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Hello, I have a questionnaire that consists of five sections. The first section (related to drivers' knowledge) has 10 items with no Likert scale and the participants have to choose from either two or three or more specific options. The second section (related to drivers' habits) has 9 items with the first five items having a six-point Likert scale while in the remaining items the respondents have to choose one question from four specific options. The third section (related to drivers' behavioral intentions) has 10 items with each following a six-point Likert scale. The fourth section (related to drivers' psychological conditions) has 9 items with no Likert scale and the participants have to choose from three, or four or more specific options. Finally, the last section consists of questions regarding drivers' profiles (age, gender, education, driving experience, profession, frequency of driving through tunnels, etc.)
Now my question is, what kind of statistical tests or analysis can I perform here to investigate the relationship between the variables in the drivers' profile and other sections/items. For instance, how I can analyze which group of drivers (in terms of age, gender, experience, etc.) are more knowledgable (section 1) or adopt appropriate habits (section 2).
I am also open to all kinds of suggestions and collaborations on this research.
P.S: I am attaching my questionnaire as a file. Hope it will help to understand my question and questionnaire better.
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A couple of things to remember here: in a prospectus assemble the following:
a. The research questions and summarize responses by data type
b. The potential tests of the hypotheses from a
c choose tests based on a and b
d choose sample sizes based on chosen tests and type I and Ii requirements
e conduct methods of d
f answer the research questions based on e
g check the assumptions required in e
h
Prepare summary report of results
Suggestions- 0 Proper Prior Planning Prevents Poor Performance
1 get a good book on research design
2 Study it
3 Follow the suggestions for each step
4 assemble the overall plan
5 collect data as in plan 4
6see f, g and h above
7 do not ever do what you did in this
question again
Good luck David Booth
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To study the impact of public transport on traffic safety on urban road networks and traffic at bus stops
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if you need to study bus movement and bus stops characteristics look for Transport institutions and government policy in your country at the starting point
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Accidents involving motorcycles are responsible for over 50% of open fractures of the tibia and can be associated with other lesions and the victims, in the vast majority, are youth and young adult (Brazil epidemiological data). What preventive measures could be taken to reduce this type of accident?
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Dear Dr. Nelson Elias ,
I suggest you to have a look at the following, interesting reference:
- Motorcycle Safety
My best regards, Amir Beketov.
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the traffic light sometimes is easier to cause the traffic jam problem, if the designer don't make to many change to the both side of the road,such as the house and block building, what other aspect of things can be done to mitigate the traffic jam problem.
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Dear Dr. Yang Ying ,
I suggest you to have a look at the following, interesting reference:
- Reducing Traffic Congestion and Pollution in Urban Areas
Modern, sophisticated initiatives that are better than typical ‘big ideas’ include:
  • Optimise traffic-light management
  • Use CCTV to monitor road conditions
  • Enforce existing road traffic laws
  • Improve perceptions of buses
  • Extend residents’ parking zones
  • Charge for workplace parking
  • Improve cycling infrastructure
  • Improve bus services
  • Develop and refine park-and-ride
  • Use Inbound Flow Control
  • Rationalise distribution and deliveries
  • Existing rail network
  • Light rail
  • Strategic Road Network resilience
  • Road pricing
It is often incorrectly suggested that congestion may be solved with one big idea, such as:
  • Widen roads
  • Narrow roads
  • Add bus lanes
  • Remove bus lanes
  • Build tunnels
  • Build a new ring road
  • Build a light rail network
  • Switch off traffic lights
  • Ban cycling
  • Ban cars from city centres
  • Close through-routes to private vehicles
  • Close car parks
  • Build more car parks
  • Build more park-and-rides
  • Make buses free
  • Make park-and-ride free
  • Introduce a congestion charge/road pricing
- Reducing Traffic Congestion and Pollution in Urban Areas
My best regards, Amir Beketov.
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There is a famous Venn diagram (see attachment) that shows 93% of crashes are due to drivers: 57% solely due to drivers, 27% due to their interactions with roadway, 6% due to their interactions with vehicle, and 3% due to their interactions with both. But these figures are from very old studies:
Rumar (1985) compared statistics from a 1975 UK and a 1980 US study. The US study was based on an Indiana study as follows:
So, are there recent studies on roadway crash causes?
Especially considering the significant changes in the contributing factors leading to roadway crashes.
Venn diagram source: Interactive Highway Safety Design Model: Accident Predictive Module (1994) https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/publicroads/95winter/p95wi14.cfm
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I suggest you to have a look at the following references:
- Road traffic injuries
- The Deadly Myth That Human Error Causes Most Car Crashes
- Road crashes are the biggest safety challenge for youths
- Road crash deaths and injuries in the world's cities can be stopped. Here's how
- Road accidents and safety statistics
My best regards, Amir Beketov.
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With the increasing number of push and electric powered bicyclists and the increased uptake in micro-mobility devices such as electric scooters there is a need on many corridor for either a third speed corridor (for those doing 15 to 30km/h) or the operating speeds on the roadway or footpath/sidewalks need to lowered through speeds limits.
Q1 Has anyone had experience with setting footpath/sidewalk speed limits?
Q2 Is there any experience dropping speed limits to 30km/h on roads because of micro-mobility demands? - in conjunction often with bicycle boulevards
Q3 What changes need to be made to footpaths to make them micro-mobility/bicycle friendly (e.g. around heights of fencing etc)?
Q4 Has anyone come up with a suitable name for this third lane? Also possibly changing the name of footpaths - other than shared paths!
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Dear Dr. Shane Turner ,
I suggest you to have a look at the following, interesting reference:
My best regards, Amir Beketov.
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Road safety topics
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I suggest you to have a look at the following, interesting topics:
- Investigations of the influence of the urban road pavement roughness on movement of vehicles;
- Study of the impact of bus stops on city roads and streets on traffic flow and traffic safety;
- Study of the influence of transport and maintenance indicators of road surface of urban streets on traffic safety;
- Study of methods for assessing the quality of skid resistance of urban road surfaces.
