Science topic

Traffic Control - Science topic

Explore the latest questions and answers in Traffic Control, and find Traffic Control experts.
Questions related to Traffic Control
  • asked a question related to Traffic Control
Question
8 answers
Hello. I am a student of "Business Administration" , and i want to do my research on how we can control, manage and ensure discipline in the roads of Bangladesh. As we can see that even after having certain rules and laws, passengers & drivers don't have any respect for the traffic system, which results in various major and minor accidents.
As it's and important issue in our country, I will be researching the root causes of this problem, and talk about what needs to be done.
I would appreciate your thoughts and ideas about this topic. Thank you.
Relevant answer
Answer
I highly recommend to access the following book:
Porter, B. E. (Ed.). (2011). Handbook of traffic psychology. Academic Press.
This is a huge topic to study. I believe this book can help you to limit the issue you are interested in and also it can help you to be familiar with the research methods in traffic psychology.
  • asked a question related to Traffic Control
Question
5 answers
In 21st century Artificial Intelligence and IoT based traffic systems are being researched across the world. But implementation rate and the economical efficiency are yet to focus on.
I want to know if there's any algorithm or standardised system confirmed for future research to deploy a universal traffic management system. Human intervention in traffic system and algorithm based traffic controlling should be alined for further development to ease current traffic issues.
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Mr. Hossaion!
I am certain the answer is yes:
1) Bhargava, A., Bhargava, D., Kumar, P.N. et al. Industrial IoT and AI implementation in vehicular logistics and supply chain management for vehicle mediated transportation systems. Int J Syst Assur Eng Manag (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13198-021-01581-2, Available at:
2) Swathi Yellajosyula 2020. How Smart Technologies Can Help Ease Public Transportation Concerns in a Post-Pandemic World, 13 August 2020, © 2022 TIBCO Software Inc. Available at: https://www.tibco.com/blog/2020/08/13/how-smart-technologies-can-help-ease-public-transportation-concerns-in-a-post-pandemic-world/
Yours sincerely, Bulcsu Szekely
  • asked a question related to Traffic Control
Question
10 answers
The boundaries of my investigations limits by real implementation on cities which are too far from driverless cars, ITS or other hyperllops-like decisions. I carefully examined,perhaps, all the existed models and approaches from japanees "Jamology", limitations of transport flows in the centre (of London,tax model), VANET, platooning, V2X, SCATS, SCOOT, traffic lights management and other methods which have some limitations from 'non detected' [without any sensors] vehicles (old cars, mini bus taxies or so-called "root taxy" , horses and carts , motocyclies, scooters, etc. or the bypass roads (which have exits in the centre of calculating zone and make some deviations in algorithms).
Not everything is solved by the development of public transport. In our city, it is planned to build a subway for 20 years, but the zones of the city are developed according to their own laws without taking into account the plans laid down for the metro, and therefore part of the dug canals under the ground do not meet today's needs.
Similarly, with the development of cycling and pedestrian zones. In countries with sharply continental weather in the cold season, it is unlikely that the city dweller will choose a bicycle instead of his personal car while the temperatures below 20 °C. Bus routes can have a certain effect, but again, dedicated lanes are needed (consider adjustments to the law and traffic regulations) and the replacement of a fleet for more comfortable trips as well as more developed routes. Inspection of road regulation(the police) is not as much interested in solving the problems of traffic congestion. The main indicator of the success of their work is the minimum number of accidents and victims on the roads. Therefore, the lower the traffic flow rate or its "standing", the calmer. Thus, what solution can really be implemented in cities where there are no autonomous and flying cars, where the budget is not enough to build monorails and tunnel stations (junctions) to connect metro, buses and other vehicles in rooms with comfortable conditions (for example, Queensland , New Zealand)?
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Alexei
Sorry for the delay. The Thesis is in Portuguese, but the results were presented in the 2020 PLEA.
FORTES, M. B. ; GIACAGLIA, M. E. ; DUARTE, Denise . Disruptive Technologies on Mobility Raising New Opportunities for Urban Design. In: PLEA 2020 - Planning Post Carbon Cities, 2020, A Coruña. Proceedings of the 35th International Conference on Passive and Low Energy Architecture. A Coruña: University of A Coruña, 2020. v. 1. p. 600-605.
  • asked a question related to Traffic Control
Question
32 answers
the traffic light sometimes is easier to cause the traffic jam problem, if the designer don't make to many change to the both side of the road,such as the house and block building, what other aspect of things can be done to mitigate the traffic jam problem.
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Dr. Yang Ying ,
I suggest you to have a look at the following, interesting reference:
- Reducing Traffic Congestion and Pollution in Urban Areas
Modern, sophisticated initiatives that are better than typical ‘big ideas’ include:
  • Optimise traffic-light management
  • Use CCTV to monitor road conditions
  • Enforce existing road traffic laws
  • Improve perceptions of buses
  • Extend residents’ parking zones
  • Charge for workplace parking
  • Improve cycling infrastructure
  • Improve bus services
  • Develop and refine park-and-ride
  • Use Inbound Flow Control
  • Rationalise distribution and deliveries
  • Existing rail network
  • Light rail
  • Strategic Road Network resilience
  • Road pricing
It is often incorrectly suggested that congestion may be solved with one big idea, such as:
  • Widen roads
  • Narrow roads
  • Add bus lanes
  • Remove bus lanes
  • Build tunnels
  • Build a new ring road
  • Build a light rail network
  • Switch off traffic lights
  • Ban cycling
  • Ban cars from city centres
  • Close through-routes to private vehicles
  • Close car parks
  • Build more car parks
  • Build more park-and-rides
  • Make buses free
  • Make park-and-ride free
  • Introduce a congestion charge/road pricing
- Reducing Traffic Congestion and Pollution in Urban Areas
My best regards, Amir Beketov.
  • asked a question related to Traffic Control
Question
10 answers
Intelligent Transportation Systems(ITS) are widely used in the world for traffic management. However, there are still many questions about the effective use of these systems. For example, are intelligent transportation systems used efficiently enough? Do different intelligent transportation systems have the ability to interact with each other? Is proactive control possible with traffic control centers? Can Artificial Intelligence be used for proactive work? Can the performance of the system or center be increased with artificial intelligence? I am curious about your ideas and/or experience on this subject.
Relevant answer
Answer
The following is a scientific research article which is available by Open Access on the Internet; simply click on the LINK:
Best wishes with your research.
  • asked a question related to Traffic Control
Question
3 answers
hi everyone, I have developed a simulation of a roundabout with a fixed time regulation, the lines of traffic lights in the roundabout are for vehicle storage. my question is: when we regulate by tricolor light signals, should we make all the conflict zones inactive? and is it normal that we will have vehicles crossing each other? any help will be appreciated, thanks in advance
Relevant answer
Answer
you can still use conflict areas at a signalised intersection, but should be for movements where the gaps are not determined by the signal lanterns. these might be for particular movements where the headways determine the opportunities (even within a signalised intersection!). otherwise, leave them out.
  • asked a question related to Traffic Control
Question
9 answers
How Carpooling will reduce Traffic Congestion? I am researching on this in Islamabad.
