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Trade Unions - Science topic

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This is a two (2) part question specifically for <Students> but Professional please chime in. I humbly believe that no matter what the stage we are all students and constantly learn from each other.
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My professional organizations are represented by the Syndicate of Academic Professors, but for many reasons they do not play their role in terms of defending the rights of teachers
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The world after World War II was based on the concept of multilateralism in various political and economic fields. Embodiment in the growing role of international organizations.
On the economic level, the establishment of the World Trade Organization sealed the triangle of international organizations that dominate the world economy (the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank).
However, with the increase in protectionist tendencies, trade tensions, and the tendency towards concluding bilateral and regional agreements, fears have emerged that multilateralism will enter a crisis that threatens its survival.
What do you think of that?
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The politization of the virus has reinforced the global tendencies towards protectionism and authoritarianism, which means that the capitalist dynamics is in deep crisis. Russian economists MI. Tugan-Baranovsky and N. Kondratieff pointed to the cyclicity of human-made economic systems and to the key role of free thought and will in economic decision-making, i.e. any human-made system cannot die a natural death (‚palliative economics does not work’), but needs to be re-shaped by macro-prudence and time-tested wisdom, with respect to a win/win bargain.
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I'm trying to find out how many female union leaders there are at sectoral level in the garment industry. There are, at least, two in Indonesia. But how many, if any, female leaders are there in other main garment producing countries, like Bangladesh, Cambodia, Sri Lanka, etc. At factory level, based on my field work experience, it is more likely to find female union union leaders (although still far from establishing a majority); how many successfully move up the union hierarchy?
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The two most visible garment worker leaders in Bangladesh garment sector are women ( Nazma and Kalpona). According to an AFL-CIO reports, two-thirds of the factory level leaders are women but not sure if they formally belong to unions.
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Trade wars can lead to a decline in revenues in the state budget if the country developed exports and obtained high income from the state budget. In this situation, trade wars can lead to a public finance crisis if the state budget has a high budget deficit and public finances are burdened with high public debt. In this situation there is a systemic risk of increasing indebtedness and loss of liquidity in the state finances. This type of situation can lead to an economic crisis.
Do you agree with me on the above matter?
In the context of the above issues, I am asking you the following question:
In what situations can trade wars lead some of the smaller national economies to an economic crisis?
Please reply
I invite you to the discussion
Thank you very much
Best wishes
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Trade wars can lead to a decline in revenues in the state budget if the country developed exports and obtained high income from the state budget. In this situation, trade wars can lead to a public finance crisis if the state budget has a high budget deficit and public finances are burdened with high public debt.
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To what extent is the labour/ trade union' s role in contributing to the new normal workplace arrangement/ standard operating procedures in post Covid 19?
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I think, this question is a bit too early asked, as several months of coronavirus are ahead of us. However, here can be discussed the matters considering what kind of social protection measures for workers have to be kept in place (meaning that some of them will be shut down after pandemics) - here the role of social dialogue and trade unions is enormous. But there are other questions related directly to the working places, which have to be addressed, for instance - work at home/in the office question.
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Many company codes of conduct include a standard on freedom of association and collective bargaining, sometimes explicitly referring to ILO Conventions 87 and 98. Some companies, however, add the phrase 'the right to not associate with third-party organizations such as labor organizations' (Intel). Or use similar wordings like 'the right of workers to refrain from such activities' (Hewlett Packard/ Samsung). I'm looking for a discussion (or critique) on the use of these phrases in the context of codes of conduct and global supply chains. Any ideas?
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I think I have given you the answer but the straitjacket of ideology does not allow you to reach for it.
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I need to know the reasons for the reduction in trade union membership over the years in Australia.
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Dear Susan,
This is my though based on my research in Malaysia but it's should and could be apply to entire globe.
From my phenomenological research, i found that the essence of trade union is 'COLLECTIVE ACTION' which has been explain by Marx and Engels (communist manifesto) and also by Burn (2011).