My best regards, Amir Beketov.
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Ethical issue is one of obstacle for the development of driver-less vehicle. For example, when a driverless car travels on a one-way road, unfortunately an ignorant pedestrian rush into the road. In such scenario, it is very difficult for the vehicle to make a decision: to brake and hit the pedestrian or veer and to run off the road, leaving passengers injured. Obviously, different action will lead to different consequences. One is the serious injury to pedestrian; another is the harm to the occupants inside the vehicle. Whatever, there will be a victim to be injured and the driverless car will be accused. Certainly, we should keep people out of the highways. Even so, due to the large number of vulnerable road users who travel around all the time, they will be the main objects for driver-less cars to avoid collision. Therefore, the relevant ethical issues should be considered and addressed first before driverless cars get offer to enter the road. Let’s suppose more possible and dangerous scenarios and discuss them.
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both
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How Carpooling will reduce Traffic Congestion? I am researching on this in Islamabad.
What will be methodology to find out facts & figure?
Can any one suggest best software or Survey link which would be helpful.
I want to do publication on this topic.
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i am carrying out a study on drivers and pedestrians compliance to traffic signs and signals in a metropolis.
how will i go about the data analysis
i used questionnaire to obtain data on compliance
i also obtained data on compliance from traffic agency in charge of traffic safety
and also conducted observational study
how do i combine these data sources to test my hypothesis
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The statistical tool depends on how your questionnaire was structured, the scale of measurement employed, and your hypothesis. Considering all these, you could use descriptive statistics, regression, correlation amongst others statistics. All these can be done on SPSS
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I have 15-minutes traffic volume count data at different locations along a highway stretch. With this data, I want to calculate ADT and AADT.
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There are some typical coefficients that could be used to predict AADT from Peak hour volume and vice versa. The general equation is:
DDHV = AADT*K*D where DDHV= directional design hour volume (your 15-minute count times 4 times)
K = proportion of daily traffic occurring during the peak hour
D= proportion of peak hour traffic traveling in the peak direction of flow
There are some recommended values for K and D depending on the type of road (rural, suburban, urban, etc.)
You can check "traffic engineering" book by Roess, Prassas, and McShane for these values.
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please share material regarding the same. highly obliged
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Hi i have an eperimental study, i can share you my investigation,in this link:
Additional I add my methodology:
The experimental participatory method was used to visualize how people with disabilities acted within the physical environment of urban public transportation and their perception of information and communication technologies to access the service.
For this purpose, tests were coordinated with several users with various types of physical and sensorial disabilities (deaf and dumb individuals, blind, wheelchair users and disabled in lower extremities, which prove to be the most frequent users in the transport system); complying with the fundamental provision incurred by at least one with some type of disability different from the other, to test them from three scenarios in a sample of 10 participants. The first experiment consisted of asking the participants to go to Metrobus urban public transport from their homes to the final destination in an autonomous way. In the second experiment, participants were given a technological instrument of information and communication from two media: Mobile applications and internal information subsystems in transport to fulfill the same action. Finally, an experiment was proposed in which the participants inside the vehicle with the granted instruments, would find themselves with ergonomic spaces to their needs distributed for their particular comfort and safety; and they would not go down until they reached their various destinations.
The experiments were recorded using digital cameras on board the Metrovía and analyzed to determine the components of the task that caused difficulties. In particular; the time to complete the tasks, the number of disadvantages inside and outside the vehicle, the number of attempts recorded in each travel phase and finally the conditions measured by the weather factor. Having incurred the experimental component of the research, the participants were invited again to receive the activity completed in the three action scenarios. They then engaged in in-depth semi-structured surveys and interviews on issues related to their experience with the Metrobus urban public transport system. These data were recorded, transcribed and then synthesized using standard qualitative methods [5] [6]. The names of interviewees have been anonymous, using the pseudonyms of your choice. Qualitative research does not look for a statistically representative sample but seeks to explore in depth the experiences of people and the meanings associated with those experiences [7] [8].
They proceed with the structure of quantitative methodology from data collected in the experimental participatory method, by use of Mental Modeler. Studies of travel behavior are important for several reasons, for example, to reduce both energy consumption related to travel such as physical barriers and their representation in users with disabilities.
For decades, there have been several attempts to influence the behavior of unsustainable travel of people towards more sustainable ways. However, recently, it manifests how these studies can be implemented effectively and efficiently to develop and support the deeper understanding of the root causes of the trip indicates the reasons and inclinations of people, and complete information on the behavior of individuals, for that the use of ''Cognitive Fuzzi Maps'' [9] through the use of the Mental Modeler platform gives an answer in decision-making on transport policies in understanding the needs of people in a better way, consequently, will help them update different policy formulations and implementations.
At the end two scenarios will be obtained; understood by the reality and the estimation of statistical data that will help in the best development of the proposal through the analogy and its application in the technological ergonomic model to be proposed.
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Including (car following and lane changing data and more driving tasks)
it will be great if the data tagged with current driving task.
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You may find the following one useful:
  • https://smoosavi.org/datasets/dact. It offers information on a set of meaningful driving patterns such as speed-up, turn, hard-brake, etc. This dataset contains 50 trajectories, 13 hours of driving, and all driving patterns are annotated by human subjects.
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The existing route direction of vehicles ( please check figure in below) in a city has been drawn for a research. Are the number of conflicts at each intersection drawn correctly? Would anyone kindly evaluate the drawing and give any suggestion?
N.B: Please name the intersection as CMM, PMM, KGM, TM, IM
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Hi, would be helpful if you highlight the conflicts with a dot or something similar and add the number which you have come up with in order to be able to compare. Also, sometimes more than two lines cross at almost the same spot. E.g. at intersection IM the line from A.H.Road to Rupkotha Road intersects the straight line from Court Road to A.H.Road at the same spot as the line from Rupkotha Road to Aurangzeb Road. For your purposes, do you want to count that as one conflict or two seperated conflicts? Maybe you have access to a program that helps you identify conflicts?
