Science topic

Traffic - Science topic

Traffic is the flux or passage of motorized vehicles, unmotorized vehicles, and pedestrians on roads; or the commercial transport and exchange of goods; or the movement of passengers or people.
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The simply supported slab bridge is a typical perfricated reinforced concrete bridge. Under the influence of increasing vehicle loads and natural environmental erosion, the hinge joints between slabs suffer from damage that cannot be easily evaluated, which brings negative effects on the load carrying capacity of bridges. In the present study, a hy...
Chapter
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Contemporary e-mail services have high availability expectations from the customers and are resource-strained because of the high-volume throughput and spam attacks. Deep Machine Learning architectures, which are resource hungry and require off-line processing due to the long processing times, are not acceptable at the front line filters. On the ot...
Article
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Collaborative geographic analysis can lead to better outcomes but requires complicated interactions among participants, support resources and analytic tools. A process expression with explicit structure and content can help coordinate and guide these interactions. For different geographic problems, the structure and content of collaborative geograp...
Article
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Mobile Crowd Sensing (MCS) typically assigns sensing tasks in the same target area to many participants considering data quality and the diversity of sensing devices. However, participant selection is based on the individual in many research. The efficiency of individual recruitment is low. Individuals need higher transportation costs to go to the...
Article
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With the development of IoT technology, more and more IoT devices are connected to the network. Due to the hardware constraints of IoT devices themselves, it is difficult for developers to embed security software into them. Therefore, it is better to protect IoT devices at the traffic level. The effect of malicious traffic detection based on neural...
Article
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Vehicle tracking detection, recognition and counting is an important part of vehicle analysis. Design�ing such a model with excellent performance is difficult. The traditional target detection algorithm based on artificial features has poor generalization ability and robustness. In order to take use the deep learning method for vehicle tracking det...
Conference Paper
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The profitable aspect of any design is the most important factor in deciding whether to apply it or maintain it or not. Thus, taking an advantage of the scientific and specialized development in the field of road engineering to avoid enforcing solutions without vindicating their effectiveness, where the opinions performing from discussion sessions...
Article
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Background Mass gathering (MG) events may cause delayed emergency responses via various mechanisms and strain the resources of local emergency services. Therefore, preparedness, including adequate pre-planning and sufficient resourcing during MG events, is vital. The aim of this retrospective register study was to investigate the impact of MG event...
Article
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Internet of Things (IoT) technology drives lifestyle changes in smart city infrastructure due to rapid growth of services and activities that develop well-being. One of the main challenges that resulted from the exponential spread of IoT is the dense number of nodes with the huge amount of data over different networks that influence the collision p...
Article
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Introduction Formal prehospital emergency medical services cover only a small percent of the population in most low- and middle-income countries. Increasing the involvement of laypersons in prehospital first aid can be an important part of the response to injuries and other medical emergencies. We sought to understand factors associated with the wi...
Article
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For Europe's urban agglomerations to be economically competitive, it is vital that international destinations be easily accessible. Although much has been invested in the construction of European rail infrastructure over the past century, passenger transport by rail has not grown as fast as transport by road and air. So why do people not use intern...
Article
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Background Road traffic injuries are a significant cause of death and disability globally. However, in some countries the exact health burden caused by road traffic injuries is unknown. In Malawi, there is no central reporting mechanism for road traffic injuries and so the exact extent of the health burden caused by road traffic injuries is hard to...
Article
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Background Cities are a major source of atmospheric CO 2 ; however, understanding the surface CO 2 exchange processes that determine the net CO 2 flux emitted from each city is challenging owing to the high heterogeneity of urban land use. Therefore, this study investigates the spatiotemporal variations of urban CO 2 flux over the Seoul Capital Are...
Article
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Sixth-generation wireless networks will aggregate higher-than-ever mobile traffic into ultra-high capacity backhaul links, which could be deployed on the largely untapped spectrum above 100 GHz. Current regulations however prevent the allocation of large contiguous bands for communications at these frequencies, since several narrow bands are reserv...