By saying that, the most visible collective action is STRIKE which can give an impact to the union based on the reality of strike as a "school of war' for the union members. With that it's create a reciprocal relationship between union and strike as a weapon.
During the changed of work today, union should create more mechanism in term of collective action with can replace the impact of 'physical strike'.
Hope this can add some explanations.
thank you
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Dear Sirs
Currently, working on book chapters for PRME, I was on site-visits at about 700 building areas. What I recognized that neither any security nor human right rules are followed. None of this building companies is following the trade union contracts. How is this possible in Switzerland, you might ask? They are hiring their staff by temporary companies, which are not bound by these contracts. Each staff member is working by 40 degrees without any protection, water, etc. And if he just ask a question regarding these conditions, the next day, he is fired and replaced by a new (may be more decent worker). This is slavery in its newest form and I would be delighted someone of you or a interested scientist would like to work on that - perhaps discovering same aspects in his country so that a comparative study could bring light in this disruptive development.
Thank you for a short reply.
Dr. Stéphanie Looser
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Dear Syed
It would be a honour to set up a common research regarding this topic. Thus, you seem to be more experienced, do you like to make a short outline. Therefore, I could start with to gather data. I am looking forward to hearing from you!
Best regards
Stéphanie
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Is economic cooperation and trade between the world's largest economies developing or is this cooperation diminishing due to the current trade wars?
Does the current policy of limiting trade by imposing new prohibitive tariffs and other protectionism instruments of current trade wars may lead to such a serious slowdown in economic growth that it may lead to a global economic crisis?
Please reply
I invite you to the discussion
Thank you very much
Dear Friends and Colleagues of RG,
The issues of risk management in the context of determinants of the global financial crisis, globalization processes, technological progress and other factors I described in the publications:
I invite you to discussion and cooperation.
Best wishes
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Most probably
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I'm requesting for help to identify I/O psychology theories/ models that could explain the behavioural dynamics involved in the union-management cooperation processes particularly trade union membership (joining & quitting). Care to share any links, please....TQ
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In examining why employees decide to join unions Schuler and Youngblood (1986) have developed a model. According to them, there are three separate conditions that strongly influence an employee’s decision to join a union i.e., dissatisfaction, lack of power, and union instrumentality.
Schuler and Youngblood (1986, p. 550) note:
“When an individual takes a job, certain conditions of employment (wages, hours, and type of work) are specified in the employment contract. A psychological contract also exists between employer and employee, consisting of the unspecified expectations of the employee about reasonable working conditions, requirements of the work itself, the level of effort that should be expended on the job, and the nature of the authority the employer should have in directing the employee’s work. These expectations are related to the employee’s desire to satisfy certain personal preferences in the work place. The degree to which the organization fulfils these preferences determines the employee’s level of satisfaction”.
Schuler, R.S. and Youngblood, B.S.A. (1986), Effective Personnel Management, 2nd ed., New York: West Publishing Company.
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Which jobs do you think are worse for their lack of workers' rights? Please let us have specific examples from various countries and types of work (the worst jobs you can think / know of)
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Generally speaking while not referring to any country I may say that the worst kind of job of workers rights is no job at all or in other words joblessness. There are many who would like to at least have some job. There are many who would like to at least have some job.
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The three actors are:
(i) Trade Unions/workers
(ii) Human Resource Management officials
(iii) The government or state.
There are two areas in which the challenges must focus on:
(a) The challenges of the three actors in a unitary environment.
(b) The challenges of the three actors in a capitalist environment.
if there are any recommendations to any of the above, then please provide them as well.
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Trade unions face challenges related to declining membership, power and collection of subscriptions.
Human resource officials in the companies face challenges of how to manage relations with trade union leaders. These officials also have to know how to be fair to their employers and to employees. Moreover, they must put in place a good grievance process in their firm.
The government must ensure there is a good policy and legislation for industrial relations. Procedures that facilitate resolution of employee problems, through conciliation and arbitration are important in ensuring that a country has a good industrial relations system.
Finally, the employers are also important in an industrial relations system. Employers in many countries have their own association or federation which will represent their interests in meetings with the government and the trade unions. These employers’ bodies also collect data and conduct industrial relations research.