What will be methodology to find out facts & figure?
Can any one suggest best software or Survey link which would be helpful.
I want to do publication on this topic.
Relevant answer
Answer
  • asked a question related to Traffic Control
Question
6 answers
I have a link with multiple lanes; I want to calculate queue length on each lane at every timestep of a simulation run. I have explored the following options:
1) Makeshift method: creating separate links corresponding to each lane and define vehicle inputs separately. Insert the queue counter on each link. However, it would restrict lane change behavior.
2) Queue counter: It gives the maximum of queue length on individual lanes. I can apply a factor based on the vehicle turning ratio to estimate queue length on each lane.
3) Data collection points: Applying two such points on separate locations on each lane and processing the data from it. But, if vehicles changed lanes in between the two points, then it wouldn't give exact queue length
4) Node evaluation: Not sure how to implement it for each lane. I also suspect it will create an issue the same as the third point.
Let me know if you need any further clarification.
Any suggestions would be much appreciated! Thank you for your time.
Relevant answer
Answer
Thank you for expatiating on the idea; I got the gist of it. But I am reasonably new to Vissim and not sure about the complexity of implementation. I'll try to apply it and let you know.
  • asked a question related to Traffic Control
Question
4 answers
IoT/LPWAN User Survey Link: https://lnkd.in/dVdK-ea
-----------------
Dear Sir/Madam, We are surveying the use of Low-Power Wide-Area Network (LPWAN) technologies (e.g., LoRa, SigFox, NB-IoT) for the Internet of Things (IoT) solutions for Smart Cities and Transportation Systems. If you or your organization has relevant experience/practices in deploying LPWAN technology, we appreciate you can help take this survey on LPWAN applications. The survey is part of a research project sponsored by VDOT. We greatly appreciate if you can complete the survey by August 14, 2020. Thank you very much. ----------------- Thank you for your help in completing the survey!
Relevant answer
Answer
I do not know anything about LPWAN
  • asked a question related to Traffic Control
Question
10 answers
Intelligent transportation systems provide many advantages as part of our daily lives. One of the most common applications of these current and increasingly widespread systems in our cities is intelligent junction control. The scope of the intelligent junction control concept which includes different approaches and algorithms, is quite wide. It is known that it needs realistic and objective technical knowledge to guide decision makers correctly. In this sense, what do you think the definition of intelligent intersection should include? Is a high-cost intersection control system with a lot of equipment always necessary? Or are the lower cost solutions that enable multi-plan control by only increasing the number of control programs? What should be the threshold or the transition point for the preference? Is it sufficient to make only cost-benefit analysis? To what extent should social benefits be taken into account for feasibility analysis? Sharing your views on this issue can be beneficial to many researchers and interested parties and can contribute to the spread of sustainable transportation (traffic management) systems.
Relevant answer
Answer
I heard recently from an agency that they consider that signals operate effectively if they change light from green to yellow to red, in that consecutive order and without interruption. So, what exactly is a good control is like a "beauty in the eye of the beholder". So, an agency first needs to be comfortable with level of operations quality or misery that non-optimal control generates to participants in traffic stream. Then, an agency needs to define operational measures (or objective functions more formally) that they would like to improve. If there is more than one such measure then they should be able to judge how to weigh each criterion. At this point we probably already lost their interest and attention as this is usually an overwhelming task for them but if anyone survives this point then it makes sense to talk about level of ITS equipment, primarily for sensing purposes and then finally the quality of the control algorithm. So, what we in academia usually put at forefront of our research (control algorithms) folks in practice usually care less.
  • asked a question related to Traffic Control
Question
2 answers
I am conducting a study on connected vehicles and intelligent multimodal lane management and I was wondering if RM could be used with connected vehicles and how? (during the deployment period and after a hypothetical full deployment)
Also I recently read about the 2009 Path IRMP and was wondering if it was possible to download it.
Thank you a lot for your kind help.
Relevant answer
Answer
I think future ramp metering for connected vehicles will take place automatically according to the communication protocol of the vehicles. You can review the following publication in this regard.
  • asked a question related to Traffic Control
Question
20 answers
I am looking for suitable software (paid or free) that can be used for optimizing traffic light cycles at an intersection.
Relevant answer
Answer
You can not optimize cycle length using VISSIM.
VISSIM is an only simulation program. Therefore, all mathematical computations related to signal timings (cycle time, green times) should be made by the users. But, If you use VISTRO (it is an also PTV AG product) with VISSIM, you can optimize signal timings (green times and cycle lengths).
According to me, SIDRA Intersection can be used for optimizing signal timing. Because I think that it has a great mathametical framework. Besides, you can use Synchro, CORSIM and etc.
  • asked a question related to Traffic Control
Question
3 answers
I need to find a tool for road traffic modeling which permits the implemention and testing of any type of algorithms for traffic flow prediction, especially neural networks or fuzzy based algorithms. It will be helpful if that tool provides a graphical view of car movement and crossroads configuration.
Relevant answer
Answer
Simulation of Urban MObility
  • asked a question related to Traffic Control
Question
7 answers
I want to calculate traffic density of roadways near intersections and also midblock sections on urban roads. I have video recordings for different locations. So, I want to know about any reliable methods to calculate road density from the videos.
Relevant answer
Answer
Please prefer to this link. Hope that is useful for you.
  • asked a question related to Traffic Control
Question
2 answers
Now I am thinking about the idea of optimizing the traffic flow of cars in the urban road-street network, controlled by autopilot.
I heard that in Hanzhou (and not only), the City Brain 2.0 traffic control system developed by Alibaba was used. Where to find a link to an article describing this system?
Relevant answer
Answer
  • asked a question related to Traffic Control
Question
9 answers
I am looking for guidance, white papers and scholarly articles about road diets on an arterial street with an annual average daily traffic (AADT) above 45,000 and a peak hour volumes of 4,000 and greater.
Relevant answer
Answer
Ah, I see - based on your original question I was going to recommend against a road diet for your case, but it seems like it's been done and your topic makes sense. I know FHWA has a good series of case studies: https://safety.fhwa.dot.gov/road_diets/case_studies/
The case studies acknowledge the trade-offs with some road diet projects, often congestion, delays, or increased accidents of a certain category. I've been investigating relationships of capacity and demand, so the Highway Capacity Manual might have some notes as well. It seems that the road was already at capacity, so reducing capacity wouldn't have been recommended unless the City also invested in alternate modes of transportation, new routes, or other ways to mitigate.
Interested to hear what you find on this.
  • asked a question related to Traffic Control
Question
4 answers
Hi, I am working on the simulations of Aw and Rascle second order model for traffic flow, the model does not produce stable results, Why is that so ?
The numerical scheme is stable, i have checked the scheme for other models, it is quite good.
Relevant answer
Answer
Cześć, Jak można przeprowadzić kalibrację? Czy oceniasz kalibrację używanego schematu numerycznego?