Article
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Purpose This study examines the relationship between birth order and length of hospitalization due to pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI). Methods We prospectively followed 59,469 Finnish newborns from 1987 until age 18 years. Data on first diagnosis of TBI was recorded within the 1987 Finnish Birth Cohort (FBC). Hospitalization period was divi...
Article
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The enhanced distributed channel access (EDCA) protocol is a supplement to IEEE 802.11 medium access control (MAC), ratified by IEEE 802.11e task group to support quality of service (QoS) requirements of both data and real-time applications. Previous research show that it supports priority scheme for multimedia traffic but strict QoS is not guarant...
Article
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Background Particles from non-exhaust emissions derived from traffic activities are a dominant cause of toxic metal pollution in urban environments. Recently, studies applying multiple isotope values using the Iso-source and positive matrix factorization (PMF) models have begun to be used as useful tools to evaluate the contribution of each polluti...
Article
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Advanced integration of logistics systems has been promoted for competitiveness and sustainability. Interconnection of transport operations increases complexity at a network level, which reduces the predictability of the response of the system to disruptions. However, our understanding of the behavior of such systems is still limited. In particular...
Article
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This paper examines the performance of bus rapid transit (BRT) systems in over-crowded travel corridors. A case study of King Faisal Street in Greater Cairo Region GCR, Egypt, was adopted. A simulation model was developed using PTV VISSIM simulation platform for the study area. A data collection effort was exerted to collect operational traffic dat...
Article
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With the rapid growth of electric vehicles (EVs) in the past decade, many new traffic safety challenges are also emerging. With the crash data of Norway from 2011 to 2018, this study gives an overview of the status quo of EV crashes. In the survey period, the proportion of EV crashes in total traffic crashes had risen from zero to 3.11% in Norway....
Article
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Background Road traffic injuries are a large and growing cause of morbidity and mortality in low- and middle-income countries, especially in Africa. Systematic data collection for traffic incidents in Kenya is lacking and in many low- and middle-income countries available data sources are disparate or missing altogether. Many Kenyans use social med...
Article
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Geographically-explicit simulations have become crucial in understanding cities and are playing an important role in Urban Science. One such approach is that of agent-based modeling which allows us to explore how agents interact with the environment and each other (e.g., social networks), and how through such interactions aggregate patterns emerge...
Article
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The transportation sector is considered one of the most important sectors affecting the planning and development of cities. It is the responsible sector for traffic and transport inter- and intra-cities through the mass transit systems, which reflect the civilization, urban, economic, and social levels of cities. The importance of this study lies i...
Article
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To reap the advantages of many continual growing cloud services, cloud industries should adopt smart and holistic resources scheduling strategies. By deploying efficient deep learning technologies, many chaotic cloud traffics’ potential issues may be solved. Toward efficient cloud instances rightsizing and scheduling, we adopt in this paper a new B...
Article
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Natural sand is a major ingredient in the production of concrete and mortar. Increased urbanization and industry have led to sand depletion and the accumulation of industrial waste. Palm Oil Fuel Ash (POFA) is constantly dumped to open fields, which creates traffic dangers, health risks, and pollutes the environment. Hence, the abundance production...
Article
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Although urban green space (UGS) is an important factor in improving the well-being of residents, the problem of green injustice has been proven to be prevalent. Balancing the quantity distribution of UGS is an important way to solve the problem, but the effect is declining owing to many reasons. The general lack of evaluation of UGS quality in acc...
Article
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The Great East Japan Earthquake (GEJE) in March 2011 greatly changed the spatial pattern of energy use in Fukushima Prefecture. The previously nuclear-reliant energy policy has transformed, with energy now generated mainly by fossil fuels and renewable sources. The spatio-temporal variation of fossil fuel use and the major causes of these changes h...
Article
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The digital growth has triggered explosion of mobile and wireless scenario. This expansion propelled the high demand of wireless capacity especially bandwidth. The increased demand lead to the need of efficient utilization of critical resources in networks. Under such circumstances, software defined mobile network (SDMN) controller has emerged as o...