In my country, Malaysia, we have a tripartite industrial relations system, where the trade unions and employers’ federation meet with the government in a National Labor Advisory Council (NLAC). This advisory council ensures that industrial relations issues are discussed and inputs given may be taken into account in policy formulation.
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I am looking for research that analyses forms of 'digital organising' in countries/industries where trade unions are weak, repressed or outlawed. Do workers build connections through social media? Does it help in organising? etc.
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Dear Jeroen, you could have a look on at article - Rego, R., Sprenger, W., Kirov, V., Thomson, G., & Nunzio, D. D. (2016). The use of new ICTs in trade union protests–five European cases. Transfer: European Review of Labour and Research, 22(3), 315-329. Good luck. Vassil
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I am curently working on mobile applications and trade unions. I am looking for research on mobile applications/Whatsapp group on employees, motivation, communication.. Thank you!
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Thank you but if you have some suggestions? I am looking for papers but it is quite difficult to find something on this subject.
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The origins of Trade unions
The Social and Political achievements of the Working Class
The Early connections between Labour Unions and Political Parties
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Amazing, though my major concern is political liberties. I do appreciate your replies and recommendations. Thanks Kirk MacGregor
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Examine some of the reasons why there has been a major decline in trade union
membership and decline in trade unionism in your country. You may relate
your discussion to your own PIC and discuss using relevant examples.
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Check out the attached 2015 explanation from The Economist.
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Are there studies linking the associational power of the working class (collective labor rights: Collective bargaining and unionization) to political ecology theory (Blaikie and Brookfield, 1987)?
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Gracias!!
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I am having trouble locating the names of British and American merchant houses that operated in Yokohama after it became a treaty port under the British and American treaties with the Shogunate. I have spent a considerable time but am only managing to find one name here and another there. If anyone has such a complete list of names, I would appreciate a copy of it which I can use in my article. It will be duly acknowledged. Thanks
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The Asia Book and Western Control can help you with the details of the Bankariar mission
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I am looking for empirical assessments of the way Global Works Councils function, including in comparison to the functioning of European Works Councils (EWCs).
It would be much appreciated if you could recommend any reference of research based on case-studies, interviews or questionnaires.
Best regards
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Hello Aline
Please look at my book Global Unions, Global Business (with Elizabeth Cotton)
Very best
Richard
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thank you!
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Thank you 
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I am looking for critical articles to help me understand the rise and decline of trade union specifically in the UK
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Union participation & representation has declined in many countries. One of the major causal factor is the involvement of various NGOs in labour issues. Several NGOs as labour friendly organizations have grabbed various issues from trade unions and dealt with more effectiveness. 
Another factor is declining union membership due to informalization of work.mbecause of the declining number , influence also goes down.
new union strategies may be strong lobbying & movement for union representation in all bodies where employers are represented similarly policy intervention effort by union confederations as a united mission is necessary.
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Is there any empirical research, study based on exchange of experiences, or concrete examples that you would recommend of cases in which a European Works Council was used as a vehicle for union organising, or contributed in some ways to union renewal (within the transnational company, or even amongst the EWC members)?
Any web link to such research material would be much appreciated.
Many thanks in advance for your help, Aline
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Many thanks Dragos.
Maybe I should specify that I'm looking for examples (good practices) of trade union recruitment /renewal amongst workers of a multinational companies thanks to the (direct or indirect) contribution of an EWC.
Best, Aline
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a scale on this subject?
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all is fine! 
thanks
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I need to explore it further in a public sector context.
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We recently published two papers on this question, the first exploring how collective bargaining can reduced the work intensifying effects of high involvement work practices
and the second examining examining how the appropriate managerial response to trade unionism can offer firms a source of sustainable competitive advantage
Best wishes with your work, Andrew
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I am working on research/literature collection for union and non-union agricultural workers doing restoration work for right-of-ways; looking for any similar agricultural safety or agricultural safety perceptions/safety climate information.  Thank you! Lourinda
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Workplace Democracy seems to be discussed in the US more than in Europe, maybe due to Europe's stronger trade unions' traditions. In democratic theory, a renaissance of these discussions from the 1970s is not yet visible in Europe, it seems. I am wondering if you know more about this.