  • asked a question related to Traffic Control
Question
4 answers
I wanted to know the advantages of data mining techniques are, when compared with macroscopic traffic flow models, microscopic models, simulation models for transportation traffic congestion prediction? Which one has a higher performance data mining techniques like decision tree, SVM or simulation approaches or simple travel time and speed prediction approaches?
Relevant answer
Answer
There are many advantages of data mining over the macroscopic approaches, In general the macroscopic approaches are less complex and easy to implement. Anyhow, congestion in many traffic scenario can be approximated by by higher order traffic flow models, one can get the realistic characterization of traffic flow using the HOM.
  • asked a question related to Traffic Control
Question
1 answer
We all know for a control system, the quality of information (e.g. state info, context info) could have significant impacts on control performance like stability and convergence rate, etc. To theoretically explore such impacts, it is important to adopt suitable system model and corresponding theory. for example, multi-agent system and theory to model coordination control problems and analyze the impact of information flow. In context of cloud computing and IoT more information could be available for a typical control system like traffic control, I just wonder what popular theory framework can apply to such applications? Is there any related surveys to read? thanks a lot.
Relevant answer
Answer
I believe that good starting point is
@ARTICLE{Sar:85,
author = {G.N. Saridis},
title = {An integrated theory of
intelligent machines by expressing the control performance as entropy},
journal = {Control Th.\ \& Advanced Technology},
year = {1985},
pages = {125-138},
number = {2},
}
and I hope that this paper is cited by its successors ... MK
  • asked a question related to Traffic Control
Question
3 answers
Hey ,
I'm a PhD student, I work on modelization and urban traffic control.
I try to work with, Vissim but it's impossible to save project with ( for trial licence). Can you help me please? I was thankful.
Relevant answer
Answer
Hello Ilyas,
I had the same problem when I was doing my PhD. What I did was to contact PTV AG directly and I indicated the need to have a full copy of VISSIM because I was doing PhD research work. They provided my a full version for two years and after that period I got an extension of 6 months. You will have to get a form signed by your School and you will then have access to the VISSIM software. Try to email PTV.Traffic.Customerservice@ptv.de; the contact person that I had contact with was Hans-Jürgen Don.
All the best, William
  • asked a question related to Traffic Control
Question
8 answers
I want to analyze bicyclist-motor vehicle crashes at intersections with 3 different types of traffic controls using a mixed logit or spatial mixed logit model
Relevant answer
Answer
spss is not a good software for mixed logit. you can run a multinomial logit or binary logit with spss but for mixed logit, if you have panel data, you would better to use Biogeme or N-logit.
  • asked a question related to Traffic Control
Question
13 answers
Roundabouts are one of the efficient method in traffic control. However, because of many reasons we need to refer traffic signal application. I want to make a discussion about this issue with my colleaques to reveal these reasons and also to enlight young reseachers and engineers.
I am looking forward to your comments.
Relevant answer
Answer
Roundabouts are recommended for low traffic volumes and density , while traffic signals are provided and proved to be more suitable for high traffic volumes.
Regards
Zainab
  • asked a question related to Traffic Control
Question
3 answers
From recent study it seems that 61% of people see artificial intelligence making the world a better place.
The biggest benefits are seen in advances in healthcare, science and traffic control and pollution forecasting.
#study #World #people #artificial #intelligence #benefits #science #traffic #forecasting
Relevant answer
Answer
I don't think so. I believe with all the technologies invented and yet to be invented, there is a limit to which humans can be replaced. What can improve the world is 'human innovation' which no machine can achieve. Machines or technology can only achieve optimum results when man which is behind it is a right-thinking person.
  • asked a question related to Traffic Control
Question
8 answers
I'm researching driver behaviour on the approach to signals and need more data on how drivers react and adjust their speed under the following conditions:
1)  lead platoon with red signal - no queue at stopline
2) lead platoon with green signal - queue visible and discharging
3) lead platoon with green signal, anticipating onset of red before stop line is reached
I am interested in the variability in reaction time, point of reaction, deceleration rates over 3 stages- @foot off, @brake applied, and @coasting to final stop
Relevant answer
Answer
This question belongs to 3 years ago but I'd still like to add my comments based on my understandings for the prospective interested readers:
1) For the purpose of your research (and possibly any other aspect of human factors in microscopic level), the accuracy of the data in itself is very important. The NGSIM data is also shown to be riddled with systematic errors due to the rotation of camera and the associated image processing methods. Yet, these errors may not affect your research if you are mainly interested in macroscopic state variables or some aspects of car-following behaviour. But if you are trying to extract additional human factors, these data may not be a good source. the following papers presents more discussion on the accuracy of the NGSIM data:
i) On the assessment of vehicle trajectory data accuracy and application to the Next Generation SIMulation (NGSIM) program data
V Punzo, MT Borzacchiello, B Ciuffo
Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies 19 (6), 1243-1262
ii) Trajectory data reconstruction and simulation-based validation against macroscopic traffic patterns
M Montanino, V Punzo
Transportation Research Part B: Methodological 80, 82-106
2) GPS-based Floating car data (FCD) may not again suit what you're looking as the spatial & temporal accuracy of these data may be below what you may need. Extended floating car data (XFCD), however, can compensate for the limitation of FCD as you have information of the leading vehicle. But this is helpful if at least the temporal resolution of the data is above your human reaction time...
3) If you are developing a new methodology, probably the best way (to my knowledge) is to test it on reconstructed trajecoty data by commercial softwares such as VISSIM & AIMSUN to minimise the effect of systematic error in the process of data collection. You should, however, be advised that whatever results you are getting with using these data are based on Viedemann (VISSIM) and Gipps car-following models (AIMSUN) and may not produce adequate insights about the actual human factors.
  • asked a question related to Traffic Control
Question
2 answers
TIA comes with the legal background. Therefore it has been allowed normalize traffic level for all. But there are significant road segments that cannot allow the legal level.
If there any article journals related this please let me know. I like to make a framework for my study. therefore I need the base that other localities use.
Thank you,
Dilshan
Relevant answer
Answer
Good answer by Kundan.
  • asked a question related to Traffic Control
Question
9 answers
I want to calculate the lateral shifting / lane changing behaviour of vehicle in a traffic stream. I want to know about some methods by which practically this distance can be calculated on road?
Relevant answer
Answer
I think through video for external and GPS
  • asked a question related to Traffic Control
Question
7 answers
I have found quite a few studies on this topic that have been conducted in developed countries. [viz (Sutermeister, 1956), Pretty (1973), May and Montgomery (1988), Mahalel, Gur and Shiftan (1991), Ye, Veneziano and Lassacher (2008) etc]. As manual traffic control is only used for emergencies and special occasions in developed countries, not many studies are done compared to other hot topics. But in Asian countries, manual traffic control is quite common, but, I could not find any studies related to this topic. Can anyone suggest me a few if its available?
  • asked a question related to Traffic Control
Question
2 answers
Hi,
i implemented GA in order to minimize the summation of total delay through each lane in a single intersection with a fixed Cycle Length.
I wanted to ask you, if there is a way to estimate a good Cycle Length according to queue length for each road before trying minimization of total delay. As you know cycle length affects the total delay..
