different professional, since translators should always translate into their mother tongue). However, this is a different sort of data gathering technique that just may not meet your needs. It would probably be cheaper, though.
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With "translation" I mean as defined by Latour and used/developed by e.g. Czarniawska. I I would like to combine "translation" with critical discourse theory - and use them to build analytical tools to interpret qualitative data - but I'm not very familiar with the translation concept and not sure it's possible. All suggestions are very welcomed!
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Christian Matthiessen ( Hong Kong Polytechnic University) and colleagues have done quite a lot of work in this area. They have combined language descriptions and text analysis and used this to inform translation. 
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Let me explain: I do not want to train translators but to use translation criticism and comparison as a tool to teach writing to ESL science doctoral students.
I want to collect and anthologize a dozen passages from well known scientists whose works have contributed to a paradigm shift in their fields.
Ideally, I need original works in a variety of languages together with their translations in English, French and/or any language.
I am teaching international students and would like for a any student to find a sample from their mother tongue in my collection. Suggestions for works in Arabic, Chinese, Japanese, Russian and any European language would be great.
Thank you for any ideas you might contribute.
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Thank you David, this seems very promissing indeed.
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I am asking about the impact of the teaching collocations on the students' abilities in translation. Could teaching collocation help them in solving the problems of translation. 
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If I understand the question well, I think it is about whether teaching collocations is important for developing students' translation skills. My answer is defintely yes; for both translation tasks: comprehension of the source text and re-expressing the meaning into the target language. For the first phase because the company that a word keeps in a context, i.e. its collocates, determines and refines the meaning: "charged with an offence" is differnt than "charged with reforming the educational system". For the second task, i.e. rendering the meaning into the TL, word collocation is extremely important for it gives the target text the aspect of original composition, the feel of naturalness. Using a wrong collocate, e.g. /sawarny khawf ساورني خوف/ in place of the right collocation intabani khawf انتابني خوف/ harms the linguistic credibility of the speaker or writer.
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I nedd this information to be in relation to translation quality assessment. 
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You might want to check out the standard used by the American Translators Association for their translation certification exam.
You will find other information aout their certification exams if you noodle around on their website:  www.atanet.org
You could also contact the chair of the certification committee, David Stephenson
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For evaluating a translated text by readers and discovering the reception factors I've read the comments on the translation in book reviews to know the reception factors. Is it necessary to tell the accurate statistics? Or just tell that a lot of people like it for what and some other for this reason?
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thanks dear friends. i found the answer. by desiging a questionnire or analysing paratextual elements.
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I wanted to do research about the use of English as a medium of instruction in Mathematics to a non-native speaker.
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Let me refer you to my own study on the "effects of English Language Proficiency and Scientific Reasoning skills on the acquisition of science (and I may suggest mathematical) content knowledge of Hispanic language learners." My findings imply that high order English Language Proficiency combined with high levels of reasoning skills enhances students' abilities to learn science and mathematical content subject matter. This is supported by Cummins theoretical framework which indicates that learning science content (and for that matter math) subject matter requires "cognitive academic language proficiency or CALP.
My study was conducted in 2000 hence, there are still some unanswered questions. The full title of the study is:"A Study of the Effects of English Language Proficiency and Scientific Reasoning Skills on the Acquisition of Science Content Knowledge of Hispanic English Language Learners and Native English Language Speaking Students Participating in Grade 10 Science Classes" Torres, H.N. (2000)
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I am using the Flesch Readability Test in my research but need more literature for the theoretical framework. I'd appreciate any suggestions on articles that deal with the notion of readability, especially the Flesch test.
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P.S.
Oakland, Thomas, and Holly B. Lane. 2004. "Language, Reading, and Readability Formulas: Implications for Developing and Adapting Tests." International Journal of Testing no. 4 (3):239-252.
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Помогите правильно перевести на русский язык англоязычный термин "tornado outbreak". Мне известны как минимум три варианта перевода этого словосочетания: "эпидемия" торнадо, вспышка торнадо, серия торнадо. Все эти варианты являются не совсем удачными, первые два из них заимствованы из других предметных областей, а третий термин преуменьшает интенсивность рассматриваемого явления и делает его чем-то обыденным (поэтому данный вариант есть тоже не очень правильное толкование).
Возникла необходимость перевести с английского языка на русский технический текстовый файл, содержащий штормовые сводки о торнадо и конвективных явлениях в США. Как оказалось, в специализированных англо-русских словарях перевод такого словосочетания как "tornado outbreak" не приводится.