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Vasilis is right: the area gaining prominence is the transnational dimension of workplace democracy. Here you have the examples and debates around the European Works Councils, workers' representation and paricipationin the European Company (Societas Europaea) and European Cooperative + SCE. A very interesting area to keep an eye on is the emerging level of transnational collective bargaining in form of Transnational Company Agreements (TCAs) and International Framework Agreements. Further on, the existing concepts and debates need to be extended as far as articulation (linking) between the national and local levels of workplace democracy and those on transnational level. A lot of reasearch on this has been conduced by the European Trade Union Institute, Hans Boeckler Foundation in Germany and the Dublin Foundation.
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 I am researching about how to get tips to avoid in Spain the consequences of our sistem where the worker doesnt need to join the trade union to enjoy all the advantages included in the collective bargaining because it is erga omnes and normative (like a law that applies to everyone inside the scope of the collective agreement)
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Magdalena:  I am not sure if I fully understand your question.  I live and work in the US.  I live in Florida, which was the first right-to-work state. My employer is unionized.
In 1935, the National Labor Relations Act created the National Labor Relations Board (NLRB).  The NLRB had two major tasks.  It would conduct union representation elections to see if a union did or did not have majority support. If a union prevailed, it had the duty to fairly represent all of the employees (i.e. not just its supporters). The second task involved five general categories of unfair labor practices (ULPs).  The NLRB would investigate ULP charges.  The NLRB would hold a hearing and make a decision.  These NLRB decisions were enforceable in federal court.  
Are you aware of what the "right-to-work" refers to?  This term was introduced in 1947 in the Labor Management Relations Act.  We currently have two different types of states.  Non-right-to-work states have union security provisions.  In simple terms, unions can collect regular dues and initiation fees from a new employee after a fixed period of time (30 days).  In right-to-work states, union dues paying is voluntary, and one can choose to join and pay dues or drop out at any time.  This could result in dues being paid by over 90% of the employees in non-right-to-work states and perhaps only 20-30% paying dues in right-to-work states.  In the second situation, a union is present, but is has few funds to support negotiation efforts, strikes, grievance processing, newsletters, surveys, etc.  Those who favor union security provisions argue unions are an industrial form of government.  Once the union prevails in an election, it has the right to collect dues for the services it must legally supply for all of the employees.  The dues are seen as being much like taxes paid to a government entity.  Dues paying members got to originally vote on whether there would be a union, and after this they get to periodically vote on union officers, and on the proposed collective bargaining agreements.  If people are allowed to get the representation, but not pay for it, they would be "free riders."  Right-to-work advocates argue if it is a good union, people will join and pay the dues.  Those who did not vote for the union, or feel it is not doing a good job should not be forced to pay dues.  Historically, the right-to-work states were lower wage states.  In order to attract investment and create new jobs, costs must be kept low.  Those providing the political funds to advocate for "individual freedom" have tended to be employers who wanted a "better business climate" in a state. 
Additionally, one could get into what union dues can be used for.  Conducting contract negotiations, grievance investigation and processing, conducting business meetings, union publications, litigation expenses, and the like are considered "chargeable expenditures."  "Nonchargeable activities" include the cost of legislative lobbying, union benefits not available to to financial core members and charitable contributions. 
 In many union organizing elections, some common campaign issues are raised. The union organizers will argue they will get the workers better wages, hours and working conditions.  They will stress seniority in assigning overtime and bidding on jobs.  A grievance procedure will be provided where a union steward will assist a grievant in enforcing the provisions of the union contract.  The final step of the grievance procedure, if a settlement has not been reached, is final and binding arbitration by a third party arbitrator.  Further, the union will provide a greater balance of power in contract negotiations, seeking what the workers want.