Preprint
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With the continuous appreciation of cryptocurrency, cryptojacking, the act by which computing resources are stolen to mine cryptocurrencies, is becoming more rampant. In this paper, we conduct a measurement study on cryptojacking network traffic and propose CryptoJacking-Sniffer (CJ-Sniffer), an easily deployable, privacy-aware approach to protecti...
Article
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Traffic identification has become a challenging task in recent years. Recently, deep learning methods have been extensively studied for network traffic classification recently. Unfortunately, these models require a large amount of training data. Another challenge with most traffic classification methods is that the features must be extracted by an...
Article
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Bangalore is experiencing unprecedented rapid urbanisation and sprawl in recent times due to unrealistic concentrated developmental activities with impetus on industrialisation for the economic development of the region. This has led to large scale land cover changes with serious environmental degradation, posing serious challenges to the decision...
Article
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Queue and delay are the primary performance measures of an intersection. This study aims to determine queue and delay for an approach of a signalized intersection using data obtained from RFID sensors. Model-based estimation schemes were developed for queue estimation that utilized the conservation of vehicles equation as the state equation. Relati...
Article
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In recent years, individual drivers‘ crash risk assessments have received much attention for identifying high-risk drivers. To this end, we propose a probabilistic assessment method of crash risks with a reproducible long-term dataset (i.e., traffic violations, license, and crash records). In developing this method, we used 7.75 million violations...
Article
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Most vehicles on highways experience platoon congestion, primarily due to the impedance created by heavy vehicles (HVs). The platoon generated by the HVs directly impacts the smooth traffic flow conditions, affecting the travel time, speed, capacity , and level of service. The study aims to model and analyze the impact of HVs considering the platoo...
Article
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Wireless charging roads equipped with energy storage systems are promising electric vehicle charging solutions by virtue of their strong advantages in time saving and reduced pressure on the existing power infrastructure. Integration of wireless charging roads into the existing electricity market and efficient management of the corresponding energy...
Article
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The main objective of the present study is to prepare an algorithm for the choice of lane causing minimum delay based on drivers’ perception using a Multi-Criteria Decision-Making (MCDM) method. The TODIM (Portuguese acronym for Interactive Multi-Criteria Decision-Making) is based on the prospect theory. The effect of human behavior on lane choice...
Article
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Enforcing network slice isolation in 5G Radio Access Networks (RANs) can degrade a network slicing solution’s ability to efficiently support different types of traffic. In addition, competing virtual network operators may share one network infrastructure that forces network slicing solutions to provide fair treatment between them. This work present...
Article
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As one of the significant features in the cache-enabled networks, in-network caching improves the efficiency of content dissemination by offloading content from the remote content provider onto the network that is closer to the users, and creates an opportunity for multicast. Since the multicast paradigm is a promising method for sending data to mu...
Article
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Traffic conflict techniques (TCTs) are one of the most frequently used proactive surrogate safety measures which can be used to estimate traffic safety even before the occurrence of a crash. This study explores the variation in rear-end conflict with respect to signal timing and distance from stop lines at signalized intersections with non-lane-bas...
Article
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Time headway is a microscopic traffic stream parameter used for designing and performance evaluation of a traffic facility. Most of the studies on time headway are limited to homogenous traffic conditions as performed under specific location characteristics. Studies conducted in India, considered entire carriageway width for analysing time headways...
Preprint
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Recommending appropriate travel destinations to consumers based on contextual information such as their check-in time and location is a primary objective of Point-of-Interest (POI) recommender systems. However, the issue of contextual bias (i.e., how much consumers prefer one situation over another) has received little attention from the research c...
Conference Paper
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Intersections have been described as one of the most complex traffic conflict points for motorists, pedestrians, cyclists, and other road users. In this research the primary focus is on different methods of risk assessment at road intersections. Twelve intersections from Malabe to Battaramulla on New Kandy Road, Sri Lanka roadway were chosen to con...