Thank you all
Relevant answer
Answer
Optimum cycle length is determined from average delay per vehicle according to Webster. However, I think field observations of queue length may be used for the whole intersection. Need some field operational setup
  • asked a question related to Traffic Control
Question
4 answers
Puffin signal crossings are based on sensors for pedestrian detection. What are the different type of senors/image processing tools which can be used to detect pedestrians at a crossing location for installing a low cost puffin signal?
Relevant answer
Answer
Yes, or thermal cameras. May sound strange, but they have a good reason - unlike the video cameras, privacy is not the issue :-)
See for example works of Nicolas Saunier and colleagues - http://n.saunier.free.fr/saunier/
  • asked a question related to Traffic Control
Question
3 answers
In my point of view the simulation of autonomous vehicle needs to consider the interaction between the vehicles and associated infrastructures. Hence, I wonder what types of communication(interactions) in your project is going to be study through an agent based modeling.
Relevant answer
Answer
No plans for a hybrid simulation model but one PhD focusing on enhancing microscopcis models and one PhD on enhancing mesoscopic models to enable simulation of the transition period from today's traffic to a mix of vehicles with different AV-levels towards 100% AV level 5.
  • asked a question related to Traffic Control
Question
10 answers
There are so many methods in estimating car traffic volume.However, methods about estimating bicycle traffic flow are very few.So I want to know some methods can estimate bicycle traffic volume.
  • asked a question related to Traffic Control
Question
3 answers
Longitudinal seal repairs sometimes tend to cause severe instability in motorcycles under dry conditions in corners.  Anecdotally it does not appear to be strongly correlated to road temperature, although on days with higher than normal surface temperatures it does soften causing the front to slide.  I am looking for cases where this was identified as a cause and low-cost solutions to improve the traction of these seal repairs
My hypothesis is that surface ripples cause the following problems and could be an underlying cause of many run-off-road crashes in rural areas:
- in the braking zone the suspension could pack down due to a lack of compression damping causing longer braking distances and hence higher entry speed
- a rider's arms could stiffen up due to excessive forces feeding through the suspension delaying the turn-in point and also slowing the rate of turn-in,
- at the apex the bike is easily destabilised that may cause a mid turn adjustment causing a wider exit radius to be followed,
- on the exit it could cause instability under acceleration causing the rear to lose traction.
I am looking for evidence where surface ripples are correlated to loss of control crashes, and whether this affects all types of motorcycle crashes, or mostly those types that have relatively poor handling attributes (i.e. Cruiser vs. Sportbike designs)
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi Urie.  Empirical and personal experience with this, overbanding (the smooth tar bands used to seal tarmac cracks) and Rainurages, especially on French concrete motorways l(ongitudinal grooving of the road surface for rainwater management) are notorious for their negative effects on the handling of motorcycles.   There are many data sets and accident analysis reports on road traffic accidents (RTAs) available, USA, Canada, UK, EU.  To take overbanding first.  The hazard is the reduced traction of the overbanding material compared to the road tarmac.  In wet conditions it gets slippery.  In dry hot conditions it melts.  It was a problem in the UK leading to litigation after RTAs.  The compounding of overbanding material was changed to include 2-4mm sharp abrasive grit to improve wet traction.  In countries where hot dry conditions occur the overbanding can include more asphalt and less bituminous tar for better hot weather performance.
longitudinal grooves, aka rainurages, upset the dynamic stability of motorcycles and bicycles.  Consequential crashes are then multifactorial.  Catastrophic stability upset is just one cause, others will result from rider mis-actions as a result of less than catastrophic stability upsets.  
There is little to no correlation to the type of vehicle, probably much correlation to the way the vehicle is ridden...
You have not mentioned a situation called "target fixation", the rider sees a hazard and looks at it in the process of riding.  The consequence is that the vehicle steers towards the hazard.  It is most often a failing of novice and improver riders.  Experienced riders learn or are taught to "look at the part of the road they want to go up, not the thing they want to avoid!".
All of the hypothesis point you make are errors of low expertise on the part of the rider.  A rider with high expertise will know either intuitively or as a result of training to excercise riding techniques to mitigate the risks you are interested in and have methods to manage situations as they develop.
Inappropriate use of speed probably covers most of the mishaps you wish to investigate.
i suggest you obtain a copy of Roadcraft, published by HMSO in the UK.  It is used as the riding manual by The Institute of Advanced Motorists.  It is available as an ebook.  I am not connected in any way with any of these organisations.  Regards. Jonathan. Motorcyclist for 40years.
  • asked a question related to Traffic Control
Question
9 answers
Is it viable to calculate the pollution only near bus terminals and across the red light crossings and on the basis of that predict the pollution of the whole city?
Relevant answer
Answer
Pawan,
It appears you have moved the conversation from measuring from a sampling of locations where emissions occur, to one of finding ways to control or solve the pollution problem. 
If prevention measures are what you are looking to answer, there are technical as well as human behavioural aspects to the research question. The technical may involve looking at engine technologies, maintenance regimes, and fuels. Behaviourial aspects could involve simple things such as turning the vehicle engines off when the vehicle is on stand by, etc.
Regards,
Ricardo
  • asked a question related to Traffic Control
Question
4 answers
We are conducting the safety analysis at several uncontrolled intersections where no traffic control devices are present. We want to compare Post Encroachment Time (PET) and critical gap time for the safe stop. For those who are not familiar with the term PET, here is the definition:
The time between the first road user leaving the common spatial zone (in a two road user encounter) and the second road user arriving at it.
It is possible to determine the PET manually from the recorded video. But, my question is how to come up with the critical gap required for a safe stop based on running speed.
Thanks in advance.
Relevant answer
Answer
Thanks a lot Prof. Kolita Weerasekera. I will go through these papers.
  • asked a question related to Traffic Control
Question
3 answers
Hi,
I am working on optimization approaches on an intersection. And I have been getting some questionnable results on the simulator. I get some high troughputs of vehicle in the intersection but with big average delay of vehicles e.g : 
In a scenario I get a throughput of 4544 with an average delay of 31.22 seconds and average queue length per phase of 41 meters
And in another scenario I get a 4551 throughput with an average delay of 31.26 seconds with an average queue length per phase of 39.68 meters
This compared to the average study of the same intersection we see different results, e.g  in a scenario a throughput of 4343 with an average delay of 30.7 seconds and an average queue length per phase of 21.1 meters.
I am starting to question my results performance. Doesn't higher throughput mean minimum average delay and lesser queues on lanes ?
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Saad,
There is a mathematical theorem linking some quantities: Little's law for queuing systems isL=λW: the average queue length equals the average arrival rate times the average waiting time in the system.
It means you should not diverge too much from that without clearly violating at least one hypothesis. Usual deviations are:
  • bad definition/calculation of quantities (throughput...)
  • using the wrong quantities (what is the delay?)
  • your system is not stationary (i.e. the simulation is not long enough or you don't cut the first part that is usually very non-stationary)
  • you do not compare the same quantities.
Then, I can discuss more about interpreting results, because cooperative intersection is a topic I have highly investigated. But before going to theory (optimization criteria, mathematical tools, hypotheses...), check the simple issues I have mentioned.