Employers will counter that the wages being paid are good if one makes local comparisons.  The union cannot promise any increase.  Any raise must be approved by the employer.  What is certain is the union will want to collect its dues.  The employer may talk about not needing an outsider to obtain improvements.  The managers can talk about merit being recognized over seniority.  The grievance procedure in place may be mentioned.  There is also the low road, which involves attacking the union and its leadership as crooked, shortsighted, selfish and the like.  Threats cannot be made.  However, the employer may make economic predictions of what would happen if costs are raised. The possibility of a strike taking place can also be brought up.
You asked for a source.  William H. Holley, Kenneth M. Jennings, and Roger S. Wolters (2005).  The Labor Relations Process.  Thomson-South-Western. 
Pages 169-177 deal with union security and the right-to-work.
Pages 191-232 deal with union organizing campaigns.
Virtually any other U.S. labor relations text will have similar coverage.
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Does anyone know of any research projects on employee bargaining power?
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to follow up on Claudia, this needs specification. in my research, I've for instance separated between direct-representative; individual-collective and formal-informal creating a range of alternative forms including formal union negotiations, individual assessment interviews, haggling, workplace meetings, etc. And that is just the forms, then you have to think about the level of influence (or bargaining power if you will) of the different forms - which is not a zero sum game.
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It is believed that trade union power and density across countries is declining in the post-globalization period. I could not find any systematically compiled data in support or against this. Can you share data including research papers in this regard?
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For Europe, the most complete and up-to-date data set is that operated by Jelle Visser at AIAS, to be found here: http://www.uva-aias.net/208
This is surely the most reliable and cited reference. For instance, see quotation in European Commission's report on "Industrial relations in Europe 2014" (http://ec.europa.eu/social/main.jsp?catId=738&langId=en&pubId=7739).
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Fiscal policy may be a good tool to curb unemployment in a country like South Africa, where there are other factors that influence the employment (i.e trade union power, high unskilled labor force and kind of their political structure) ?
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FISCAL POLICY: The idea that government expenditure would lead to the creation of job, and therefore, per capita income makes sense in theory and may have work for many countries. However, mere increase in government expenditure itself without targeting job creation would not have that effect. The building of roads, power dams, etc. in the US had helped the US eased its way out of recession, but similar effect is difficult to repeat in other countries. Poorly managed fiscal policy generally lead to deficit spending or corruption and the regular Joe and his family do not see a penny of the "trickle down effect" that suppose to come. If tax incentive is use to attract foreign investment to come and invest---and create job, this would be more targeted fiscal policy. generally, the policy would designated a certain territory or industry sector to help ease unemployment through its tax incentive tools. However, fiscal policy alone may not be enough to curve unemployment especially in a case such that of South Africa where unemployment is 25%.
MONETARY POLICY: generally, emerging economies, such as India for example, would use monetary policy to target employment. The rationale is that if the interest is low, companies would borrow money to expand and the expansion leads to job creation. Low interest also help stimulate spending. The combined effect is to fuel the economy and reduce unemployment. South Africa has 25% unemployment and a large labor pool of unskilled workers; both fiscal and monetary policy tools could be used if carefully crafted and implemented.
UNSKILLED LABOR FORCE: This input factor should be exploited. Thirty years ago, the ASEAN countries were unskilled labor region. It attracted labor intensive manufacturing, such as textile manufacturing for export to the advanced economies. In time, the economy grew and employed people. Today, the ASEAN moves up a notch to semi-skilled and skilled manufacturing assembly. South Africa, having its own deep sea port and strategically located in the continent of a large market and well connected to the outside world--could use the large pool of unskilled labor to its advantage. Tax incentive (fiscal policy) and labor interest rate (monetary policy) may be used to attract FDI inflow and relieve the current job market stagnation.
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I am writing a paper about the public status of teachers and the teaching proffession. I would like to get similar information from other countries where teacher unions are strongly active or that they are very weak and the consequences. I would like to see if there is correlation between the strength of these "Trade Unions" and the professional status of teaching.