Article
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In the traffic monitoring system, the transportation department generates the traffic map to report the real-time traffic conditions, so as to provide more efficient service for drivers. However, if the vehicle obtains the local traffic conditions that the driver is more concerned about from the remote server, it will consume a heavy bandwidth and...
Conference Paper
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In this work, we provide transmission policies considering the channel state information, the queue states and aggregate interference in dynamic downlink cellular networks. Large-scale networks with multi-cells and random link distances are considered. The problem is formulated with a infinite horizon Markov decision process, and solved online usin...
Article
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Burgers-type equations are seen in cosmology, hydrodynamics, plasma physics, hurricane dynamics, statistical dynamics, traffic modelling, etc. For an extended (2+1\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlengt...
Poster
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In response to the significant rise in traffic burden, the weight and quantity of trucks, tire pressures, and new axle designs, asphalt pavement layers can suffer structural damage such as rutting, stripping and other forms of road surface deterioration. Hence, the practical demands of present and future highway surface construction are not readily...
Article
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There have been few studies of vertebrate roadkill in China, and the lack of long-term, large-scale, and multiple-species monitoring and data have made it difficult for transportation departments to make science-based decisions. The 13 highways in the Changbai Mountains of northeast China were selected for 13 years of monitoring. The results showed...
Article
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Distractions have been recognised as one important factor associated with pedestrian injuries, as the increasing use of cell phones and personal devices. However, the situation is less clear regarding the differences in the effects of visual-manual and auditory-cognitive distractions. Here, we investigated distracted pedestrians in a one-lane road...
Article
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This paper derives new algorithms for the computation of moments in general Markov fluid models. The first one is recursive: the nth moment is obtained from the preceding moment via a linear system. We show that these moments depend basically on buffer occupancy. Also, our approach proposes a unified code that does not distinguish between the case...
Article
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Traffic forecasting is an important part in realising intelligent traffic management, which helps traffic controllers and travellers make effective decisions. However, traffic forecasting accuracy is often affected by missing traffic data due to hardware and software failure. Therefore, accurate prediction based on incomplete traffic data is an imp...
Article
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In this paper, a potential crack region method is proposed to detect road pavement cracks by using the adaptive threshold. To reduce the noises of the image, the pre-treatment algorithm was applied according to the following steps: grayscale processing, histogram equalization, filtering traffic lane. From the image segmentation methods, the algorit...
Conference Paper
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Automated vehicles should improve both traffic safety and user experience. While novel behavior patterns such as platooning become feasible to reduce fuel usage, such time-and fuel-reducing behavior at intersections can be perceived as unsafe and possibly disconcert users. Therefore, we designed and implemented nine feedback strategies for a simula...
Article
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Public transportation is a fundamental societal service that directly affects spatial development. In order to ensure a high level of functionality and sustainability of the public transport system, as well as even spatial development, a good planning framework for its development is a necessity. This paper analyses the distribution and functional...
Article
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Autonomous vehicles are becoming a reality with great potential. However, persons with blindness, deafblindness, and deafness, who usually receive information and guidance from the driver, could miss information when travelling in an autonomous car. In this case study, 15 people with hearing and vision impairments explore and compare trips with and...
Article
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This paper studies the long-term effects of heterogeneous information provision on road networks with multiple information providers (IPs). To capture the information heterogeneity resulting from various IPs, we consider that users subscribing to different IPs receive non-identical information sets about the available routes and make route choices...
Article
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Centrality, which originated from sociology, has been one of the most powerful measures to describe structural properties of road networks. Among existing road centrality studies, it is noticed that most studies explore relationships between road centrality and urban quantities; a few studies use centrality to predict traffic flow or interpolate tr...
Article
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This manuscript focuses on the theoretical advancement of causality between entry vehicle dynamics and roundabout capacity modeling, with a merging state transition-based analytical approximation and calibration approach. Gap acceptance models, such as the HCM model, usually ignore roundabout specific operating conditions, whereas empirical models...