Best regards,
Arnaud
  • asked a question related to Traffic Control
Question
7 answers
Hi There,
Is there a method or standard to estimate the daily traffic distribution from the peak AM and PM?
Thanks
Relevant answer
Answer
 Dear Arash:
Expanding short counts (less than 24 hours) to ADT can be done using hourly, daily and monthly expansion factors. These factors normally take seasonal changes into account. Search for articles in the area of traffic forecasting and seasonal adjustments. That should help
  • asked a question related to Traffic Control
Question
6 answers
Is creating of new attractions next to the highly visited protected area increasing or decreasing the intensity of tourist traffic in this area? Or maybe there is no influence at all?
Does anybody know the good example that can illustrate this phenomenon?
Relevant answer
Answer
In my opinion, the National Park of Peneda-Gerês, in Portugal, its a very good example to answer to your question.The creation of new attraction next to the protected area, increase the tourist visitation intensity in this area. 
The walking trails are one of that attractions and also the Ecomuseu do Barroso (ecomuseum).
In the case of the walking trails, the National Parque of Peneda-Gerês, have rules to avoid/minimize the negative effects of that, to conserve the protected area, like the maximum of pedestrianists in the trail at the same time (10-15 persons). At the areas of total protection, its necessary take a premition to do it.
  • asked a question related to Traffic Control
Question
14 answers
We are planning to design a road traffic controller which will detect the road traffic intensity and according to that green light's on time will be determined.
Besides, we will design rail gate controller which will automatically detect the arrival/departure of train and close/open the rail gate.
What sensors are suitable for these purposes?
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Muhibul,
at the very preliminary stage I suggest to evaluate carefully the traffic flows, both for road and for rail side.
After a first evaluation, I think it'd be necessary to take into consideration informations about peak and rush hours and so on (in the day, in the week, in the weekends, etc) , of course the train impact is quite important.due to the size (lenght, number of passeneger) and the level of service (speed, punctuality, load factor, route, etc.). Doing that you could choose wich flow to prefeer in the unit of time you consider (you could select e.g. road in 8.00-9.00 and 17.00-18.000 and train in the other hours.
Having doing that, I consider, as Sergei did, video analytic as the best but I think it'll be quite important to have an additional brake system to stop the train if something should have gone wrong.
In commerce you could find also a lot of tools to manage very accurate the traffic according to the normal flows and even if some particular event is forecastable (e.g. the end of a very important cricket game).
Hoping to be helpful.
Pls , feel free to contact me if you need some additional information.
Have the best,
Luca Antonellini
  • asked a question related to Traffic Control
Question
5 answers
I want to build a system for managing traffic lights.
Genetic Algorithms will optimize green times according to recent congestion and road priority.
I had already a touch with GA by implementing 0-1 knapsack problem,
but in this case i really dont know how to implement this in order to output optimized timings for a intersection (4 roads / 4 lights)
I would appreciate any help as a roadmap.
Thank you. 
Relevant answer
Answer
Don't forget to reach out to the authors of this research:
  • asked a question related to Traffic Control
Question
18 answers
I have been working with research on new predictive model of train traffic by using new railway signaling systems. I would appreciate if anyone could introduce me any work about European Raiway train management system (ERTMS), especially about safe movement of train, calculation methods of trains regulation, considering intervals between trains.
Relevant answer
Answer
Hello Paulo,
It would be great to see the results of your research. Firstly, I will read about PTC, about difference beetween PTC and ERTMS. I believe that this information will be useful for me.  In the future it will be possible to compare three different train control systems - Russian, ERTMS and PTC.
I will be grateful for any help you can provide.
Regards,
  • asked a question related to Traffic Control
Question
5 answers
there are many works related to determining the accidents, while we want to estimate the time and location of possible accident. I would appreciate if anyone could introduce me any work in this regard.
Relevant answer
Answer
As far as I can tell, there are no truly predictive modelling methods, i.e. such that could predict when a crash will occur, or where it will occur.  There are essentially two types of crash modelling methods: frequency and probability. The first method seeks to estimate the most likely mean frequency (e.g. per annum) for a given location type such as a  road section or intersection with a set of attributes. The second method seeks to estimate probability that should an event occur, it will be of certain type. This can be a severity model (e.g. probability a crash will be fatal) or occurrence model (given a vehicle enters an intersection, probability there will be a crash). You would do well googling US authors such as Zegeeer, Harwood, Sayed, or Hauer. 
Still I don't know of a way to estimate the time and location of a random event such as a crash. Perhaps others do....
  • asked a question related to Traffic Control
Question
4 answers
How many times can I change signal timing plan at isolated intersections during the day?
Relevant answer
Answer
As noted previously, with pre-timed controllers you are typically allowed three different plans, plus a fourth one that consists of flashing operation (during late night, very early hours of the morning when traffic is low).
At isolated intersections, unless you have very heavy turning movements that require protected phases, vehicle-actuated operation (without fancy adaptive algorithms) should handle most fluctuations typically experienced at an isolated intersection effectively, especially if there is a dominant direction (clear major vs. minor). 
  • asked a question related to Traffic Control
Question
8 answers
Hello,
I am trying to do a study on time headway on an urban road that is preceded with a signalized intersection. After gathering the necessary data, I had to do a sampling process to eliminate the trending and periodicity on the data.
I had to eventually divide the data on 2 distinct categories, which are the phases of the preceeding signalized intersection (the intersection has 2 phases with different durations).
Now I am finding myself with two different patterns. in order to study the Time Headway on different trafic levels. I need to define different increments (number of vehicle arriving in a period). Since I have two categories I would have different resulting hour volumes.
Let me give you an example, Phase 1 has a 36s duration and phase 2 has a 29s duration. So for example If I define an increment of 5-9 vehicles per period for the two categories, I would have a 500-900 veh\h for the samples of phase 1 and 620-1117veh\h for the samples of phase 2.
So I am not sure about this. Do I need to define different intervals for each category ? Did I go to far on dividing the data on two categories ? 
Any suggestions are welcome.
P.S : I am not a traffic engineer so I am not familiar with the procedures of time headway study. I am just trying to follow what my fellow researchers did in their papers
Thank you !
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi,
in order to find stationary time intervals I would suggest you the trend analysius of Luttinen:
In your case, I would try to adapt the trend test to small intervals by modifying the test parameters. If the intervals are small, you can aggregate them (umong different cycles) by respecting some criteria (same flow rate for example)
  • asked a question related to Traffic Control
Question
9 answers
Hi researchers, by programming an algorithm (FW) for TAP by respecting the standard model of Beckman (1956), I find in the results (equilibrium) some links with a greater flow than capacity and that is not valid in practice.
My question is:
Is this is normal (because the algorithm gives an approximate solution) or we must add the capacity constraint (Capacity Constrained Side) to have a more real and practical solution.
Thank you.
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Laouzai
You can read these papers.
Regards
  • asked a question related to Traffic Control
Question
5 answers
Traffic Signals and Intersections control.