В бумажной переводной (с англ.) книге "Неукротимая планета" (Издательский Дом Ридерз Дайджест, 2008) несколько раз использовался такой термин - "эпидемия" торнадо. Этот термин применяли для характеристики сильнейшей серии торнадо 3-4 апреля 1974 г. в США. В интернете попадается также упоминание термина "супервспышка торнадо" в составе подрисуночной подписи к рисунку "Карта путей торнадо во время их супервспышки в США (3-4 апреля, 1974)".
Ниже приведена статья из англоязычной Википедии "Tornado outbreak".
A tornado outbreak is the occurrence of multiple tornadoes spawned by the same synoptic scale weather system.[1] The number of tornadoes required to qualify as an outbreak typically are at least six to ten.[2][3]
The tornadoes usually occur within the same day, or continue into the early morning hours of the succeeding day, and within the same region. Most definitions allow for a break in tornado activity (time elapsed from the end of last tornado to the beginning of next tornado) of six hours. If tornado activity indeed resumes after such a lull, many definitions consider the event to be a new outbreak. A series of continuous or nearly continuous tornado outbreak days is a tornado outbreak sequence.[4] Tornado outbreaks usually occur from March through June in the Great Plains of the United States and Canada, the Midwestern United States, and the Southeastern United States in an area colloquially referred to as Tornado Alley. Tornado outbreaks do occur during other times of the year and in other parts of the world, however. A secondary less active and annually inconsistent tornado "season" in the U.S. occurs in late autumn.[5]
The largest tornado outbreak on record, depending on the definition applied and time elapsed between breaks in tornadic activity, was the April 25–28, 2011 tornado outbreak, with 355 tornadoes and about $10 billion in direct damages.[6] It surpasses the 1974 Super Outbreak, in which 148 tornadoes were counted. Both occurred within the United States and Canada. The total number of tornadoes is a problematic method of comparing outbreaks from different periods, however, as many more smaller tornadoes, but not stronger tornadoes, are reported in the US in recent decades than in previous ones.[7] The Super Outbreak retains the distinction for the intensity of that outbreak with 7 F5 and 23 F4 tornadoes.
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так тоже можно: (внезапное) начало торнадо
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Hi. I am considering doing my MA dissertation in trends and statistics in the publication of translations (not limited to one country's publishing patterns or one language, i.e. not limited to US or UK or English-language sources; but I may need to limit to top-10 languages, something like that).
I also wish to review and compare the statistics-finding tools and resources available.
I am aware of the Index Translationum, COPAK and 3 percent. Each has their limitations - whether it be with out-dated data, poor or inconsistent data capture, limited sources or poor query facilities - but they make for interesting comparisons. **Addition - I have also contacted Nielsen Bookscan.
Can anyone point me at any other sites that I can access or contact to request access to? Preferably free...  I may be able to put some funds into it, but definitely not much! I prefer English, French or Spanish language sites - German at a pinch - but I'm willing to try other language sites on the naive basis that data is data... (or are).
Many thanks, all
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Yes Maybe I have midunderstoid you. Rrdearching altrady trsnslatef matrial is what you need. That is a bit more difficult. Sorry then. 
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While testing a questionnaire for its validation and cross-cultural adaptation, is it necessary to have bilingual experts with formal education? E.g translation of Nordic questionnaire into Urdu (is it necessary that the translators have a formal level of education/degree in Urdu or English?)
Could it be done by someone who is brilliant at both languages but does not have formal education? 
Secondly, how is the sample size selected for translation-based studies like this? Inclusion and exclusion criteria and number of participants etc...
Thanks in anticipation.
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In the commercial questionnaire validation practice, the process is actually very costly and elaborate. It may proceed by:
(1) first defining the questionnaire items (questions, scales) in a language that is most clear in articulating the concepts (e.g. English or French);
(2) cross-validating this source text by editors and proofreaders, and pre-testing it by subjects (i.e. English or French speakers), followed by more editing and revision so that accuracy and precision can be guaranteed.
(3) after that, commissioning a professional translator (usually freelancers such as those at Proz.com in an ad with pay, or by recruiting reliable volunteers) to translate the source text into a target language. This translator is usually a native speaker of the target language;
(4) after that, commissioning another pro translator and native speaker to translate the same text.
(5) a third native speaker, usually a very experienced language expert, is tasked to "pool" (integrate) the two translated texts into a unified version.