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How can we decrease the effect of cameras on driver behavior during a naturalistic driving study?
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Thank you very much!
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AASHTO (2001) talks about a value of 4.5 m/sec2 as it was observed that most of the drivers decelerate at a rate greater than 4.5 m/sec2 when decelerating for an unexpected condition.This value may or may not be applicable for Indian Traffic condition which is highly heterogeneous in nature. This situation is characterized by different vehicle categories with diverse static and dynamic characteristics, changing composition, lack of lane discipline. Does it mean that I need to use different DR values for different category of vehicles under different traffic facility? I could not get hold of accident reconstruction specialist who could have helped me in this regard. Kindly advise.
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Qinaat Hussain check Table 1 in my paper "Analysing truck harsh braking incidents to study roundabout accident risk" a list of letriture review regarding the lowest deceleration that may led to accidents reported. Note that a deceleration rate to be considered as near miss thier rate depends on type of vehicle the hevier the vehicle the lower the rate will be ...
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PhD Student Positions Available (Summer 2019 / Fall 2019):
There will be 1-2 PhD Student Positions available in the Department of Modeling, Simulation & Visualization Engineering (MSVE) at Old Dominion University. Students are expected to work on Transportation Research projects, with a focus on Data Analytics, Artificial Intelligence (AI)/Machine Learning, Virtual/Augmented Reality (VA/AR), Transportation System Modeling & Simulation, and/or Transportation Safety.
If you are interested in the opportunity, please email me (E-mail: hyang@odu.edu) your detailed CV and other supporting information (e.g., sample publications, GRE test score, etc.).
Thank you very much!
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I noticed that some applicants have listed me as his/her reference. Please DO NOT list me as your reference when applying. The reference letters should be from those who know you. Thanks.
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I'm researching driver behaviour on the approach to signals and need more data on how drivers react and adjust their speed under the following conditions:
1)  lead platoon with red signal - no queue at stopline
2) lead platoon with green signal - queue visible and discharging
3) lead platoon with green signal, anticipating onset of red before stop line is reached
I am interested in the variability in reaction time, point of reaction, deceleration rates over 3 stages- @foot off, @brake applied, and @coasting to final stop
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This question belongs to 3 years ago but I'd still like to add my comments based on my understandings for the prospective interested readers:
1) For the purpose of your research (and possibly any other aspect of human factors in microscopic level), the accuracy of the data in itself is very important. The NGSIM data is also shown to be riddled with systematic errors due to the rotation of camera and the associated image processing methods. Yet, these errors may not affect your research if you are mainly interested in macroscopic state variables or some aspects of car-following behaviour. But if you are trying to extract additional human factors, these data may not be a good source. the following papers presents more discussion on the accuracy of the NGSIM data:
i) On the assessment of vehicle trajectory data accuracy and application to the Next Generation SIMulation (NGSIM) program data
V Punzo, MT Borzacchiello, B Ciuffo
Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies 19 (6), 1243-1262
ii) Trajectory data reconstruction and simulation-based validation against macroscopic traffic patterns
M Montanino, V Punzo
Transportation Research Part B: Methodological 80, 82-106
2) GPS-based Floating car data (FCD) may not again suit what you're looking as the spatial & temporal accuracy of these data may be below what you may need. Extended floating car data (XFCD), however, can compensate for the limitation of FCD as you have information of the leading vehicle. But this is helpful if at least the temporal resolution of the data is above your human reaction time...
3) If you are developing a new methodology, probably the best way (to my knowledge) is to test it on reconstructed trajecoty data by commercial softwares such as VISSIM & AIMSUN to minimise the effect of systematic error in the process of data collection. You should, however, be advised that whatever results you are getting with using these data are based on Viedemann (VISSIM) and Gipps car-following models (AIMSUN) and may not produce adequate insights about the actual human factors.
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TIA comes with the legal background. Therefore it has been allowed normalize traffic level for all. But there are significant road segments that cannot allow the legal level.
If there any article journals related this please let me know. I like to make a framework for my study. therefore I need the base that other localities use.
Thank you,
Dilshan
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Good answer by Kundan.
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I want to calculate the lateral shifting / lane changing behaviour of vehicle in a traffic stream. I want to know about some methods by which practically this distance can be calculated on road?
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I think through video for external and GPS
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Usually Time headway is calculated as the time difference between two vehicles (front-front bumper of rear-rear bumpers) on the same position (same lane). in non lane based traffic it is the same but the position is a line on a road stretch (the same direction). what are the motivations behind using the whole road stretch ? In my case I have a road of 3 lanes (same direction) and I group two lanes to see the pattern of time headway. Meaning I calculate Time Headway based on a line along the two lanes. Does this make sense in traffic theory ? It does seem unconventional but since I have vehicle arrival with no respect to lane separators, it seems to me that the arrival of a vehicle in a position on the two grouped lanes is influenced by the preceeding vehicles no matter what it's position in the two grouped lanes.
P.S : Each lane in my scenario is of 3 to 3.25 meters width
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In this case (last ten years), the headway in group of lanes during off peak had been provided within 5 seconds. If a driver drove his car passing the virtual loop, it leased to extend the range of green times. Howeve, it was not over the maximum green times. In case of red times, there was no vehicle to pass the virtual loop.
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Longitudinal seal repairs sometimes tend to cause severe instability in motorcycles under dry conditions in corners.  Anecdotally it does not appear to be strongly correlated to road temperature, although on days with higher than normal surface temperatures it does soften causing the front to slide.  I am looking for cases where this was identified as a cause and low-cost solutions to improve the traction of these seal repairs
My hypothesis is that surface ripples cause the following problems and could be an underlying cause of many run-off-road crashes in rural areas:
- in the braking zone the suspension could pack down due to a lack of compression damping causing longer braking distances and hence higher entry speed
- a rider's arms could stiffen up due to excessive forces feeding through the suspension delaying the turn-in point and also slowing the rate of turn-in,
- at the apex the bike is easily destabilised that may cause a mid turn adjustment causing a wider exit radius to be followed,
- on the exit it could cause instability under acceleration causing the rear to lose traction.