Relevant answer
Answer
for fixed time control you may use Webster algorithm or the method presented in HCM (Highway Capacity Manual). if the traffic flow variation is significant in a time period, actuated or semi-actuated control are useful where the data on flows are obtained by sensors and timing is determined according to these data and some rules, same as martin explained above. new mathematical methods such as fuzzy programming can also be incorporated in the process as well.
  • asked a question related to Traffic Control
Question
7 answers
Hi! My work is about the traffic distribution, but i need the output of a traffic assignment (Wardrop Equilibrium); can you advice me on any free software ? Thanks
Relevant answer
Answer
If your are working with Windows, you coud have a look at Tranus (http://www.tranus.com/tranus-english). It is now free (Creative commons licensed).
AequilibaE, a plugin for QGIS, could also be an option, while less powerful than Tranus (http://www.aequilibrae.com). It should work on MacOS, Linux and Windows, as it is written in Python, QGIS being available on these platforms...
  • asked a question related to Traffic Control
Question
9 answers
I want to study the deceleration and acceleration behaviour of vehicles in a traffic stream. Practically both are non-uniform. Regarding acceleration, we have non-uniform acceleration theory but regarding deceleration, I am not able to find any literature regarding non-uniform deceleration. So, if anybody has any idea or knowledge regarding study of non-uniform deceleration, please help. Thanks in advance
Relevant answer
Answer
Were you able to download the paper?
  • asked a question related to Traffic Control
Question
6 answers
I have students having difficulty in their studies regarding small town traffic. I have recommended them a software-based analysis for them to have a more extensive simulation of different cases. They are also avoiding to procure software licenses and have asked me if i know of a free software capable of the said analysis. Anyone who can help me help my students?
Relevant answer
Answer
Any software can be used by student just ask for student version 
they must communicate with the developer of the programs 
I have tried this before
Regards
Muath
  • asked a question related to Traffic Control
Question
7 answers
Does anyone have any material or information on the subject "Railway transport flow distribution forecast in case of sudden change of the traffic situation"? I am interested particulary in the development of the module itself.
Relevant answer
Answer
I suggest you the following (my personal) publications concerning interaction between rail services (in ordinary and/or disruption conditions) and travel demand:
  • asked a question related to Traffic Control
Question
7 answers
Hi, Any one can gives me idea about detecting vehicles in a captured photo. is there any application? 
how to do with IMAGE PROCESSING??
Relevant answer
Answer
Idea is a bit abstract. A vehicle could be anything including two-wheeler. Thus, the shape varies. Complexity increases as vehicle is to be identified in a single image otherwise it was possible to track moving objects within comparatively static surroundings.
I would try with some edge detection schemes (Canny's etc.) to mark out regions followed by some initial image enhancement. I can then extract some shape/region features from various marked regions to investigate the presence of a vehicle. The system can first be trained on some prototype vehicles.
  • asked a question related to Traffic Control
Question
7 answers
i wanna do research about mesoscopic traffic flow parameters which affect crash severity in urban highway. i know that mesoscopic parameters are combination of macroscopic & microscopic parameters. but what kinds of variable should i consider for making a crash severity models
thanks for your time and consideration
Relevant answer
Answer
Crash Severity on a urban highway, as on other roads, mainly depends on the kinetic energy. The kinetic energy by the speed. The speed by traffic flow, density, lane width, tortuosity of the route etc.
I would check the following parameters in function of the crash  severity:
number and width of lanes, traffic flows per lane (in passenger car equivalents per hour), composition of traffic flow, speed (85th percentile or speed diagrams for the entire path), speed differences among different types of vehicles (such as cars, vans, trucks etc).
The interdependence of these parameters and the crash severity should give you some good results.
Good work and good luck
  • asked a question related to Traffic Control
Question
4 answers
Pedestrian traffic island (also they named as pedestrian refuges) is one of the most effective and inexpensive ways to reduce the accident rate. Has anyone done research on the impact of the proportion of pedestrian crossings with islands on accident rates? 
Also would be interesting the publications about the variations of the embodiment of  traffic island, conditions and rules of their application and so on.
Relevant answer
Answer
Pedestrian traffic island is one of traffic calming measures. Trying Google search with for example "safety impact traffic calming" will give you several interesting links. However note that most of this research is related to "traffic calming boom" which culminated in 1990s. In Europe one of the main proponents was British TRL - their library is also a good source: http://www.trl.co.uk/reports-publications/trl-reports/?search=calming
And another important consideration - accidents are not necessarily the best target variable to focus on when looking for efficiency of these measures. You will see that many studies looked rather on behaviour (in terms of speed, near-misses, etc.). It is not easy to study safety changes based on, for example, rare numbers of accidents on a sample of pedestrian crossings. This is why safety research of vulnerable road users (pedestrians, cyclists...) very often relies on non-accident based indicators. In this regards ICTCT has been the leader in last decades: http://www.ictct.org/workshops/past-workshops/
  • asked a question related to Traffic Control
Question
3 answers
Aghabayk et. al (2015) explained that 'T' is the driver's reaction time in GHR model (page 86). While in the article 'Traffic Dynamics. Studies in Car Following', Chandler et. al. (1958) stated that on page 181: 
"... the response of the trailing vehicle depends upon its driver's perception time, t1, his response time, t2, and the time of the response of the vehicle, t3"  
Which one is it, only the driver reaction time or perception+reaction+vehicle response? 
Both articles are linked.
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi,
Not only depends on the reaction time T, also it depends on the time t vehicle acceleration trying to follow.
You can see:
Brackstone, M., & McDonald, M. (1999). Car-following: a historical review. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, 2(4), 181–196. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1369-8478(00)00005-X
Gazis, D. C., Herman, R., & Potts, R. B. (1959). Car-following theory of steady-state traffic flow. Operations Research, 7(4), 499–505.
  • asked a question related to Traffic Control
Question
3 answers
Towards Scalable traffic management in cloud data centers is my base paper. As part of my project i need to implement and show the results. But I am not well aware of the implementation tools and aspects. plz update me with your knowledge...Thanks
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi Anjali:
I think you need three elements:
1.- Database for data storage, perhaps spatial database. Postgres + Postgis is a good option.
2.- Some programming language for algorithm implementation: Python, Java are good for that. There are other languages, it depends on your knowledge.
3.- Visualization tools: Take a look on CartoDB. If you can do it yourself, you can use a programming framework: OpenLayers, Leaflet, Geoserver,...
I hope that this information will be helpful to you 
Regards
Santiago Higuera
  • asked a question related to Traffic Control
Question
4 answers
Currently, I am working about traffic model in Bangkok, Thailand. I would like to review different models and their policy in other countries. Please kindly give me a url or publications. 
Relevant answer
Answer
You can see my monography devoted mainly models cities traffic models as geometric networks (GIS term) (Ukrainian language)
Best regards
  • asked a question related to Traffic Control
Question
15 answers
Hi there;
i want to know if there are any obvious factors, except those in MUTCD,for deciding whether or not to install a traffic signal at intersections.
or specially, where and how did the numbers and tables in MUTCD, in it's 8 warrants, come from?
thanks everybody
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi,
Here some input:
Generally, the following warrants should be considered before installing any signal control:
a. Vehicular Operation
b. Pedestrian Safety
c. Accident Experience
Traffic signal should be installed if one or more of the warrants are met.