(6) this unified translation is sent to an outsourced editor (anther native speaker, bilingual) to check (edit and proofread, etc.) the accuracy and precision of the translation, comparing items on the source text
(7) after that, the translation is to be  validated and pre-tested in local subjects who speak the target language. Local interviewers (usually one, on pay) will be appointed to recruit such local subjects. The questionnaires will be tried out by the subjects. The subjects will be asked if there are any items that are not clear to them (these constitute the basis for improving the clarity and accuracy of the translated questionnaire). The results of subject feedback will be summarized by the appointed interviewer, and sent back to the commissioning agent. 
(8) an editor (bilingual expert) recommend changes based on local subjects feedback to the translated text. 
(9) after final proofreading, it's finally done. 
***
Such expensive and labor- and capital-intensive questionnaire validation work is practiced by commercial medical survey companies in the UK. They recruit trusted freelancers at Proz.com to provide the service. 
Occasionally, volunteer's help is available, and the people at Proz.com are friendly. 
***
In commercial survey validation, the local subject sample size is typically 5, with different age and sexes. 
For academic research purpose, the sample size would be determined by normal statistics considerations. 
You may need to control for sex and age cohorts. 
Minimal sample size is 30 for normal distribution (have 40-50 to be safe). And of course, the larger the sample size the better. (However, if your questionnaire is large (over 20 items), practically, it would not be possible to have many subjects happy to give you the answers. Processing and analysis costs will also be blown up. 
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Directly or indirectly, Globalization fosters the development of intercultural researches in different areas. This fact implies exchanging of different kind of knowledge, usually developed in different languages (Chinese is the language most used, followed by Spanish, and in third place English). Taking this in consideration, by the time translating processes are more and more important. In consequence, when the "term" or "concept" used is not well translated the effects could be terrible. This is especially relevant in social sciences, psychology, epidemiological studies, or public health. Here I mention an example from English to Spanish:
Ex: "professionalism" to "profesionalismo". In Spanish (according with the Royal Spanish Academy, RAE), "professionalismo" means "Practicing a sport or other activity as a profession or mode of living". On the other hand, "profesionalidad" means "Characteristic of the person who performs a job with skill, application, reliability, honesty and effectiveness, or work well performed." Both could be used as synonims but not necessary, especially if there are some ethical aspects involved (as it happens in the area where this term is usually used: medicine). While profesionalismo does not have any ethical implication, profesionalidad has an explicit ethical connotation: accountability, respect, and honorability.
Do you know about other examples like this. Please, share them with us.
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Most of the above answers have already said what could happen if a concept is mistranslated. Let me, however, add to the examples from South Asian Muslim civilizations as these have not been mentioned. The first  six examples are from Pakistani English and are also used in Urdu and other Pakistani languages (for details see my book Pakistani English 1990).
1. In Pakistan 'Sir' is used not only as a deferential or polite form of address but in place of a title. Thus, a person called Sir Tariq has not been knighted by the Queen of England but is simply placed above the person using this apparent title in authority.
2. University students are often called 'bachhe' in Urdu which is translated as children. This is often misleading in texts where young adults are mistaken for pre-pubescent children.
3. A 'colony' means a housing estate in Pakistani English.
4. the word chips is used for crisps as well as potato chips.
5. A shopper is a plastic bag.
6. The word teachers is used for school, college and university teachers so that academics gets translated as 'academicians' with no real understanding if what it means in world English.
One major misunderstanding which occurs in the translation of Urdu classical poetry is the word for the  beloved. In Urdu it is mashuq (from Arabic one who is loved) but the pronoun used is masculine and 'he' is described having down on the cheeks (khat) which is taken as a sign of beauty. In short, the beloved is often portrayed conventionally as a beautiful adolescent boy (an ephebus).  To consider this phenomenon as homosexuality as understood in the modern West is misleading. However, since the related terms are translated in the modern vocabulary of being 'gay', one finds that the classical poets of Persian and Urdu are categorized as being 'gay' in some unsophisticated Western writings. I have used the word ephebophilia for this phenomenon rather than the modern term 'gay' which is misleading in this context.
The beloved is often described as a woman too. Her breasts and other feminine attributes may be described. However,  the pronouns and verb endings are still masculine. This too is a source of confusion for translators. That it is a convention goes unnoticed. In such complicated cases one needs an explanation and any attempt at mere translation will be inadequate and misleading.
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I want to do translation project about
- translation text between English to Hindi
- machine translation
- study about contrastive analysis from translated text etc.