I am looking for evidence where surface ripples are correlated to loss of control crashes, and whether this affects all types of motorcycle crashes, or mostly those types that have relatively poor handling attributes (i.e. Cruiser vs. Sportbike designs)
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Hi Urie.  Empirical and personal experience with this, overbanding (the smooth tar bands used to seal tarmac cracks) and Rainurages, especially on French concrete motorways l(ongitudinal grooving of the road surface for rainwater management) are notorious for their negative effects on the handling of motorcycles.   There are many data sets and accident analysis reports on road traffic accidents (RTAs) available, USA, Canada, UK, EU.  To take overbanding first.  The hazard is the reduced traction of the overbanding material compared to the road tarmac.  In wet conditions it gets slippery.  In dry hot conditions it melts.  It was a problem in the UK leading to litigation after RTAs.  The compounding of overbanding material was changed to include 2-4mm sharp abrasive grit to improve wet traction.  In countries where hot dry conditions occur the overbanding can include more asphalt and less bituminous tar for better hot weather performance.
longitudinal grooves, aka rainurages, upset the dynamic stability of motorcycles and bicycles.  Consequential crashes are then multifactorial.  Catastrophic stability upset is just one cause, others will result from rider mis-actions as a result of less than catastrophic stability upsets.  
There is little to no correlation to the type of vehicle, probably much correlation to the way the vehicle is ridden...
You have not mentioned a situation called "target fixation", the rider sees a hazard and looks at it in the process of riding.  The consequence is that the vehicle steers towards the hazard.  It is most often a failing of novice and improver riders.  Experienced riders learn or are taught to "look at the part of the road they want to go up, not the thing they want to avoid!".
All of the hypothesis point you make are errors of low expertise on the part of the rider.  A rider with high expertise will know either intuitively or as a result of training to excercise riding techniques to mitigate the risks you are interested in and have methods to manage situations as they develop.
Inappropriate use of speed probably covers most of the mishaps you wish to investigate.
i suggest you obtain a copy of Roadcraft, published by HMSO in the UK.  It is used as the riding manual by The Institute of Advanced Motorists.  It is available as an ebook.  I am not connected in any way with any of these organisations.  Regards. Jonathan. Motorcyclist for 40years.
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I am working on highway design consistency so I wanted to know how to measure "Sight Distance" from the field mainly on horizontal curves in hilly terrains.
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In roads I have no experience. In railways we use a fixed person (with radio) on one of the extremes of the curve and a moving person (with radio) on the other extreme that would approach the first one. When they see each other chest fully we would mark it and measure with a measurement wheel
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What is the relationship between knowledge in road safety and attitude towards road safety? Do respondents' age, sex, and socio-economic status moderate the relationship between knowledge of and attitude towards road safety? Empirical studies or literature on the above relationship is sought.
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Thank you, Dr Weerasekera. I will read and get back to you if I have comments
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Rear-end crashes involving multi-vehicle in expressways may be more serious in future. Now we are studying this crash type. For example, several vehicles follow each other with high speed and suddenly one of them goes wrong and serious crashes will occur. The characteristics, crash propagation, injury severity and influence factors should be focused. And the research methods could be mechanical modeling, accident reconstruction and computer simulation. Could you please introduce some relevant literature regarding multi-vehicle rear-end crashes? Thank you in advance!
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A recent Austroads study authored by my colleague at ARRB:
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I am modelling a 4 lane signalized roundabout in a country using right hand drive using a VISSIM microscopic traffic simulation model
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Vissim, the simulation tool I am familiar with, provides for both right and left hand drive facilities selected as part of the development process.
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For long term trend of the number of crashes in a country, the weather conditions (long hard winter, warm spring and/or autumn) definitely are relevant.
Besides this, I have read about the relevance of the state of the economy as a further determinant of a rise or decrease of crashes several times. But the evidence always was from the US. I am curious if there is European evidence available, also.
I anybody aware of research from Europe, dealing with the influence of the weather and economic indicators on road crashes?
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I want to evaluate the effects of the differential speed limit (DSL) on driver behavior and speed characteristics in Passing lane on two-lane two-way highways.  I have  data for before condition, which is data for uniform speed limit (USL) in both the lanes of passing-lane section, and also data for after condition which is data for DSL (left and right lane has different speed limits) condition. I want to compare the data for before and after DSL implementation. Now please recommend me a best statistical technique which I can use to get good results.
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there are many works related to determining the accidents, while we want to estimate the time and location of possible accident. I would appreciate if anyone could introduce me any work in this regard.
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As far as I can tell, there are no truly predictive modelling methods, i.e. such that could predict when a crash will occur, or where it will occur.  There are essentially two types of crash modelling methods: frequency and probability. The first method seeks to estimate the most likely mean frequency (e.g. per annum) for a given location type such as a  road section or intersection with a set of attributes. The second method seeks to estimate probability that should an event occur, it will be of certain type. This can be a severity model (e.g. probability a crash will be fatal) or occurrence model (given a vehicle enters an intersection, probability there will be a crash). You would do well googling US authors such as Zegeeer, Harwood, Sayed, or Hauer. 
Still I don't know of a way to estimate the time and location of a random event such as a crash. Perhaps others do....
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I am seeking information in regards to a new research project I am undertaking. It is an International and National (NZ) review of the available literature on ‘alternative interventions for youth traffic offenders’. Youth in our project covers those between the ages of 14-19 years of age. I am seeking information on interventions that have been proven to have a more positive impact on both reoffending and road safety than the traditional sanctions of custodial sentences, fines and licence demerit points. I will be reviewing information that covers three key areas:
·         Graduated Driver Licence System (GDLS) breaches and Unlicensed Driving
·         Drink/drug driving
·         Other offending (Speed, careless/reckless driving and restraints)
If you are able to furnish me with any information regarding the above or point me to any resources where such information may be available or put me in contact with anyone you believe would be of help in such matters I would be extremely grateful. Kind Regards,
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Dear Gerald and Jose
You are not really surprised, are you? This phenomenon is illustrated by the following example (cited from http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/definition/moral-hazard):
"You have not insured your house from any future damages. It implies that a loss will be completely borne by you at the time of a mishappening [sic] like fire or burglary. Hence you will show extra care and attentiveness. You will install high tech burglar alarms and hire watchmen to avoid any unforeseen event.