Please refer the attached file for detail.
  • asked a question related to Traffic Control
Question
11 answers
What are the free software on based GIS-technologies for the simulation regularities of traffic flows in the city? What are the free software for the optimization of traffic lights and other technical means of traffic control? What are the specific mathematical and information models to simulate scenarios for transport development in the city? What are the special technologies and algorithms for processing data traffic? As can be statistically modeled traffic flows if there is no data from surveillance cameras for traffic flow?
Relevant answer
Answer
You can have a look at the attached paper. It deals with the large-area signal optimization based on flows from a macroscopic model and thus might be suited for your case of "no data from surveillance cameras for traffic flow".
  • asked a question related to Traffic Control
Question
4 answers
I am looking for information about plant DNA barcode as tool for identification of illegal traffic of endangered species. Thank you very much in advance.
Relevant answer
Answer
  • asked a question related to Traffic Control
Question
4 answers
I am presently pursuing my PhD in computer science. I have chosen the topic of my work to be an SDN based approach for data center traffic engineering. I have thought of a new topology for DCs and am thinking of comparing the performances with the existing fat tree topology, as I think other topologies like hyperX, hyperCube etc. won't work well in all the cases. I took the SDN course by Dr. Feamster. I need to know the parameters of a DC topology that really matters for comparison. Can I get the actual map of the scalability by creating topologies in mininet. How can I proceed in this?
Relevant answer
Answer
thanks n sory for late reply
  • asked a question related to Traffic Control
Question
1 answer
I am failing to get the exact formula to estimate the distance between a moving vehicle and APs ahead, in an environment, where a 3G macroc-ell is overlaying a number of small cells networks such as WI-Fi cells.  
attached is the diagram explaining clearly what I am requesting help for.
Relevant answer
Answer
Under mentioned report might be useful for you that used video recorded data.
  • asked a question related to Traffic Control
Question
7 answers
I have a dataset of optimal vectors (G1,G2,G3,C) from a massive amount of simulation based optimizations that I want to use for linear regression for obtaining four formulas. Are there techniques to do a regression analysis of a system of equations properly, or can I use a heuristic solver (for instance genetic algorithm) for optimizing the linear coefficients (a1-a4 and b1-b4) while minimizing the SSE (Sum of Squared Errors)? A simplified formulation of the formulas:
Optimal vector (G1,G2,G3,C)
G1 = a1 * detector location + b1 * traffic demand
G2 = a2 * detector location  + b2 * traffic demand
G3 = a3 * detector location  + b3 * traffic demand
C =  a4 * detector location  + b4 * traffic demand
In this article, they suggest it as an option for linear regression. But I wonder if it is 'statistically' best method to use for a system of equations where you have to regress simultaneously. http://academic.pgcc.edu/~ssinex/excelets/Solver.pdf
Relevant answer
Answer
I did it already seperate, but I got the criticism that it is not good enough because they all belong to the same vector of optimal signal control = (G1,G2,G3,C)
  • asked a question related to Traffic Control
Question
9 answers
What are your experiences in use and research of Bluetooth devices (cellular phones, on-board units and stationary installations) as measurement or monitoring of traffic? Is it really useful for traffic monitoring or traffic measure? Is it really useful for transportation modelling?
Relevant answer
Answer
Again in Dutch (I am sorry) bit in this paper a comparison is made with loop detectors: http://www.maptm.nl/media/userfiles/media/Een%20nieuwe%20manier%20van%20verkeerswaarneming%20-%20Bluetooth.pdf
  • asked a question related to Traffic Control
Question
1 answer
This formula is used to specify whether their is a need to provide pedestrian crossing facility or not. Its value is taken as 10 E+8 for undivided road and 2x10E+8 for divided road.
Why is it doubled in the case of divided road?
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Rajat,
The pedestrians would be conflict (with the vehicle traffic) two times for the divided road. But in case of undivided road it's half of the divided case. 
If you explain more about the problem, I can answer more.
I hope this would be helpful.
  • asked a question related to Traffic Control
Question
3 answers
Who can give me some practical advice/examples on how to implement a Hidden Markov Model.  I would like to use that in the traffic engineering context under various traffic flow conditions. E.g.  on the approach to a queue, does driver maintain or slow down when he sights a queue or red light?  From the literature I have one thing that seems to elude me is how to calculate or estimate the transition probability matrix.
  • asked a question related to Traffic Control
Question
6 answers
For national (or regional) road safety evaluations and comparison we have been using two safety performance indicators (SPIs):
- direct (crashes, fatalities, injuries...)
- indirect (speed, speeding, seat belt use, daytime running lights use, cell phone use...)
Now I am trying to find some correlations between them. And I ask, for example: Should percent of speeding correlate with crash counts? or with fatalities? or injuries?
All is done on the level of country (or regions) - so direct SPIs are from national/regional statistics. Indirect SPIs are from surveys, typically 7 locations per region, once per year.
And lots of other questions, for example: when surveys are done in weekdays, spring/autumn, dry weather, should crashes to correlation also come only from the same conditions? (or possibly even only in the days/hours of survey?)
I will welcome any ideas on how to do these analyses, references, etc. Thank you in advance.
Relevant answer
Answer
When discussing correlations you have to keep in mind that correlations do not necessarily imply causal relations. Often, they are a consequence of a common influence by an ignored third factor such as properties of the infrastructure (many or few freeways), regional structure (predominantly urban or countryside), cultural properties,  (liberal or strict) legislation, (sloppy or stringent) control/enforcement. For example, in countries with liberal speed regulations (e.g., 75 or even 85 mph allowed on some roads) and sloppy enforcement (hardly any speed limit monitoring), few speed tickets are issued, i.e., the statistical data show little speeding. Nevertheless, in an objective sense, there may be many drivers driving too fast for the given situation resulting in comparatively many accidents.  This results in a paradoxical correlation with an unexpected sign between speeding and accidents.  This is a variant of the classical Simpson's paradox: The more firefighters are sent to the scene, the more damage the fire will  cause.
  • asked a question related to Traffic Control
Question
9 answers
What is the suitable ITS plan for traffic problems in developing countries with dense traffic jams and absence of traffic control plans. In such cases, is the environmental dimension considered in planning a new ITS system for developing countries societies? Or, just to focus on the operational performance of the street network.
Relevant answer
Answer
Information and education - the most important factors. It is very important to get society (and institutions will be involved in the process) acceptance before implementation.
You can start with ITS architecture e.g. eframe (http://www.frame-online.net/)
  • asked a question related to Traffic Control
Question
4 answers
It would be important for me to get information about any case where data from ITS (Traffic control systems, information systems etc.) were used to develop VDF.
Relevant answer
Answer
The paper of Thomas et al. (2012) used simulated data but I think it is a useful reference.