I am not Hindi and English native speaker (I am Thai) but now i am studying translation course about Hindi and English in India. And I am Thinking about project.
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How about translating Hindi and English advertisements - rich in semantics and language variation. You will explore more on the cross-cultural issues too. All the best
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I'm working on an article entitled the translation of -ism suffix into persian and am searching for a methodology to conduct the study.
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As noted above, your purpose is not clear from what you wrote. What do you mean by “evaluate” and for what purpose are you evaluating them? If you can answer that it will help others to suggest methods to consider.
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I would like to write a literature review on this topic and I need more sources.
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quality evaluation serves different purposes and can therefore be tackled from different angles. Chrsitopher Waddington's PhD dissertation on rubric-based evaluation vs intuitive, holistic approaches is now a classic, I would say, and so is Tomás Conde Ruano's dissertation on the behavior and results of different kinds of evaluators. I think both can be found in the Internet. Waddington published it later as a book and there's a summary in an article in Meta.
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Methodology to translate English language questionnaire into local language in order to intact the validity issues.
Please recommend relevant articles.
Thanks
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@ Fabio & Rahimi!!! I want to translate it in Urdu language. What I have agreed with my supervisor is to add the Urdu version of questionnaire along with English version on my online survey. Hence, Urdu language will be serve as a supplementary to questionnaire. As a good majority of the respondents are educated hence they wount have a much problem in English, however translating the form in Urdu language will enhance their form completion and submission time also will give them an example of each question in their native language. Please comment on the methodology we are adopting for translating: A review committee of English to Urdu will compromise 5 experts Two English Language experts (PhD in English) 2) Two subject specialists 1-Psychologiest. We will use Delphi like method i) Experts will be given the questionnaire they will vet it (individually) and then the formal version will be complied (collectively) and the final version will again be sent to them to vet it. If all agreed the Urdu Version of the questionnaire will be added to English Version of the questionnaire. Hence there will be two lines of questions, first in English and Second in Urdu. Please comment...
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There are many classroom assessment techniques (CAT), some with more cons than pros. What is a suitable CAT you have tried?
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e-portfolio
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Research on audiovisual translation in Arabic is very scarce. There is however a lot of activity relating to subtitling and dubbing and the production of filmic material in the country. I wonder if there is any publication (or even current/ongoing postgraduate research) on any aspect of audiovisual translation in Jordan.
Thank you.
Muhammad Y Gamal
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Yes, there are few 
  • Bahaa-Eddin, M. 2006. Arabic subtitles on English movies: Some linguistic,
ideological and pedagogic issues. IJAES, 7, 81-100.
  • Athamneh, N. & Zitawi, J. 1999. English-Arabic translation of dubbed children’s
animated pictures. Babel, 45/4, 107-126. [I have hard copy]
  • Zitawi, J. 2003. English-Arabic dubbed children’s cartoons: Strategies of
translating idioms. Across Languages and Cultures, 4/2, 237-251. [I have soft copy]
——. 2008. Contextualising disney comics within the Arab culture. Meta, 53/1,
139-153. [Available free online]
  • Best 
  • Mohammad Thawabteh
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i'm doing my mini research on interpreting (English to Indonesian), memory span and anxiety in communication. i'm using prca-24 by mc.croskey, coglab 2.0 software for memory span experiment, however, i'm still wondering what kind of measurement I can use to measure participants' interpreting score.
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Hello!
Have you finished your study or do you still need an answer?
I recommend 
Testing and Assessment in Translation and Interpreting Studies
Edited by Claudia V. Angelelli and Holly E. Jacobson
And I would have different user groups evaluate by using Lickert-type scales.
You could also check Kalina's article on quality assessments. Her score boards are very long though: http://www.erudit.org/revue/meta/2005/v50/n2/011017ar.html
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How many authors have translated the Quran in the world
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Translating the Untranslatable: A Survey of English Translations of the Quran
by A.R. Kidwai
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Without knowing or being aware of translation theory one can still translate. But translators  who reject theory  out of hand and only emphasize learning by simply translating, are still following a translation theory of sorts. A theory, however, they are not aware of, and that they cannot, therefore, examine critically and tap for specific occasions or assignments.