But if your house is insured for its full value, then if anything happens you do not really lose anything. Therefore, you have less incentive to protect against any mishappening. In this case, the insurance firm bears the losses and the problem of moral hazard arises."
Moral hazard, as the reaction to insurance is called, has been mentioned many times in recent years in discussions in the United States about problems that might arise (extra burden on the provision of medical assistance) as a result of state-funded medical insurance. A Swedish study found evidence that calling in sick from the job became less frequent when workers' compensation for sick leave were reduced (   ). Moral hazard has also been noticed by several other analysts,  like Boyer, M. and Dionne, G. (1987). The economics of road safety. Transportation Research-B, 21B, 413-431; Worrall, J.D. (198).
Others reported that increases in workers’ compensation payments for injuries may increase the rate of workplace accidents. (Worrall, J.D. (1983). Safety and the workforce: Incentives and disincentives in workers’ compensation. ILR Press, New York State School of Industrial and Labor Relations, Cornell University).
Phrased in simple terms: to offer people protection against the consequences of risky behaviour encourages risky behaviour; to offer people better protection against the consequences of risky behaviour encourages riskier behaviour still.
Automobile and other insurance sells peace of mind, which is nice, but it is also a problem for that very reason. This is, as mentioned earlier, why automobile insurance at one time was forbidden by law in some countries.
This is not to say that we should not have automobile insurance, but obviously the consequences should be seriously considered and insurance practices should take them into account.
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Forming a Checklist of relevant parameters on which the Model should be based on
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Partially or composite ?
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I have developed a quantitative LOS criteria based on actual delay faced by pedestrians on Indian roads using cluster analysis. I have also conducted a user perception survey to understand the perceived pedestrian delay. I wish to develop an LOS criteria which is a combination of both quantitative delay and perceived delay. I can develop another LOS criteria solely based perceived delay, but I am not sure how to come up with a combined LOS criteria.
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The common way is to compare actual conditions and perceptions. You can evaluate  LOS of actual condition based your developed model or HCM guideline then you can investigate how close was the perceptions versus actual conditions.
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Generally said, I plan to validate a specific indicator X (derived from driving behaviour) which should be linked to traffic safety (accidents) on level of road sections. Validation should statistically prove this relationship. I can think of various ways (i.e. possible study designs), but I would appreciate your opinions and advices.
Option 1 - I can define, based on theory or experience, two conditions when X is safe and when is unsafe. This can be compared to accidents / no accidents.
Option 2 - I can collect X on many sections and link it with accident history.
Option 3 - I can choose the critical sections (based on accidents) and collect X there - thus I should obtain "unsafe" values of X.
Option 4 - naturalistic driving study = studying the drivers behaviour visually. When they behave "unsafely", values of X will be "unsafe".
These are only my theories - please feel free to comment! I will welcome discussion, references, etc. Thank you.
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Option 1 would a validation exercise indeed. You can do this very simply by correlating the model and real outcome. There are several statistical methods depending on what outcomes you are comparing. One example I have is EuroRAP star rating vs. crash rates - two different variables, not directly comparable.
If you went with Option 2, e.g. a statistical modeling (accident prediction model), then you can use various residual plots as long as you got an independent sample not used in modelling. There are more sophisticated methods than that of course.
Option 3 could be modified by adding data from 'safe' sites. Then you are looking cross-tab analysis, the predecessor of statistical models. See answer for Option 2.
Option 3 - you are looking at proxy measures. As far as I understand this subject, it is the next frontier in road safety. Great for developing understanding of combined human, vehicle and road factors involved in crashes, i.e. everything that current statistical models do not do. The near future.
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I'm trying to calculate the exposure to risk of horse riders in the UK when riding on road to collisions i.e. collisions per rider per km.
Does anybody have any values of the average amount of riding in the UK; similiar to what is found for pedestrians and pedal cyclists in the national travel survey?
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Thanks Edmund 
Thats a great help!
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How many times can I change signal timing plan at isolated intersections during the day?
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As noted previously, with pre-timed controllers you are typically allowed three different plans, plus a fourth one that consists of flashing operation (during late night, very early hours of the morning when traffic is low).
At isolated intersections, unless you have very heavy turning movements that require protected phases, vehicle-actuated operation (without fancy adaptive algorithms) should handle most fluctuations typically experienced at an isolated intersection effectively, especially if there is a dominant direction (clear major vs. minor). 
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I intend to use Lane Change Test (LCT) on a driving test track. Can someone please suggest me what is the ideal no. of lane change markers in one kilometer distance.
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I would hope that the test protocol defines what lane change is required.  Suggest that you start by having a look at ISO 3888
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The glare is always harmful for drivers to watch and identify the road scene. I often feel uncomfortable when driving toward the Sun. So I think there may be some correlation between sunshine and the occurrence and severity of traffic accidents. How do you think of this issue? Could you give me any suggestions or recommend related references to explore this situation? Many thanks in advance!
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there are many factors on roads that may lead to accidents. Though sun glare is an obvious factor for the accident, it is hard to find the correlation relationship between the accident and sun glare. On the book "How Drivers’ Smart Advisory System Improves Driving Performance? A Simulator Imitation of Wireless Warning on Traffic Signal under Sun Glare" the 6th section on "Impacts on mean approach speeds" in Page 61, it is mentioned that "The posterior questionnaire survey tells that, approximately 47% of subjects (14 out of 30 subjects) committed signal violation unconsciously on through movements". The 47% may imply a high risk of accidents for through movement (drive through a signalized intersection). 