Thomas, J., Srinivasan, K.K., Arasan, V.T., 2012, Vehicle class wise speed-volume models for heterogeneous traffic, Transport, 27 (2), 206-217. DOI: 10.3846/16484142.2012.697442
  • asked a question related to Traffic Control
Question
2 answers
I would like to extract data from  traffic control system, analyse the data and channel information to a distributed network system further usage
Relevant answer
Answer
You can use GIS data base or  software based on GIS or transport system model.. We use VISUM and SATURN software...
  • asked a question related to Traffic Control
Question
3 answers
I know this is a long shot and it's something difficult to research let alone find on the internet, but if you have any references about this subject I'd be grateful. It's more from a standpoint of traffic psychology. Example:
There are 2 routes and both have similar features as well as distance to the final destination. One of the routes is more important and thus is used heavily by buses. If drivers knew that fact, at what percentage or would they at all (but it has to be proven) choose the other route?
Relevant answer
Answer
Many aspects of discrete choice are made more difficult when there are correlations between the choices / attributes of the options (often results in probit rather than more elementary logit formulation). Thus, for example the presence of more buses may lower traffic count, but the stop / start pattern of transit could make the free flow travel time only an approximate measure of the link performance.
I recommend "Route Choice: Wayfinding in Transport Networks" by P.H.L. Bovy and E Stern published by Kluwer in 1990. The section called "elements" around p 100 is very good on the issue you raise. I'd say that the bottom line would that congestion (no matter what form it takes) is going to provoke modification of routes, and that the resulting equilibrium traffic assignment follows fundamental traffic engineering principles (user equilibrium). Whether you can get some additional quality into the behavioral predictions by altering the mix of vehicle types is probably going to take some further digging.
  • asked a question related to Traffic Control
Question
18 answers
I will use the simulation to test the effect of different user interface features, such as different visualizations of prognosis information, on the operators’ situation awareness.  Which software packages can I use to efficiently and effectively build a simulation environment which represents the control room? The interface will contain a geographic information system (GIS) with information layers, including vessel position tracks and different information windows with detailed information about vessels, traffic management measures, hydro and meteorological information, etc.
Relevant answer
Answer
An update on my progress for those of you who followed this questions because you deal with similar research:
Two programmers started to build the nautical traffic management control room simulator. We use Unity to build the simulation part, and separately build a front end which communicates with Unity. In a month time, among other things we were able to:
- build the waterway network with the use of existing ENC maps
- included path finding on a part of the network, where vessels automatically follow the most logical route
- include locks which we can put into maintenance to cause hinder
- developed the basics of the GUI for an object planner role and operational network management role and included communication between the two operator roles and the simulated vessels
- after the operator sends a notice to skippers, the vessels in the network adapt their route accordingly
At this moment, we include the ability to set or release traffic measures such as speed limits on a part of the waterway.
We concluded that the use of Unity indeed helps to rather quickly develop a traffic management simulator. Thank you all for your advice and good luck with you future work!
  • asked a question related to Traffic Control
Question
3 answers
Hello, prompt, where you can see the data on accidents involving drivers with driving experience of 1 year in different countries?
Relevant answer
Answer
The Fatal Accident Reporting System (FARS) has extensive data for all fatal crashes in US.  You would need to make an assumption of driving period based on driver age.  Legal driving ages vary state to state, but there is a graduated drivers license (GLD) site that maintains all of that legislative info.  NHTSA also publishes a traffic safety fact sheet on young drivers https://www.google.com/webhp?sourceid=chrome-instant&ion=1&espv=2&ie=UTF-8#q=nhtsa%20traffic%20safety%20facts%20young%20drivers%202013
  • asked a question related to Traffic Control
Question
17 answers
I'm looking for the mathematical formulation of Wiedemann 99 car-following model, but I can only find a formula and not the algorithm or its way of working.
Can you suggest the articles where I can find this?
Relevant answer
Answer
Unfortunately, there was never a publication of the 99 model by Wiedemann himself. The paper Alessandro recommended above contains probably all the information you can get.  
In case you are interested in the history, here is a small piece of text from a presentation about VISSIM's history I gave at the TRB meeting 2014:
...To be more flexible when calibrating freeway traffic, we added a slightly different version of Wiedemann’s car-following model and made more of its parameters available in the user interface. The “new” Wiedemann model was the result of some private research Rainer Wiedemann did after his retirement. Compared to the original Wiedemann-74 model the model we called Wiedemann-99 added less stochastic noise and was simpler, e.g. the action threshold for a driver changing from free driving to approaching was now defined by a fixed time-to-collision, whereas before it had used a root function of the speed difference. One problem of Wiedemann-99 was that there has never been a publication about it; instead we got the information from Rainer Wiedemann in the form of some printed pages of Basic programming code. So one of the often asked questions in the hotline from academic users was if we can provide a reference for W-99, and we could not. The other problem was that users were not sure which of the two models to choose. For some years there was a recommendation around to use W-74 for urban traffic and W-99 for freeways, but actually it is difficult to justify that by the model itself.
  • asked a question related to Traffic Control
Question
7 answers
I want to simulate the intersection with intelligent traffic lights. I select SUMO for the purpose. But, still confused whether I need more software to visualize the results properly or not.Please suggest and guide accordingly.
Thanks in advance.
Relevant answer
Answer
  • asked a question related to Traffic Control
Question
7 answers
What is the most appropriate method / model / software for estimating the capacity and level of service for roundabouts; single and multi- entry and circulating lanes?
Relevant answer
Answer
I think Synchro 7 can analyze the traffic behavior  around the roundabout with visual animation. Also, it can estimate the capacity and LOS for roundabout .
  • asked a question related to Traffic Control
Question
8 answers
I am doing a research about Traffic management in historical centers and I am looking for some references  and case studies 
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Hassan,
Some papers about this theme in historical centers and cities with world heritage:
And if You can access the results of the congress:
documents/smart_cities_wroclaw_programme_en.pdf
Best Regards,
Vanessa
  • asked a question related to Traffic Control
Question
9 answers
As many studies indicate that increasing rapidly road traffic vehicles without effective management have caused various trouble for human and environment. I am very excitited in looking up information relating to this topic : how does road traffic noise affect on human behaviour and health and what can be solutions to solve this problem?
Kind Regards 
Relevant answer
Answer
Greetings,
Some thoughts, about environmental noise.  
Concerning human health, the world health organization has given the necessary guidelines regarding community noise, including road traffic noise.
The changes in our behavior are sometimes, subjective. The field that covers these issues is psychoacoustics. The sound masking effect is one of the most common problems caused by road traffic noise. Meaning that road traffic noise, ‘’covers’’ other important sonic information.  
Finally, a very interesting subject regarding residential design, amongst others, is the quiet façade.
Best regards.
  • asked a question related to Traffic Control
Question
9 answers
As all of us know that data is a very important while dealing with traffic engineering
 What is the innovations in traffic data collection and analysis?
Relevant answer
Answer
If you need to reconstruct the trajectories of small areas you'll want to use the cameras, but not because NGSIM very expensive, you can use this
or for individual vehicles, if you need the engine parameters VideoV-BOX or normal smartphone