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It is perfectly possible to translate without having any knowledge of translation theory, and this is how I used to translate before starting my research degree in translation studies. However, what I have learnt from the study of translation theory is that it makes you a more aware translator, in the sense of thinking more carefully about the different options for a given translation and the effect that choosing a particular option may have. For example, in the novel I am translating as the focus of my research -- Gracias por el Fuego by Mario Benedetti (1965) -- the strongly marked style of the novel, involving repetition, long lists, and linguistic patterning which ranges from particular uses of prepositions through to highly condensed, short sentences, actually forms part of the structure of the novel. Failing to attempt to reproduce these features in the target text, and simply going for a fluent English text, would seriously distort this structure and lead to a presentation of the original in an entirely different light.
Translation theory can help us to analyse and interpret a source text and the context of its production, think about the audience for whom the translation is intended (its reception) and consider a range of possible strategies for the translation. In short, I believe that an awareness of some of the main strands in translation theory has the capacity to make a translator a better translator, although of course it is no guarantee of this!
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i
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Hi Uchenna,
I can recommend you reading the following books which offer vast amount of theories about translation and literary translation.
Venuti, L. (2000). The Translation Studies Reader. London and New York: Routledge.
Newmark, P. (1988). A textbook of translation. London: Prentice Hall.
Newmark, P. (1988). Approaches to translation. London: Prentice Hall.
Munday, J. (2001). Introducing Translation Studies. London and New York: Routledge.
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Meylaerts stated "that there is no language policy without a translation policy". Regional linguistic minorities have a translation policy, implicitly or explicitly. Translation technology needs a conscious implementation if it is to be successful. What kind of translation technology is important, what kind of tools should be made available and how should it be organized to support official multilingualism effectively?
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It seems to me it would depend on both the type of translation and the type of technology used, as well as the immediate needs and interests of the target audience: in case of socio-cultural issues, audiovisual translation (and the corresponding technologies) may be of interest with regard of spreading minority languages and cultural items throughout various forms of media. There has been some work done on parallel corpora of English-Galician subtitles: http://drops.dagstuhl.de/opus/volltexte/2012/3527/pdf/20.pdf and I suppose similar types of work might have been done for other minority languages. opensubtitles.org has a corpus of subtitles for various languages, some of them possibly minority languages. However, it draws mostly non-professional (fansubbed) items so it would probably serve better as a resource for informal languages in translation, and not for targeted language (or media/culture) policies.
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These are core English terms in disaster risk reduction research and practice. A lot of confusion results from assuming that there are clear equivalents to these English terms: risk, hazard, danger, threat, vulnerability, capacity, resilience, emergency, crisis, disaster, catastrophe.
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Dear Mr.Ben Wisner,
Here is an Chinese  translation of your list
1. Risk 风险
2.Hazard 冒险
3.Danger 危险
4.Threat  威胁
5.Vulnerability 软弱
6.Capacity 能力
7.Resilience 恢复力
8.Emergency 紧急情况
9.Crisis  危机
10.Disaster 灾难
11.Catastrophe 大灾难
I agree with Adel that wordings differ according to different factors involved such as formality, age,gender and personality of the speakers etc. Because in Chinese sometimes we can have 100 words meaning the same thing, which always get my students (English speakers, mostly Americans) confused when I teach them new vocabularies that mean the same things covered by other words they learned. And the difference between certain words is very subtle. Like disaster and catastrophe, as you can see above I only add one more character to catastrophe, 大 (a person which is a 人 strecthing arms )means big in Chinese. Most of the Chinese characters make a lot of sense when understood through the view of pictures.
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I am looking for the German versions of the three questionnaires mentioned above. One is the Short Form of the Brief Symptom Inventory - 18, Purpose in Life Questionnaire and Positive and Negative Affect Schedule.
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Dear Andrei, attached you will find the German version of the BSI-18. I added a few papers dealing with the BSI-18 on Researchgate, sincerely yours, GHF
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I want to measure how easy/difficult a legal translated text is to a defendant whose only medium of reception of the text is the auditory channel. I am familiar with the Flesch readability formula but I was wondering if there are better ways to do it?
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A readability formula is not designed to measure comprehension. Readability formulas are designed for writers who are attempting to reach a certain audience. The nature of legal documents, as Marta Chroma mentions makes comprehension a challenge even for native speakers. The easiest way to measure listening comprehension of this type of text (i.e. jury instructions or warnings) is to have the subject retell what he or she has understood, perhaps in his or her native language. You may want to design a rubric with essential elements of the text, and qualitatively determine to what degree the listener has included those elements in his or her retelling.
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Except Google Translate?
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The following are the translation services that support Albanian language :
Yandex even exposes a free API with the help of which you can build an automated translation tool ( unlike Google translate ).
Cheers!