In fact, there are many accidents recorded for left-turn movement. The accidents are often involved with the right-turn vehicle and through-movement vehicles from the opposite side. Left-turn vehicles need to yield the traffic flow from the opposite side. However, when they are disturbed visually by sun glare, they may not able to yield the traffic flow. For the through movement, there is still two seconds cleaning time, yellow signal. 
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For vehicle to pedestrian crashes, statistics results show that females are at higher risk in crashes. Female pedestrians have more fatalities than males without regard to age, height, weight or other characteristics. Why female pedestrians or cyclists are generally vulnerable than males? Is it truly a gender difference? Is it because males are naturally stronger than females? But we have no further research work. Could you recommend me some related papers or existing research findings? Any suggestions are very welcome!
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To add to this: in this report
the scientist involved have found that in the age group 20 - 60 years old, male drivers had 1.5 higher risk (accidents/km) of a fatal accident than female drivers. However, for the non-fatal accidents, the risk of the women is 26% higher to get injured and 16% higher to get involved in an accident than men. So, one may in fact assign males a more risky driving-style, but only after proper normalization. However, this analysis was performed for the US in 1990; different areas and different times may provide different numbers.
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I am fitting a SPF with Negative Binomial and the ADT was significant and negative. The data corresponds to rural mountainous with low traffic volume. Do you have any possible explanation for this? perhaps a similar experience? suggested references?
Thanks!
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Yes, congestions also came up my mind... But since AADT is usually used (which is aggregated annually), I would think it is not likely that congestion would influence this.
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I am working on performance of rural roads so provide literature on PSR.
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i wanna do research about mesoscopic traffic flow parameters which affect crash severity in urban highway. i know that mesoscopic parameters are combination of macroscopic & microscopic parameters. but what kinds of variable should i consider for making a crash severity models
thanks for your time and consideration
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Crash Severity on a urban highway, as on other roads, mainly depends on the kinetic energy. The kinetic energy by the speed. The speed by traffic flow, density, lane width, tortuosity of the route etc.
I would check the following parameters in function of the crash  severity:
number and width of lanes, traffic flows per lane (in passenger car equivalents per hour), composition of traffic flow, speed (85th percentile or speed diagrams for the entire path), speed differences among different types of vehicles (such as cars, vans, trucks etc).
The interdependence of these parameters and the crash severity should give you some good results.
Good work and good luck
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Pedestrian traffic island (also they named as pedestrian refuges) is one of the most effective and inexpensive ways to reduce the accident rate. Has anyone done research on the impact of the proportion of pedestrian crossings with islands on accident rates? 
Also would be interesting the publications about the variations of the embodiment of  traffic island, conditions and rules of their application and so on.
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Pedestrian traffic island is one of traffic calming measures. Trying Google search with for example "safety impact traffic calming" will give you several interesting links. However note that most of this research is related to "traffic calming boom" which culminated in 1990s. In Europe one of the main proponents was British TRL - their library is also a good source: http://www.trl.co.uk/reports-publications/trl-reports/?search=calming
And another important consideration - accidents are not necessarily the best target variable to focus on when looking for efficiency of these measures. You will see that many studies looked rather on behaviour (in terms of speed, near-misses, etc.). It is not easy to study safety changes based on, for example, rare numbers of accidents on a sample of pedestrian crossings. This is why safety research of vulnerable road users (pedestrians, cyclists...) very often relies on non-accident based indicators. In this regards ICTCT has been the leader in last decades: http://www.ictct.org/workshops/past-workshops/
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Aghabayk et. al (2015) explained that 'T' is the driver's reaction time in GHR model (page 86). While in the article 'Traffic Dynamics. Studies in Car Following', Chandler et. al. (1958) stated that on page 181: 
"... the response of the trailing vehicle depends upon its driver's perception time, t1, his response time, t2, and the time of the response of the vehicle, t3"  
Which one is it, only the driver reaction time or perception+reaction+vehicle response? 
Both articles are linked.
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Hi,
Not only depends on the reaction time T, also it depends on the time t vehicle acceleration trying to follow.
You can see:
Brackstone, M., & McDonald, M. (1999). Car-following: a historical review. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, 2(4), 181–196. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1369-8478(00)00005-X
Gazis, D. C., Herman, R., & Potts, R. B. (1959). Car-following theory of steady-state traffic flow. Operations Research, 7(4), 499–505.
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Driving simulator is used to simulate the driving behavior like normal traveling on roads. It will stop the vehicle when crash happens. At that time, I always wonder why it couldn’t be designed as working continuously even a short period of time, and then we could know the behavior of drivers during collision. Due to the zero risk of this type of test, if necessary, maybe some accidents could be reconstructed through human involvement simulation in place of computer simulation.
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Dear Quan Yan,
Yes, you can continuously run the simulation post-crash, depending on your  simulation engine/software. We developed our own for research purposes and thus we are able to control the behaviour of the simulation software like what we want. Perhaps you might want to contact simulation professional software developers ( like drive square above ) for assistance. 
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For example, how the design of highway can influence patterns of eye movement and how it connects to traffic safety. Thanks!
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you can look at my paper in my profile on red light running and dynamic distrations that may be of interest
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I would like to know data from foreign countries.
For example in Hungary it is about 56-57%.
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Thank You for your answers!
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I am using Generalized Linear Models (GLM) to model influence of various explanatory variables on traffic crash frequency. After modelling, it is useful to interpret influence of these variables. I have read that elasticity or marginal effects are used to do it - but not many authors use them (both). Could someone please provide source data and results so that I could test my calculations on them? Thank you very much.
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For Logit models NLOGIT have option for the estimation of elasticity and marginal effects (or) You can use R which you can call with single line command.
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Who can give me some practical advice/examples on how to implement a Hidden Markov Model.  I would like to use that in the traffic engineering context under various traffic flow conditions. E.g.  on the approach to a queue, does driver maintain or slow down when he sights a queue or red light?  From the literature I have one thing that seems to elude me is how to calculate or estimate the transition probability matrix.
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Could you recommend any sources: How to measure influence of ITS services on traffic safety?