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Dear Professor Stein,
Unions and their impact on the public schools in America is, in my estimation, an understudied area. Teaching is one of the most heavily unionized work forces, yet little is understood about its effects. Opinions proliferate, but research supporting those opinions often lags.Your request extends the need for research and dialogue.
In response to your query, Case Cobb, University of Connecticut, and I studied the relationship between teachers’ perceptions of being a professional and being a member of a union. It was an exploratory study. Our conclusion is that it is tangled. Teachers think of themselves as professionals, yet they want the protection of a union. They want a contract but they perceive that the contract cannot reach those difficult places of professional practice. Some find the protection that a union provides to be necessary to their sense of professionalism while others find that the union to often protects incompetence thus diminishing their sense of professionalism. Teachers act as professionals and shift to acting as union members when there is a perceived threat.
If you would like to review our findings, you can find them at the following.
DeMitchell, T.A. & Cobb, C.D. Teachers: Their union and their profession. A tangled relationship. 212 Education Law Reporter 1 (2006).
DeMitchell, T.A. & Cobb, C.D. Teacher as Union Member and Teacher as Professional: The Voice of the Teacher. 220 Education Law Reporter 25(2007).
The issue of the impact of teacher unions on other school effects is discussed by such writers as Caroline Hoxby and Terry M. Moe. I found Tom Loveless’ edited volume, Conflicting Mission? Teachers Unions and Education Reform, to be quite informative and useful.
Thanks for starting this conversation. The responses from our colleagues are helpful as I work on the second edition of my book, Labor Relations in Education: Policies, Politics, and Practices.
Regards,
Todd A. DeMitchell
John and H. Irene Peters Professor of Education
Department of Education & the Justice Program
University of New Hampshire
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I am interested in knowing whether the “inverted-U” relationship between the degree of centralization in the collective bargaining and the unemployment rate is still valid. I am interested both in top research papers and in those ones with a more informative (less technical) aim.
Thanks in advance
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I agree with Sergio. The distinction between centralization and coordination is pertinent: highly coordinated but at the same time decentralized systems might achieve similar results to the ones obtained by otherwise centralized set-ups.
Carlos.
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I am trying to understand the relationship between trade union effectiveness and membership dynamics.
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Thanks alot Angel Martin Roman, this has been very useful. I have explored the reference suggested and it has provided further leads to other equally pertinent literature on the the economics of trade unions. This has set me on firm ground to model the objective function of trade unions by means of a utility function.
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I run an MA programme at Ruskin College, Oxford and require help setting up a focus group of young people in Sweden. My usual contacts are unavailable. The research focuses in work-life balance issues and the recruitment of young workers into trade unions.
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Hi Mark, many thanks for your prompt/helpful reply. I'll look up your contacts via your research gate page. Cheers! Ian
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I think, society will be poor without trade unions which are symbols of countervailing power.
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Without trade union, the more powerful will be highly authoritarian towards those they exercise power on. Therefore, all right-thinking members of society must make all out efforts to see that the institution of trade union is retained as a conscious choice so that we ensure a just and equitable social order. Of course, the employers should have the right to pursue genuine trade union substitution strategies if they ensure that the employees would be better off without them in specific contexts.
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There seems to be enough space for both management and workers of today to think of their work in a creative way.
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Both parties should share the same objective which is to produce value for the society the business serves. Value can only be sustained with the constant effort of management to guide the vision in the correct direction and with labor to engage in the process of producing engaged customers by producing valuable goods and services.
When either management or labor pursues a selfish agenda the business will suffer. But this does not seem to keep stupid managers demoralizing their workforce and selfish union bosses from driving the costs of production to un-competitive levels. Reality does not match theory far too often. In great companies it does and management and labor both pull in the same direction.
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Leadership theories, as explained in 'Management studies', explain the theory from the view point of successful managers of business organisations. However, the role of a leader of a trade/workers' union is different in many respects. Can you suggest anything new in this area?
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Union leadership has been studied with some similar concepts to the management literature -for example there are studies of lay union rep transformational leadership - Cregan BJIR. It is largely the context that varies rather than the leadership styles between managerial and union leaders,