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A general problem with any long-term before-after study on traffic safety is the general trend towards fewer serious accidents by a number of reasons including passive safety, road improvement, increased driver education, and so on. In a simple before-after study, all these effects act as uncontrollable confounding variables. To be able to recognize and possibly eliminate them, one needs at least four data sets: 1. Test site before ITS, 2. test site after ITS, 3. a different reference site at the time of Set 1, 4. reference site at the time of Set 2 and with *unchanged* ITS status. Of course, this four-stage design is only possible if the deployment of ITS can be controlled locally (infrastructure-based ITS, e.g., V2I or I2V) rather than purely vehicle-based ITS (V2V and all sorts of local assistance systems). Furthermore,  the results pertain to ITS with infrastructure components, only.
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For national (or regional) road safety evaluations and comparison we have been using two safety performance indicators (SPIs):
- direct (crashes, fatalities, injuries...)
- indirect (speed, speeding, seat belt use, daytime running lights use, cell phone use...)
Now I am trying to find some correlations between them. And I ask, for example: Should percent of speeding correlate with crash counts? or with fatalities? or injuries?
All is done on the level of country (or regions) - so direct SPIs are from national/regional statistics. Indirect SPIs are from surveys, typically 7 locations per region, once per year.
And lots of other questions, for example: when surveys are done in weekdays, spring/autumn, dry weather, should crashes to correlation also come only from the same conditions? (or possibly even only in the days/hours of survey?)
I will welcome any ideas on how to do these analyses, references, etc. Thank you in advance.
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When discussing correlations you have to keep in mind that correlations do not necessarily imply causal relations. Often, they are a consequence of a common influence by an ignored third factor such as properties of the infrastructure (many or few freeways), regional structure (predominantly urban or countryside), cultural properties,  (liberal or strict) legislation, (sloppy or stringent) control/enforcement. For example, in countries with liberal speed regulations (e.g., 75 or even 85 mph allowed on some roads) and sloppy enforcement (hardly any speed limit monitoring), few speed tickets are issued, i.e., the statistical data show little speeding. Nevertheless, in an objective sense, there may be many drivers driving too fast for the given situation resulting in comparatively many accidents.  This results in a paradoxical correlation with an unexpected sign between speeding and accidents.  This is a variant of the classical Simpson's paradox: The more firefighters are sent to the scene, the more damage the fire will  cause.
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Dear Researchers,
I need to calculate the probability of the vehicles having some kind of incidents/accidents based on the intersection characteristics (grade, signage, median, etc.). It will answer the question that, for example, how much the probability of head-on crashes would change if we add raised median to the intersection.
However, I was wondering if there is any method/model to be used that relates this probability to actual frequency. For instance, back to my previous example and given the probability of head-on crashes, we can determine 5 head-on crashes will occur on a given intersection.
Thank you!
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Dear Mahdi, I suppose that crash prediction models are what you are looking for. They relate crash frequency to various explanatory variables, which is exposure (traffic volume) and geometrical characteristics, such as median, etc. Since crash frequency is a count variable with non-normal distribution, they are usually developed using generalized linear models with negative binomial distribution. This is also what I am using; however for the work of real guru look for example here - https://www.researchgate.net/publication/239438865_Statistical_Road_Safety_Modeling
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I'm trying to relate speed selection behaviour with crash occurrence. There have many research on that in literature but I still don't found any suitable method on that.
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Dear Eng. Rusli
There is a lot of literature. I myself is preparing an article regarding design consistency and crash prediction model. Speed in one of the most important factor. You may try this reference. It is comprehensive.
Awatta, M. Highway Design Consistency and Safety: Individual and Overall Evaluation Criteria. Ottawa, Canada: Carleton University; 2003. 
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Hello, prompt, where you can see the data on accidents involving drivers with driving experience of 1 year in different countries?
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The Fatal Accident Reporting System (FARS) has extensive data for all fatal crashes in US.  You would need to make an assumption of driving period based on driver age.  Legal driving ages vary state to state, but there is a graduated drivers license (GLD) site that maintains all of that legislative info.  NHTSA also publishes a traffic safety fact sheet on young drivers https://www.google.com/webhp?sourceid=chrome-instant&ion=1&espv=2&ie=UTF-8#q=nhtsa%20traffic%20safety%20facts%20young%20drivers%202013
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By skid car training I mean a post license training, especially for young/ novice drivers using a specially prepared car without a fixed rear axle, but with a construction using 360 degree rotatable wheels.
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Hi Walter
I'm not sure if you have seen the attached - but just in case.
Best wishes
Lisa
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I have been developing various regression models for road crash frequency. I use generalized linear models (SPSS GENLIN or SAS GENMOD procedures), negative binomial (NB) distribution, log link function. For example: annual crash frequency on road segment = a x (traffic volume)^b x (curvature change rate)^c etc. Now I am trying to assess individual impact of variables, let's say traffic volume or curvature change rate. From literature I am not aware of any standard procedure for that. I have seen various charts (predicted crash frequency on Y-axis, traffic volume on X-axis) or tables with "impact coefficients" (example: standard traffic volume equals impact 1.0, increased traffic volume = impact 1.5, etc.). I also saw calculations of elasticity or marginal effects, but usually only for Poisson regression and I am not sure whether the same applies for NB. I would like to find some specific paper dealing with this issue AND dataset used so that I would do calculations myself to obtain the same results to make sure I know how to do it. Could somebody help me with this, please? Thank you.
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Please use step wise multiple regression models and multivariate analysis to know the impact of every variables.
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Could you recommend any reports, books etc. about the influence of automatic incident detection or incident management on the traffic safety? especially road infrastructure...
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Hi, Maybe this report can be useful for you.
Road Safety Impact of New Technologies, by OCDE
Here there are others...
(2013) The evolution of urban traffic control. changing policy and technology
(2009) Beyond ‘‘best practice” road safety thinking and systems management
Kind regards
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I am interested in this area especially in the field of road infrastructure, both on highways and urban roads.
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Hi,
concerning ITS for motorcycles, the PISa project (www.pisa-project.eu) proposed a prioritisation of safety functionalities to be integrated on powered two wheelers, based on estimated influence in real-world motorcycle crashes.
Attached is a link to related Executive Summary.
This activity was briefly presented at some conferences (see attached), but with poor details. And as far as I know there is not a journal paper on that.
I hope it is of help.
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I have to compare the crash characteristics two roads at two different geographical conditions, A and B. A have their own segments A1,A2,A3 and A4. B also have their own segments B1,B2,B3,B4 and B5. Every segments have their own crashes, length and average annual daily traffic(AADT). Should I compare the total of crashes (by consider total length and AADT) for both roads or doing separately by segments and after that compare the average?
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I recommend the following website; it is helpful.
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What are plausible explanations for these results which seem to contradict most other traffic safety studies (that have consistently found higher risks for men and for older cyclists).
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@Xochitl
Experience can certainly be a factor, but one which is hard to disentangle from a general decrease in risk taking behaviour with age (perhaps based on near misses or real accidents)
@Vincenzo
Distraction is certainly one of the top causes cited by cyclists involved in an accident in Belgium. However is it unclear to me why women would be more distracted than men (in Belgium and the other way around in other countries)
@Yves 
The population was limited to those of working age and mainly focussed on commuting so probably not due to differences in time activity pattern.
However on the gender issues I think you may have a point. Some of the men in the study reported really long commuting distances along e.g. canals where accident risk (per km cycled) is probably very low. On the other hand women seem to take trips more often in the rush hour (e.g. AB modelling by Beckx et al) and in town centres with more intersections and therefore higher risk (while their risk aversion while driving/cycling) may still be higher than that of men)
@Henk
Thank you for the Dutch graph. The reversal of male/female risk ratio with age is really interesting. The SHAPES sample was limited to those of working age (<65) and the number of observations in the +50y was indeed very low. On the other hand we are very confident in our assessment of the distance cycled which we observed frequently during a whole year.
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Im looking for evaluating traffic safety at un signalized intersections by micro simulation. while reviewing related literature, I came across a term 'post-encroachment time'. So, I kindly ask for some related information.
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Hi.
Your question can be answered by more carefully inspecting the literature.
Post-encroachment time is conventionally defined as the time between the first road user leaving the common spatial zone (in a 2 road user encounter) and the second road user arriving at it.
It is easier to understand its definition by looking at a figure. The attached publication (see reference) contains a figure, a discussion and further material to get you underway.
Hope this helps.
Best
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I am working on Bus schedule optimization. For which, I have read some research papers. Almost all of them have considered passenger waiting time, fleet size, frequency, etc as parameters for genetic Algorithm. I want some information on how these parameters are decided.
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I was wondered if you use GAs for Bus scheduling problems, then in addition to problem specific parameters like waiting time, fleet size, frequency, why you did not consider GA's own parameters like crossover and mutation rates, selection pool size. Without having these parameters you can not control the exploration and exploitation mechanism of GAs. I would suggest you to go through production scheduling problems like single machine, job shop, flow shop or open shop scheduling problems where GAs have been designed and implemented to solve the problem.
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I am interested in examining the traffic safety situation of some cities/ towns in my country. Does anyone have expertise in this field by way of research?Is there any model I should know about? What should I consider in terms of variables?
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Dear Enoch,
I quite agree with Satish Chandra.
The study of traffic safety, urban (or not) starts from the data. These can be at different levels of depth depending on the results you want to achieve: general strategy, action planning, design of the countermeasures. From the statistical data down to single police reports.
You try to give a quick read to ANALYSIS OF ROAD SAFETY: THREE LEVELS OF INVESTIGATION that I have made available now.
Then you let know me.
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I am interested in the programs themselves, as well as scientific methods of their development. Also of interest is the assessment of their effectiveness (how much money is spent/what is the effect obtained). I am also interested in the programs of public transport development.
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Fines is the most effective method to improve road safety these days in my country.
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ISO 39001 standard is related to the road traffic safety management systems.
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Can you send me the web site in which you found this handbook? Maybe i can obtain a copy through the library of my university.
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In a chaotic traffic scenario, the only rule is to reach your destination as soon as possible by avoiding collisions with your nearest neighbours. It is a kind of directed random walk on the all possible available passages that change dynamically. Such a traffic situation is effective because it avoids collisions and everyone manages to reach his destination if the road doesn't become too crowded. So, it will be nice to see the simulations of the chaotic traffic. Have anyone ever seen such a traffic model?
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In the recent weeks there were 3 aircraft 'incidents', one of which was fatal. So is driving preferable? Is road safety comparable to aviation safety?
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I go out every year at least once, or more.
I will still prefer to fly, despite these aircraft incidents. I think flying is less unsafe than driving on highways, more so in my country where the driving habits of most people are not acceptable. Some risk is involved in almost activities that we do.
Admittedly, humans are rational human beings. They sub-consciously take decisions on the basis of cost-benefit analysis. I will vote for flying than driving anywhere.
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Instead of other statistical or conventional approaches, what are the main reasons that are inductive for modelling?
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fuzzy data classification methods are suitable for complex data subject to uncertainties. The uncertain nature of noisy data requires the use of fuzzy methods.
Good luck
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Preparing a survey of young novice drivers, we are still looking for an appropriate wording of a question regarding the so-called „near misses“. If you know of an attempt to ask such events successfully in a survey, I’d be grateful for any tips regarding literature or formulation proposals.
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For an online questionnaire of motorcycle riders we asked "How many near misses or close calls have you had in the last 12 months while riding on a public road?" and then asked them to describe the most serious one from the last 12 months and provided a text box. Respondents had no problem providing answers, but there was a wide range of numbers - which was okay because this was more of an exploratory aspect rather than the main game for this study.
To be more specific you could add "...near misses or close calls for which you had to brake or swerve unexpectedly". And if near misses are your main focus divide it up "...near misses...brake or swerve...involving a pedestrian" "...involving a car" etc.
Since they are novices you could also use something like "...that really shook you up" or some such. Depends what your hypothesis(es) are I guess.